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Sample records for hesc-derived msc group

  1. One-step derivation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells on a fibrillar collagen coating.

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    Yongxing Liu

    Full Text Available Controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into cells that resemble adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is an attractive approach to obtain a readily available source of progenitor cells for tissue engineering. The present study reports a new method to rapidly derive MSC-like cells from hESCs and hiPSCs, in one step, based on culturing the cells on thin, fibrillar, type I collagen coatings that mimic the structure of physiological collagen. Human H9 ESCs and HDFa-YK26 iPSCs were singly dissociated in the presence of ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, plated onto fibrillar collagen coated plates and cultured in alpha minimum essential medium (alpha-MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 uM magnesium L-ascorbic acid phosphate and 100 nM dexamethasone. While fewer cells attached on the collagen surface initially than standard tissue culture plastic, after culturing for 10 days, resilient colonies of homogenous spindle-shaped cells were obtained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that a high percentage of the derived cells expressed typical MSC surface markers including CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146 and CD166 and were negative as expected for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. The MSC-like cells derived from pluripotent cells were successfully differentiated in vitro into three different lineages: osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic. Both H9 hES and YK26 iPS cells displayed similar morphological changes during the derivation process and yielded MSC-like cells with similar properties. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that bioimimetic, fibrillar, type I collagen coatings applied to cell culture plates can be used to guide a rapid, efficient derivation of MSC-like cells from both human ES and iPS cells.

  2. Elucidating the phenomenon of HESC-derived RPE: anatomy of cell genesis, expansion and retinal transplantation.

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    Vugler, Anthony; Carr, Amanda-Jayne; Lawrence, Jean; Chen, Li Li; Burrell, Kelly; Wright, Andrew; Lundh, Peter; Semo, Ma'ayan; Ahmado, Ahmad; Gias, Carlos; da Cruz, Lyndon; Moore, Harry; Andrews, Peter; Walsh, James; Coffey, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Healthy Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells are required for proper visual function and the phenomenon of RPE derivation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (HESC) holds great potential for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, little is known about formation, expansion and expression profile of RPE-like cells derived from HESC (HESC-RPE). By studying the genesis of pigmented foci we identified OTX1/2-positive cell types as potential HESC-RPE precursors. When pigmented foci were excised from culture, HESC-RPE expanded to form extensive monolayers, with pigmented cells at the leading edge assuming a precursor role: de-pigmenting, proliferating, expressing keratin 8 and subsequently re-differentiating. As they expanded and differentiated in vitro, HESC-RPE expressed markers of both developing and mature RPE cells which included OTX1/2, Pax6, PMEL17 and at low levels, RPE65. In vitro, without signals from a developing retinal environment, HESC-RPE could produce regular, polarised monolayers with developmentally important apical and basal features. Following transplantation of HESC-RPE into the degenerating retinal environment of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats, the cells survived in the subretinal space, where they maintained low levels of RPE65 expression and remained out of the cell cycle. The HESC-RPE cells responded to the in vivo environment by downregulating Pax6, while maintaining expression of other markers. The presence of rhodopsin-positive material within grafted HESC-RPE indicates that in the future, homogenous transplants of this cell type may be capable of supporting visual function following retinal dystrophy.

  3. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their cardiac derivatives using Raman spectroscopy

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    Chan, J W; Lieu, D K; Huser, T R; Li, R A

    2008-09-08

    Self-renewable, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs), providing an unlimited source of cells for transplantation therapies. However, unlike certain cell lineages such as hematopoietic cells, CMs lack specific surface markers for convenient identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Identification by immunostaining of cardiac-specific proteins such as troponin requires permeabilization, which renders the cells unviable and non-recoverable. Ectopic expression of a reporter protein under the transcriptional control of a heart-specific promoter for identifying hESC-derived CMs (hESC-CMs) is useful for research but complicates potential clinical applications. The practical detection and removal of undifferentiated hESCs in a graft, which may lead to tumors, is also critical. Here, we demonstrate a non-destructive, label-free optical method based on Raman scattering to interrogate the intrinsic biochemical signatures of individual hESCs and their cardiac derivatives, allowing cells to be identified and classified. By combining the Raman spectroscopic data with multivariate statistical analysis, our results indicate that hESCs, human fetal left ventricular CMs, and hESC-CMs can be identified by their intrinsic biochemical characteristics with an accuracy of 96%, 98% and 66%, respectively. The present study lays the groundwork for developing a systematic and automated method for the non-invasive and label-free sorting of (i) high-quality hESCs for expansion, and (ii) ex vivo CMs (derived from embryonic or adult stem cells) for cell-based heart therapies.

  4. Molecular characterisation of stromal populations derived from human embryonic stem cells

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    Harkness, L.; Twine, N. A.; Abu Dawud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (BM-hMSC) are being employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration. A limiting factor for their clinical use is the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can provide an un...

  5. Safety assessment of bone marrow derived MSC grown in platelet-rich plasma

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    Shoji Fukuda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of endothelial progenitor cells and mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow at the ischemic region of peripheral artery disease patients is reported to be effective for therapeutic angiogenesis; however, these cell therapies require large amounts of bone marrow to obtain sufficient numbers of cells. To solve this problem, we attempted to culture bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC, which are supposed to secrete several cytokines that promote angiogenesis. We also focused on using platelet-rich plasma (PRP as a supplement for cell culture instead of fetal bovine serum. Human BM-MSC obtained from healthy volunteers expanded rapidly when cultured with 10% PRP prepared from their own blood. FACS analysis revealed that these cultured human MSC were homogeneous populations, and chromosomal analysis showed a normal karyotype. Moreover, the angiogenetic effect was apparent two weeks after human BM-MSC were injected into the ischemic muscle in SCID mice. Tumor formation was not detected three months after injection into SCID mice either subcutaneously or intramuscularly. To simulate clinical settings, canine BM-MSC were grown with canine PRP and injected into their ischemic muscles. We confirmed that donor cells existed in situ two and six weeks after operation without any side effects. These results suggest that cultured human BM-MSC can be a promising cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  6. Cytokine treatment optimises the immunotherapeutic effects of umbilical cord-derived MSC for treatment of inflammatory liver disease

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    de Witte, Samantha F. H.; Merino, Ana M.; Franquesa, Marcella; Strini, Tanja; van Zoggel, Johanna A. A.; Korevaar, Sander S.; Luk, Franka; Gargesha, Madhu; O?Flynn, Lisa; Roy, Debashish; Elliman, Steve J.; Newsome, Philip N.; Baan, Carla C.; Hoogduijn, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess immunomodulatory properties and low immunogenicity, both crucial properties for their development into an effective cellular immunotherapy. They have shown benefit in clinical trials targeting liver diseases; however the efficacy of MSC therapy will benefit from improvement of the immunomodulatory and immunogenic properties of MSC. Methods MSC derived from human umbilical cords (ucMSC) were treated for 3?days in vitro with various inflammator...

  7. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal and Mesenchymal) Stem-Like Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M.; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S.; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  8. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  9. Granulocyte-like myeloid derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC) are increased in multiple myeloma and are driven by dysfunctional mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

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    Giallongo, Cesarina; Tibullo, Daniele; Parrinello, Nunziatina L; La Cava, Piera; Di Rosa, Michelino; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Di Raimondo, Cosimo; Conticello, Concetta; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Avola, Roberto; Romano, Alessandra; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2016-12-27

    Granulocytic-Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC) are increased in Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients but the mechanisms of G-MDSC generation are still unknown. There are many evidences of the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in promoting MM cell growth, survival and drug-resistance. We here used a specific experimental model in vitro to evaluate the ability of MSC to induce G-MDSC. We found that although MSC derived from healthy donors (HD), MGUS and MM were able to generate the same amount of MDSC, only MM-MSC-educated G-MDSC exhibited suppressive ability. In addition, in comparison with MSC derived from HD, MM-MSC produce higher amount of immune-modulatory factors that could be involved in MDSC induction. Compared to G-MDSC obtained from co-culture models with MSC from healthy subjects, both MGUS and MM-MSC-educated G-MDSC showed increase of immune-modulatory factors. However, only MM-MSC educated G-MDSC 1) up-regulated immune-suppressive factors as ARG1 and TNFα, 2) expressed higher levels of PROK2, important in angiogenesis and inflammatory process, and 3) showed ability to digest bone matrix.Our data demonstrate that MM-MSC are functionally different from healthy subjects and MGUS-MSC, supporting an evolving concept regarding the contribution of MM-MSC to tumor development and progression.

  10. Cytokine treatment optimises the immunotherapeutic effects of umbilical cord-derived MSC for treatment of inflammatory liver disease.

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    de Witte, Samantha F H; Merino, Ana M; Franquesa, Marcella; Strini, Tanja; van Zoggel, Johanna A A; Korevaar, Sander S; Luk, Franka; Gargesha, Madhu; O'Flynn, Lisa; Roy, Debashish; Elliman, Steve J; Newsome, Philip N; Baan, Carla C; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2017-06-08

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess immunomodulatory properties and low immunogenicity, both crucial properties for their development into an effective cellular immunotherapy. They have shown benefit in clinical trials targeting liver diseases; however the efficacy of MSC therapy will benefit from improvement of the immunomodulatory and immunogenic properties of MSC. MSC derived from human umbilical cords (ucMSC) were treated for 3 days in vitro with various inflammatory factors, interleukins, vitamins and serum deprivation. Their immunogenicity and immunomodulatory capacity were examined by gene-expression analysis, surface-marker expressions, IDO activity, PGE 2 secretion and inhibition of T cell proliferation and IFNγ production. Furthermore, their activation of NK cell cytotoxicity was investigated via CD107a expression on NK cells. The immunomodulatory capacity, biodistribution and survival of pre-treated ucMSC were investigated in a CCl 4 -induced liver disease mouse model. In addition, capacity of pre-treated MSC to ameliorate liver inflammation was examined in an ex vivo liver inflammation co-culture model. IFN-γ and a multiple cytokine cocktail (MC) consisting of IFN-γ, TGFβ and retinoic acid upregulated the expression of immunomodulatory factor PD-L1 and IDO activity. Subsequently, both treatments enhanced the capacity of ucMSC to inhibit CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. The susceptibility of ucMSC for NK cell lysis was decreased by IFN-β, TGFβ and MC treatment. In vivo, no immunomodulation was observed by the ucMSC. Four hours after intravenous infusion in mice with CCl 4 -induced inflammatory liver injury, the majority of ucMSC were trapped in the lungs. Rapid clearance of ucMSC(VitB 6 ), ucMSC(Starv + VitB 6 ) and ucMSC(MC) and altered bio-distribution of ucMSC(TGFβ) compared to untreated ucMSC was observed. In the ex vivo co-culture system with inflammatory liver slices ucMSC(MC) showed significantly enhanced

  11. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

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    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  12. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

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    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  13. GMP-compliant isolation and large-scale expansion of bone marrow-derived MSC.

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    Natalie Fekete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have gained importance in tissue repair, tissue engineering and in immunosupressive therapy during the last years. Due to the limited availability of MSC in the bone marrow, ex vivo amplification prior to clinical application is requisite to obtain therapeutic applicable cell doses. Translation of preclinical into clinical-grade large-scale MSC expansion necessitates precise definition and standardization of all procedural parameters including cell seeding density, culture medium and cultivation devices. While xenogeneic additives such as fetal calf serum are still widely used for cell culture, its use in the clinical context is associated with many risks, such as prion and viral transmission or adverse immunological reactions against xenogeneic components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We established animal-free expansion protocols using platelet lysate as medium supplement and thereby could confirm its safety and feasibility for large-scale MSC isolation and expansion. Five different GMP-compliant standardized protocols designed for the safe, reliable, efficient and economical isolation and expansion of MSC was performed and MSC obtained were analyzed for differentiation capacity by qPCR and histochemistry. Expression of standard MSC markers as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy as well as expression of additional MSC markers and of various chemokine and cytokine receptors was analysed by flow cytometry. Changes of metabolic markers and cytokines in the medium were addressed using the LUMINEX platform. CONCLUSIONS: The five different systems for isolation and expansion of MSC described in this study are all suitable to produce at least 100 millions of MSC, which is commonly regarded as a single clinical dose. Final products are equal according to the minimal criteria for MSC defined by the ISCT. We showed that chemokine and integrin receptors analyzed had the same expression pattern

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC Regulate Activation of Granulocyte-Like Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (G-MDSC in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

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    Cesarina Giallongo

    Full Text Available It is well known that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have a role in promotion of tumor growth, survival and drug-resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Recent reports indicated that a subpopulation of myeloid cells, defined as granulocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC is increased in these patients. So far, the role of MSC in MDSC expansion and activation into the BM microenvironment remains unexplored. To address this question, here we use a specific experimental model in vitro, co-culturing MSC with peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC from normal individuals, in order to generate MSC-educated G-MDSC. Although MSC of healthy donors (HD and CML patients were able to generate the same amount of MDSC, only CML-MSC-educated G-MDSC exhibited suppressive ability on autologous T lymphocytes. In addition, compared with HD-MSC, CML-MSC over-expressed some immunomodulatory factors including TGFβ, IL6 and IL10, that could be involved in MDSC activation. CML-MSC-educated G-MDSC expressed higher levels of ARG1, TNFα, IL1β, COX2 and IL6 than G-MDSC isolated from co-culture with HD-MSC. Our data provide evidence that CML-MSC may play a critical role in tumor microenvironment by orchestrating G-MDSC activation and regulating T lymphocytes-mediated leukemia surveillance, thus contributing to CML immune escape.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) Regulate Activation of Granulocyte-Like Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (G-MDSC) in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

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    Giallongo, Cesarina; Romano, Alessandra; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; La Cava, Piera; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Stagno, Fabio; Vigneri, Paolo; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Tibullo, Daniele; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have a role in promotion of tumor growth, survival and drug-resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent reports indicated that a subpopulation of myeloid cells, defined as granulocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC) is increased in these patients. So far, the role of MSC in MDSC expansion and activation into the BM microenvironment remains unexplored. To address this question, here we use a specific experimental model in vitro, co-culturing MSC with peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) from normal individuals, in order to generate MSC-educated G-MDSC. Although MSC of healthy donors (HD) and CML patients were able to generate the same amount of MDSC, only CML-MSC-educated G-MDSC exhibited suppressive ability on autologous T lymphocytes. In addition, compared with HD-MSC, CML-MSC over-expressed some immunomodulatory factors including TGFβ, IL6 and IL10, that could be involved in MDSC activation. CML-MSC-educated G-MDSC expressed higher levels of ARG1, TNFα, IL1β, COX2 and IL6 than G-MDSC isolated from co-culture with HD-MSC. Our data provide evidence that CML-MSC may play a critical role in tumor microenvironment by orchestrating G-MDSC activation and regulating T lymphocytes-mediated leukemia surveillance, thus contributing to CML immune escape.

  16. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

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    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

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    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  18. Identification of a subpopulation of marrow MSC-derived medullary adipocytes that express osteoclast-regulating molecules: marrow adipocytes express osteoclast mediators.

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    Vance Holt

    Full Text Available Increased marrow medullary adipogenesis and an associated decrease in bone mineral density, usually observed in elderly individuals, is a common characteristic in senile osteoporosis. In this study we investigated whether cells of the medullary adipocyte lineage have the potential to directly support the formation of osteoclasts, whose activity in bone leads to bone degradation. An in vitro mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-derived medullary adipocyte lineage culture model was used to study the expression of the important osteoclast mediators RANKL, M-CSF, SDF-1, and OPG. We further assessed whether adipocytes at a specific developmental stage were capable of supporting osteoclast-like cell formation in culture. In vitro MSC-derived medullary adipocytes showed an mRNA and protein expression profile of M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG that was dependent on its developmental/metabolic stage. Furthermore, RANKL expression was observed in MSC-derived adipocytes that were at a distinct lineage stage and these cells were also capable of supporting osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest a connection between medullary adipocytes and osteoclast formation in vivo and may have major significance in regards to the mechanisms of decreased bone density in senile osteoporosis.

  19. ELABELA Is an Endogenous Growth Factor that Sustains hESC Self-Renewal via the PI3K/AKT Pathway.

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    Ho, Lena; Tan, Shawn Y X; Wee, Sheena; Wu, Yixuan; Tan, Sam J C; Ramakrishna, Navin B; Chng, Serene C; Nama, Srikanth; Szczerbinska, Iwona; Sczerbinska, Iwona; Chan, Yun-Shen; Avery, Stuart; Tsuneyoshi, Norihiro; Ng, Huck Hui; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Dunn, N Ray; Reversade, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    ELABELA (ELA) is a peptide hormone required for heart development that signals via the Apelin Receptor (APLNR, APJ). ELA is also abundantly secreted by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which do not express APLNR. Here we show that ELA signals in a paracrine fashion in hESCs to maintain self-renewal. ELA inhibition by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion, shRNA, or neutralizing antibodies causes reduced hESC growth, cell death, and loss of pluripotency. Global phosphoproteomic and transcriptomic analyses of ELA-pulsed hESCs show that it activates PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signaling required for cell survival. ELA promotes hESC cell-cycle progression and protein translation and blocks stress-induced apoptosis. INSULIN and ELA have partially overlapping functions in hESC medium, but only ELA can potentiate the TGFβ pathway to prime hESCs toward the endoderm lineage. We propose that ELA, acting through an alternate cell-surface receptor, is an endogenous secreted growth factor in human embryos and hESCs that promotes growth and pluripotency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

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    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

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    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  2. TLR4 plays a crucial role in MSC-induced inhibition of NK cell function

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    Lu, Ying [No. 307 Hospital of the Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Liu, Jin; Liu, Yang; Qin, Yaru [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Luo, Qun [No. 307 Hospital of the Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Wang, Quanli, E-mail: 13691110351@163.com [No. 307 Hospital of the Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Duan, Haifeng, E-mail: duanhf0720@163.com [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-21

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a kind of stromal cell within the tumor microenvironment. In our research, MSC derived from acute myeloid leukemia patients' bone marrow (AML-MSC) and lung cancer tissues (LC-MSC) as well as normal bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) cultured in conditioned medium of HeLa cells were found to have higher expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) mRNA compared with BM-MSC. The sorted TLR4-positive MSC (TLR4+ MSC) differed in cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) secretion from those of unsorted MSC. MSC was reported to inhibit natural killer (NK) cell proliferation and function. In this research, we confirmed that TLR4+ MSC aggravate this suppression. Furthermore, when TLR4 in the sorted cells were stimulated by LPS or following blocked by antibody, the suppression on NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were more intensive or recovered respectively. Compared to unsorted MSC, NKG2D receptor expression on NK cells were also inhibited by TLR4+ MSC. These findings suggest that activation of TLR4 pathway is important for TLR4+ MSC and MSC to obstruct anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting NK cell function, which may provide a potential stroma-targeted tumor therapy. - Highlights: • TLR4+ MSC inhibit NK cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. • TLR4+ MSC inhibit NKG2D expression on NK cells and NK cell cytotoxicity. • The distinguished cytokine expression of TLR4+ MSC may contribute to the inhibition on NK cell function.

  3. MicroRNA-302/367 Cluster Governs hESC Self-Renewal by Dually Regulating Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Pathways

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    Zhonghui Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available miR-302/367 is the most abundant miRNA cluster in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and can promote somatic cell reprogramming. However, its role in hESCs remains poorly understood. Here, we studied functional roles of the endogenous miR-302/367 cluster in hESCs by employing specific TALE-based transcriptional repressors. We revealed that miR-302/367 cluster dually regulates hESC cell cycle and apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Gene profiling and functional studies identified key targets of the miR-302/367 cluster in regulating hESC self-renewal and apoptosis. We demonstrate that in addition to its role in cell cycle regulation, miR-302/367 cluster conquers apoptosis by downregulating BNIP3L/Nix (a BH3-only proapoptotic factor and upregulating BCL-xL expression. Furthermore, we show that butyrate, a natural compound, upregulates miR-302/367 cluster expression and alleviates hESCs from apoptosis induced by knockdown of miR-302/367 cluster. In summary, our findings provide new insights in molecular mechanisms of how miR-302/367 cluster regulates hESCs.

