Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Crown, David A.
Hesperia Planum, characterized by a high concentration of mare-type wrinkle ridges and ridge rings, encompasses > 2 million square km in the southern highlands of Mars. The most common interpretation is that the plains were emplaced as "flood" lavas with total thicknesses of geologic mapping reveal that the whole of Hesperia Planum is unlikely to be composed of the same materials, emplaced at the same geologic time. To unravel these complexities, we are generating a 1:1.5M-scale geologic map of Hesperia Planum and its surroundings. To date, we have identified 4 distinct plains units within Hesperia Planum and are attempting to determine the nature and relative ages of these materials.
Ann B. Swengel
Full Text Available We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s. In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent
Swengel, Ann B; Swengel, Scott R
We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988-2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others' butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to identify
Cerdeña, José Alfredo; Huamaní, Erick; Delgado, Rómulo; Lamas, Gerardo
Se registra por primera vez para Perú al raro hespérido Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previamente citado de Ecuador y Bolivia. The rare skipper Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previously cited from Ecuador and Bolivia is reported for the first time in Peru.
Posner, A.; Malandraki, O.; Nunez, M.; Heber, B.; Labrenz, J.; Kühl, P.; Milas, N.; Tsiropoula, G.; Pavlos, E.
Two prediction tools that have been developed in the framework of HESPERIA based upon the proven concepts UMASEP and REleASE. Near-relativistic (NR) electrons traveling faster than ions (30 MeV protons have 0.25c) are used to forecast the arrival of protons of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events with real-time measurements of NR electrons. The faster electrons arrive at L1 30 to 90 minutes before the slower protons. REleASE (Relativistic Electron Alert System for Exploration, Posner, 2007) uses this effect to predict the proton flux by utilizing actual electron fluxes and their most recent increases. Through HESPERIA, a clone of REleASE was built in open source programming language. The same forecasting principle was adapted to real-time data from ACE/EPAM. It is shown that HESPERIA REleASE forecasting works with any NR electron flux measurements. >500 MeV solar protons are so energetic that they usually have effects on the ground, producing Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events. Within HESPERIA, a predictor of >500 SEP proton events near earth (geostationary orbit) has been developed. In order to predict these events, UMASEP (Núñez, 2011, 2015) has been used. UMASEP makes a lag-correlation of solar electromagnetic (EM) flux with the particle flux near earth. If the correlation is high, the model infers that there is a magnetic connection through which particles are arriving. If, additionally, the intensity of the flux of the associated solar event is also high, then UMASEP issues a SEP prediction. In the case of the prediction of >500 MeV SEP events, the implemented system, called HESPERIA UMASEP-500, correlates X-ray flux with differential proton fluxes by GOES, and with fluxes collected by neutron monitor stations around the world. When the correlation estimation and flare surpasses thresholds, a >500 MeV SEP forecast is issued. These findings suggest that a synthesis of the various approaches may improve over the status quo. Both forecasting tools are
Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting and Analysis) project of the EU HORIZON 2020 programme. It discusses the forecasting operational tools developed within the project, and presents progress to SEP research contributed by HESPERIA both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. Using multi-frequency observational data and simulations HESPERIA investigated the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space, to the detection near 1 AU. The book also elaborates on the unique software that has been constructed for inverting observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with spac e-borne measurements at lower energies. Introductory and pedagogical material incl...
Full Text Available Se reporta el redescubrimiento de Mimoniades baroni (Godman & Salvin, 1895 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae, en Cajamarca, Perú. La especie no había sido registrada desde su descripción original, hace casi 110 años.
Malandraki, Olga; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Vainio, Rami; Agueda, Neus; Nunez, Marlon; Heber, Bernd; Buetikofer, Rolf; Sarlanis, Christos; Crosby, Norma
High-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. In this work, the current state of knowledge on the origin and forecasting of SEP events will be reviewed. Subsequently, we will present the EU HORIZON2020 HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis) project, its structure, its main scientific objectives and forecasting operational tools, as well as the added value to SEP research both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. The project addresses through multi-frequency observations and simulations the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space to the detection near 1 AU. Furthermore, publicly available software to invert neutron monitor observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with space-borne measurements at lower energies is provided for the first time by HESPERIA. In order to achieve these goals, HESPERIA is exploiting already available large datasets stored in databases such as the neutron monitor database (NMDB) and SEPServer that were developed under EU FP7 projects from 2008 to 2013. Forecasting results of the two novel SEP operational forecasting tools published via the consortium server of 'HESPERIA' will be presented, as well as some scientific key results on the acceleration, transport and impact on Earth of high-energy particles. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.
Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.
Olaf H. H. Mielke
Full Text Available Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil: 70 anos de registros com especial referência à composição faunística do Parque Estadual de Vila Velha. O município de Ponta Grossa se destaca por apresentar originalmente uma paisagem peculiar onde capões isolados de Floresta Ombrófila Mista são interligados por grandes extensões de fitofisionomias estépicas, também denominadas campos. No entanto, ambos os ecossistemas atualmente se encontram altamente ameaçados pela ocupação humana, restando na região o Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, cuja composição florística tem sido recentemente relacionada com o bioma Cerrado. Poucos trabalhos são dedicados à caracterização da fauna dos campos e sua relação com outras fitofisionomias estépicas brasileiras, motivo que suscitou a realização deste estudo. Após reunir informações de coletas realizadas por mais de 70 anos, são listadas 225 espécies de Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea presentes no município, entre elas 162 indicadoras de ambientes florestais e 53 de áreas abertas. O Parque Estadual de Vila Velha contribui para a conservação de 65% delas enquanto sua composição se mostra intimamente relacionada tanto aos Pampas como ao Cerrado, em detrimento de hábitats florestais. Tal relação é dada provavelmente pela localização geográfica de Vila Velha, visto que a similaridade da fauna de Hesperiidae se encontrou influenciada pelas distâncias geográficas das amostras no presente estudo. A flora de Vila Velha também deve afetar diretamente a composição observada de Hesperiidae, uma vez que uma grande parte de suas espécies são também encontradas em áreas de Cerrado. No entanto, estudos em ambientes campestres brasileiros ainda se fazem necessários, especialmente em enclaves de Cerrado no Paraná e em São Paulo, para que se adquira um melhor entendimento da dinâmica de suas comunidades.Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea
Olaf H. H. Mielke
Full Text Available Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil: 70 anos de registros com especial referência à composição faunística do Parque Estadual de Vila Velha. O município de Ponta Grossa se destaca por apresentar originalmente uma paisagem peculiar onde capões isolados de Floresta Ombrófila Mista são interligados por grandes extensões de fitofisionomias estépicas, também denominadas campos. No entanto, ambos os ecossistemas atualmente se encontram altamente ameaçados pela ocupação humana, restando na região o Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, cuja composição florística tem sido recentemente relacionada com o bioma Cerrado. Poucos trabalhos são dedicados à caracterização da fauna dos campos e sua relação com outras fitofisionomias estépicas brasileiras, motivo que suscitou a realização deste estudo. Após reunir informações de coletas realizadas por mais de 70 anos, são listadas 225 espécies de Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea presentes no município, entre elas 162 indicadoras de ambientes florestais e 53 de áreas abertas. O Parque Estadual de Vila Velha contribui para a conservação de 65% delas enquanto sua composição se mostra intimamente relacionada tanto aos Pampas como ao Cerrado, em detrimento de hábitats florestais. Tal relação é dada provavelmente pela localização geográfica de Vila Velha, visto que a similaridade da fauna de Hesperiidae se encontrou influenciada pelas distâncias geográficas das amostras no presente estudo. A flora de Vila Velha também deve afetar diretamente a composição observada de Hesperiidae, uma vez que uma grande parte de suas espécies são também encontradas em áreas de Cerrado. No entanto, estudos em ambientes campestres brasileiros ainda se fazem necessários, especialmente em enclaves de Cerrado no Paraná e em São Paulo, para que se adquira um melhor entendimento da dinâmica de suas comunidades.
Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo
We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further
Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hayashi, Joan N.
The depths of 109 impact craters about 2-16 km in diameter, located on the ridged plains materials of Hesperia Planum, Mars, have been measured from their shadow lengths using digital Viking Orbiter images (orbit numbers 417S-419S) and the PICS computer software. On the basis of their pristine morphology (very fresh lobate ejecta blankets, well preserved rim crests, and lack of superposed impact craters), 57 of these craters have been selected for detailed analysis of their spatial distribution and geometry. We find that south of 30 deg S, craters less than 6.0 km in diameter are markedly shallower than similar-sized craters equatorward of this latitude. No comparable relationship is observed for morphologically fresh craters greater than 6.0 km diameter. We also find that two populations exist for older craters less than 6.0 km diameter. When craters that lack ejecta blankets are grouped on the basis of depth/diameter ratio, the deeper craters also typically lie equatorward of 30 S. We interpret the spatial variation in crater depth/diameter ratios as most likely due to a poleward increase in volatiles within the top 400 m of the surface at the times these craters were formed.
(Released 16 May 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a close-up view of the ridged plains in Hesperia Planum. This region is the classic locality for martian surfaces that formed in the 'middle ages' of martian history. The absolute age of these surfaces is not well known. However, using the abundance of impact craters, it is possible to determine that the Hesperian plains are younger than the ancient cratered terrains that dominate the southern hemisphere, and are older than low-lying plains of the northern hemisphere. In this image it is possible to see that this surface has a large number of 1-3 km diameter craters, indicating that this region is indeed very old and has subjected to a long period of bombardment. A large (80 km diameter) crater occurs just to the north (above) this image. The material that was thrown out onto the surface when the crater was formed ('crater ejecta') can be seen at the top of the THEMIS image. This ejecta material has been heavily eroded and modified since its formation, but there are hints of lobate flow features within the ejecta. Lobate ejecta deposits are thought to indicate that ice was present beneath the surface when the crater was formed, leading to these unusual lobate features. Many of the Hesperian plains are characterized by ridged surfaces. These ridges can be easily seen in the MOLA context image, and several can be seen cutting across the lower portion of the THEMIS image. These 'wrinkle' ridges are thought to be the result of compression (squeezing) of the lavas that form these plains. The Story The rough-and-tumble terrain at the top of this image is made of material that was thrown out onto the surface when the massive, almost 50-mile-wide crater in the context image (see right) was blasted out of the surface. This ejected material shows longtime signs of erosion, but what's intriguing to geologists are residual signs of a curved, rounded flow pattern. Seeming to drip down the surface like a very
Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.
The Reull Vallis outflow channel is a segmented system of fluvial valleys which originates from the volcanic plains of the Hesperia Planum region of Mars. Explanation of the formation of the Reull Vallis outflow channel by canonical catastrophic groundwater release models faces difficulties with generating sufficient hydraulic head, requiring unreasonably high aquifer permeability, and from limited recharge sources. Recent work has proposed that large-scale lava-ice interactions could serve as an alternative mechanism for outflow channel formation on the basis of predictions of regional ice sheet formation in areas that also underwent extensive contemporaneous volcanic resurfacing. Here we assess in detail the potential formation of outflow channels by large-scale lava-ice interactions through an applied case study of the Reull Vallis outflow channel system, selected for its close association with the effusive volcanic plains of the Hesperia Planum region. We first review the geomorphology of the Reull Vallis system to outline criteria that must be met by the proposed formation mechanism. We then assess local and regional lava heating and loading conditions and generate model predictions for the formation of Reull Vallis to test against the outlined geomorphic criteria. We find that successive events of large-scale lava-ice interactions that melt ice deposits, which then undergo re-deposition due to climatic mechanisms, best explains the observed geomorphic criteria, offering improvements over previously proposed formation models, particularly in the ability to supply adequate volumes of water.
Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi
A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.
Full Text Available The Afrotropical genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 includes about 23 species so far, all quite rare. In Evans’ Catalogue of the African Hesperiidae only 14 species were listed but, apart from a few newly discovered ones, some of the subspecies indicated over there have subsequently been raised to species level, although they look very similar in facies with previously recognised taxa. This article shows the presence of an unrecognised species similar to A. lucretia Druce, 1909 in West Africa, namely A. fabiana sp. n., and another one similar to both A. contigua Evans, 1937 and A. elegantula Mabille, 1890 in Central Africa, namely A. torbeni sp. n. The rarity in collections of almost all forest-dwelling Abantis spp. is reported as connected to their habit of flying high in the forest canopy, but the authors have no conclusive evidence of it. Most Abantis are hill-toppers, mud lovers and are attracted by dead animals (fish and turtles, although some of them are also flower-visiting.
Full Text Available An extensive faunistic database has been set up gathering bibliographic information, data from scientific collections and other relevant unpublished data from the 143 species of continental Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Superfamily Papilionoidea, Families Hesperiidae and Zygaenidae. This database was used to define distribution patterns through the application of factorial correspondence analysis (FCA to the matrices of frequency and presence-absence data in a 50 x 50 km UTM grid. The identification of faunistic elements and regions was obtained through an automatic application of the classification analysis to the FCA results. In a second instance, we used the same methodology to establish the relationship between previously obtained patterns and a set of environmental variables, in order to determine the factors related to the observed classes. The annual average temperature proved to be the best factor to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in the butterfly distribution. The results show a well-defined northern interior region of high average altitudes and limited in the South by the Serra da Estrela. This area has the largest species richness and hosts the Montesinho Natural Park, which is the most diverse in the country. In the southern half of Portugal, the Algarve deserves a special mention for its group of species with typical Mediterranean requirements.