  4. Immune modulatory mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells through a trophoblast-like stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Lazorchak, Adam S; Song, Li; Li, Enqin; Zhang, Zhenwu; Jiang, Bin; Xu, Ren-He

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have great clinical potential in modulating inflammation and promoting tissue repair. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have recently emerged as a potentially superior cell source for MSCs. However, the generation methods reported so far vary greatly in quality and efficiency. Here, we describe a novel method to rapidly and efficiently produce MSCs from hESCs via a trophoblast-like intermediate stage in approximately 11-16 days. We term these cells "T-MSCs" and show that T-MSCs express a phenotype and differentiation potential minimally required to define MSCs. T-MSCs exhibit potent immunomodulatory activity in vitro as they can remarkably inhibit proliferation of cocultured T and B lymphocytes. Unlike bone marrow MSCs, T-MSCs do not have increased expression of inflammatory mediators in response to IFNγ. Moreover, T-MSCs constitutively express a high level of the immune inhibitory ligand PD-L1 and elicit strong and durable efficacy in two distinct animal models of autoimmune disease, dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, at doses near those approved for clinical trials. Together, we present a simple and fast derivation method to generate MSCs from hESCs, which possess potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo and may serve as a novel and ideal candidate for MSC-based therapies. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Comparative study of human embryonic stem cells (hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC as a treatment for retinal dystrophies

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    Marina Riera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal dystrophies (RD are major causes of familial blindness and are characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptor and/or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two pluripotent stem cell (PSC-based therapies. We differentiated RPE from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted them into the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rat. Once differentiated, cells from either source of PSC resembled mature RPE in their morphology and gene expression profile. Following transplantation, both hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells maintained the expression of specific RPE markers, lost their proliferative capacity, established tight junctions, and were able to perform phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Remarkably, grafted areas showed increased numbers of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segment disk membranes. Regardless of the cell source, human transplants protected retina from cell apoptosis, glial stress and accumulation of autofluorescence, and responded better to light stimuli. Altogether, our results show that hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells survived, migrated, integrated, and functioned as RPE in the RCS rat retina, providing preclinical evidence that either PSC source could be of potential benefit for treating RD.

  6. Comparative study of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) as a treatment for retinal dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Marina; Fontrodona, Laura; Albert, Silvia; Ramirez, Diana Mora; Seriola, Anna; Salas, Anna; Muñoz, Yolanda; Ramos, David; Villegas-Perez, Maria Paz; Zapata, Miguel Angel; Raya, Angel; Ruberte, Jesus; Veiga, Anna; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Retinal dystrophies (RD) are major causes of familial blindness and are characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptor and/or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based therapies. We differentiated RPE from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and transplanted them into the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat. Once differentiated, cells from either source of PSC resembled mature RPE in their morphology and gene expression profile. Following transplantation, both hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells maintained the expression of specific RPE markers, lost their proliferative capacity, established tight junctions, and were able to perform phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Remarkably, grafted areas showed increased numbers of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segment disk membranes. Regardless of the cell source, human transplants protected retina from cell apoptosis, glial stress and accumulation of autofluorescence, and responded better to light stimuli. Altogether, our results show that hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells survived, migrated, integrated, and functioned as RPE in the RCS rat retina, providing preclinical evidence that either PSC source could be of potential benefit for treating RD. PMID:27006969

  7. Acceleration of wound healing with stem cell-derived growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Masayuki; Nishino, Yudai; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Ueda, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been revealed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) accelerate the healing of skin wounds. Although the proliferative capacity of MSCs decreases with age, MSCs secrete many growth factors. The present study examined the effect of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) on wound healing. The wound-healing process was observed macroscopically and histologically using an excisional wound-splinting mouse model, and the expression level of hyaluronic acid related to the wound healing process was observed to evaluate the wound-healing effects of MSC, MSC-CM, and control (phosphate-buffered saline). The MSC and MSC-CM treatments accelerated wound healing versus the control group. At 7 days after administration, epithelialization was accelerated, thick connective tissue had formed in the skin defect area, and the wound area was reduced in the MSC and MSC-CM groups versus the control group. At 14 days, infiltration of inflammatory cells was decreased versus 7 days, and the wounds were closed in the MSC and MSC-CM groups, while a portion of epithelium was observed in the control group. At 7 and 14 days, the MSC and MSC-CM groups expressed significantly higher levels of hyaluronic acid versus the control group (P wound healing versus the control group to a similar degree. Accordingly, it is suggested that the MSC-CM contains growth factor derived from stem cells, is able to accelerate wound healing as well as stem cell transplantation, and may become a new therapeutic method for wound healing in the future.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell 1 (MSC1-based therapy attenuates tumor growth whereas MSC2-treatment promotes tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S Waterman

    Full Text Available Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2.Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation.These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease.

  9. Neonatal Desensitization Supports Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rat Joint Cartilage Without Immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufang; Jiang, Yang Zi; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Longkun; Tong, Tong; Liu, Wanlu; Mu, Qin; Liu, Hua; Ji, Junfeng; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-01-01

    Immunological response hampers the investigation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or their derivates for tissue regeneration in vivo. Immunosuppression is often used after surgery, but exhibits side effects of significant weight loss and allows only short-term observation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neonatal desensitization supports relative long-term survival of hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs) and promotes cartilage regeneration. hESC-MSCs were injected on the day of birth in rats. Six weeks after neonatal injection, a full-thickness cylindrical cartilage defect was created and transplanted with a hESC-MSC-seeded collagen bilayer scaffold (group d+s+c) or a collagen bilayer scaffold (group d+s). Rats without neonatal injection were transplanted with the hESC-MSC-seeded collagen bilayer scaffold to serve as controls (group s+c). Cartilage regeneration was evaluated by histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and biomechanical test. The role of hESC-MSCs in cartilage regeneration was analyzed by CD4 immunostaining, cell death detection, and visualization of human cells in regenerated tissues. hESC-MSCs expressed CD105, CD73, CD90, CD29, and CD44, but not CD45 and CD34, and possessed trilineage differentiation potential. Group d+s+c exhibited greater International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scores than group d+s or group s+c. Abundant collagen type II and improved mechanical properties were detected in group d+s+c. There were less CD4+ inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death at week 1, and hESC-MSCs were found to survive as long as 8 weeks after transplantation in group d+s+c. Our study suggests that neonatal desensitization before transplantation may be an efficient way to develop a powerful tool for preclinical study of human cell-based therapies in animal models. PMID:22788986

  10. Electrostatics at the membrane define MscL channel mechanosensitivity and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dalian; Blount, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) serves as a biological emergency release valve, preventing the occurrence of cell lysis caused by acute osmotic stress. Its tractable nature allows it to serve as a paradigm for how a protein can directly sense membrane tension. Although much is known of the importance of the hydrophobicity of specific residues in channel gating, it has remained unclear whether electrostatics at the membrane plays any role. We studied MscL chimeras derived from functionally distinct orthologues: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Dissection of one set led to an observation that changing the charge of a single residue, K101, of E. coli (Ec)-MscL, effects a channel phenotype: when mutated to a negative residue, the channel is less mechanosensitive and has longer open dwell times. Assuming electrostatic interactions, we determined whether they are due to protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions by performing site-directed mutagenesis elsewhere in the protein and reconstituting channels into defined lipids, with and without negative head groups. We found that although both interactions appear to play some role, the primary determinant of the channel phenotype seems to be protein-lipid electrostatics. The data suggest a model for the role of electrostatic interactions in the dynamics of MscL gating. © FASEB.

  11. No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Susanne; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Holm, Frida; Bergström, Rosita; Eklund, Linda; Strömberg, Anne-Marie; Hovatta, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Background The large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo quality is important as regards the likelihood of pregnancy, but there is little information regarding likelihood of stem cell derivation. Methods We evaluated the relationship of pronuclear zygote stage, the score based on embryo morphology and developmental rate at cleavage state, and the morphology of the blastocyst at the time of donation to stem cell research, to see how they correlated to successful establishment of new hESC lines. Results Derivation of hESC lines succeeded from poor quality and good quality embryos in the same extent. In several blastocysts, no real inner cell mass (ICM) was seen, but permanent well growing hESC lines could be established. One tripronuclear (3PN) zygote, which developed to blastocyst stage, gave origin to a karyotypically normal hESC line. Conclusion Even very poor quality embryos with few cells in the ICM can give origin to hESC lines. PMID:21217828

  12. Suicide gene reveals the myocardial neovascularization role of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CXCR4 (MSC(CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies indicated that MSC(CXCR4 improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. This study was aimed to investigate the specific role of MSC(CXCR4 in neovascularization of infarcted myocardium using a suicide gene approach. METHODS: MSCs were transduced with either lentivirus-null vector/GFP (MSC(Null as control or vector encoding for overexpressing CXCR4/GFP. The MSC derived-endothelial cell (EC differentiation was assessed by a tube formation assay, Dil-ac-LDL uptake, EC marker expression, and VE-cadherin promoter activity assay. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. The suicide gene approach was under the control of VE-cadherin promoter. In vivo studies: Cell patches containing MSC(Null or MSC(CXCR4 were transduced with suicide gene and implanted into the myocardium of MI rat. Rats received either ganciclovir (GCV or vehicle after cell implantation. After one month, the cardiac functional changes and neovascularization were assessed by echocardiography, histological analysis, and micro-CT imaging. RESULTS: The expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was significantly higher in MSC(CXCR4 as compared to MSC(Null under hypoxia. Additionally, MSC(CXCR4 enhanced new vessel formation and EC differentiation, as well as STAT3 phosphorylation under hypoxia. STAT3 participated in the transcription of VE-cadherin in MSC(CXCR4 under hypoxia, which was inhibited by WP1066 (a STAT3 inhibitor. In addition, GCV specifically induced death of ECs with suicide gene activation. In vivo studies: MSC(CXCR4 implantation promoted cardiac functional restoration, reduced infarct size, improved cardiac remodeling, and enhanced neovascularization in ischemic heart tissue. New vessels derived from MSC(CXCR4 were observed at the injured heart margins and communicated with native coronary arteries. However, the derived vessel networks were reduced by GCV, reversing improvement of cardiac function. CONCLUSION: The

  13. Derivation of novel genetically diverse human embryonic stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Valentina T; Grifo, James A; Hansis, Christoph

    2012-06-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to revolutionize many biomedical fields ranging from basic research to disease modeling, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. A multitude of hESC lines have been derived worldwide since the first 5 lines by Thomson et al. 13 years ago, but many of these are poorly characterized, unavailable, or do not represent desired traits, thus making them unsuitable for application purposes. In order to provide the scientific community with better options, we have derived 12 new hESC lines at New York University from discarded genetically normal and abnormal embryos using the latest techniques. We examined the genetic status of the NYUES lines in detail as well as their molecular and cellular features and DNA fingerprinting profile. Furthermore, we differentiated our hESCs into the tissues most affected by a specific condition or into clinically desired cell types. To our knowledge, a number of characteristics of our hESCs have not been previously reported, for example, mutation for alpha thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome, linkage to conditions with a genetic component such as asthma or poor sperm morphology, and novel combinations of ethnic backgrounds. Importantly, all of our undifferentiated euploid female lines tested to date did not show X chromosome inactivation, believed to result in superior potency. We continue to derive new hESC lines and add them to the NIH registry and other registries. This should facilitate the use of our hESCs and lead to advancements for patient-benefitting applications.

  14. USING OF MSC WITH DIFFERENT ONTOGENETIC MATURITY FOR CORRECTION OF CHRONIC FIBROSING LIVER DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Shagidulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effectiveness of MSC with different degree of ontogenetic maturity (MSC bone marrow – MSC BM and MSC umbilical cord – MSC UC on regenerative processes in injured liver. Methods. In 4 groups of experiments on Wistar rats (n = 80 with a model of fibrotic toxic liver damage (FLD it was studied the effect of MSCs with different degree of ontogenetic maturity on recovery processes at the regeneration of damaged liver: 1 gr. – Control, 2 gr. and 3 gr. introduction of MSC BM, included in Sphero®GEL-long in doses of 2.5 ×106 and 5.0 x 106 cells, respectively, and 4 gr. – introduction of MSC UC in the form of cell-spheroids (8–10 × 105 cells. The cells were injected into the damaged liver in 7 days after the end of FDL-modeling. The effect of cell therapy was studied during 180 days. The effectiveness of corrective therapy was evaluated by the results of functional and morphological investigations of livers (histological control of parenchymal and nonparenchy- mal liver tissue. Results. MSC BM in both doses and MSC UC contributed to a more rapid normalization of liver enzyme indices compared with the control (1 gr., but the differences in the rate of recovery of disturbed enzymatic liver functions between groups 2, 3 and 4 – were absent. In 90 days after the cell application it was determined a more pronounced recovery activity of cells in groups 3 and 4; in 180 days the more pronounced activation of recovery processes was observed in group 3; but in group 4 the sclerotic processes were more pro- nounced in this period. Conclusion. For the induction of recovery processes in damage liver it is advisable not to use the MSC UC, but to use MSC BM in the Sphero®GEL, because MSC BM exert not only local but also systemic immune-regulatory effect, increasing the pool of T-reg. cells, which are additional carriers of regenera- tion information in organism. 

  15. Procedures for Derivation and Characterisation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, a development occurred in stem cell biology with the fi rst report of the derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line. Since then a number of techniques have been used to derive and characterise hESCs. Here, we describe the derivation methods used by our laboratory for isolatio...

  16. The c-Met Inhibitor MSC2156119J Effectively Inhibits Tumor Growth in Liver Cancer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, Friedhelm, E-mail: Friedhelm.Bladt@merckgroup.com; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Ihling, Christian; Wilm, Claudia; Blaukat, Andree [EMD Serono, and Merck Serono Research and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt 64293 (Germany)

    2014-08-19

    The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as its only high-affinity ligand. Aberrant activation of c-Met is associated with many human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of the c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063) in patient-derived tumor explants. BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with MHCC97H cells or with tumor fragments of 10 patient-derived primary liver cancer explants selected according to c-Met/HGF expression levels. MSC2156119J (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and sorafenib (50 mg/kg) were administered orally as single-agent treatment or in combination, with vehicle as control. Tumor response, metastases formation, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured. MSC2156119J inhibited tumor growth and induced complete regression in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MHCC97H tumors. AFP levels were undetectable after 5 weeks of MSC2156119J treatment, and the number of metastatic lung foci was reduced. Primary liver explant models with strong c-Met/HGF activation showed increased responsiveness to MSC2156119J, with MSC2156119J showing similar or superior activity to sorafenib. Tumors characterized by low c-Met expression were less sensitive to MSC2156119J. MSC2156119J was better tolerated than sorafenib, and combination therapy did not improve efficacy. These findings indicate that selective c-Met/HGF inhibition with MSC2156119J is associated with marked regression of c-Met high-expressing tumors, supporting its clinical development as an antitumor treatment for HCC patients with active c-Met signaling.

  17. ELABELA Is an Endogenous Growth Factor that Sustains hESC Self-Renewal via the PI3K/AKT Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Lena; Tan, Shawn Y. X.; Wee, Sheena; Wu, Yixuan; Tan, Sam J. C.; Ramakrishna, Navin B.; Chng, Serene C.; Nama, Srikanth; Szczerbinska, Iwona; Sczerbinska, Iwona; Chan, Yun-Shen; Avery, Stuart; Tsuneyoshi, Norihiro; Ng, Huck Hui; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Dunn, N. Ray; Reversade, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    ELABELA (ELA) is a peptide hormone required for heart development that signals via the Apelin Receptor (APLNR, APJ). ELA is also abundantly secreted by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which do not express APLNR. Here we show that ELA signals in a paracrine fashion in hESCs to maintain

  18. Cytokine treatment optimises the immunotherapeutic effects of umbilical cord-derived MSC for treatment of inflammatory liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. De Witte (Samantha Fh); A. Merino (Ana); M. Franquesa (Marcella); T. Strini (Tanja); J.A.A. van Zoggel (Hanneke); S.S. Korevaar (Sander); F. Luk (Franka); M. Gargesha (Madhusudhana); O'Flynn, L. (Lisa); D. Roy (Debashish); Elliman, S.J. (Steve J.); Newsome, P.N. (Philip N.); C.C. Baan (Carla); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess immunomodulatory properties and low immunogenicity, both crucial properties for their development into an effective cellular immunotherapy. They have shown benefit in clinical trials targeting liver diseases; however the efficacy of MSC

  19. A new antibiotic with potent activity targets MscL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscla, Irene; Wray, Robin; Blount, Paul; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela; Huang, Johnny X; Blaskovich, Mark A; Cooper, Matthew A; Obregon-Henao, Andres; Orme, Ian; Tjandra, Edwin S; Stroeher, Uwe H; Brown, Melissa H; Macardle, Cindy; van Holst, Nick; Ling Tong, Chee; Slattery, Ashley D; Gibson, Christopher T; Raston, Colin L; Boulos, Ramiz A

    2015-07-01

    The growing problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a major threat to human health. Paradoxically, new antibiotic discovery is declining, with most of the recently approved antibiotics corresponding to new uses for old antibiotics or structurally similar derivatives of known antibiotics. We used an in silico approach to design a new class of nontoxic antimicrobials for the bacteria-specific mechanosensitive ion channel of large conductance, MscL. One antimicrobial of this class, compound 10, is effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with no cytotoxicity in human cell lines at the therapeutic concentrations. As predicted from in silico modeling, we show that the mechanism of action of compound 10 is at least partly dependent on interactions with MscL. Moreover we show that compound 10 cured a methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our work shows that compound 10, and other drugs that target MscL, are potentially important therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

  20. Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tohuman umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) promotescrush-injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Wei-Hong; Almansoori, Akram A; Sung, Mi-Ae; Ju, Kyung-Won; Seo, Nari; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bong-Ju; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; He, Hong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-16

    This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group. UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat) or BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat)were transplantedinto the rats at the crush site immediately after sciatic nerve injury. Cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat). The rats were monitored for 4 weeks post-surgery. Results showed that expression of BDNF at both the protein and mRNA levels was higher inthe BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group compared to theUCB-MSC group in vitro.Moreover, BDNF mRNA expression was higher in both UCB-MSC group and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSC group compared tothe control group, and BDNF mRNA expression in theBDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group was higher than inboth other groups 5days after surgeryin vivo. Labeled neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), axon counts, axon density, and sciatic function index were significantly increased in the UCB-MSC and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSCgroupscompared to the controlgroup four weeksaftercell transplantation. Importantly,the BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCgroup exhibited more peripheral nerve regeneration than the other two groups.Our results indicate thatboth UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCscan improve rat sciatic nerve regeneration, with BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCsshowing a greater effectthan UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation of xeno-free and GMP-grade human embryonic stem cells--platforms for future clinical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly E Tannenbaum

    Full Text Available Clinically compliant human embryonic stem cells (hESCs should be developed in adherence to ethical standards, without risk of contamination by adventitious agents. Here we developed for the first time animal-component free and good manufacturing practice (GMP-compliant hESCs. After vendor and raw material qualification, we derived xeno-free, GMP-grade feeders from umbilical cord tissue, and utilized them within a novel, xeno-free hESC culture system. We derived and characterized three hESC lines in adherence to regulations for embryo procurement, and good tissue, manufacturing and laboratory practices. To minimize freezing and thawing, we continuously expanded the lines from initial outgrowths and samples were cryopreserved as early stocks and banks. Batch release criteria included DNA-fingerprinting and HLA-typing for identity, characterization of pluripotency-associated marker expression, proliferation, karyotyping and differentiation in-vitro and in-vivo. These hESCs may be valuable for regenerative therapy. The ethical, scientific and regulatory methodology presented here may serve for development of additional clinical-grade hESCs.