La información corológica (datos de bibliografía, colecciones e inéditos sobre las 143 especies de mariposas (Superfamilia Papilionoidea, y Familias Hesperiidae y Zygaenidae de Portugal continental se ha reunido en una base de datos. Ésta se emplea para definir patrones de distribución, aplicando el análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC a las matrices de frecuencias y de presencia-ausencia, basadas en una rejilla UTM de 50 x 50 km. En primer lugar, se identifican los elementos y regiones faunísticas mediante la aplicación automática del análisis de
Consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae alimentado com folíolos de Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae em três níveis de maturidade Leaf consumption and biological aspects of Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae fed with Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae leaflets in three maturity stages
Full Text Available Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae tem como principal hospedeiro a essência arbórea Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae, utilizada em diversos estados brasileiros, principalmente, na arborização urbana. Nos últimos anos, foram registrados surtos anuais deste inseto, principalmente no estado do Rio de Janeiro, com desfolha intensa e conseqüente estresse fisiológico das árvores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em laboratório, o consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de U. acawoios, alimentado com folíolos de C. fairchildiana em três diferentes estádios de maturidade: novos, intermediários e velhos. O consumo de lagartas de U. acawoios foi maior com folíolos novos e a duração das fases de desenvolvimento, a longevidade e o ciclo de vida desse inseto foram afetados pelo tipo de folíolo de C. fairchildiana. A porcentagem de sobrevivência de U. acawoios foi maior para indivíduos alimentados com folíolos de C. fairchildiana de maturidade intermediária.Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae is a tree used in several Brazilian states in the urban arborization and is the main host of Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Annual outbreaks of this defoliator insect was registered in the last years mainly in Rio de Janeiro state where these trees are submitted a physiologic stress after being completely stripped. The aim of this study is to evaluate the leaf consumption and biological aspects of U. acawoios caterpillars fed with C. fairchildiana leaflets in laboratory in three maturity stages: new, middlemen and old. The consumption of U. acawoios caterpillars was larger with new leaflets and the duration of the development stages, the longevity and the life cycle were affected for the type of C. fairchildiana leaflet. The U. acawoios survival percentage were larger for individuals fed with C. fairchildiana middlemen leaflets.
Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Collins, Steve C; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa
Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies. Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature. The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.
A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).
Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V
A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable) (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, , Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia
The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.
Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio
Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available En el Perú se reporta la presencia de 18 especies de murciélagos nectarívoros, sin embargo se cuenta con poca información sobre la dieta de estas especies. En este estudio se reporta por primera vez la dieta de los nectarívoros Glossophaga soricina, Lonchophylla hesperia y Anoura geoffroyi en el bosque seco ecuatorial y del bosque tropical del Pacífico del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes. Analizamos 21 contenidos gastrointestinales e identificamos ocho morfotipos de polen pertenecientes a las familias Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Malvaceae y Rosaceae. Encontramos evidencia del síndrome de quiropterofilia en Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae y Rubiaceae. Observamos que A. geoffroyi consume polen de Ceiba trichistandra, Solanaceae y Rubiacea; G. soricina consume de Abutilon reflexum, Armathocereus cartwrightianus, C. trichistandra y Rubiaceae; y L. hesperia de A. cartwrightianus, Eriobotrya japonica, Fabaceae y Psidium sp.; sugiriendo una dieta generalista en estas especies. Los murciélagos G. soricina y A. geoffroyi comparten el consumo del ceibo C. trichistandra y de la Rubiaceae, mientras que G. soricina comparte con L. hesperia el consumo del cactus A. cartwrightianus. Los otros morfotipos de polen no fueron compartidos entre murciélagos. Se encuentra además que el ceibo C. trichistandra fue la especie más consumida, especialmente por G. soricina.
van Dongen, William D; Renfurm, Luuk C
The 6th European Bioanalysis Forum Open Meeting 20-22 November 2013, Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain At the 6th European Bioanalysis Forum Open Meeting, held from 20-22 November 2013 in Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain, bioanalytical experts from pharmaceutical industry, academia, contract laboratories and regulatory bodies discussed current topics of interest in bioanalysis. 450 delegates from more than 170 institutes and companies participated in 75 open and stimulating presentations regarding the new US FDA Guidance for industry, technology updates, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of proteins and antibody-drug conjugates, dried blood spots, sampling and extraction and regulatory aspects of, for example, flow cytometry, parallelism, and interferences in ligand-binding assays. This article aims to provide an overview of the highlights discussed at the meeting.
California Natural Resource Agency — The wandering skipper (Panoquina errans) is a small butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. It is identifiable by its rich dark brown color and cream-colored spots on...
Ha pubblicato due libri di traduzioni di poetesse del Rinascimento italiano, ed ha fondato Hesperia Press per la diffusione della poesia italiana moderna. Ha tradotto e pubblicato Maria Luisa Spaziani e Giuseppe Conte. Vive a Milano e a Berkeley, California. Quelle che seguono sono poesie tratte dalle prima sezione della ...
Cong, Qian; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V
Butterflies and moths are emerging as model organisms in genetics and evolutionary studies. The family Hesperiidae (skippers) was traditionally viewed as a sister to other butterflies based on its moth-like morphology and darting flight habits with fast wing beats. However, DNA studies suggest that the family Papilionidae (swallowtails) may be the sister to other butterflies including skippers. The moth-like features and the controversial position of skippers in Lepidoptera phylogeny make them valuable targets for comparative genomics. We obtained the 310 Mb draft genome of the Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius) from a wild-caught specimen using a cost-effective strategy that overcomes the high (1.6 %) heterozygosity problem. Comparative analysis of Lerema accius and the highly heterozygous genome of Papilio glaucus revealed differences in patterns of SNP distribution, but similarities in functions of genes that are enriched in non-synonymous SNPs. Comparison of Lepidoptera genomes revealed possible molecular bases for unique traits of skippers: a duplication of electron transport chain components could result in efficient energy supply for their rapid flight; a diversified family of predicted cellulases might allow them to feed on cellulose-enriched grasses; an expansion of pheromone-binding proteins and enzymes for pheromone synthesis implies a more efficient mate-recognition system, which compensates for the lack of clear visual cues due to the similarities in wing colors and patterns of many species of skippers. Phylogenetic analysis of several Lepidoptera genomes suggested that the position of Hesperiidae remains uncertain as the tree topology varied depending on the evolutionary model. Completion of the first genome from the family Hesperiidae allowed comparative analyses with other Lepidoptera that revealed potential genetic bases for the unique phenotypic traits of skippers. This work lays the foundation for future experimental studies of skippers and
Olaf H.H. Mielke