  2. Inhibition of IKK/NF-κB Signaling Enhances Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Zhou, Chenchen; Alvarez, Ruth; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2016-04-12

    Embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs; also known as mesenchymal stem cells) represent a promising source for bone regenerative medicine. Despite remarkable advances in stem cell biology, the molecular mechanism regulating differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into MSCs remains poorly understood. Here, we report that inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling enhances differentiation of hESCs into MSCs by expediting the loss of pluripotent markers and increasing the expression of MSC surface markers. In addition, a significantly higher quantity of MSCs was produced from hESCs with IKK/NF-κB suppression. These isolated MSCs displayed evident multipotency with capacity to terminally differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro and to form bone in vivo. Collectively, our data provide important insights into the role of NF-κB in mesenchymal lineage specification during hESC differentiation, suggesting that IKK inhibitors could be utilized as an adjuvant in generating MSCs for cell-mediated therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. β3-Adrenergic Regulation of EPC Features Through Manipulation of the Bone Marrow MSC Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Rana; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Siavashi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in a specific niche in the bone marrow, however, biological features of this niche are still not fully understood. Given the interactions of MSCs with endothelial cells in different tissues, bone marrow MSC niche may influence the biological features of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). To understand the role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulation of the MSC niche, we examined whether the manipulation of the MSC niche via β3-adrenergic signals will affect EPC features. A selective β3 agonist (BRL37344) or a β3 antagonist (SR59230A) was administered in mice for 2 weeks to determine the potential effects of these regimens on the population of CD133 + stem cells in the bone marrow. Then, bone marrow-derived MSCs and EPCs were harvested and expanded from the mice to examine the effect of changes in the MSC niche on EPC features. Improved MSC colony forming potency with increased bone marrow stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) (also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 [CXCL12]) expression was shown as a result of intensification of the bone marrow adrenergic signals through BRL37344 injection. On the other hand, the blockage of these signals limited the expression level of SDF-1 and resulted in bone marrow enrichment of CD133 + cells. Manipulation of the MSC niche and decreased SDF-1 expression via SR59230A injection also prompted EPCs to form more colonies with augmented proliferation and differentiation capacity. Overall, our results indicate that the β3-adrenergic signals regulate the MSC niche, thereby resulting in modulation of EPC biological features. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4753-4761, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of MSC-Neurogenin1 administration modality in MCAO rat model

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    Shin Dong Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral (IC grafting of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is not currently used in humans due to its potential complications. On the other hand, intra-arterial (IA administration can be facilitated for engrafting of intensifed MSCs in the injured human brain. The study is designed to compare the two methods of MSC administration using IA and IC routes through the parameters of behavior, infarct volume, cell distribution, and MSC identification. An ischemic stroke model was generated in Sprague Dawley male rats. This experiment used MSCs/Ngn1 that express Neurogenin1 (Ngn1 to ensure grafted MSC maintenance. MSCs/Ngn1 or normal saline was administrated via the IC or IA route on day 3. All animals were randomly assigned into four groups (five rats in each group: IC-control, IA-control, IC-MSCs/Ngn1, or IA-MSCs/Ngn1. Motor behaviors, infarct volume, and distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO-labeled cells on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were compared from each group. There were no baseline differencess in motor behaviors or infarct volume between IC-MSCs/Ngn1 and IA-MSCs/Ngn1. Hovever, the IA-MSCs/Ngn1 group showed the greatest recovery on Rotarod testing and adhesive removal tests (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009 vs. IC-MSCs/Ngn1, respectively. The IA-MSCs/Ngn1 group also had more evenly distributed SPIO-labeled cells on MRI. The results suggest that IA administration is likely to be benefcial for humans based on its ability to improve behavioral outcomes and ensure even MSC engrafting.

  5. Derivation of Two New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines from Nonviable Human Embryos

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    Svetlana Gavrilov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the derivation and characterization of two new human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines (CU1 and CU2 from embryos with an irreversible loss of integrated organismic function. In addition, we analyzed retrospective data of morphological progression from embryonic day (ED 5 to ED6 for 2480 embryos not suitable for clinical use to assess grading criteria indicative of loss of viability on ED5. Our analysis indicated that a large proportion of in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos not suitable for clinical use could be used for hESC derivation. Based on these combined findings, we propose that criteria commonly used in IVF clinics to determine optimal embryos for uterine transfer can be employed to predict the potential for hESC derivation from poor quality embryos without the destruction of vital human embryos.

  6. The histopathology of a human mesenchymal stem cell experimental tumor model: support for an hMSC origin for Ewing's sarcoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, J S; Abdallah, B M; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2008-01-01

    -forming potential of early passage hMSC-TERT20 cells, tumors derived from late passage cells expressed early biomarkers of osteogenesis. However, hMSC-TERT20 cells were heterogeneous for alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA) expression and one out of six hMSC-TERT20 derived single cell clones was strongly ASMA positive....... Tumors from this ASMA+ clone had distinctive vascular qualities with hot spots of high CD34+ murine endothelial cell density, together with CD34- regions with a branching periodic acid Schiff reaction pattern. Such clone-specific differences in host vascular response provide novel models to explore...

  7. Separate developmental programs for HLA-A and -B cell surface expression during differentiation from embryonic stem cells to lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts.

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    Hardee J Sabir

    Full Text Available A major problem of allogeneic stem cell therapy is immunologically mediated graft rejection. HLA class I A, B, and Cw antigens are crucial factors, but little is known of their respective expression on stem cells and their progenies. We have recently shown that locus-specific expression (HLA-A, but not -B is seen on some multipotent stem cells, and this raises the question how this is in other stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to investigate the cell surface expression of HLA-A and -B on human embryonic stem cells (hESC, human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and their fully-differentiated progenies such as lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts. hESC showed extremely low levels of HLA-A and no -B. In contrast, multipotent hMSC and hHSC generally expressed higher levels of HLA-A and clearly HLA-B though at lower levels. IFNγ induced HLA-A to very high levels on both hESC and hMSC and HLA-B on hMSC. Even on hESC, a low expression of HLA-B was achieved. Differentiation of hMSC to osteoblasts downregulated HLA-A expression (P = 0.017. Interestingly HLA class I on T lymphocytes differed between different compartments. Mature bone marrow CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells expressed similar HLA-A and -B levels as hHSC, while in the peripheral blood they expressed significantly more HLA-B7 (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.004 for CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, respectively. Thus different HLA loci are differentially regulated during differentiation of stem cells.

  8. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiovascular disease modeling and drug screening

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have emerged as a novel tool for drug discovery and therapy in cardiovascular medicine. hiPSCs are functionally similar to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and can be derived autologously without the ethical challenges associated with hESCs. Given the limited regenerative capacity of the human heart following myocardial injury, cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-CMs) have garnered significant attention from basic and translational scienti...

  9. Automated grouping of action potentials of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Giann; Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie; Vidal, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Methods for obtaining cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are improving at a significant rate. However, the characterization of these cardiomyocytes (CMs) is evolving at a relatively slower rate. In particular, there is still uncertainty in classifying the phenotype (ventricular-like, atrial-like, nodal-like, etc.) of an hESC-derived cardiomyocyte (hESC-CM). While previous studies identified the phenotype of a CM based on electrophysiological features of its action potential, the criteria for classification were typically subjective and differed across studies. In this paper, we use techniques from signal processing and machine learning to develop an automated approach to discriminate the electrophysiological differences between hESC-CMs. Specifically, we propose a spectral grouping-based algorithm to separate a population of CMs into distinct groups based on the similarity of their action potential shapes. We applied this method to a dataset of optical maps of cardiac cell clusters dissected from human embryoid bodies. While some of the nine cell clusters in the dataset are presented with just one phenotype, the majority of the cell clusters are presented with multiple phenotypes. The proposed algorithm is generally applicable to other action potential datasets and could prove useful in investigating the purification of specific types of CMs from an electrophysiological perspective.

  10. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Kidwai, Fahad K.; Kopher, Ross A.; Motl, Jason; Kellum, Cory A.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo studies demonstrate the hESC-derived YFP+ cells can repair a calvarial defect in immunodeficient mice. Using the engineered hESCs, we monitored the osteogenic development and explored the roles of osteogenic supplements BMP2 and FGF9 in osteogenic differentiation of these hESCs in vitro. Taken together, this reporter system provides a novel system to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of hESCs and becomes useful to identify soluble agents and cell signaling pathways that mediate early stages of human bone development. PMID:25680477

  11. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Li Zou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo studies demonstrate the hESC-derived YFP+ cells can repair a calvarial defect in immunodeficient mice. Using the engineered hESCs, we monitored the osteogenic development and explored the roles of osteogenic supplements BMP2 and FGF9 in osteogenic differentiation of these hESCs in vitro. Taken together, this reporter system provides a novel system to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of hESCs and becomes useful to identify soluble agents and cell signaling pathways that mediate early stages of human bone development.

  12. Phenotypic, Functional, and Safety Control at Preimplantation Phase of MSC-Based Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Wioletta; Figiel-Dabrowska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Obtulowicz, Patrycja; Noszczyk, Bartlomiej Henryk; Buzanska, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exhibit enormous heterogeneity which can modify their regenerative properties and therefore influence therapeutic effectiveness as well as safety of these cells transplantation. In addition the high phenotypic plasticity of MSC population makes it enormously sensitive to any changes in environmental properties including fluctuation in oxygen concentration. We have shown here that lowering oxygen level far below air atmosphere has a beneficial impact on various parameters characteristic for umbilical cord Wharton Jelly- (WJ-) MSC and adipose tissue- (AD-) derived MSC cultures. This includes their cellular composition, rate of proliferation, and maintenance of stemness properties together with commitment to cell differentiation toward mesodermal and neural lineages. In addition, the culture genomic stability increased significantly during long-term cell passaging and eventually protected cells against spontaneous transformation. Also by comparing of two routinely used methods of MSCs isolation (mechanical versus enzymatic) we have found substantial divergence arising between cell culture properties increasing along the time of cultivation in vitro. Thus, in this paper we highlight the urgent necessity to develop the more sensitive and selective methods for prediction and control cells fate and functioning during the time of growth in vitro. PMID:27651796

  13. Phenotypic, Functional, and Safety Control at Preimplantation Phase of MSC-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Wioletta; Figiel-Dabrowska, Anna; Sarnowska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Obtulowicz, Patrycja; Noszczyk, Bartlomiej Henryk; Buzanska, Leonora; Domanska-Janik, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exhibit enormous heterogeneity which can modify their regenerative properties and therefore influence therapeutic effectiveness as well as safety of these cells transplantation. In addition the high phenotypic plasticity of MSC population makes it enormously sensitive to any changes in environmental properties including fluctuation in oxygen concentration. We have shown here that lowering oxygen level far below air atmosphere has a beneficial impact on various parameters characteristic for umbilical cord Wharton Jelly- (WJ-) MSC and adipose tissue- (AD-) derived MSC cultures. This includes their cellular composition, rate of proliferation, and maintenance of stemness properties together with commitment to cell differentiation toward mesodermal and neural lineages. In addition, the culture genomic stability increased significantly during long-term cell passaging and eventually protected cells against spontaneous transformation. Also by comparing of two routinely used methods of MSCs isolation (mechanical versus enzymatic) we have found substantial divergence arising between cell culture properties increasing along the time of cultivation in vitro. Thus, in this paper we highlight the urgent necessity to develop the more sensitive and selective methods for prediction and control cells fate and functioning during the time of growth in vitro.

  14. Human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitors mature inside an encapsulation device without evidence of increased biomass or cell escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kaitlyn; Hao, Ergeng; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    There are several challenges to successful implementation of a cell therapy for insulin dependent diabetes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Among these are development of functional insulin producing cells, a clinical delivery method that eliminates the need for chronic immunosuppression, and assurance that hESC derived tumors do not form in the patient. We and others have shown that encapsulation of cells in a bilaminar device (TheraCyte) provides immunoprotection in rodents and primates. Here we monitored human insulin secretion and employed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to evaluate the maturation, growth, and containment of encapsulated islet progenitors derived from CyT49 hESC, transplanted into mice. Human insulin was detectable by 7 weeks post-transplant and increased 17-fold over the course of 8 weeks, yet during this period the biomass of encapsulated cells remained constant. Remarkably, by 20 weeks post-transplant encapsulated cells secreted sufficient levels of human insulin to ameliorate alloxan induced diabetes. Further, bioluminescent imaging revealed for the first time that hESCs remained fully contained in encapsulation devices for up to 150 days, the longest period tested. Collectively, the data suggest that encapsulated hESC derived islet progenitors hold great promise as an effective and safe cell replacement therapy for insulin dependent diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. MSC in clinics: Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    DETRY, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    For several years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated in vivo and in vitro for their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti- ischemia-reperfusion injury and “tissue repair” properties. These characteristics could make them interesting in various clinical applications, and particularly in organ transplantation. Taking advantage of our centre expertise and experience concerning MSC use in graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation and using already functioning ...

  16. The growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonist JV-1-36 inhibits proliferation and survival of human ectopic endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) and the T HESC cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Marta; Grande, Cristina; Scarlatti, Francesca; Deltetto, Francesco; Delpiano, Elena; Camanni, Marco; Ghigo, Ezio; Granata, Riccarda

    2010-08-01

    To determine the effect of the GHRH antagonist JV-1-36 on proliferation and survival of primary ectopic human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) and the T HESC cell line. Prospective laboratory study. University hospital. 22 women with endometriosis (aged 34.8+/-5.7 years) undergoing therapeutic laparoscopy. Eutopic (n=10) and ectopic (n=22) endometrial tissues were collected from women who underwent therapeutic laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis (stage III/IV). Expression of GHRH, GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) and GHRH-R splice variant (SV) 1 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The ESC proliferation was assessed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation, cell survival by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Trypan blue assay. The T HESC survival was evaluated by MTT, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels by ELISA, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation by Western blot, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 mRNA by real-time PCR. The ESCs and T HESCs, but not normal endometrial tissues, expressed GHRH-R mRNA; SV1 mRNA was determined in normal endometrial tissues, ESCs, and T HESCs; GHRH mRNAwas found in T HESCs; JV-1-36 inhibited ESC proliferation and ESC and T HESC survival. In T HESCs, JV-1-36 reduced cAMP production and ERK1/2 phosphorylation but had no effect on IGF-2 mRNA expression. The GHRH antagonist JV-1-36 inhibits endometriotic cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that GHRH antagonist may represent promising tools for treatment of endometriosis. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A feeder-free, human plasma-derived hydrogel for maintenance of a human embryonic stem cell phenotype in vitro

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    Lewis Fiona C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs represent a tremendous resource for cell therapies and the study of human development; however to maintain their undifferentiated state in vitro they routinely require the use of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF feeder-layers and exogenous protein media supplementation. Results These well established requirements can be overcome and in this study, it will be demonstrated that phenotypic stability of hESCs can be maintained using a novel, human plasma protein-based hydrogel as an extracellular culture matrix without the use of feeder cell co-culture. hESCs were resuspended in human platelet poor plasma (PPP, which was gelled by the addition of calcium containing DMEM-based hESC culture medium. Phenotypic and genomic expression of the pluripotency markers OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 were measured using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR respectively. Typical hESC morphology was demonstrated throughout in vitro culture and both viability and phenotypic stability were maintained throughout extended culture, up to 25 passages. Conclusions PPP-derived hydrogel has demonstrated to be an efficacious alternative to MEF co-culture with its hydrophilicity allowing for this substrate to be delivered via minimally invasive procedures in a liquid phase with polymerization ensuing in situ. Together this provides a novel technique for the study of this unique group of stem cells in either 2D or 3D both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Pulling MscL open via N-terminal and TM1 helices: A computational study towards engineering an MscL nanovalve.

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    Adam D Martinac

    Full Text Available There are great opportunities in the manipulation of bacterial mechanosensitive (MS ion channels for specific and targeted drug delivery purposes. Recent research has shown that these ion channels have the potential to be converted into nanovalves through clever use of magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic fields. Using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD simulations and the finite element (FE modelling, this study investigates the theoretical feasibility of opening the MscL channel (MS channel of large conductance of E. coli by applying mechanical force directly to its N-terminus. This region has already been reported to function as a major mechanosensor in this channel. The stress-strain behaviour of each MscL helix was obtained using all atom MD simulations. Using the same method, we simulated two models, the wild-type (WT MscL and the G22N mutant MscL, both embedded in a POPE lipid bilayer. In addition to indicating the main interacting residues at the hydrophobic pore, their pairwise interaction energies were monitored during the channel gating. We implemented these inputs into our FE model of MscL using curve-fitting codes and continuum mechanics equations. In the FE model, the channel could be fully opened via pulling directly on the N-terminus and bottom of TM1 by mutating dominant van der Waals interactions in the channel pore; otherwise the stress generated on the channel protein can irreversibly unravel the N-secondary structure. This is a significant finding suggesting that applying force in this manner is sufficient to open an MscL nanovalve delivering various drugs used, for example, in cancer chemotherapy. More importantly, the FE model indicates that to fully operate an MscL nanovalve by pulling directly on the N-terminus and bottom of TM1, gain-of-function (GOF mutants (e.g., G22N MscL would have to be employed rather than the WT MscL channel.

  19. FOXN1GFP/w Reporter hESCs Enable Identification of Integrin-β4, HLA-DR, and EpCAM as Markers of Human PSC-Derived FOXN1+ Thymic Epithelial Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew-Li Soh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs play a critical role in T cell maturation and tolerance induction. The generation of TECs from in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs provides a platform on which to study the mechanisms of this interaction and has implications for immune reconstitution. To facilitate analysis of PSC-derived TECs, we generated hESC reporter lines in which sequences encoding GFP were targeted to FOXN1, a gene required for TEC development. Using this FOXN1GFP/w line as a readout, we developed a reproducible protocol for generating FOXN1-GFP+ thymic endoderm cells. Transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry identified integrin-β4 (ITGB4, CD104 and HLA-DR as markers that could be used in combination with EpCAM to selectively purify FOXN1+ TEC progenitors from differentiating cultures of unmanipulated PSCs. Human FOXN1+ TEC progenitors generated from PSCs facilitate the study of thymus biology and are a valuable resource for future applications in regenerative medicine.

  20. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

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    JiangWei Hu

    Full Text Available A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-CD117(+: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01, promoting the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.05, reducing inflammation and damage in important organs (Bone marrow and lung: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05. Liver and intestine: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05, and prolonging survival (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in the Treatment of Eye Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, C Randall; Simovic Markovic, Bojana; Fellabaum, Crissy; Arsenijevic, Aleksandar; Djonov, Valentin; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Volarevic, Vladislav

    2018-05-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases.MSC-derived exosomes were as efficient as transplanted MSCs in limiting the extent of eye injury and inflammation. Immediately after intravitreal injection, MSC-derived exosomes, due to nano-dimension, diffused rapidly throughout the retina and significantly attenuated retinal damage and inflammation. MSC-derived exosomes successfully delivered trophic and immunomodulatory factors to the inner retina and efficiently promoted survival and neuritogenesis of injured retinal ganglion cells. MSC-derived exosomes efficiently suppressed migration of inflammatory cells, attenuated detrimental Th1 and Th17 cell-driven immune response and ameliorated experimental autoimmune uveitis. MSC-derived exosomes were able to fuse with the lysosomes within corneal cells, enabling delivering of MSC-derived active β-glucuronidase and consequent catabolism of accumulated glycosaminoglycans, indicating their therapeutic potential in the treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly Syndrome). Importantly, beneficent effects were noticed only in animals that received MSC-derived exosomes and were not seen after therapy with fibroblasts-derived exosomes confirming specific therapeutic potential of MSCs and their products in the treatment of eye diseases.In conclusion, MSC-derived exosomes represent potentially new therapeutic agents in the therapy of degenerative and inflammatory ocular diseases.

  2. Combined MSC and GLP-1 Therapy Modulates Collagen Remodeling and Apoptosis following Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are being tested as treatment strategies for myocardial infarction (MI; however, their mechanisms in the heart are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effects of MSCs, either native, or engineered to secrete a GLP-1 fusion protein (MSCs ± GLP-1, on human cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. The effect on cardiac remodeling when encapsulated in alginate beads (CellBeads-MSC and CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1 was also evaluated in a pig MI model, whereby pigs were treated with Empty Beads, CellBeads-MSC, or CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1 and sacrificed at one or four weeks following MI. Results. MSC + GLP-1 conditioned media demonstrated antiapoptotic effects on ischaemic human cardiomyocytes in vitro. In vivo, qRT-PCR revealed large changes in the expression of several genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, which were altered following MSC ± GLP treatment. After four weeks, infarcted areas were imaged using atomic force microscopy, demonstrating significant alterations between groups in the structure of collagen fibrils and resulting scar. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that MSCs ± GLP-1 exhibit modulatory effects on healing post-MI, affecting both apoptosis and collagen scar formation. These data support the premise that both MSCs and GLP-1 could be beneficial in MI treatment.

  3. Clinicopathologic findings following intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic placentally derived equine mesenchymal stem cells in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrade, Danielle D; Owens, Sean D; Galuppo, Larry D; Vidal, Martin A; Ferraro, Gregory L; Librach, Fred; Buerchler, Sabine; Friedman, Michael S; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2011-04-01

    The development of an allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product to treat equine disorders would be useful; however, there are limited in vivo safety data for horses. We hypothesized that the injection of self (autologous) and non-self (related allogeneic or allogeneic) MSC would not elicit significant alterations in physical examination, gait or synovial fluid parameters when injected into the joints of healthy horses. Sixteen healthy horses were used in this study. Group 1 consisted of foals (n = 6), group 2 consisted of their dams (n = 5) and group 3 consisted of half-siblings (n = 5) to group 1 foals. Prior to injection, MSC were phenotyped. Placentally derived MSC were injected into contralateral joints and MSC diluent was injected into a separate joint (control). An examination, including lameness evaluation and synovial fluid analysis, was performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection. MSC were major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I positive, MHC II negative and CD86 negative. Injection of allogeneic MSC did not elicit a systemic response. Local responses such as joint swelling or lameness were minimal and variable. Intra-articular MSC injection elicited marked inflammation within the synovial fluid (as measured by nucleated cell count, neutrophil number and total protein concentration). However, there were no significant differences between the degree and type of inflammation elicited by self and non-self-MSC. The healthy equine joint responds similarly to a single intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic MSC. This pre-clinical safety study is an important first step in the development of equine allogeneic stem cell therapies.

  4. Finding and tracing human MSC in 3D microenvironments with the photoconvertible protein Dendra2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Hugo R.; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Oliveira, Carla M.; Gomes, David; Mateus, Denisa D.; Oliveira, Carla; Barrias, Cristina C.; Barbosa, Mário A.; Almeida, Catarina R.

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSC) are a promising cell type for cell-based therapies - from tissue regeneration to treatment of autoimmune diseases - due to their capacity to migrate to damaged tissues, to differentiate in different lineages and to their immunomodulatory and paracrine properties. Here, a simple and reliable imaging technique was developed to study MSC dynamical behavior in natural and bioengineered 3D matrices. Human MSC were transfected to express a fluorescent photoswitchable protein, Dendra2, which was used to highlight and follow the same group of cells for more than seven days, even if removed from the microscope to the incubator. This strategy provided reliable tracking in 3D microenvironments with different properties, including the hydrogels Matrigel and alginate as well as chitosan porous scaffolds. Comparison of cells mobility within matrices with tuned physicochemical properties revealed that MSC embedded in Matrigel migrated 64% more with 5.2 mg protein/mL than with 9.6 mg/mL and that MSC embedded in RGD-alginate migrated 51% faster with 1% polymer concentration than in 2% RGD-alginate. This platform thus provides a straightforward approach to characterize MSC dynamics in 3D and has applications in the field of stem cell biology and for the development of biomaterials for tissue regeneration.

  5. Student performance in a newly developed MSc programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) offers, as a consequence of the Bologna Declaration, international Master of Science in Engineering (MSc) programmes. Thereby, one of the challenges for DTU is to evaluate international applicants with an educational engineering background and traditions...... other than DTUs and allow qualified students to enter the MSc programmes. The focus of the present work is a comparison of how international and Danish students perform within specific modules of the MSc curriculum in Engineering Design and Applied Mechanics at Technical University of Denmark...

  6. TACT: A Set of MSC/PATRAN- and MSC/NASTRAN- based Modal Correlation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Jill M.; Dixon, Genevieve D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the functionality and demonstrates the utility of the Test Analysis Correlation Tools (TACT), a suite of MSC/PATRAN Command Language (PCL) tools which automate the process of correlating finite element models to modal survey test data. The initial release of TACT provides a basic yet complete set of tools for performing correlation totally inside the PATRAN/NASTRAN environment. Features include a step-by-step menu structure, pre-test accelerometer set evaluation and selection, analysis and test result export/import in Universal File Format, calculation of frequency percent difference and cross-orthogonality correlation results using NASTRAN, creation and manipulation of mode pairs, and five different ways of viewing synchronized animations of analysis and test modal results. For the PATRAN-based analyst, TACT eliminates the repetitive, time-consuming and error-prone steps associated with transferring finite element data to a third-party modal correlation package, which allows the analyst to spend more time on the more challenging task of model updating. The usefulness of this software is presented using a case history, the correlation for a NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) low aspect ratio research wind tunnel model. To demonstrate the improvements that TACT offers the MSC/PATRAN- and MSC/DIASTRAN- based structural analysis community, a comparison of the modal correlation process using TACT within PATRAN versus external third-party modal correlation packages is presented.

  7. Enabling a robust scalable manufacturing process for therapeutic exosomes through oncogenic immortalization of human ESC-derived MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Andre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes or secreted bi-lipid vesicles from human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs have been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal models. However, as hESC-MSCs are not infinitely expansible, large scale production of these exosomes would require replenishment of hESC-MSC through derivation from hESCs and incur recurring costs for testing and validation of each new batch. Our aim was therefore to investigate if MYC immortalization of hESC-MSC would circumvent this constraint without compromising the production of therapeutically efficacious exosomes. Methods The hESC-MSCs were transfected by lentivirus carrying a MYC gene. The transformed cells were analyzed for MYC transgene integration, transcript and protein levels, and surface markers, rate of cell cycling, telomerase activity, karyotype, genome-wide gene expression and differentiation potential. The exosomes were isolated by HPLC fractionation and tested in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and infarct sizes were further assessed by using Evans' blue dye injection and TTC staining. Results MYC-transformed MSCs largely resembled the parental hESC-MSCs with major differences being reduced plastic adherence, faster growth, failure to senesce, increased MYC protein expression, and loss of in vitro adipogenic potential that technically rendered the transformed cells as non-MSCs. Unexpectedly, exosomes from MYC-transformed MSCs were able to reduce relative infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury indicating that the capacity for producing therapeutic exosomes was preserved. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that MYC transformation is a practical strategy in ensuring an infinite supply of cells for the production of exosomes in the milligram range as either therapeutic agents or delivery vehicles. In addition, the increased proliferative rate by MYC transformation reduces the time

  8. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in ...

  9. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, JiangWei; Yang, ZaiLiang; Wang, Jun; Tang, YongYong; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2013-01-01

    A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline) that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60)Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-)CD117(+): hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. NS, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC, PTrx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, PTrx-1 combines the merits of gene and cell therapy as a multifunctional radioprotector for ARI.

  10. File list: Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-04-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. MSCs were derived from negative HLA cross-match donors. Donor bone marrow was harvested 5 weeks prior to KT. At the time of transplantation, 1 x 106 cell/kg of donor MSC was directly injected into the bone marrow of the recipient's right iliac bone. Patients' clinical outcomes, presence of mixed chimerism by short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, analysis of plasma FoxP3 mRNA and cytokine level, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were performed. Seven patients enrolled in this study and received donor MSC injections simultaneously with LDKT. The median age of recipients was 36 years (32 ~ 48). The number of HLA mismatches was 3 or less in 5 and more than 3 in 2. No local complications or adverse events such as hypersensitivity occurred during or after the injection of donor MSC. There was no graft failure, but the biopsy-proven acute rejections were observed in 3 recipients during the follow-up period controlled well with steroid pulse therapy (SPT). The last serum creatinine was a median of 1.23 mg/dL (0.83 ~ 2.07). Mixed chimerism was not detected in the peripheral blood of the recipients at 1 and 8 week of post-transplantation. Donor-specific lymphocyte or T cell proliferation and Treg priming responses were observed in some patients. Plasma level of IL-10, a known mediator of MSC-induced immune suppression, increased in the patients with Treg induction. Donor MSC injection into the iliac bone at the time of KT was feasible and safe. A possible correlation was observed between the induction of inhibitory

  2. File list: NoD.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: NoD.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: NoD.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. Gamma irradiation and heat treatment for sterilization of Mushroom Spent Compost (MSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun; Hoe, P.C.K.; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom spent compost (MSC) refers to substrate residue from mushroom cultivation. MSC can be used as a material to improve soil properties for farming. MSC is also suitable as a carrier or substrate to hold beneficial microorganisms in bio fertilizer products. The carrier for bio fertilizer products must be sterilized completely before inoculating with bacteria inoculum. In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation and heat on sterilization of MSC were evaluated by microbial enumeration technique. The MSC was packed into polyethylene bags. The packed MSC were irradiated at different doses of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 kGy, and heat sterilized at different autoclaving time of 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, separately. The irradiated and autoclaved samples were enumerated for viable colonies. The results showed that MSC was completely sterilized by gamma irradiation at the dose of 30 kGy whilst sterilization by heat required 30 minute autoclaving time. (author)

  7. Safety and immune regulatory properties of canine induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lyndah; Johnson, Valerie; Regan, Dan; Wheat, William; Webb, Saiphone; Koch, Peter; Dow, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit broad immune modulatory activity in vivo and can suppress T cell proliferation and dendritic cell activation in vitro. Currently, most MSC for clinical usage are derived from younger donors, due to ease of procurement and to the superior immune modulatory activity. However, the use of MSC from multiple unrelated donors makes it difficult to standardize study results and compare outcomes between different clinical trials. One solution is the use of MSC derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC); as iPSC-derived MSC have nearly unlimited proliferative potential and exhibit in vitro phenotypic stability. Given the value of dogs as a spontaneous disease model for pre-clinical evaluation of stem cell therapeutics, we investigated the functional properties of canine iPSC-derived MSC (iMSC), including immune modulatory properties and potential for teratoma formation. We found that canine iMSC downregulated expression of pluripotency genes and appeared morphologically similar to conventional MSC. Importantly, iMSC retained a stable phenotype after multiple passages, did not form teratomas in immune deficient mice, and did not induce tumor formation in dogs following systemic injection. We concluded therefore that iMSC were phenotypically stable, immunologically potent, safe with respect to tumor formation, and represented an important new source of cells for therapeutic modulation of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  9. File list: DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. A small population of resident limb bud mesenchymal cells express few MSC-associated markers, but the expression of these markers is increased immediately after cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Llera, Jessica Cristina; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    Skeletal progenitors are derived from resident limb bud mesenchymal cells of the vertebrate embryos. However, it remains poorly understood if they represent stem cells, progenitors, or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Derived-MSC of different adult tissues under in vitro experimental conditions can differentiate into the same cellular lineages that are present in the limb. Here, comparing non-cultured versus cultured mesenchymal limb bud cells, we determined the expression of MSC-associated markers, the in vitro differentiation capacity and their gene expression profile. Results showed that in freshly isolated limb bud mesenchymal cells, the proportion of cells expressing Sca1, CD44, CD105, CD90, and CD73 is very low and a low expression of lineage-specific genes was observed. However, recently seeded limb bud mesenchymal cells acquired Sca1 and CD44 markers and the expression of the key differentiation genes Runx2 and Sox9, while Scx and Pparg genes decreased. Also, their chondrogenic differentiation capacity decreased through cellular passages while the osteogenic increased. Our findings suggest that the modification of the cell adhesion process through the in vitro method changed the limb mesenchymal cell immunophenotype leading to the expression and maintenance of common MSC-associated markers. These findings could have a significant impact on MSC study and isolation strategy because they could explain common variations observed in the MSC immunophenotype in different tissues. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. Naked regulators: moral pluralism, deliberative democracy and authoritative regulation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-02-01

    Bioethical issues pose challenges for pluralist, democratic societies due to the need to arbitrate between incompatible views over fundamental beliefs. The legitimacy of public policy is increasingly seen to depend on taking public consultation seriously, and subsequently regulating contested activities such as therapeutic cloning and hESC research. In December 2006, the Australian Federal Parliament lifted the ban on therapeutic cloning, following recommendations of the Legislation Review Committee (Lockhart Committee), which recently reported on its approach and methods in this journal. This column analyses recent accounts of democratic deliberative processes, authoritative regulation and the committee's own account. Authoritative regulation turns out to be largely an appeasement strategy, directed towards the losers of the contest, in this case the opponents of therapeutic cloning and hESC research. This is because regulation fails to minimise harm as perceived by the losers, and fails to meaningfully limit what it is the winners wish to do. Moreover, regulation adds an unnecessary layer of red tape to the work of the winners. Committees of inquiry in bioethical matters should be more open about their processes and their normative recommendations, at the risk of eroding trust in parts of their processes.

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  7. Immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a swine hemi-facial allotransplantation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur-Ren Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated whether the infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, combined with transient immunosuppressant treatment, could suppress allograft rejection and modulate T-cell regulation in a swine orthotopic hemi-facial composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Outbred miniature swine underwent hemi-facial allotransplantation (day 0. Group-I (n = 5 consisted of untreated control animals. Group-II (n = 3 animals received MSCs alone (given on days -1, +1, +3, +7, +14, and +21. Group-III (n = 3 animals received CsA (days 0 to +28. Group-IV (n = 5 animals received CsA (days 0 to +28 and MSCs (days -1, +1, +3, +7, +14, and +21. The transplanted face tissue was observed daily for signs of rejection. Biopsies of donor tissues and recipient blood sample were obtained at specified predetermined times (per 2 weeks post-transplant or at the time of clinically evident rejection. Our results indicated that the MSC-CsA group had significantly prolonged allograft survival compared to the other groups (P<0.001. Histological examination of the MSC-CsA group displayed the lowest degree of rejection in alloskin and lymphoid gland tissues. TNF-α expression in circulating blood revealed significant suppression in the MSC and MSC-CsA treatment groups, as compared to that in controls. IHC staining showed CD45 and IL-6 expression were significantly decreased in MSC-CsA treatment groups compared to controls. The number of CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T-cells and IL-10 expressions in the circulating blood significantly increased in the MSC-CsA group compared to the other groups. IHC staining of alloskin tissue biopsies revealed a significant increase in the numbers of foxp3(+T-cells and TGF-β1 positive cells in the MSC-CsA group compared to the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that MSCs significantly prolong hemifacial CTA survival. Our data indicate the MSCs did not

  8. Heat shock instructs hESCs to exit from the self-renewal program through negative regulation of OCT4 by SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Oh, Jeehyun; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Kim, Daesik; Lee, Min Young; Pack, Chan-Gi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Bonghee

    2013-11-01

    Environmental factors affect self-renewal of stem cells by modulating the components of self-renewal networks. Heat shock, an environmental factor, induces heat shock factors (HSFs), which up-regulate stress response-related genes. However, the link of heat shock to self-renewal of stem cells has not been elucidated yet. Here, we present the direct link of heat shock to a core stem cell regulator, OCT4, in the self-renewal network through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway. We first showed that heat shock initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Gene expression analysis revealed that heat shock increased the expression of many genes involved in cellular processes related to differentiation of stem cells. We then examined the effects of HSFs induced by heat shock on core self-renewal factors. Among HSFs, heat shock induced mainly HSF1 in hESCs. The HSF1 repressed the expression of OCT4, leading to the differentiation of hESCs and the above differentiation-related gene expression change. We further examined the effects of the upstream MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases of HSF1 on the repression of OCT4 expression by HSF1. Among the MAP kinases, SAPK/JNK controlled predominantly the repression of the OCT4 expression by HSF1. The direct link of heat shock to the core self-renewal regulator through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 provides a fundamental basis for understanding the effect of heat and other stresses involving activation of HSF1 on the self-renewal program and further controlling differentiation of hESCs in a broad spectrum of stem cell applications using these stresses. © 2013.

  9. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wu, Shili; Naccarato, Ty; Prakash-Damani, Manan; Chou, Yuan; Chu, Cong-Qiu; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9) is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrat...

  10. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell hESC derived neural...710,SRX729692,SRX729688,SRX729689,SRX729698,SRX729709,SRX729699 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: His.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell hESC derived neural...692,SRX729710,SRX729684,SRX729689,SRX729699,SRX729704,SRX729694 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell hESC derived neural...707,SRX027494,SRX698181,SRX729681,SRX729682,SRX729698,SRX729709 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_neural_cells.bed ...

  13. Nursing MSc theses: a study of an Iranian College of Nursing and Midwifery in two decades (1990-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Leila Dehghani, Seyedeh

    2014-05-15

    A thesis is an important part of nursing graduate students' education, which is also their first systematic and scientific attempt to learn the ABCs of research. Articles derived from theses are important for the dissemination of science and the improvement of nursing as a field. Therefore, it is the goal of the present research is to analyze the different aspects of nursing MSc theses and the number of published articles derived from them. This was a descriptive research carried out on 145 nursing MSc theses defended in Razi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery in Kerman between 1990 and 2010. All of the extracted data were put into an Excel file (2007 version) followed by a data analysis. The results of this study were then presented via the use of descriptive statistics and figures. The research findings showed that most of the theses used a descriptive or analytical-descriptive method, and 42% of them had patients as their participants. They were usually delivered on the subject of health care, and only 58 articles were extracted from the whole 145 theses. The process of writing nursing MSc theses and thesis research articles is improving gradually. However, there is a growing need for empirical and semi-empirical research to bridge the gap between theory and practice, which is also a major concern among nurses.

  14. Hungarian medical physics MSc education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrady, D.; Czifrus, Z.; Zarand, P.; Aszodi, A.; Pesznyak, C.; Major, T.