Full Text Available The following new genera with their type-species are described: Oxynetrini: Cyclopyge gen. n. - type-species: Pyrrhopyge roscius Hopffer, 1874; Pyrrhopygini: Arnysoria gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] galgala Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] chalybea Scudder, 1872, Creonpyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] creon H. Druce, 1874, Cyanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sangaris Skinner, 1921, Gunayan gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] rhacia Hewitson, 1875, Jonaspyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] Jonas C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Melanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] maculosa Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] sela Hewitson, 1866, Mysarbia gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sejanus Hopffer, 1874, Ochropyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge ruficauda Hayward, 1932. Apyrrothrix Lindsey, 1921 and Yanguna Watson, 1893 are revalidated. The following are revalidated combinations: Apyrrothrix araxes (Hewitson, 1867, Apyrrothrix arizonae (Godman & Salvin, 1893, Yanguna cometes cometes (Cramer, 1770, Yanguna cometes cometides Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna cometes staudingeri (Plštz, 1879, Yanguna cosyra (H. Druce, 1875, Yanguna spatlosa spatlosa (Hewitson, 1871, Yanguna spatlosa aspllos Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna spatlosa mabillei H.H. Druce, 1909, Yanguna tetricus Bell, 1931, Yanguna thelersa (Hewitson, 1866, The following are new combinations: Cyclopyge roscius roscius (Hopffer, 1874, Cyclopyge roscius flavomaculata (Bell, 1937, Cyclopyge roscius iphimedia (Plštz, 1886, Yanguna erebus (Plštz, 1879, Gunayan rhacia (Hewitson, 1875, Gunayan rubrlcollts (Sepp, , Gunayan timaeus (Bell, 1931, Chalypyge chalybea chalybea (Scudder, 1872, Chalypyge chalybea chlorts (Evans, 1951, Chalypyge zereda zereda (Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge zereda hygieia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Chalypyge zereda insana (Staudinger, 1876, Chalypyge zereda rufinucha (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Chalypyge zereda rufipectus (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Chalypyge zereda zepha (Evans, 1951, Ochropyge ruficauda (Hayward, 1932, Melanopyge cossea (H. Druce, 1875, Melanopyge erythrosticta (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Melanopyge hoffmannl (Freeman, 1977, Melanopyge maculosa (Hewitson, 1866, Melanopyge mulleri (Bell, 1934, Jonaspyge Jonas (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Jonaspyge aesculapus (Staudinger, 1876, Jonaspyge tzotzlll (Freemann, 1969, Creonpyge creon creon (H. Druce, 1874, Creonpyge creon lillana (Nicolay & Small, 1969, Creonpyge creon laylori (Nicolay & Small, 1981, Cyanopyge sangaris (Skinner, 1921, Mysarbia sejanus sejanus (Hoppfer, 1874, Mysarbia sejanus erythrostigma (Ršber, 1925, Arnysoria galgala (Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris aetata (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Mimardaris Umax (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris mlnthe (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Mimardaris montra (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris pityusa (Hewitson, 1875, Mimardaris porus poms (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris porus mortis (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris sela sela (Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris sela aequatorea (Róber, 1925, Mimardaris sela chanchamayonis (Draudt, 1924, Mimardaris sela periphema (Hewitson, , and Mimardaris sela peruviana (Draudt, 1921. The following is a new synonym: Tamyris hygieia C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 of Pyrrhopyga [sic] zereda Hewitson, 1866. Mysarbia sejanus stolli Mielke, ssp. n. is a replacement name for Papilio thasus Stoll, 1781, preoccupied by Stoll, 1780.
S. K. Korb
Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.
Spitzer, Lukáš; Beneš, Jiří
Roč. 1, - (2010), s. 19-39 ISSN 1804-2732 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant - others:Muzeum regionu Valašsko, ČSOP(CZ) 120931; Muzeum regionu Valašsko, ČSOP(CZ) 01010608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Central Europe * faunistics * Hesperiidae
Olaf H. H. Mielke
Full Text Available Alera romeroi sp. nov. da Venezuela (Aragua: Maracay e Alera manu sp. nov. do Brasil (Acre, Bujari e Peru (Madre de Dios, Parque Nacional del Manu são descritas e ilustradas.Alera romeroi sp. nov. from Venezuela (Aragua: Maracay and Alera manu sp. nov. from Brazil (Acre, Bujari and Peru (Madre de Dios: Parque Nacional del Manu are described and illustrated.
Razzak, M. A.; Islam, A. T. M. F.; Saifullah, A. S. M.; Shahjan, R. M.; Hossain, Md. Monwar.; Yamanaka, Akhira; Endo, K.
During January to Decmber, 2003 in an extensive survey of butterfly in Jahangirnagar University campus, a total of 80 species of butterfly were identified. Among them 44 species were common and 36 were completely new. These species belonged to 10 families, 11 species belong to the family Nymphalidae, 14 to Pieridae, 23 to Lycaenidae, 3 to Satyridae, 7 to Papilionidae, 4 to Danaidae, 15 to Hesperiidae and 1 species to each family of Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae. The three families viz., Acraeidae, Riodinidae and Amathusiidae were completely new report in Bangladesh.(author)
Rhodes, G. W.; Reilly, M. R.
The world's largest Photovoltaic Power Plant is in operation and meeting performance specifications on the Southern California Edison (SCE) grid near Hesperia, California. The 1 MW plant designed and constructed by The BDM Corporation, for ARCO Solar Inc., occupies a 20 acre site adjacent to the SCE Lugo substation. The entire design and construction process took 7 1/2 months and was not only on schedule but below budget. Because of its vast photovoltaic experience, BDM was chosen over several engineering firms to perform this complex job. We were provided a conceptual design from ARCO which we quickly refined and immediately initiated construction.
Parson, Walther; Berger, Cordula; Sänger, Timo; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine
The "Dark Counts" were a mysterious couple that appeared in the Thuringian village Eishausen in 1807. After living in self imposed solitude for 30 years the woman died and was buried under the name Sophia Botta. Her companion, who presented himself as Vavel de Versay, died in 1845 and was later identified as Leonardus Cornelius van der Valck, secretary of the Dutch embassy in Paris. Their lifestyle led to speculations that she was the true princess Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, daughter of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. According to these speculations she was substituted by another young woman on a voyage from Paris to Vienna. Molecular genetic analyses were set out to test the remains attributed to the Dark Countess. Mitochondrial DNA testing brought concordant results determined in two forensic laboratories (Innsbruck, Austria and Freiburg, Germany) on parallel samples of the remains. The results were in exclusion to both, the mitochondrial lineage earlier reported for the French Royal family and the mitochondrial haplotype observed in a living descendant of the Royal family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.
In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, ) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number
Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.
Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.
Warren, Andrew D; Grishin, Nick V
Oxynetra aureopecta sp. n. is described from the Sierra Madre Oriental of east-central Mexico. Visually similar to Mesoamerican O. hopfferi Staudinger, 1888 in having five orange bands on the abdomen above, it is diagnosed by orange forecoxae and palpi beneath, narrower forewing hyaline bands and a prominent 6% difference in the COI DNA barcode sequence. It is the northernmost representative of the hopfferi species group that also includes O. stangelandi Grishin & Burns, 2013, characterized by a single-banded abdomen and currently known only from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. Both O. hopfferi and O. stangelandi possess white forecoxae and ventral palpi. This new discovery brings the total number of Oxynetra C. & R. Felder, 1862 species to five.
Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John
We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.
Daniel H Janzen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094, which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species "hidden" within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology.
José R Ferrer-Paris
Full Text Available We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1 is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2 has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3 what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea and 1,193 genera (66.3%. The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp. from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae, and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae. We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids, but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.