    2012-01-01

    The medical physics specialisation aims at providing high level interdisciplinary theoretical and practical knowledge and readily applicable skills, which can put into action in both the clinical and the R and D field. The first competence based gradual medical physics course in the B.Sc./M.Sc. system in Hungary was launched two years ago at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Budapest University of Technology and Economics managed by the Institute of Nuclear Techniques. The MSc programme was compiled on the base of EFOMP, IPEM, AAPM and IAEA recommendations. The course curriculum comprises fundamental physical subjects (atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics and particle physics) as well as fundamental medical knowledge (anatomy, physiology and radiobiology) required for subjects of diagnostic and therapy. Students of this MSc branch may chose further subjects from a 'compulsory optional' set of subjects, which contains medical imaging, X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation protection, Monte Carlo calculation and its clinical applications, ultrasound diagnostics and nuclear medicine. (authors)

  15. Using PAFEC as a preprocessor for MSC/NASTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    Programs for Automatic Finite Element Calculations (PAFEC) is a general-purpose, three-dimensional, linear and nonlinear finite element program. PAFEC's features include free-format input using engineering keywords, powerful mesh-generating facilities, sophisticated database management procedures, and extensive data validation checks. Presented here is a description of a software interface that permits PAFEC to be used as a preprocessor for MSC/NASTRAN. This user-friendly software, called PAFMSC, frees the stress analyst from the laborious and error-prone procedure of creating and debugging a rigid-format MSC/NASTRAN bulk data deck. By interactively creating and debugging a finite element model with PAFEC, thus taking full advantage of the free-format, engineering-keyword-oriented data structure of PAFEC, the stress analyst can drastically reduce the amount of time spent during model generation. The PAFMSC software will automatically convert a PAFEC data structure into an MSC/NASTRAN bulk data deck. The capabilities and limitations of the PAFMSC software are fully discussed in the following report

  16. Using PAFEC as a preprocessor for MSC/NASTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    Programs for Automatic Finite Element Calculations (PAFEC) is a general-purpose, three-dimensional, linear and nonlinear finite element program. PAFEC's features include free-format input using engineering keywords, powerful mesh-generating facilities, sophisticated database management procedures, and extensive data validation checks. Presented here is a description of a software interface that permits PAFEC to be used as a preprocessor for MSC/NASTRAN. This user-friendly software, called PAFMSC, frees the stress analyst from the laborious and error-prone procedure of creating and debugging a rigid-format MSC/NASTRAN bulk data deck. By interactively creating and debugging a finite element model with PAFEC, thus taking full advantage of the free-format, engineering-keyword-oriented data structure of PAFEC, the stress analyst can drastically reduce the amount of time spent during model generation. The PAFMSC software will automatically convert a PAFEC data structure into an MSC/NASTRAN bulk data deck. The capabilities and limitations of the PAFMSC software are fully discussed

  17. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  18. Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Takeharu; Katagiri, Wataru; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. ► Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). ► MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. ► MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. ► Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG®) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

  19. Comparison of exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells and synovial membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yuchen; Zhao, Bizeng; Niu, Xin; Hu, Bin; Li, Qing; Zhang, Juntao; Ding, Jian; Chen, Yunfeng; Wang, Yang

    2017-03-09

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. In the past decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used widely for the treatment of OA. A potential mechanism of MSC-based therapies has been attributed to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors, in which exosomes may play a major role. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSC-Exos) on the treatment of OA. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs and synovial membrane MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry. iMSC-Exos and SMMSC-Exos were isolated using an ultrafiltration method. Tunable resistive pulse-sensing analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and western blots were used to identify exosomes. iMSC-Exos and SMMSC-Exos were injected intra-articularly in a mouse model of collagenase-induced OA and the efficacy of exosome injections was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemistry analysis. We also evaluated the effects of iMSC-Exos and SMMSC-Exos on proliferation and migration of human chondrocytes by cell-counting and scratch assays, respectively. The majority of iMSC-Exos and SMMSC-Exos were approximately 50-150 nm in diameter and expressed CD9, CD63, and TSG101. The injection of iMSC-Exos and SMMSC-Exos both attenuated OA in the mouse OA model, but iMSC-Exos had a superior therapeutic effect compared with SMMSC-Exos. Similarly, chondrocyte migration and proliferation were stimulated by both iMSC-Exos and SMMSC-Exos, with iMSC-Exos exerting a stronger effect. The present study demonstrated that iMSC-Exos have a greater therapeutic effect on OA than SMMSC-Exos. Because autologous iMSCs are theoretically inexhaustible, iMSC-Exos may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of OA.

  20. Silk-ionomer and silk-tropoelastin hydrogels as charged three-dimensional culture platforms for the regulation of hMSC response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Rossella; Raia, Nicole; Huang, Wenwen; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Simon, Marc; Staii, Cristian; Weiss, Anthony S; Kaplan, David L

    2017-09-01

    The response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in three-dimensional (3D) charged protein hydrogels was studied. Combining silk fibroin (S) with recombinant human tropoelastin (E) or silk ionomers (I) provided protein composite alloys with tunable physicochemical and biological features for regulating the bioactivity of encapsulated hMSCs. The effects of the biomaterial charges on hMSC viability, proliferation and chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation were assessed. The silk-tropoelastin or silk-ionomers hydrogels supported hMSC viability, proliferation and differentiation. Gene expression of markers for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as biochemical and histological analysis, showed that hydrogels with different S/E and S/I ratios had different effects on cell fate. The negatively charged hydrogels upregulated hMSC chondrogenesis or osteogenesis, with or without specific differentiation media, and hydrogels with higher tropoelastin content inhibited the differentiation potential even in the presence of the differentiation media. The results provide insight on charge-tunable features of protein-based biomaterials to control hMSC differentiation in 3D hydrogels, as well as providing a new set of hydrogels for the compatible encapsulation and utility for cell functions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.

  2. Separate Developmental Programs for HLA-A and -B Cell Surface Expression during Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells to Lymphocytes, Adipocytes and Osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabir, Hardee J; Nehlin, Jan O; Qanie, Diyako

    2013-01-01

    -A, but not -B) is seen on some multipotent stem cells, and this raises the question how this is in other stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to investigate the cell surface expression of HLA-A and -B on human embryonic stem cells (hESC), human...... hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and their fully-differentiated progenies such as lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts. hESC showed extremely low levels of HLA-A and no -B. In contrast, multipotent hMSC and hHSC generally expressed higher levels of HLA-A and clearly HLA......A major problem of allogeneic stem cell therapy is immunologically mediated graft rejection. HLA class I A, B, and Cw antigens are crucial factors, but little is known of their respective expression on stem cells and their progenies. We have recently shown that locus-specific expression (HLA...

  3. Derivation and characterisation of the human embryonic stem cell lines, NOTT1 and NOTT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddle, Helen; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Burridge, Paul; Munoz, Maria; Smith, Nigel M; Devlin, Lyndsey; Sjoblom, Cecilia; Chamberlain, Sarah; Watson, Sue; Young, Lorraine E; Denning, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The ability to maintain human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during long-term culture and yet induce differentiation to multiple lineages potentially provides a novel approach to address various biomedical problems. Here, we describe derivation of hESC lines, NOTT1 and NOTT2, from human blastocysts graded as 3BC and 3CB, respectively. Both lines were successfully maintained as colonies by mechanical passaging on mouse embryonic feeder cells or as monolayers by trypsin-passaging in feeder-free conditions on Matrigel. Undifferentiated cells retained expression of pluripotency markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), a stable karyotype during long-term culture and could be transfected efficiently with plasmid DNA and short interfering RNA. Differentiation via formation of embryoid bodies resulted in expression of genes associated with early germ layers and terminal lineage specification. The electrophysiology of spontaneously beating NOTT1-derived cardiomyocytes was recorded and these cells were shown to be pharmacologically responsive. Histological examination of teratomas formed by in vivo differentiation of both lines in severe immunocompromised mice showed complex structures including cartilage or smooth muscle (mesoderm), luminal epithelium (endoderm) and neuroectoderm (ectoderm). These observations show that NOTT1 and NOTT2 display the accepted characteristics of hESC pluripotency.

  4. Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inukai, Takeharu, E-mail: t-inukai@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Katagiri, Wataru, E-mail: w-kat@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Yoshimi, Ryoko, E-mail: lianzi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Osugi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kawai, Takamasa, E-mail: takamasa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hibi, Hideharu, E-mail: hibihi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ueda, Minoru, E-mail: mueda@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

  5. Injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels as hMSC delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Keila B; Gomes, David B; Lee, Kangwon; Santos, Susana G; Sousa, Aureliana; Silva, Eduardo A; Mooney, David J; Granja, Pedro L; Barrias, Cristina C

    2014-01-13

    Hydrogels with the potential to provide minimally invasive cell delivery represent a powerful tool for tissue-regeneration therapies. In this context, entrapped cells should be able to escape the matrix becoming more available to actively participate in the healing process. Here, we analyzed the performance of proteolytically degradable alginate hydrogels as vehicles for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) transplantation. Alginate was modified with the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive peptide Pro-Val-Gly-Leu-Iso-Gly (PVGLIG), which did not promote dendritic cell maturation in vitro, neither free nor conjugated to alginate chains, indicating low immunogenicity. hMSC were entrapped within MMP-sensitive and MMP-insensitive alginate hydrogels, both containing cell-adhesion RGD peptides. Softer (2 wt % alginate) and stiffer (4 wt % alginate) matrices were tested. When embedded in a Matrigel layer, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels promoted more extensive outward cell migration and invasion into the tissue mimic. In vivo, after 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in a xenograft mouse model, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels showed higher degradation and host tissue invasion than their MMP-insensitive equivalents. In both cases, softer matrices degraded faster than stiffer ones. The transplanted hMSC were able to produce their own collagenous extracellular matrix, and were located not only inside the hydrogels, but also outside, integrated in the host tissue. In summary, injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels can act as localized depots of cells and confer protection to transplanted cells while facilitating tissue regeneration.

  6. Effect of Bioactive Materials Modified with Chondroitin Sulfate on Human MSC =

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre Torres, Jessica Elizabeth

    In this project chondroitin sulfate (CS) and growth factors were studied for their effect on hMSC in biomaterials. First, the effect of these biomolecules was tested in solution. Then, two kinds of biomaterials were created: bioactive surfaces for enhancing bioactivity of implantable devices and bioactive hydrogels which can be used as 3D scaffolds for cell encapsulation and delivery. A pro-survival effect of the growth factors studied in this project (epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor) was not observed when tested in solution, therefore the project further focused on CS effect only. Interestingly, CS did not affect cell growth in media containing serum, while inducing cell detachment from substrate in serum free conditions. For the bioactive surfaces construction, CS was grafted to either an amine-rich plasmapolymerized coating created on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films (further referred as LP) or to commercial cell culture plates functionalized with amino groups. The bioactive surfaces were characterized by different techniques such as contact angle, atomic force microscopy, Orange II dye and Toluidine Blue O dye colorimetric assays (for amino group and CS quantification respectively) and finally, cell culture experiments (adhesion, growth and survival). Results confirmed the presence of CS grafted on both substrates. Commercial amine plates grafted almost five times more CS compared to LP. This rendered the surface antifouling for proteins and cells as confirmed by protein adsorption and cell culture assays. Cell culture assays on bioactive surfaces based on LP demonstrated improved cell adhesion and growth when compared to tissue culture plates or bare PET films in serum containing conditions. Chitosan based hydrogels containing CS at a concentration of 500 mug/ml resulted in a cohesive hydrogel which supported hMSC viability up to 7 days. However increasing CS concentration to high level such as

  7. Probable impact of age and hypoxia on proliferation and microRNA expression profile of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decline in the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is often seen with older donors as compared to young. Although hypoxia is known as an approach to improve the therapeutic potential of MSC in term of cell proliferation and differentiation capacity, its effects on MSC from aged donors have not been well studied. To evaluate the influence of hypoxia on different age groups, MSC from young (60 years donors were expanded under hypoxic (5% O2 and normal (20% O2 culture conditions. MSC from old donors exhibited a reduction in proliferation rate and differentiation potential together with the accumulation of senescence features compared to that of young donors. However, MSC cultured under hypoxic condition showed enhanced self-renewing and proliferation capacity in both age groups as compared to normal condition. Bioinformatic analysis of the gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway under hypoxic culture condition identified hypoxia-inducible miRNAs that were found to target transcriptional activity leading to enhanced cell proliferation, migration as well as decrease in growth arrest and apoptosis through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Overall, differentially expressed miRNA provided additional information to describe the biological changes of young and aged MSCs expansion under hypoxic culture condition at the molecular level. Based on our findings, the therapeutic potential hierarchy of MSC according to donor’s age group and culture conditions can be categorized in the following order: young (hypoxia > young (normoxia > old aged (hypoxia > old aged (normoxia.

  8. Influences Factors of the Cadmium Removal by Magnetic Solid Chelator Powder(MSC in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jun-long

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiments were conducted for the purpose of analyzing the influencing effects for the magnetic solid chelator powder(MSC, magnetic solid chelator powder on removal of cadmium pollution in the soil. The influencing factors included straws,air drying,activation structural material, stirring time and repetition times, etc. The results showed that the straw addition in the soil decreased the removal efficiency of Cd. The different air drying degree in the soil also had the effect of MSC. The air drying in the soil affected the results more by comparison with the straws. When stirring time was 40 min, the removal rate of Cd was 22.67% and achieved the best removal efficiency. With the increasing of stirring time, the effect of MSC on Cd removal increased first, then decreased. Drying MSC material lost the effect of Cd removal in the soil. After activation(soaking in water for 12 h, MSC material could remov Cd in the soil once again. MSC material had removal and remediation effects on soil Cd, the removal effects depended on soil properties, material properties and operation process and other factors. The research of MSC materials in soil remediation had important practical significance.

  9. Marketing: MSc in logistics and transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Mark

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this course is to introduce the basic concepts of marketing to students undertaking an MSc in Transportation and Logistics. This module will take a strategic view of marketing in that it will develop ideas for achieving sustainable competitive advantage.

  10. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, Cristina; Raimondo, Stefania; Haneef, Maryam S.; Geuna, Stefano; Terenghi, Giorgio; Shawcross, Susan G.; Wiberg, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker ® staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: ► Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. ► p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. ► Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. ► Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  11. Derivation and characterisation of hESC lines from supernumerary embryos, experience from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rasmussen, Iben Anne; Erb, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The derivation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells provides a source of pluripotent stem cells with potential for clinical applications. Utilising locally sourced embryos from two IVF clinics, we derived and characterised five new cell lines for use in a non-clinical setting. Analy...

  12. Potential of iPSC-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Treating Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hynes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cell-like populations have been derived from mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSC-MSC with the capability for tissue regeneration. In this study, murine iPSC underwent differentiation towards an MSC-like immunophenotype. Stable miPSC-MSC cultures expressed the MSC-associated markers, CD73, CD105, and Sca-1, but lacked expression of the pluripotency marker, SSEA1, and hematopoietic markers, CD34 and CD45. Functionally, miPSC-MSC exhibited the potential for trilineage differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes and the capacity to suppress the proliferation of mitogen-activated splenocytes. The efficacy of miPSC-MSC was assessed in an acute inflammation model following systemic or local delivery into mice with subcutaneous implants containing heat-inactivated P. gingivalis. Histological analysis revealed less inflammatory cellular infiltrate within the sponges in mice treated with miPSC-MSC cells delivered locally rather than systemically. Assessment of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse spleens found that CXCL1 transcripts and protein were reduced in mice treated with miPSC-MSC. In a periodontitis model, mice subjected to oral inoculation with P. gingivalis revealed less bone tissue destruction and inflammation within the jaws when treated with miPSC-MSC compared to PBS alone. Our results demonstrated that miPSC-MSC derived from iPSC have the capacity to control acute and chronic inflammatory responses associated with the destruction of periodontal tissue. Therefore, miPSC-MSC present a promising novel source of stromal cells which could be used in the treatment of periodontal disease and other inflammatory systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Attenuating Age-Related Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation towards the bone forming osteoblastic lineage decreases as a function of age and may contribute to age-related...problem of age-related reduced availability of MSC we propose to examine the bone anabolic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) derived MSC

  14. Mesenchymal stromal cell derived endothelial progenitor treatment in patients with refractory angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intra-myocardial injection of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived endothelial progenitor cell (MSC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and refractory angina in this first in man trial. Methods and resu......Abstract Aims. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intra-myocardial injection of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived endothelial progenitor cell (MSC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and refractory angina in this first in man trial. Methods...... and results. A total of 31 patients with stable CAD, moderate to severe angina and no further revascularization options, were included. Bone marrow MSC were isolated and culture expanded for 6-8 weeks. It was feasible and safe to establish in-hospital culture expansion of autologous MSC and perform intra......-myocardial injection of MSC. After six months follow-up myocardial perfusion was unaltered, but the patients increased exercise capacity (p angina attacks (p Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) evaluations (p

  15. Enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to mesenchymal progenitors by inhibition of TGF-beta/Activin/Nodal signaling using SB-431542

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2010-01-01

    Directing differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into specific cell types using an easy and reproducible protocol is a prerequisite for the clinical use of hESC in regenerative medicine procedures. Here, we report a protocol for directing the differentiation of hESC into mesenchymal...... in vivo. Interestingly, SB-OG cells cultured in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) developed into a homogeneous population of mesenchymal progenitors that expressed CD markers characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): CD44(+) (100%), CD73(+) (98%), CD146(+) (96%) and CD166(+) (88%) with the ability...... progenitor cells. We demonstrate that inhibition of TGF-beta/Activin/Nodal signaling during embryoid bodies (EB) formation using SB-431542 (SB) in serum free medium, markedly up-regulated paraxial mesodermal markers (TBX6, TBX5), and several myogenic developmental markers including early myogenic...

  16. Human embryonic stem cell derived mesenchymal progenitors express cardiac markers but do not form contractile cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe M Raynaud

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal progenitors or stromal cells have shown promise as a therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases including heart failure. In this context, we explored the growth and differentiation potential of mesenchymal progenitors (MPs derived in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Similar to MPs isolated from bone marrow, hESC derived MPs (hESC-MPs efficiently differentiated into archetypical mesenchymal derivatives such as chondrocytes and adipocytes. Upon treatment with 5-Azacytidine or TGF-β1, hESC-MPs modified their morphology and up-regulated expression of key cardiac transcription factors such as NKX2-5, MEF2C, HAND2 and MYOCD. Nevertheless, NKX2-5+ hESC-MP derivatives did not form contractile cardiomyocytes, raising questions concerning the suitability of these cells as a platform for cardiomyocyte replacement therapy. Gene profiling experiments revealed that, although hESC-MP derived cells expressed a suite of cardiac related genes, they lacked the complete repertoire of genes associated with bona fide cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that whilst agents such as TGF-β1 and 5-Azacytidine can induce expression of cardiac related genes, but treated cells retain a mesenchymal like phenotype.

  17. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. Methods MSCs were derived from negative ...

  18. Immunoflourescence and mRNA analysis of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown under feeder-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Aashir; Oliveri, Roberto S; Jensen, Pernille L

    2010-01-01

    onto 16-well glass chambers, and continuing with the general IF and qPCR steps will be provided. The techniques will be illustrated with new results on cellular localization of transcriptional factors and components of the Hedgehog, Wnt, and PDGF signaling pathways to primary cilia in stem cell......This chapter describes the procedures in order to do immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown specifically under feeder-free conditions. A detailed protocol outlining the steps from initially growing the cells, passaging...