Dijksman, Jessica; Timmerman, Philip; Abbott, Richard; Barroso, Begona; Kloeppel, Margarete Brudny; Companjen, Arjen; Golob, Michaela; Gordon, Ben; Herling, Christian; Knutsson, Magnus; Luedtke, Silke; Rasmussen, Birgitte Buur; Stoellner, Daniela; Vieser, Eva; Young, Graeme; van Amsterdam, Peter
The 4th Open Symposium of the European Bioanalytical Forum entitled 'Less is More' was held on 16-18 November 2011 at the Hesperia Tower Hotel, Barcelona, Spain. More than 50 interesting presentations were delivered covering areas with interest for the small- and large-molecule community - biomarker validation; regulations, including an update on new and emerging guidelines and on Global harmonization; technology updates; incurred sample stability; microdosing; dried blood spots and microsampling; challenges of 'free' and 'total' macromolecule quantification; stability issues in ligand binding assays or anomalous results. In excess of 450 delegates from more than 170 institutes and companies (industry, regulators and academia) from all global regions participated in the open and stimulating discussions. This manuscript provides an overview of the highlights discussed at the meeting.
Full Text Available El Estado de México posee características geográfico-ecológicas que lo hacen una región de gran diversidad biológica; respecto a Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea posee el 15% de las especies registradas para México, del cual el 17% son endémicas para el país. Con base en la información bibliográfica y la consulta de la base de datos del Museo de Zoología de la Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, se integró la lista de las dos superfamilias para el Estado de México; esta se compone de seis familias, 22 subfamilias, 197 géneros y 325 especies (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae y 102 Nymphalidae. De cada especie se anexó la lista de localidades de recolecta, vuelo, la colección donde están depositados los ejemplares, o la cita de la cual se tomó el dato.Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Mexico State, Mexico. The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15 % of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17 % of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae. A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1309-1341. Epub 2008 September 30.
Efraín Reinel Henao Bañol
Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de investigación de 5 años de recolectas esporádicas empleando red entomológica para la captura de mariposas diurnas (Hesperioidea-Papilionoidea en las reservas altoandinas Las Tominejas y Saltagatos en el municipio del Tabio, Cundinamarca con el objetivo de documentar su diversidad y proporcionar anotaciones ecológicas para una mayor comprensión sobre las especies. Se registraron un total de 241 individuos de 55 especies; las familias con mayor riqueza y abundancia fueron Nymphalidae y Hesperiidae. Este trabajo es una contribución al inventario nacional y regional de las mariposas. Todas las especies fueron fotografiadas dorsal (a y ventral (b para facilitar el reconocimiento de la lepidopterofauna de las reservas excepto Hypanartia lethe.
Almeida A. M.
Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.
Full Text Available A preliminary study of the butterfly diversity of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary (Pathankot, Punjab India was conducted from 10–11 November 2011. A total of 40 species belonging to 31 genera was recorded, including Libythea myrrha sanguinalis Fruhstorfer, a new species added to the butterfly fauna of Punjab. Species richness was greatest for the family Nymphalidae, with 22 species, followed by Pieridae with 10 species, Lycaenidae with four, and Papilionidae and Hesperiidae with two each. An analysis of relative abundances revealed that of the 40 species reported, 19 were classed as common, 15 as less common and the remaining six species as uncommon. Observations on their occurrence in different habitats revealed 13 species prefer scrubby habitat, 13 scrubby and grassy habitat, seven grassy habitats and the remaining seven scrubby and riverine habitats.
A. M. Almeida
Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.
Ge, Dengteng; Wu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Lili; Kim, Hye-Na; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M; Janzen, Daniel H; Yang, Shu
Whiteness, although frequently apparent on the wings, legs, antennae, or bodies of many species of moths and butterflies, along with other colors and shades, has often escaped our attention. Here, we investigate the nanostructure and microstructure of white spots on the wings of Carystoides escalantei , a dusk-active and shade-inhabiting Costa Rican rain forest butterfly (Hesperiidae). On both males and females, two types of whiteness occur: angle dependent (dull or bright) and angle independent, which differ in the microstructure, orientation, and associated properties of their scales. Some spots on the male wings are absent from the female wings. Whether the angle-dependent whiteness is bright or dull depends on the observation directions. The angle-dependent scales also show enhanced retro-reflection. We speculate that the biological functions and evolution of Carystoides spot patterns, scale structures, and their varying whiteness are adaptations to butterfly's low light habitat and to airflow experienced on the wing base vs. wing tip.
Full Text Available Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundance were highest during the northeast monsoon and winter periods, indicating that in the southern plains of India butterflies prefer cool seasons for breeding and emergence. The taxonomic structure of the butterflies sampled resembles that of the Western Ghats and other regions of India in two ways: (a dominance of nymphalids and (b peak abundance during wet seasons. A detailed study of ecologically important local butterfly fauna and their host plants is in progress, to construct a butterfly garden in Kalpakkam to attract and support butterflies.
Kishor G. Patil
Full Text Available Investigations have been done to record diversity of butterflies around the area of Rawanwadi reservoir during April 2015 to March 2016. It is surrounded by hilly terrain and forest provides abundance of host and larval food plants, and vegetation which are the most dominant features for diversity of butterflies. It has abundant species of butterflies due to suitable surrounding environment. A total of 84 species belonging to 5 families and 54 genera were recorded. Amongst which 52.38% were common, 28.57% were occasional and 19.04% species were rare. Family Nymphalidae consist maximum number of species i.e. 32 from 19 genera. This number is followed by Lycaenidae with 19 genera and 26 species. Pieridae consist of 13 species of 7 genera and Hesperiidae consist 7 species of 6 genera. Minimum number of species were recorded in Papilionidae i.e. 6 species of 3 genera. Most species from Lycaenidae were found near water body.
Full Text Available Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO, a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO; una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la
Juan L. Hernández-Roldán
Full Text Available We present new data on the ecology, natural history and geographic distribution of the recently described skipper Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila, 2016 and compare its immature stage morphology with the sympatric species S. sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. Spialia rosae uses species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae as larval host-plants and prefers montane habitats, while S. sertorius feeds on Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae and inhabits lower altitudes. Rosa corymbifera Borkh. and R. tomentosa Sm. are documented for the first time as foodplants of S. rosae. We report Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae as a larval parasitoid of S. rosae. Details of the immature stages of S. rosae and S. sertorius are shown using scanning electron microscope photographs, confirming the similar immature stage morphology, at least as regards the Iberian S. sertorius. In both species, the egg has high radial ribs, the last instar larva has branched setae covering the head, and the pupa has setae with pointed tips, barrel-like cuticular formations, and hairy mesothoracic tubercles. By extensive sampling of the species of Spialia in the region of Segovia, Central Spain, we extend the previously known geographic distribution of S. rosae to 56 new 100 km2 MGRS squares, which represents a 155 % increase. Spialia rosae is present in the northern part of the interior plateau and in the main mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The main threats to the populations of S. rosae are its limited distribution range and the possible effects of climate change due to its specialization in montane habitats. The conservation status of S. rosae was previously regarded as Data Deficient (DD. With the addition of new data the species can now be evaluated as Least Concern (LC.
Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Lamas, Gerardo
A new species belonging to the previously monotypic genus Panca Evans, 1955, P. moseri Dolibaina, Carneiro & O. Mielke sp. nov., from grasslands areas of Peru, Bolivia and Brazil is described. Adults and male and female genitalia of the new species are illustrated, described in detail, and compared with the type species of the genus, Lerodea subpunctuli Hayward, 1934, and with its externally most similar and sympatric species, Vidius mictra Evans, 1955. The systematic position of the genus Panca and its association with lowland open natural habitats of South America are discussed.
Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais
Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.
Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas
Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.
Núñez, Marlon; Reyes-Santiago, Pedro J.; Malandraki, Olga E.
A tool for predicting the occurrence of Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events using the UMASEP scheme is presented. This real-time tool, called HESPERIA UMASEP-500, is based on the detection of the magnetic connection, along which protons arrive in the near-Earth environment, by estimating the lag correlation between the time derivatives of 1 min soft X-ray flux (SXR) and 1 min near-Earth proton fluxes observed by the GOES satellites. Unlike current GLE warning systems, this tool can predict GLE events before the detection by any neutron monitor (NM) station. The prediction performance measured for the period from 1986 to 2016 is presented for two consecutive periods, because of their notable difference in performance. For the 2000-2016 period, this prediction tool obtained a probability of detection (POD) of 53.8% (7 of 13 GLE events), a false alarm ratio (FAR) of 30.0%, and average warning times (AWT) of 8 min with respect to the first NM station's alert and 15 min to the GLE Alert Plus's warning. We have tested the model by replacing the GOES proton data with SOHO/EPHIN proton data, and the results are similar in terms of POD, FAR, and AWT for the same period. The paper also presents a comparison with a GLE warning system.
Full Text Available RESEÑA 1 de : Tresmontant, C. Le Chríst hébreu. París : Albin Michel, 1992. RESEÑA 2 de : Fricke, W. El juicio contra Jesús. Barcelona : Martínez Roca, 1993. RESEÑA 3 de : Kramrisch, Stella. The Presence of Siva. Princeton University Press, 1992. RESEÑA 4 de : Tamayo-Acosta, Juan José. Para comprender la escatología cristiana. Estella : Verbo divino, 1993. RESEÑA 5 de : Marinatos, N.; Hägg, R. Greek Sanctuaries. New Approaches. Londres-Nueva York : Routledge, 1993. RESEÑA 6 de : Braccesi, L. Hesperia, 3. Studi sulla Grecitá di Occidente. Roma : «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1993. RESEÑA 7 de : Wells, B. Agriculture in Ancient Greece. Estocolmo : Svenska Institutet i Athen, 1992. RESEÑA 8 de : Fernández Uriel, Pilar. Introducción a la Historia Antigua-ll. El mundo griego, I. Madrid : 1993. RESEÑA 9 de : Mangas J.; Alvar, J. Homenaje a José M.Blázquez. I. Madrid : Ediciones Clásicas, 1993. RESEÑA 10 de : Fernández Uriel, P.; Vázquez Hoys, A.M. Diccionario del Mundo Antiguo. Próximo Oriente, Egipto, Grecia y Roma. Madrid : Alianza Editorial, 1994.
The Jesuits were great transmitters of Western science to East Asia in the 17th and 18th century. In 1636, a German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1591-1666) published a book titled Zhuzhiqunzheng (Hundreds of Signs Testifying Divine Providence). The book was not Adam Schall's own writing, but it was the Chinese translation of De providentia numinis (1613) of Leonardus Lessius (1554-1623) who was also a Jesuit scholar. The book was a religious work which particularly aimed at converting the pagans to the Christianity by presenting them with hundreds of signs testifying the divine providence. One group of the signs is those manifested in the human body. The bodily signs in question include anatomical structures and physiological processes. It gives a brief survey of bodily structures with bones and muscles. The translator had much difficulties in explaining muscles for there was no corresponding concept in Chinese medicine. The theory of human physiology was a simplified version of medieval Galenism. Three kinds of pneuma were translated into three kinds of Qi respectively. 'Natural pneuma'was translated into 'Qi of the body nature', 'vital pneuma' into 'Qi of life and nourishing', 'psychic pneuma' into 'Qi of movement and consciousness'. The book of Schall von Bell and other books on Western science written in Chinese were also imported to Korea during the 17th and 18th century. Unlike China, Korea was very hostile to Christianity and no Jesuit could enter Korea. Only the books on Western science could be imported. The books, which were called Books on Western Learning, were circulated and read among the progressive Confucian literati. However, Western medicine thus introduced had little influence on the traditional medicine of East Asia. However, some intellectuals paid attention to the physiological theory, in particular the theory of brain centrism, which fueled a philosophical debate among Korean intellectuals of the time. The Korean Society for
Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger
Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lepidópteros visitantes florais de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Minas Gerais, Brasil Lepidopterans visiting the flowers of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae in Atlantic Forest remnants, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Nilson G. Fonseca
Full Text Available Foram analisadas a composição e sazonalidade da comunidade de lepidópteros visitantes florais de S. cayennensis na Estação Ambiental de Peti. Registrou-se a visita de 445 lepidópteros pertencentes a 98 espécies, distribuídos em 6 famílias: Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3% e Sesiidae (0,3%. Os hesperídeos também apresentaram a maior riqueza, com 70 espécies amostradas. Das espécies amostradas, apenas quatro tiveram abundância relativa acima de 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, , Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 e Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. De acordo com a classificação de Palma, duas espécies foram comuns, 12 intermediárias e 84 foram consideradas raras. Os valores de diversidade e uniformidade foram altos (H'= 3,98 e E = 0,87. Existe nítida diferença na composição e abundância das espécies ao longo do ano, onde foi observado que a maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos estiveram concentrados na estação chuvosa. A similaridade entre as duas estações foi relativamente baixa, 25 ocorreram na estação seca, 93 na chuvosa e apenas 18 ocorreram nas duas estações. Os lepidópteros apresentaram maior atividade de forrageamento em temperaturas entre 23 e 32 ºC, sendo a maior abundância registradas por volta das 10:00 horas.The composition and seasonality of the lepidopteran community visiting inflorescences of S. cayennensis at Estação Ambiental de Peti, were analyzed. The visits of 445 lepidopterans belonging to 98 species, distributed in 6 families, were registered. Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3%, and Sesiidae (0,3%. Skippers presented the highest species richness, with 70 species. Only four of these had a relative abundance above 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, , Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 and
Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian
We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.
Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W
Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae- Papilionoidae na região de Petrolina, Pernambuco Floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae-Papilionoidae in region of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil
Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill
Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Gliricidia sepium foram estudados no período de março a dezembro de 1999, entre 05:30 e 17:00h., em uma população introduzida na Embrapa Semi-Árido (Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Quinze indivíduos da população foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se a freqüência, o horário e a duração de suas visitas. G. sepium apresenta floração anual do tipo "cornucópia", com pico desta fenofase no mês de agosto. As flores estão reunidas em racemos axilares, com desenvolvimento centrípeto, ocorrendo a antese de 5 a 45 flores/dia. As flores apresentam a formação típica das papilionáceas, com corola de cor magenta, com a parte central do estandarte de cor creme, o qual funciona como guia de néctar. A antese é diurna, ocorrendo por volta da 06:00h, e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas. Abelhas Apidae e Anthophoridae e lepidópteros Hesperiidae são os visitantes mais freqüentes, sendo Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis e Eulaema nigrita consideradas como principais polinizadores desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, G. sepium é xenôgama obrigatória, produzindo frutos e sementes somente após polinização cruzada (51,6%.The aspects of floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium were studied from March to October of 1999, from 5:30am to 5:00pm, in an introduced population at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. The
Kuksa, Pavel; Pavlovic, Vladimir
In this work we consider barcode DNA analysis problems and address them using alternative, alignment-free methods and representations which model sequences as collections of short sequence fragments (features). The methods use fixed-length representations (spectrum) for barcode sequences to measure similarities or dissimilarities between sequences coming from the same or different species. The spectrum-based representation not only allows for accurate and computationally efficient species classification, but also opens possibility for accurate clustering analysis of putative species barcodes and identification of critical within-barcode loci distinguishing barcodes of different sample groups. New alignment-free methods provide highly accurate and fast DNA barcode-based identification and classification of species with substantial improvements in accuracy and speed over state-of-the-art barcode analysis methods. We evaluate our methods on problems of species classification and identification using barcodes, important and relevant analytical tasks in many practical applications (adverse species movement monitoring, sampling surveys for unknown or pathogenic species identification, biodiversity assessment, etc.) On several benchmark barcode datasets, including ACG, Astraptes, Hesperiidae, Fish larvae, and Birds of North America, proposed alignment-free methods considerably improve prediction accuracy compared to prior results. We also observe significant running time improvements over the state-of-the-art methods. Our results show that newly developed alignment-free methods for DNA barcoding can efficiently and with high accuracy identify specimens by examining only few barcode features, resulting in increased scalability and interpretability of current computational approaches to barcoding.
Full Text Available We provide 984 data of 88 collecting events originating from the Sălaj-region of western Transylvania, Romania. These have been assembled in the period between 22. April, 2014 and 10. September, 2015. Geographical, spatial and temporal records to the knowledge of 98 butterflies (Papilionoidea and 225 moths (Bombycoidea, Drepanoidea, Geometroidea, Noctuoidea and Sphingoidea are given representing the families (species numbers in brackets Hesperiidae (8, Lycaenidae (28, Nymphalidae (28, Papilionidae (3, Pieridae (13 Riodinidae (1, Satyridae (17 (Papilionoidea; Arctiidae (11, Ctenuchidae (1, Lymantriidae (1, Noctuidae (119, Nolidae (2, Notodontidae (6 Thyatiridae (4, (Noctuoidea; Drepanidae (3 (Drepanoidea; Geometridae (73 (Geometroidea; Lasiocampidae (2, Saturniidae (1 (Bombycoidea; Sphingidae (2 (Sphingoidea. According to the most recent catalogue of the Romanian Lepidoptera fauna 31 species proved to be new for the region Sălaj. The following 43 species have faunistical interest, therefore they are briefly annotated: Agrochola humilis, Agrochola laevis, Aplocera efformata, Aporophila lutulenta, Atethmia centrago, Bryoleuca felina, Calyptra thalictri, Chazara briseis, Colias chrysotheme, Coscinia cribraria, Cupido osiris, Cyclophora albipunctata, Cymatophorima diluta, Drepana curvatula, Dryobotodes monochroma, Eilema caniola, Eilema palliatella, Eucarta amethystina, Eucarta virgo, Euphydryas aurinia, Eupithecia inturbata, Euxoa cos, Euxoa distinguenda, Everes alcetas, Hemaris tityus, Leptidea major, Lycaena thersamon, Maculinea arion, Maculinea teleius, Maniola tithonus, Meganephria bimaculosa, Noctua interjecta, Nothocasis sertata, Nymphalis xanthomelas, Perconia strigillaria, Phyllophila obliterata, Plebejides sephirus, Pyrgus armoricanus, Rhyacia lucipeta, Scotochrosta pulla, Scotopteryx vicinaria, Selidosema plumaria, Shargacucullia gozmanyi. Amongst them Euxoa cos, Plebejides sephirus and Scotopteryx vicinaria turned to be the most
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición, distribución altitudinal y gremios alimentarios de mariposas diurnas en Malinalco, Estado de México. Durante un año se recolectó de manera sistemática en 12 localidades ubicadas ente 1 000 y 2 000 m snm, obteniendo un total de 1 333 ejemplares, cuya determinación taxonómica permitió generar una lista integrada por 2 superfamilias, 6 familias, 21 subfamilias, 147 géneros y 213 especies, de las cuales 157 son registros nuevos (63 regionales y 94 estatales. La familia más diversa fue Hesperiidae (74 especies, seguida de Nymphalidae (55, Lycaenidae (30, Pieridae (26, Papilionidae (16 y Riodinidae (12. Los géneros mejor representados en cuanto a riqueza de especies fueron Urbanus, Strymon, Emesis y Chlosyne. Con base en la curva de acumulación de especies, empleando el modelo de Clench, se recolectó el 81% del valor teórico esperado. A la lista generada se agregó información de la base de datos Mariposa del Museo de Zoología Alfonso L. Herrera de la Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, con lo que se alcanzó un total de 240 especies registradas para el municipio. En época de sequía, la mayor diversidad de especies se concentró en mayo (102, mes en que se inicia el periodo de lluvias; en este último, en julio, se observó el vuelo de 62 especies, que en agosto disminuyeron a 42. Respecto a la distribución altitudinal, el 31% de las especies establece sus poblaciones en sitios inferiores a 1 400 m. Con base en las preferencias de alimentación y en la disponibilidad de los recursos aprovechables por los imagos, se determinaron 3 gremios alimentarios: nectarívoros (54%, hidrófilos (2% y acimófagos (3%.The species composition, altitudinal distribution and adult food resources of the butterfl y fauna of Malinalco, Mexico State, were studied. Over the course of one year, systematic collections were carried out at 12 localities between 1 000 and 2 000 m of elevation, resulting in 1 333 specimens
Olaf H. H. Mielke
Full Text Available Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. de La Mercede e Rio Colorado, Peru e Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Artines tobiasi sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. do Maranhão, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. do Espirito Santo, Brasil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. de Minas Geras, Brasil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. de Minas Gerais e Espirito Santo, Brasil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Propapias, gen. n., tipo: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, única espécie incluída. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb. n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n. Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb. n. e sp. rev. Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n. Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. e stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. e stat. n., Phocides zancleius 1932 syn. n. de Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. de Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palta Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. de Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. de Eumesia Felder &. Felder, 1867, n. rev, Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. from La Merced and Rio Colorado, Peru, and Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Artines tobiasi, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. from Maranhão, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. from Espírito Santo, Brazil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, Brazil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. from Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Propapias, gen. n., type: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, sole species included. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n., Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb n. and sp. rev., Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n., Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. and stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. and stat. n., Phocides zancleius Bell, 1932 syn. n. of Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955; syn. n. of Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. of Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palia Evans, 1955 syn. n. of Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. of Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. of Eumesia Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev. Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n4p91 Ambientes urbanos como parques e jardins podem oferecer muitos recursos alimentares, além de abrigo e condições favoráveis para a sobrevivência de borboletas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um inventário das borboletas visitantes florais e das plantas visitadas por esses insetos no Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. No período de março de 2006 a março de 2007, foram feitas 2h de observações semanais das borboletas visitantes fl orais. Em 108h de observação, foram registradas 1114 visitas de 39 espécies de borboletas, associadas a 43 espécies de plantas (21 famílias. Nymphalidae teve a maior riqueza de espécies (S= 18, seguida de Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 e Lycaenidae (S= 2. O pierídeo Phoebis philea philea foi a espécie mais freqüente (187 visitas, seguida dos hesperídeos Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 e do ninfalídeo Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae foram as plantas mais visitadas. O Jardim Botânico da UFSM é um exemplo de parque urbano que parece possuir recursos florais para alimentação de várias espécies de borboletas, sendo também potencial refúgio para espécies de áreas florestais do entorno.