  19. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Cristina [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Raimondo, Stefania [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, University of Turin (Italy); Haneef, Maryam S. [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Geuna, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, University of Turin (Italy); Terenghi, Giorgio [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Shawcross, Susan G., E-mail: sue.shawcross@manchester.ac.uk [Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biomedicine, The University of Manchester, Room 3,106 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences (United Kingdom); Wiberg, Mikael [Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived inflammatory fibroblasts mediate interstitial fibrosis in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L; Cieslik, Katarzyna A

    2016-02-01

    Pathologic fibrosis in the aging mouse heart is associated with dysregulated resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) arising from reduced stemness and aberrant differentiation into dysfunctional inflammatory fibroblasts. Fibroblasts derived from aging MSC secrete higher levels of 1) collagen type 1 (Col1) that directly contributes to fibrosis, 2) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) that attracts leukocytes from the blood and 3) interleukin-6 (IL-6) that facilitates transition of monocytes into myeloid fibroblasts. The transcriptional activation of these proteins is controlled via the farnesyltransferase (FTase)-Ras-Erk pathway. The intrinsic change in the MSC phenotype acquired by advanced age is specific for the heart since MSC originating from bone wall (BW-MSC) or fibroblasts derived from them were free of these defects. The potential therapeutic interventions other than clinically approved strategies based on findings presented in this review are discussed as well. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "Fibrosis and Myocardial Remodeling". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dihydrotestosterone induces pro-angiogenic factors and assists homing of MSC into the cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Mirel-Adrian; Mihai, Maria-Cristina; Constantin, Alina; Şuică, Viorel; Ţucureanu, Cătălin; Costache, Raluca; Antohe, Felicia; Dubey, Raghvendra K; Simionescu, Maya

    2018-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a therapeutic tool in cardiovascular diseases is promising. Since androgens exert some beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system, we tested our hypothesis that this hormone could promote MSC-mediated repair processes, also. Cultured MSCs isolated from Wharton's jelly were exposed to 30 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 1 or 4 days and the effects of the hormone on their growth/migration/adhesion and the underlying mechanisms were assessed. Results were obtained by real-time cell impedance measurements, and DNA quantification showed that DHT increased MSC proliferation by ~30%. As determined by xCELLigence system, DHT augmented (~2 folds) the migration of MSC toward cardiac tissue slices (at 12 h), and this effect was blocked by flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. Exposure of cells to DHT, upregulated the gene and protein expression of AR , EMMPRIN and MMP-9 and downregulated the expression of MMP-2 DHT significantly induced the release of nitric oxide by MSC (≥2-fold) and flutamide blocked this effect. When MSCs were co-cultured with cardiac slices, immunohistochemical analysis and qRT-PCR showed that the integration of DHT-stimulated MSC was significantly higher than that of in controls. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that DHT promotes MSC growth, migration and integration into the cardiac slices. The modulating effects of DHT were associated with upregulation of ARs and of key molecules known to promote tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. Our findings suggest that priming of MSC with DHT may potentially increase their capability to regenerate cardiac tissue; in vivo studies are needed to confirm our in vitro findings. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Human embryonic stem cell-encapsulation in alginate microbeads in macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine applications because of their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. To date there has been no report on hESC seeding with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The objective of this study was to investigate hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hESCd-MSC) encapsulation in hydrogel microbeads in macroporous CPC for bone tissue engineering. hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. hESCd-MSCs had surface markers characteristic of MSCs, with positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining when cultured in osteogenic medium. hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate at a density of 1 million cells/mL, with an average microbead size of 207 µm. CPC contained mannitol porogen to create a porosity of 64% and macropores with size of 218 µm, with 20% absorbable fibers for additional porosity when the fibers degrade. hESCd-MSCs encapsulated in microbeads in CPC had good viability from 1 to 21 d. ALP gene expression at 21 d was 25-fold that at 1 d. Osteocalcin (OC) at 21 d was two orders of magnitude of that at 1 d. ALP activity in colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay at 21 d was 5-fold that at 1 d. Mineral synthesis by the encapsulated hESCd-MSCs at 21 d was 7-fold that at 1 d. Potential benefits of the CPC-stem cell paste include injectability, intimate adaptation to complex-shaped bone defects, ease in contouring to achieve esthetics in maxillofacial repairs, and in situ setting ability. In conclusion, hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads in macroporous CPC showing good cell viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis for the first time. The hESCd-MSC-encapsulating macroporous CPC construct is promising for bone regeneration in a wide range of orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. PMID:22633970

  3. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  4. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  5. Ethanol negatively regulates hepatic differentiation of hESC by inhibition of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Alcohol insult triggers complex events in the liver, promoting fibrogenic/inflammatory signals and in more advanced cases, aberrant matrix deposition. It is well accepted that the regenerative capacity of the adult liver is impaired during alcohol injury. The liver progenitor/stem cells have been shown to play an important role in liver regeneration -in response to various chronic injuries; however, the effects of alcohol on stem cell differentiation in the liver are not well understood.We employed hepatic progenitor cells derived from hESCs to study the impact of ethanol on hepatocyte differentiation by exposure of these progenitor cells to ethanol during hepatocyte differentiation.We found that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was also a moderate cell cycle arrest at G1/S checkpoint in the ethanol treated cells, which is associated with a reduced level of cyclin D1 in these cells. Ethanol treatment specifically inhibited the activation of the ERK but not JNK nor the p38 MAP signaling pathway. At the same time, the WNT signaling pathway was also reduced in the cells exposed to ethanol. Upon evaluating the effects of the inhibitors of these two signaling pathways, we determined that the Erk inhibitor replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation and attenuated the WNT/β-catenin signaling, however, inhibitors of WNT only partially replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation.Our results demonstrated that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitors through inhibiting the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, and subsequently attenuating the WNT signaling pathway. Thus, our finding provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which alcohol regulates cell fate selection of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, and the identified pathways may provide therapeutic targets

  6. The Effect of Pulsatile Flow on bMSC-Derived Endothelial-Like Cells in a Small-Sized Artificial Vessel Made by 3-Dimensional Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Woog Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of small-sized vessels is still challenging. This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of small-sized artificial vessels made by 3-dimensional bioprinting and the effect of pulsatile flow on bMSC-derived endothelial-like cells. Cells were harvested from rabbit bone marrow and primary cultured with or without growth factors. Endothelial differentiation was confirmed by the Matrigel tube formation assay, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. In addition, embedment of endothelial-like cells in an artificial vessel was made by 3-dimensional bioprinting, and the pulsatile flow was performed. For pumped and nonpumped groups, qRT-PCR was performed on CD31 and VE-cadherin gene expression. Endothelial-like cells showed increased gene expression of CD31 and VE-cadherin, and tube formation is observed at each week. Endothelial-like cells grow well in a small-sized artificial vessel made by 3-dimensional bioprinting and even express higher endothelial cell markers when they undergo pulsatile flow condition. Moreover, the pulsatile flow condition gives a positive effect for cell observation not only on the sodium alginate hydrogel layer but also on the luminal surface of the artificial vessel wall. We have developed an artificial vessel, which is a mixture of cells and carriers using a 3-dimensional bioprinting method, and applied pulsatile flow using a peristaltic pump, and we also demonstrated cell growth and differentiation into endothelial cells. This study suggests guidelines regarding a small-sized artificial vessel in the field of tissue engineering.

  7. Efflux protein expression in human stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Juuti-Uusitalo

    Full Text Available Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in the back of the eye nourish photoreceptor cells and form a selective barrier that influences drug transport from the blood to the photoreceptor cells. At the molecular level, ATP-dependent efflux transporters have a major role in drug delivery in human RPE. In this study, we assessed the relative expression of several ATP-dependent efflux transporter genes (MRP1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, p-gp, and BCRP, the protein expression and localization of MRP1, MRP4, and MRP5, and the functionality of MRP1 efflux pumps at different maturation stages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC and RPE derived from the hESC (hESC-RPE. Our findings revealed that the gene expression of ATP-dependent efflux transporters MRP1, -3, -4, -5, and p-gp fluctuated during hESC-RPE maturation from undifferentiated hESC to fusiform, epithelioid, and finally to cobblestone hESC-RPE. Epithelioid hESC-RPE had the highest expression of MRP1, -3, -4, and P-gp, whereas the most mature cobblestone hESC-RPE had the highest expression of MRP5 and MRP6. These findings indicate that a similar efflux protein profile is shared between hESC-RPE and the human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, and suggest that hESC-RPE cells are suitable in vitro RPE models for drug transport studies. Embryonic stem cell model might provide a novel tool to study retinal cell differentiation, mechanisms of RPE-derived diseases, drug testing and targeted drug therapy.

  8. Differential and transferable modulatory effects of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles on T, B and NK cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Mariano; Bassi, Giulio; Midolo, Martina; Gatti, Alessandro; Kamga, Paul Takam; Cassaro, Adriana; Carusone, Roberta; Adamo, Annalisa; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-04-13

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, immunomodulatory stem cells that are currently used for regenerative medicine and treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases, thanks to their ability to significantly influence tissue microenvironments through the secretion of large variety of soluble factors. Recently, several groups have reported the presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) within MSC secretoma, showing their beneficial effect in different animal models of disease. Here, we used a standardized methodological approach to dissect the immunomodulatory effects exerted by MSC-derived EVs on unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified T, B and NK cells. We describe here for the first time: i. direct correlation between the degree of EV-mediated immunosuppression and EV uptake by immune effector cells, a phenomenon further amplified following MSC priming with inflammatory cytokines; ii. induction in resting MSCs of immunosuppressive properties towards T cell proliferation through EVs obtained from primed MSCs, without any direct inhibitory effect towards T cell division. Our conclusion is that the use of reproducible and validated assays is not only useful to characterize the mechanisms of action of MSC-derived EVs, but is also capable of justifying EV potential use as alternative cell-free therapy for the treatment of human inflammatory diseases.

  9. Dose-Dependent Effect of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neonatal Stroke Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Emi; Ogawa, Yuko; Mukai, Takeo; Sato, Yoshiaki; Hamazaki, Takashi; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Shintaku, Haruo; Tsuji, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal brain injury induced by stroke causes significant disability, including cerebral palsy, and there is no effective therapy for stroke. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. In this study, we examined the safety and efficacy of intravenously administered human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) in neonatal stroke mice. Pups underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at postnatal day 12 (P12), and low-dose (1 × 104) or high-dose (1 × 105) UC-MSCs were administered intravenously 48 h after the insult (P14). To evaluate the effect of the UC-MSC treatment, neurological behavior and cerebral blood flow were measured, and neuroanatomical analysis was performed at P28. To investigate the mechanisms of intravenously injected UC-MSCs, systemic blood flowmetry, in vivo imaging and human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measurements were performed. Functional disability was significantly improved in the high-dose UC-MSC group when compared with the vehicle group, but cerebral blood flow and cerebral hemispheric volume were not restored by UC-MSC therapy. The level of exogenous human BDNF was elevated only in the cerebrospinal fluid of one pup 24 h after UC-MSC injection, and in vivo imaging revealed that most UC-MSCs were trapped in the lungs and disappeared in a week without migration toward the brain or other organs. We found that systemic blood flow was stable over the 10 min after cell administration and that there were no differences in mortality among the groups. Immunohistopathological assessment showed that the percent area of Iba1-positive staining in the peri-infarct cortex was significantly reduced with the high-dose UC-MSC treatment compared with the vehicle treatment. These results suggest that intravenous administration of UC-MSCs is safe for a mouse model of neonatal stroke and improves dysfunction after middle cerebral artery occlusion by modulating

  10. Dose-Dependent Effect of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neonatal Stroke Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Tanaka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal brain injury induced by stroke causes significant disability, including cerebral palsy, and there is no effective therapy for stroke. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have emerged as a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. In this study, we examined the safety and efficacy of intravenously administered human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs in neonatal stroke mice. Pups underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at postnatal day 12 (P12, and low-dose (1 × 104 or high-dose (1 × 105 UC-MSCs were administered intravenously 48 h after the insult (P14. To evaluate the effect of the UC-MSC treatment, neurological behavior and cerebral blood flow were measured, and neuroanatomical analysis was performed at P28. To investigate the mechanisms of intravenously injected UC-MSCs, systemic blood flowmetry, in vivo imaging and human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF measurements were performed. Functional disability was significantly improved in the high-dose UC-MSC group when compared with the vehicle group, but cerebral blood flow and cerebral hemispheric volume were not restored by UC-MSC therapy. The level of exogenous human BDNF was elevated only in the cerebrospinal fluid of one pup 24 h after UC-MSC injection, and in vivo imaging revealed that most UC-MSCs were trapped in the lungs and disappeared in a week without migration toward the brain or other organs. We found that systemic blood flow was stable over the 10 min after cell administration and that there were no differences in mortality among the groups. Immunohistopathological assessment showed that the percent area of Iba1-positive staining in the peri-infarct cortex was significantly reduced with the high-dose UC-MSC treatment compared with the vehicle treatment. These results suggest that intravenous administration of UC-MSCs is safe for a mouse model of neonatal stroke and improves dysfunction after middle cerebral artery occlusion by

  11. Articular cartilage-derived cells hold a strong osteogenic differentiation potential in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, Achim; Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Adam, Stefanie; Rychly, Joachim; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Bader, Rainer; Lochner, Katrin; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Cartilaginous matrix-degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by gradual cartilage erosion, and also by increased presence of cells with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) character within the affected tissues. Moreover, primary chondrocytes long since are known to de-differentiate in vitro and to be chondrogenically re-differentiable. Since both findings appear to conflict with each other, we quantitatively assessed the mesenchymal differentiation potential of OA patient cartilage-derived cells (CDC) towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage in vitro and compared it to that of MSC isolated from adipose tissue (adMSC) of healthy donors. We analyzed expression of MSC markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and, following osteogenic and adipogenic induction in vitro, quantified their expression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, CDC phenotype and proliferation were monitored. We found that CDC exhibit an MSC CD marker expression pattern similar to adMSC and a similar increase in proliferation rate during osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, the marked reduction of proliferation observed during adipogenic differentiation of adMSC was absent in CDC. Quantification of differentiation markers revealed a strong osteogenic differentiation potential for CDC, however almost no capacity for adipogenic differentiation. Since in the pathogenesis of OA, cartilage degeneration coincides with high bone turnover rates, the high osteogenic differentiation potential of OA patient-derived CDC may affect clinical therapeutic regimens aiming at autologous cartilage regeneration in these patients. - Highlights: • We analyze the mesenchymal differentiation capacity of cartilage-derived cells (CDC). • CDC express mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166. • CDC and MSC proliferation is reduced in adipogenesis and increased in osteogenesis. • Adipogenic differentiation is virtually absent in CDC, but

  12. Articular cartilage-derived cells hold a strong osteogenic differentiation potential in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Achim, E-mail: achim.salamon@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Jonitz-Heincke, Anika, E-mail: anika.jonitz@med.uni-rostock.de [Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Doberaner Straße 142, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Adam, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.adam@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Rychly, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.rychly@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Müller-Hilke, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.mueller-hilke@med.uni-rostock.de [Institute of Immunology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 68, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Bader, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.bader@med.uni-rostock.de [Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Doberaner Straße 142, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Lochner, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.lochner@med.uni-rostock.de [Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Doberaner Straße 142, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cartilaginous matrix-degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by gradual cartilage erosion, and also by increased presence of cells with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) character within the affected tissues. Moreover, primary chondrocytes long since are known to de-differentiate in vitro and to be chondrogenically re-differentiable. Since both findings appear to conflict with each other, we quantitatively assessed the mesenchymal differentiation potential of OA patient cartilage-derived cells (CDC) towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage in vitro and compared it to that of MSC isolated from adipose tissue (adMSC) of healthy donors. We analyzed expression of MSC markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and, following osteogenic and adipogenic induction in vitro, quantified their expression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, CDC phenotype and proliferation were monitored. We found that CDC exhibit an MSC CD marker expression pattern similar to adMSC and a similar increase in proliferation rate during osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, the marked reduction of proliferation observed during adipogenic differentiation of adMSC was absent in CDC. Quantification of differentiation markers revealed a strong osteogenic differentiation potential for CDC, however almost no capacity for adipogenic differentiation. Since in the pathogenesis of OA, cartilage degeneration coincides with high bone turnover rates, the high osteogenic differentiation potential of OA patient-derived CDC may affect clinical therapeutic regimens aiming at autologous cartilage regeneration in these patients. - Highlights: • We analyze the mesenchymal differentiation capacity of cartilage-derived cells (CDC). • CDC express mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166. • CDC and MSC proliferation is reduced in adipogenesis and increased in osteogenesis. • Adipogenic differentiation is virtually absent in CDC, but

  13. Comparison of mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat, bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, and umbilical cord blood for treating spinal cord injuries in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hak-Hyun; Kang, Byung-Jae; Park, Sung-Su; Kim, Yongsun; Sung, Gyu-Jin; Woo, Heung-Myong; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2012-12-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into spinal cord lesions enhances axonal regeneration and promotes functional recovery. We isolated the MSCs derived from fat, bone marrow, Wharton's jelly and umbilical cord blood (UCB) positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic cell markers. Their effects on the regeneration of injured canine spinal cords were compared. Spinal cord injury was induced by balloon catheter compression. Dogs with injured spinal cords were treated with only matrigel or matrigel mixed with each type of MSCs. Olby and modified Tarlov scores, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The different MSC groups showed significant improvements in locomotion at 8 weeks after transplantation (Pin the lesion site. Compared to the control, the lesion sizes were smaller, and fewer microglia and reactive astrocytes were found in the spinal cord epicenter of all MSC groups. Although there were no significant differences in functional recovery among the MSCs groups, UCB-derived MSCs (UCSCs) induced more nerve regeneration and anti-inflammation activity (Pin the spinal cord. Our data suggest that transplantation of MSCs promotes functional recovery after SCI. Furthermore, application of UCSCs led to more nerve regeneration, neuroprotection and less inflammation compared to other MSCs.

  14. Optimasi Penambahan Colcemid pada Karyotyping Kultur Mecenchymal Stem Cells (MSC Mencit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rinendyaputri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractControl of the genetic stability of stem cells prior to the conduct of therapy is essential to prevent effects such as stem cell transformation. Karyotyping is a conventional technique to conduct an analysis of the number and structure of chromosomes. The analysis can only be performed on metaphase stage that needs to be optimized to get the cell at that stage because the length of the cell cycle are different in the each cell types. This study aims to obtain an optimal time to get MSC at metaphase stage. The study was conducted at the stem cell laboratory of Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health. The event begins with isolation using flushing technique at the femur and tibia of mice. Furthermore, the culture in vitro and induction colcemid 0,25μg/ml for 8,16 and 24 hours to get the MSC at metaphase stage. KCl solution with a concentration of 0.075 M and 0,045 M used as a solvent hipotonis. Results showed that 16 hours of induction colcemid 0,25μg/ml in 0.075 M KCl solution usage percentage of MSC who are at metaphase stage and do the highest analysis (p<0.05. In this study 16 hours induction colcemid 0,25μg/ml is the optimal time to obtain metaphase stage of the MSC from bone marrow of mice.Keywords: mecenchymal stem cell, karyotyping, colcemidAbstrakKontrol terhadap stabilitas genetik pada sel punca sebelum pelaksanan terapi merupakan hal yang penting untuk mencegah efek seperti transformasi sel punca yang dapat terjadi. Secara konvensional dapat dilakukan karyotyping untuk melakukan analisis terhadap jumlah dan struktur kromosom. Analisis hanya dapat dilakukan pada tahap metafase sehingga perlu dilakukan optimasi untuk mendapatkan sel pada tahap tersebut mengingat panjang siklus sel setiap jenis sel berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh waktu yang optimal untuk mendapatkan MSC pada tahap metafase. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium stem cell Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan Badan Litbangkes

  15. Chitosan derived co-spheroids of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells for neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan has been considered as candidate biomaterials for neural applications. The effective treatment of neurodegeneration or injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is still in lack nowadays. Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) represents a promising cell source to treat the CNS diseases but they are limited in number. Here, we developed the core-shell spheroids of NSCs (shell) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, core) by co-culturing cells on the chitosan surface. The NSCs in chitosan derived co-spheroids displayed a higher survival rate than those in NSC homo-spheroids. The direct interaction of NSCs with MSCs in the co-spheroids increased the Notch activity and differentiation tendency of NSCs. Meanwhile, the differentiation potential of MSCs in chitosan derived co-spheroids was significantly enhanced toward neural lineages. Furthermore, NSC homo-spheroids and NSC/MSC co-spheroids derived on chitosan were evaluated for their in vivo efficacy by the embryonic and adult zebrafish brain injury models. The locomotion activity of zebrafish receiving chitosan derived NSC homo-spheroids or NSC/MSC co-spheroids was partially rescued in both models. Meanwhile, the higher survival rate was observed in the group of adult zebrafish implanted with chitosan derived NSC/MSC co-spheroids as compared to NSC homo-spheroids. These evidences indicate that chitosan may provide an extracellular matrix-like environment to drive the interaction and the morphological assembly between NSCs and MSCs and promote their neural differentiation capacities, which can be used for neural regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Derivation of HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 human embryonic stem cell lines from IVF embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkrim Hmadcha; Yolanda Aguilera; Maria Dolores Lozano-Arana; Nuria Mellado; Javier Sánchez; Cristina Moya; Luis Sánchez-Palazón; Jose Palacios; Guillermo Antiñolo; Bernat Soria

    2016-01-01

    From 106 human blastocyts donate for research after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenetic disorder, 3 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 were successfully derived. HVR1 was assumed to be genetically normal, HVR2 carrying Becker muscular dystrophy and HVR3 Hemophilia B. Despite the translocation t(9;15)(q34.3;q14) detected in HVR2, all the 3 cell lines were characterised in vitro and in vivo as normal hESCs lines and were r...

  17. Optimization and translation of MSC-based hyaluronic acid hydrogels for cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Isaac E.

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic injury and disease disrupt the ability of cartilage to carry joint stresses and, without an innate regenerative response, often lead to degenerative changes towards the premature development of osteoarthritis. Surgical interventions have yet to restore long-term mechanical function. Towards this end, tissue engineering has been explored for the de novo formation of engineered cartilage as a biologic approach to cartilage repair. Research utilizing autologous chondrocytes has been promising, but clinical limitations in their yield have motivated research into the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate towards a chondrocyte phenotype in a number of biomaterials, but no combination has successfully recapitulated the native mechanical function of healthy articular cartilage. The broad objective of this thesis was to establish an MSC-based tissue engineering approach worthy of clinical translation. Hydrogels are a common class of biomaterial used for cartilage tissue engineering and our initial work demonstrated the potential of a photo-polymerizable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel to promote MSC chondrogenesis and improved construct maturation by optimizing macromer and MSC seeding density. The beneficial effects of dynamic compressive loading, high MSC density, and continuous mixing (orbital shaker) resulted in equilibrium modulus values over 1 MPa, well in range of native tissue. While compressive properties are crucial, clinical translation also demands that constructs stably integrate within a defect. We utilized a push-out testing modality to assess the in vitro integration of HA constructs within artificial cartilage defects. We established the necessity for in vitro pre-maturation of constructs before repair to achieve greater integration strength and compressive properties in situ. Combining high MSC density and gentle mixing resulted in integration strength over 500 k

  18. Fit for purpose? Evaluation of an MSc. in Medical Physics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van der Putten, W J

    2014-05-01

    The National University of Ireland in Galway established a Master in Science (MSc.) program in medical physics in 2002. The course was designed to be 90 ECTS(1) credits and of one calendar year duration. From the outset the MSc. was designed to be part of an overall medical physics training program. MSc. programs are now widely used as part of the training and education of medical physicists. There is however paucity of data on the effectiveness of such courses and the purpose of the study reported here is to provide information on one particular MSc. course in medical physics. This is relevant to medical physicists who are involved in the development and running of medical physics training programs. The study used as methodology the Kirkpatrick levels of professional training. It was conducted through an online survey, both from students who graduated from the course and from students who were in the process of completing the course. The survey proved to be an effective way to determine attributes of modules such as learning outcomes, knowledge imparted, quality of teaching materials and others. The survey proved to be remarkably able to demonstrate interventions in the individual course modules. Although the course was shown to be effective in the imparting of the knowledge required to become a qualified medical physicist several areas for improvement were identified. These are mainly in the areas of increased practical experience and in course delivery.

  19. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantations for cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huajiang; Li, Gang; Shang, Chongzhi; Yin, Huijuan; Luo, Yuechen; Meng, Huipeng; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Yali; Lin, Ling; Zhao, Mingliang

    2018-01-01

    This study reports a case of a 4-year-old boy patient with abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, as well as unstable gait leading to frequent falls. The results of the electroencephalogram (EEG) indicate moderately abnormal EEG, accompanied by irregular seizures. Based on these clinical characteristics, the patient was diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) in our hospital. In this study, the patient was treated with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transplantation therapy. This patient received UC-MSC transplantation 3 times (5.3*107) in total. After three successive cell transplantations, the patient recovered well and showed obvious improvements in EEG and limb strength, motor function, and language expression. However, the improvement in intelligence quotient (IQ) was less obvious. These results indicate that UC-MSC transplantation is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy. PMID:29636880

  20. Development of a pluripotent stem cell derived neuronal model to identify chemically induced pathway perturbations in relation to neurotoxicity: Effects of CREB pathway inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Louisse, Jochem; Scelfo, Bibiana; Mennecozzi, Milena [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), JRC, Ispra (Italy); Accordi, Benedetta; Basso, Giuseppe [Oncohematology Laboratory, Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Gaspar, John Antonydas [Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Zagoura, Dimitra; Barilari, Manuela; Palosaari, Taina [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), JRC, Ispra (Italy); Sachinidis, Agapios [Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Bremer-Hoffmann, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.bremer@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    According to the advocated paradigm shift in toxicology, acquisition of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of chemicals, such as perturbations of biological pathways, is of primary interest. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), offer a unique opportunity to derive physiologically relevant human cell types to measure molecular and cellular effects of such pathway modulations. Here we compared the neuronal differentiation propensity of hESCs and hiPSCs with the aim to develop novel hiPSC-based tools for measuring pathway perturbation in relation to molecular and cellular effects in vitro. Among other fundamental pathways, also, the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) pathway was activated in our neuronal models and gave us the opportunity to study time-dependent effects elicited by chemical perturbations of the CREB pathway in relation to cellular effects. We show that the inhibition of the CREB pathway, using 2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate (KG-501), induced an inhibition of neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, as well as a decrease of MAP2{sup +} neuronal cells. These data indicate that a CREB pathway inhibition can be related to molecular and cellular effects that may be relevant for neurotoxicity testing, and, thus, qualify the use of our hiPSC-derived neuronal model for studying chemical-induced neurotoxicity resulting from pathway perturbations. - Highlights: • HESCs derived neuronal cells serve as benchmark for iPSC based neuronal toxicity test development. • Comparisons between hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated variability of the epigenetic state • CREB pathway modulation have been explored in relation to the neurotoxicant exposure KG-501 • hiPSC might be promising tools to translate theoretical AoPs into toxicological in vitro tests.

  1. Immunofluorescence Microscopy and mRNA Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) Including Primary Cilia Associated Signaling Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maj Linea; Awan, Aashir; Warzecha, Caroline Becker

    2016-01-01

    onto 16-well glass chambers, and continuing with the general IFM and qPCR anlysis. The techniques are illustrated with results on cellular localization of transcriptional factors and components of the Hedgehog, Wnt, PDGF, and TGFβ signaling pathways to primary cilia in stem cell maintenance......This chapter describes the procedures for immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown specifically under feeder-free conditions. A detailed protocol is provided outlining the steps from initially growing the cells, passaging...

  2. Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stromal cells: a therapeutic option in respiratory diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Soraia C; Weiss, Daniel J; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-04-14

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are plasma membrane-bound fragments released from several cell types, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), constitutively or under stimulation. EVs derived from MSCs and other cell types transfer molecules (such as DNA, proteins/peptides, mRNA, microRNA, and lipids) and/or organelles with reparative and anti-inflammatory properties to recipient cells. The paracrine anti-inflammatory effects promoted by MSC-derived EVs have attracted significant interest in the regenerative medicine field, including for potential use in lung injuries. In the present review, we describe the characteristics, biological activities, and mechanisms of action of MSC-derived EVs. We also review the therapeutic potential of EVs as reported in relevant preclinical models of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Finally, we discuss possible approaches for potentiating the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived EVs so as to enable use of this therapy in clinical practice.

  3. Breaking the hydrophobicity of the MscL pore: insights into a charge-induced gating mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Chandramouli

    Full Text Available The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL is a protein that responds to membrane tension by opening a transient pore during osmotic downshock. Due to its large pore size and functional reconstitution into lipid membranes, MscL has been proposed as a promising artificial nanovalve suitable for biotechnological applications. For example, site-specific mutations and tailored chemical modifications have shown how MscL channel gating can be triggered in the absence of tension by introducing charged residues at the hydrophobic pore level. Recently, engineered MscL proteins responsive to stimuli like pH or light have been reported. Inspired by experiments, we present a thorough computational study aiming at describing, with atomistic detail, the artificial gating mechanism and the molecular transport properties of a light-actuated bacterial MscL channel, in which a charge-induced gating mechanism has been enabled through the selective cleavage of photo-sensitive alkylating agents. Properties such as structural transitions, pore dimension, ion flux and selectivity have been carefully analyzed. Besides, the effects of charge on alternative sites of the channel with respect to those already reported have been addressed. Overall, our results provide useful molecular insights into the structural events accompanying the engineered MscL channel gating and the interplay of electrostatic effects, channel opening and permeation properties. In addition, we describe how the experimentally observed ionic current in a single-subunit charged MscL mutant is obtained through a hydrophobicity breaking mechanism involving an asymmetric inter-subunit motion.

  4. On derived groups of division rings II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi Hezavehi, M.; Akbari Feyzaabaadi, S.; Mehraabaadi, M.; Hajie Abolhassan, H.

    1995-05-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F and denote by D' the derived group (commutator subgroup) of D * = D - {0}. It is shown that if each element of D' is algebraic over F, then D is algebraic over F. It is also proved that each finite separable extension of F in D is of the form F(c) for some element c in the derived group D'. Using these results, it is shown that if each element of the derived group D' is of bounded degree over F, then D is finite dimensional over F. (author). 5 refs

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiovascular disease modeling and drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M

    2013-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have emerged as a novel tool for drug discovery and therapy in cardiovascular medicine. hiPSCs are functionally similar to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and can be derived autologously without the ethical challenges associated with hESCs. Given the limited regenerative capacity of the human heart following myocardial injury, cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-CMs) have garnered significant attention from basic and translational scientists as a promising cell source for replacement therapy. However, ongoing issues such as cell immaturity, scale of production, inter-line variability, and cell purity will need to be resolved before human clinical trials can begin. Meanwhile, the use of hiPSCs to explore cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases in vitro has proven to be extremely valuable. For example, hiPSC-CMs have been shown to recapitulate disease phenotypes from patients with monogenic cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, patient-derived hiPSC-CMs are now providing new insights regarding drug efficacy and toxicity. This review will highlight recent advances in utilizing hiPSC-CMs for cardiac disease modeling in vitro and as a platform for drug validation. The advantages and disadvantages of using hiPSC-CMs for drug screening purposes will be explored as well.

  6. Identification of Proteins Related to Epigenetic Regulation in the Malignant Transformation of Aberrant Karyotypic Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Yang, Yixuan; Zeng, Sicong; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) tend to develop genomic alterations and progress to a malignant state during long-term in vitro culture. This raises concerns of the clinical safety in using cultured hESCs. However, transformed hESCs might serve as an excellent model to determine the process of embryonic stem cell transition. In this study, ITRAQ-based tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify normal and aberrant karyotypic hESCs proteins from simple to more complex karyotypic abnormalities. We identified and quantified 2583 proteins, and found that the expression levels of 316 proteins that represented at least 23 functional molecular groups were significantly different in both normal and abnormal hESCs. Dysregulated protein expression in epigenetic regulation was further verified in six pairs of hESC lines in early and late passage. In summary, this study is the first large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis of the malignant transformation of aberrant karyotypic hESCs. The data generated should serve as a useful reference of stem cell-derived tumor progression. Increased expression of both HDAC2 and CTNNB1 are detected as early as the pre-neoplastic stage, and might serve as prognostic markers in the malignant transformation of hESCs. PMID:24465727

  7. Deriving Dorsal Spinal Sensory Interneurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cellular replacement therapies for neurological conditions use human embryonic stem cell (hESC- or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC-derived neurons to replace damaged or diseased populations of neurons. For the spinal cord, significant progress has been made generating the in-vitro-derived motor neurons required to restore coordinated movement. However, there is as yet no protocol to generate in-vitro-derived sensory interneurons (INs, which permit perception of the environment. Here, we report on the development of a directed differentiation protocol to derive sensory INs for both hESCs and hiPSCs. Two developmentally relevant factors, retinoic acid in combination with bone morphogenetic protein 4, can be used to generate three classes of sensory INs: the proprioceptive dI1s, the dI2s, and mechanosensory dI3s. Critical to this protocol is the competence state of the neural progenitors, which changes over time. This protocol will facilitate developing cellular replacement therapies to reestablish sensory connections in injured patients. : In this article, Gupta and colleagues describe a robust protocol to derive spinal dorsal sensory interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells using the sequential addition of RA and BMP4. They find that neural progenitors must be in the correct competence state to respond to RA/BMP4 as dorsalizing signals. This competence state changes over time and determines the efficiency of the protocol. Keywords: spinal cord, neurons, sensory interneurons, proprioception, mechanosensation, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, directed differentiation, primate spinal cord, mouse spinal cord

  8. Determining total sulfur content in coal by MSC radiometric sulfur meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T; Golebiowski, W

    1976-01-01

    The MSC radiometric sulfur meter is used to determine total sulfur content in brown and black coals. Sulfur content is determined by measuring intensity of radiation beam which has travelled through a coal sample with the optimum constant surface mass. Construction of the MSC, consisting of a measuring head and the electronic measuring system, is shown in a scheme. AM-241 (with activity of 50 mCi) is the source of radiation. Energy of 25.3 keV (tin disc) is selected as the optimum. The SSU-70 probe with NaJ/Tl crystal is the radiation detector. The black coal sample weighs 10 g and the brown coal sample weighs 18 g. Duration of sulfur determination is 10 min. Error of sulfur determination ranges from plus or minus 0.2% to 0.3%. The results of operational tests of MSC radiometric sulfur meters in black and brown coal mines are discussed. Accuracy of measurement is shown in 5 tables. (8 refs.)

  9. Derivation of HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 human embryonic stem cell lines from IVF embryos after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for monogenic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Hmadcha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From 106 human blastocyts donate for research after in vitro fertilization (IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for monogenetic disorder, 3 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3 were successfully derived. HVR1 was assumed to be genetically normal, HVR2 carrying Becker muscular dystrophy and HVR3 Hemophilia B. Despite the translocation t(9;15(q34.3;q14 detected in HVR2, all the 3 cell lines were characterised in vitro and in vivo as normal hESCs lines and were registered in the Spanish Stem Cell Bank.

  10. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  11. A new FACS approach isolates hESC derived endoderm using transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiong Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that high quality microarray gene expression profiles can be obtained following FACS sorting of cells using combinations of transcription factors. We use this transcription factor FACS (tfFACS methodology to perform a genomic analysis of hESC-derived endodermal lineages marked by combinations of SOX17, GATA4, and CXCR4, and find that triple positive cells have a much stronger definitive endoderm signature than other combinations of these markers. Additionally, SOX17(+ GATA4(+ cells can be obtained at a much earlier stage of differentiation, prior to expression of CXCR4(+ cells, providing an important new tool to isolate this earlier definitive endoderm subtype. Overall, tfFACS represents an advancement in FACS technology which broadly crosses multiple disciplines, most notably in regenerative medicine to redefine cellular populations.

  12. In Vitro Osteogenic Potential of Green Fluorescent Protein Labelled Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteoprogenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intekhab Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy using stem cells in bone regeneration has gained increasing interest. Various studies suggest the clinical utility of osteoprogenitors-like mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration. However, limited availability of mesenchymal stem cells and conflicting evidence on their therapeutic efficacy limit their clinical application. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are potentially an unlimited source of healthy and functional osteoprogenitors (OPs that could be utilized for bone regenerative applications. However, limited ability to track hESC-derived progenies in vivo greatly hinders translational studies. Hence, in this study, we aimed to establish hESC-derived OPs (hESC-OPs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP and to investigate their osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. We fluorescently labelled H9-hESCs using a plasmid vector encoding GFP. The GFP-expressing hESCs were differentiated into hESC-OPs. The hESC-OPsGFP+ stably expressed high levels of GFP, CD73, CD90, and CD105. They possessed osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro as demonstrated by increased expression of COL1A1, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and OPG transcripts and mineralized nodules positive for Alizarin Red and immunocytochemical expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen-I. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs can maintain their GFP expression for the long term and their potential for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In future, these fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs could be used for noninvasive assessment of bone regeneration, safety, and therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Secretomes from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells enhance periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takamasa; Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Sugimura, Yukiko; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    Periodontal tissue regeneration with the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been regarded as a future cell-based therapy. However, low survival rates and the potential tumorigenicity of implanted MSCs could undermine the efficacy of cell-based therapy. The use of conditioned media from MSCs (MSC-CM) may be a feasible approach to overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of MSC-CM on periodontal regeneration. MSC-CM were collected during their cultivation. The concentrations of the growth factors in MSC-CM were measured with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassay. Rat MSCs (rMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in MSC-CM were assessed on wound-healing and angiogenesis. The expressions of osteogenetic- and angiogenic-related genes of rMSCs cultured in MSC-CM were quantified by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In vivo, periodontal defects were prepared in the rat models and the collagen sponges with MSC-CM were implanted. MSC-CM includes insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1 and hepatocyte growth factor. In vitro, wound-healing and angiogenesis increased significantly in MSC-CM. The levels of expression of osteogenetic- and angiogenic-related genes were significantly upregulated in rMSCs cultured with MSC-CM. In vivo, in the MSC-CM group, 2 weeks after implantation, immunohistochemical analysis showed several CD31-, CD105-or FLK-1-positive cells occurring frequently. At 4 weeks after implantation, regenerated periodontal tissue was observed in MSC-CM groups. The use of MSC-CM may be an alternative therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration because several cytokines included in MSC-CM will contribute to many processes of complicated periodontal tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. S. aureus MscL is a pentamer in vivo but of variable stoichiometries in vitro: implications for detergent-solubilized membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Dorwart

    Full Text Available While the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL is the best studied biological mechanosensor and serves as a paradigm for how a protein can sense and respond to membrane tension, the simple matter of its oligomeric state has led to debate, with models ranging from tetramers to hexamers. Indeed, two different oligomeric states of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL have been resolved by X-ray crystallography: The M. tuberculosis channel (MtMscL is a pentamer, while the S. aureus protein (SaMscL forms a tetramer. Because several studies suggest that, like MtMscL, the E. coli MscL (EcoMscL is a pentamer, we re-investigated the oligomeric state of SaMscL. To determine the structural organization of MscL in the cell membrane we developed a disulfide-trapping approach. Surprisingly, we found that virtually all SaMscL channels in vivo are pentameric, indicating this as the physiologically relevant and functional oligomeric state. Complementing our in vivo results, we purified SaMscL and assessed its oligomeric state using three independent approaches (sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation, crosslinking, and light scattering and established that SaMscL is a pentamer when solubilized in Triton X-100 and C(8E(5 detergents. However, performing similar experiments on SaMscL solubilized in LDAO, the detergent used in the crystallographic study, confirmed the tetrameric oligomerization resolved by X-ray crystallography. We further demonstrate that this stoichiometric shift is reversible by conventional detergent exchange experiments. Our results firmly establish the pentameric organization of SaMscL in vivo. Furthermore they demonstrate that detergents can alter the subunit stoichiometry of membrane protein complexes in vitro; thus, in vivo assays are necessary to firmly establish a membrane protein's true functionally relevant oligomeric state.

  15. S. aureus MscL is a pentamer in vivo but of variable stoichiometries in vitro: implications for detergent-solubilized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwart, Michael R; Wray, Robin; Brautigam, Chad A; Jiang, Youxing; Blount, Paul

    2010-12-07

    While the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is the best studied biological mechanosensor and serves as a paradigm for how a protein can sense and respond to membrane tension, the simple matter of its oligomeric state has led to debate, with models ranging from tetramers to hexamers. Indeed, two different oligomeric states of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL have been resolved by X-ray crystallography: The M. tuberculosis channel (MtMscL) is a pentamer, while the S. aureus protein (SaMscL) forms a tetramer. Because several studies suggest that, like MtMscL, the E. coli MscL (EcoMscL) is a pentamer, we re-investigated the oligomeric state of SaMscL. To determine the structural organization of MscL in the cell membrane we developed a disulfide-trapping approach. Surprisingly, we found that virtually all SaMscL channels in vivo are pentameric, indicating this as the physiologically relevant and functional oligomeric state. Complementing our in vivo results, we purified SaMscL and assessed its oligomeric state using three independent approaches (sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation, crosslinking, and light scattering) and established that SaMscL is a pentamer when solubilized in Triton X-100 and C(8)E(5) detergents. However, performing similar experiments on SaMscL solubilized in LDAO, the detergent used in the crystallographic study, confirmed the tetrameric oligomerization resolved by X-ray crystallography. We further demonstrate that this stoichiometric shift is reversible by conventional detergent exchange experiments. Our results firmly establish the pentameric organization of SaMscL in vivo. Furthermore they demonstrate that detergents can alter the subunit stoichiometry of membrane protein complexes in vitro; thus, in vivo assays are necessary to firmly establish a membrane protein's true functionally relevant oligomeric state.

  16. Effects of platelet rich plasma and chondrocyte co-culture on MSC chondrogenesis, hypertrophy and pathological responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezanifard, Rouhallah; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Hanaee Ahvaz, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the inadequate healing capability of cartilage tissue, cell-based therapy is making the future of cartilage repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have shown great promise in cartilage regeneration. However, a yet-unresolved issue is the emergence of hypertrophic and pathologic markers during in vitro MSC chondrogenesis. Articular chondrocytes (AC) can suppress the undesired hypertrophy when co-cultured with MSC. On the other hand, platelet rich plasma (PRP), is consi...

  17. MSc Agriculture students working with ex-campus stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Vibeke; Lund, Mogens; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    both on BSc and MSc level. For many students this results in concerns whether their knowledge, skills and competencies are sufficient when confronted with reality in a job, i.e. in a lack of professional confidence. Therefore when revising the program we focused on competences in contextualizing...

  18. Confirming the Revised C-Terminal Domain of the MscL Crystal Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Joshua A.; Elmore, Donald E.; Clayton, Daniel; Xiong, Li; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the C-terminal domain of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) has generated significant controversy. As a result, several structures have been proposed for this region: the original crystal structure (1MSL) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog (Tb), a model of the Escherichia coli homolog, and, most recently, a revised crystal structure of Tb-MscL (2OAR). To understand which of these structures represents a physiological conformation, we measured the ...

  19. European MSc Programs in Nuclear Sciences - To meet the Need of Stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis; Priest, Nick; Garelick, Hemda; Tamponnet, Christian; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A stakeholder needs assessment, carried out under the EU-EURAC and EU-ENEN II projects, clearly showed that, at the European level, there are a significant and constant need for post-graduates with skills in radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation dosimetry and environmental modelling and a smaller, but still important, demand for radiobiologists and bio-modellers. Most of these needs are from government organizations. If only the nuclear industry is considered, then the largest demand is for radiochemists and radiation protection dosimetrists. Given this spectrum of need and existing capacity in the areas of radiobiology it was concluded that the needs identified would be most efficiently met by three new degree programs: European MSc Radiation Protection European MSc Analytical Radiochemistry European MSc Radioecology. All three master programs would be developed using the framework provided by the Bologna Convention and the lecturing could be shared among specialist Scientists within a network of collaborating universities. Therefore, educational plans have been developed for the above MSc degrees. These plans envisage each degree comprising three modules that are common to all the degrees (3x10 ECTS credits), three specialist modules (3x10 ECTS credits) and a research project (1x60 ECTS credits). The courses should be aimed, not only to fill the identified European postgraduate education gap in radiological sciences, but also to provide a modular structure that is easily accessed by stakeholders for CPD training. It is anticipated that the European Masters will meet the academic training requirements of qualified 'experts', as defined by the European Commission and the IAEA. At the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) a pilot MSc in Radioecology has successfully been initiated in collaboration with UK and France.

  20. European MSc Programs in Nuclear Sciences-To meet the need of stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Salbu, B.; Priest, N.; Garelick, H.; Tamponnet, C.; Abbott, A.; Mitchell, P.

    2011-01-01

    A stakeholder needs assessment, carried out under the EU-EURAC and EU-ENEN-II projects, clearly showed that, at the European level, there are a significant and constant need for post-graduates with skills in radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation dosimetry and environmental modelling and a smaller, but still important, demand for radiobiologists and bio-modellers. Most of these needs are from government organizations. If only the nuclear industry is considered, then the largest demand is for radio chemists and radiation protection dosimetry experts. Given this spectrum of need and existing capacity in the areas of radiobiology it was concluded that the needs identified would be most efficiently met by three new degree programs: ·European MSc Radiation Protection, ·European MSc Analytical Radiochemistry, ·European MSc Radioecology. All three master programs would be developed using the framework provided by the Bologna Convention and the lecturing could be shared among specialist Scientists within a network of collaborating universities. Therefore, educational plans have been developed for the above MSc degrees. These plans envisage each degree comprising three modules that are common to all the degrees (3 x 10 ECTS credits), three specialist modules (3 x 10 ECTS credits) and a research project (1 x 60 ECTS credits). The courses should be aimed, not only to fill the identified European post-graduate education gap in radiological sciences, but also to provide a modular structure that is easily accessed by stakeholders for CPD training. It is anticipated that the European Masters will meet the academic training requirements of qualified experts', as defined by the European Commission and the IAEA. At the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) a pilot MSc in Radioecology has successfully been initiated in collaboration with UK and France.

  1. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  2. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  3. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The catalogue contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  4. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalogue contains a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  5. Conditioned medium from hypoxic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances wound healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs enhance wound repair via paracrine. Because the extent of environmental oxygenation affects the innate characteristics of BM-MSCs, including their stemness and migration capacity, the current study set out to elucidate and compare the impact of normoxic and hypoxic cell-culture conditions on the expression and secretion of BM-MSC-derived paracrine molecules (e.g., cytokines, growth factors and chemokines that hypothetically contribute to cutaneous wound healing in vivo. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analyses of normoxic and hypoxic BM-MSCs and their conditioned medium fractions showed that the stem cells expressed and secreted significantly higher amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF,vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8 under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, hypoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (hypoCM vs. normoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (norCM or vehicle control medium significantly enhanced the proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, the migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and monocytes, and the formation of tubular structures by endothelial cells cultured on Matrigel matrix. Consistent with these in vitro results, skin wound contraction was significantly accelerated in Balb/c nude mice treated with topical hypoCM relative to norCM or the vehicle control. Notably increased in vivo cell proliferation, neovascularization as well as recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and evidently decreased collagen I, and collagen III were also found in the hypoCM-treated group. These findings suggest that BM-MSCs promote murine skin wound healing via hypoxia-enhanced paracrine.

  6. Review of Signaling Pathways Governing MSC Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are multipotent cells, functioning as precursors to a variety of cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Between osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation, a theoretical inverse relationship exists, such that differentiation towards an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocytic phenotype. This balance is regulated by numerous, intersecting signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of two main transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2. These two transcription factors, PPARγ and Runx2, are generally regarded as the master regulators of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This review will summarize signaling pathways that govern MSC fate towards osteogenic or adipocytic differentiation. A number of signaling pathways follow the inverse balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and are generally proosteogenic/antiadipogenic stimuli. These include β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and NELL-1 signaling. However, other signaling pathways exhibit more context-dependent effects on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. These include bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling and insulin growth factor (IGF signaling, which display both proosteogenic and proadipogenic effects. In summary, understanding those factors that govern osteogenic versus adipogenic MSC differentiation has significant implications in diverse areas of human health, from obesity to osteoporosis to regenerative medicine.

  7. Human bone marrow-derived and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for alleviating neuropathic pain in a spinal cord injury model

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Shardi Manaheji, Homa; Janzadeh, Atousa; Hosseini, Mostafa; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Background Stem cell therapy can be used for alleviating the neuropathic pain induced by spinal cord injuries (SCIs). However, survival and differentiation of stem cells following their transplantation vary depending on the host and intrinsic factors of the cell. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of stem cells derived from bone marrow (BM-MSC) and umbilical cord (UC-MSC) on neuropathic pain relief. Methods A compression model was used to induce SCI in a rat model. A w...

  8. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. ► Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5–7 h. ► Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. ► Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. ► This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5–7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  9. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Desprez, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pydesprez@cpmcri.org [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); California Pacific Medical Center, Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5-7 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5-7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  10. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs =1:1 and HFFs feeder respectively, and then were differentiated into DA neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of TH positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1 and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons.

  11. Enhanced neuro-therapeutic potential of Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drela, Katarzyna; Lech, Wioletta; Figiel-Dabrowska, Anna; Zychowicz, Marzena; Mikula, Michał; Sarnowska, Anna; Domanska-Janik, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    Substantial inconsistencies in mesenchymal stem (stromal) cell (MSC) therapy reported in early translational and clinical studies may indicate need for selection of the proper cell population for any particular therapeutic purpose. In the present study we have examined stromal stem cells derived either from umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly (WJ-MSC) or bone marrow (BM-MSC) of adult, healthy donors. The cells characterized in accordance with the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) indications as well as other phenotypic and functional parameters have been compared under strictly controlled culture conditions. WJ-MSC, in comparison with BM-MSC, exhibited a higher proliferation rate, a greater expansion capability being additionally stimulated under low-oxygen atmosphere, enhanced neurotrophic factors gene expression and spontaneous tendency toward a neural lineage differentiation commitment confirmed by protein and gene marker induction. Our data suggest that WJ-MSC may represent an example of immature-type "pre-MSC," where a substantial cellular component is embryonic-like, pluripotent derivatives with the default neural-like differentiation. These cells may contribute in different extents to nearly all classical MSC populations adversely correlated with the age of cell donors. Our data suggest that neuro-epithelial markers, like nestin, stage specific embryonic antigens-4 or α-smooth muscle actin expressions, may serve as useful indicators of MSC culture neuro-regeneration-associated potency. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Notch signaling is required for maintaining stem-cell features of neuroprogenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hyung-Min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have provided important findings about the roles of Notch signaling in neural development. Unfortunately, however, most of these studies have investigated the neural stem cells (NSCs of mice or other laboratory animals rather than humans, mainly owing to the difficulties associated with obtaining human brain samples. It prompted us to focus on neuroectodermal spheres (NESs which are derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC and densely inhabited by NSCs. We here investigated the role of Notch signaling with the hESC-derived NESs. Results From hESCs, we derived NESs, the in-vitro version of brain-derived neurospheres. NES formation was confirmed by increased levels of various NSC marker genes and the emergence of rosette structures in which neuroprogenitors are known to reside. We found that Notch signaling, which maintains stem cell characteristics of in-vivo-derived neuroprogenitors, is active in these hESC-derived NESs, similar to their in-vivo counterpart. Expression levels of Notch signaling molecules such as NICD, DLLs, JAG1, HES1 and HES5 were increased in the NESs. Inhibition of the Notch signaling by a γ-secretase inhibitor reduced rosette structures, expression levels of NSC marker genes and proliferation potential in the NESs, and, if combined with withdrawal of growth factors, triggered differentiation toward neurons. Conclusion Our results indicate that the hESC-derived NESs, which share biochemical features with brain-derived neurospheres, maintain stem cell characteristics mainly through Notch signaling, which suggests that the hESC-derived NESs could be an in-vitro model for in-vivo neurogenesis.

  13. Comparison Virtual Landing Gear Drop Test for Commuter Aircraft Utilize MSC ADAMS And Solidworks Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Dony; Istiyanto, Jos; Agus Sumarsono, Danardono

    2018-04-01

    Loads at main landing gear while touchdown impact is function of aircraft weight and ground reaction load factor. In regulation states ground reaction load factor at Vsink = 3.05 m/s is below 3. Contact/impact force from simulation using MSC ADAMS is 94680 N, while using Solidworks Motion Analysis is 97691 N. The difference between MSC ADAMS and Solidworks Motion Analysis is 3.08%. The ground reaction load factor in MSC ADAMS is 2.78 while in Solidworks Motion Analysis is 2.87.

  14. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxi...

  15. Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells confer drug resistance in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Jianguo; Yuan, Xiao; Yan, Yongmin; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2015-08-03

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in chemoresistance. Exosomes have been reported to modify cellular phenotype and function by mediating cell-cell communication. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether exosomes derived from MSCs (MSC-exosomes) are involved in mediating the resistance to chemotherapy in gastric cancer and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. We found that MSC-exosomes significantly induced the resistance of gastric cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil both in vivo and ex vivo. MSC-exosomes antagonized 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis and enhanced the expression of multi-drug resistance associated proteins, including MDR, MRP and LRP. Mechanistically, MSC-exosomes triggered the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM-Ks) and Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade in gastric cancer cells. Blocking the CaM-Ks/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway inhibited the promoting role of MSC-exosomes in chemoresistance. Collectively, MSC-exosomes could induce drug resistance in gastric cancer cells by activating CaM-Ks/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. Our findings suggest that MSC-exosomes have profound effects on modifying gastric cancer cells in the development of drug resistance. Targeting the interaction between MSC-exosomes and cancer cells may help improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in gastric cancer.

  16. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation and functional cartilage microtissue formation for in vivo cartilage regeneration by cartilage extracellular matrix-derived particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Heyong; Wang, Yu; Sun, Zhen; Sun, Xun; Xu, Yichi; Li, Pan; Meng, Haoye; Yu, Xiaoming; Xiao, Bo; Fan, Tian; Wang, Yiguo; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Aiyuan; Guo, Quanyi; Peng, Jiang; Lu, Shibi

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method of preparing a novel cell carrier derived from natural cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), designated cartilage ECM-derived particles (CEDPs). Through a series of processes involving pulverization, sieving, and decellularization, fresh cartilage was made into CEDPs with a median diameter of 263 ± 48 μm. Under microgravity culture conditions in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can proliferate rapidly on the surface of CEDPs with high viability. Histological evaluation and gene expression analysis indicated that BMSCs were differentiated into mature chondrocytes after 21 days of culture without the use of exogenous growth factors. Functional cartilage microtissue aggregates of BMSC-laden CEDPs formed as time in culture increased. Further, the microtissue aggregates were directly implanted into trochlear cartilage defects in a rat model (CEDP+MSC group). Gait analysis and histological results indicated that the CEDP+MSC group obtained better and more rapid joint function recovery and superior cartilage repair compared to the control groups, in which defects were treated with CEDPs alone or only fibrin glue, at both 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. In conclusion, the innovative cell carrier derived from cartilage ECM could promote chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and the direct use of functional cartilage microtissue facilitated cartilage regeneration. This strategy for cell culture, stem cell differentiation and one-step surgery using cartilage microtissue for cartilage repair provides novel prospects for cartilage tissue engineering and may have further broad clinical applications. We proposed a method to prepare a novel cell carrier derived from natural cartilage ECM, termed cartilage ECM-derived particles (CEDPs), which can support proliferation of MSCs and facilitate their chondrogenic differentiation. Further, the direct use of functional cartilage microtissue of MSC-laden CEDP aggregates for

  17. Simple derivation of magnetic space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaut, E.F.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic translation lattices can be described by invariant wave vectors k. Advantages of the wave vector notation over the notations used by Belov et al. and Opechowski et al. are pointed out. In a one-dimensional real representation a space group element (α/tau(1)) has either the character +1 (symmetry element) or -1 (antisymmetry element). Thus the square of any space group operation must have the character +1 in a one-dimensional real representation. This simple ''square criterion'' is used to limit the admissible k-vectors and to derive the family of magnetic space groups, i.e. the set of all possible magnetic space groups, belonging to the same crystallographic space group. In the discussion some useful side results are obtained. Not only the real one-dimensional representations of point groups are connected to real one-dimensional representations of space groups, but a direct connection is shown to exist between one-dimensional complex representations of the point groups 3, 4 and 6 and one-dimensional real representations, belonging to P[001/2]=Psub(2c)(Psub(c))-lattices with screw axes 3 1 , 3 2 , 4 2 , 6 2 and 6 4 . Rules are derived for finding the Belov symbol when the Opechowski-Guccione symbol of the magnetic space group is known and this opportunity is used for correcting errors in the Opechowski-Guccione tables [fr

  18. Lentiviral vectors and protocols for creation of stable hESC lines for fluorescent tracking and drug resistance selection of cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kita-Matsuo

    Full Text Available Developmental, physiological and tissue engineering studies critical to the development of successful myocardial regeneration therapies require new ways to effectively visualize and isolate large numbers of fluorescently labeled, functional cardiomyocytes.Here we describe methods for the clonal expansion of engineered hESCs and make available a suite of lentiviral vectors for that combine Blasticidin, Neomycin and Puromycin resistance based drug selection of pure populations of stem cells and cardiomyocytes with ubiquitous or lineage-specific promoters that direct expression of fluorescent proteins to visualize and track cardiomyocytes and their progenitors. The phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK promoter was used to ubiquitously direct expression of histone-2B fused eGFP and mCherry proteins to the nucleus to monitor DNA content and enable tracking of cell migration and lineage. Vectors with T/Brachyury and alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC promoters targeted fluorescent or drug-resistance proteins to early mesoderm and cardiomyocytes. The drug selection protocol yielded 96% pure cardiomyocytes that could be cultured for over 4 months. Puromycin-selected cardiomyocytes exhibited a gene expression profile similar to that of adult human cardiomyocytes and generated force and action potentials consistent with normal fetal cardiomyocytes, documenting these parameters in hESC-derived cardiomyocytes and validating that the selected cells retained normal differentiation and function.The protocols, vectors and gene expression data comprise tools to enhance cardiomyocyte production for large-scale applications.

  19. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Jacques A. Hatzfeld

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  20. Zinc Promotes Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation towards a Neuronal Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Mi-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Suh, Sang Won

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage. AD-MSCs showed high proliferation rates on day 6 in 30  μ M and 100  μ M of ZnCl 2 . Zinc chelation inhibited AD-MSC proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 activity. We then assessed whether zinc was involved in cell migration and neurite outgrowth during differentiation. After three days of neuronal differentiation, TUJ-1-positive cells were observed, implying that AD-MSCs had differentiated into early neuron or neuron-like cells. Neurite outgrowth was increased in the zinc-treated group, while the CaEDTA-treated group