Iserhard, Cristiano Agra; Romanowski, Helena Piccoli; Richter, Aline; Mendonça, Milton de Souza
The study of fauna through long-term surveys is important in unveiling how temporal patterns shape the structure of communities in tropical habitats. The butterfly assemblage of the subtropical Atlantic Forest may be considered highly diverse and shows changes in diversity and composition over time, highlighting the importance of long-term inventories. This work assessed temporal diversity patterns in the distribution and composition of butterfly assemblages in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil using combined data from three years of standardized sampling with entomological nets, increasing the knowledge on this group in the Neotropics for monitoring and conservation. The butterfly fauna was analyzed in terms of richness, abundance, and composition. The inventories reached 401 species, with 14,442 butterfly individuals sampled. All the diversity parameters evaluated show significant differences between the first year of sampling compared to the second and third years. The latter had higher values of richness and abundance, followed by the first and second years. Hesperiidae was the richest family, followed by Nymphalidae and Lycaenidae, indicating a good representation of the assemblage as a whole. The results of this work are important for developing conservation programs in the Atlantic Forest and other forested environments in the neotropics, especially concerning reliable diversity assessments for the monitoring and management of protected areas. Decision making and public policy might also benefit from knowledge on temporal patterns of diversity regarding the maintenance of native habitats and integrity of biomes and their associated fauna. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.
Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.
Olaf H. H. Mielke
Full Text Available The lectotype of Papilo bixae Linnaeus, designated by Hemming (1964 based on the figure of Merian (1705, was found in the Wiesbaden Museum, and here with considered as such. It corresponds to Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae; Evans (1951. Two syntypes of Papilo proteus Linnaeus, 1758, were also found in the same Museum and one of them was selected as lectotype. These lectotypes are figured for the first time.
A century later: tricolored pied flat Coladenia indrani uposathra Fruhstorfer, 1911 (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) and crenulate oakblue Apporasa atkinsoni Hewitson, 1869 (Lycaenidae: Theclinae) reported from Manipur, India
Soibam, B. S.; Huidrom, H.; Irungbam, Jatishwor
Roč. 8, č. 7 (2016), s. 9030-9033 ISSN 0974-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity hotspot * eastern Himalaya * Manipur Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://threatenedtaxa.org/index.php/JoTT/article/view/2732
A century later: Tricolored Pied Flat Coladenia indrani uposathra Fruhstorfer, 1911 (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae and Crenulate Oakblue Apporasa atkinsoni Hewitson, 1869 (Lycaenidae: Theclinae reported from Manipur, India
Baleshwor Singh Soibam
Full Text Available The present paper reports the rediscovery of the Tricolored Pied Flat Coladenia indrani uposathra Fruhstorfer, 1911 and Crenulated Oakblue Apporasa atkinsoni Hewitson, 1869 after about 99 years after they were sighted by Tytler (1915 in Irang river and Sebong of Manipur, North East India. C. i. uposathra was sighted a Keibul Lamjao National Park (KLNP and Heibok hills of Imphal valley on 4th and 16th May 2014 and A. atkinsoni was sighted Munnom village at Yaingangpokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (YLWS on 8th December 2015. A. atkinsoni is protected under schedule II of Indian (Wildlife Protection Act 1972. The rediscovery of such very rare species in Manipur shows that more survey is needed in hills and valley regions of Manipur to know the butterfly fauna of the region.
Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth
Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources
Sven G. Nilsson
Full Text Available Currently, we are experiencing biodiversity loss on different spatial scales. One of the best studied taxonomic groups in decline is the butterflies. Here, we review evidence for such declines using five systematic studies from southern Sweden that compare old butterfly surveys with the current situation. Additionally, we provide data on butterfly and burnet moth extinctions in the region’s counties. In some local areas, half of the butterfly fauna has been lost during the last 60-100 years. In terms of extinctions, counties have lost 2-10 butterfly and burnet moth species. Land use has changed markedly with key butterfly habitats such as hay meadows disappearing at alarming rates. Grazed, mixed open woodlands have been transformed into dense coniferous forests and clear-cuts and domestic grazers have been relocated from woodlands to arable fields and semi-natural grasslands. Ley has increased rapidly and is used for bale silage repeatedly during the season. Overall, the changed and intensified land use has markedly reduced the availability of nectar resources in the landscape. Species that decline in Sweden are strongly decreasing or already extinct in other parts of Europe. Many typical grassland species that were numerous in former times have declined severely; among those Hesperia comma, Lycaena virgaureae, Lycaena hippothoe, Argynnis adippe, and Polyommatus semiargus. Also, species associated with open woodlands and wetlands such as, Colias palaeno, Boloria euphrosyne and the glade-inhabiting Leptidea sinapis have all decreased markedly. Current management practise and EU Common Agricultural Policy rules favour intensive grazing on the remaining semi-natural grasslands, with strong negative effects on butterfly diversity. Abandoned grasslands are very common in less productive areas of southern Sweden and these habitats may soon become forests. There is an urgent need for immediate action to preserve unfertilized, mown and lightly grazed
Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore (Hesperiidae, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday (Nymphalidae from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India
Full Text Available Three species of butterflies hitherto known only from the Himalayan region and northeastern India, viz. Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday were recorded from Similipal Hills, Odisha, thus constituting significant new locality records and range extensions for peninsular India. This also re-inforces the unique bio-geographic role of Similipal as a hill range harbouring representatives of north-eastern and autochthonous peninsular Indian species and supports its putative function as a possible pathway along the Eastern Ghats for species exchange between bio-geographical zones.
Full Text Available More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica –including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5. Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI mitochondrial gene, information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae, ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae
Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.
Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand . Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As  pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to  who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent . Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer . Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario . Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow . The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures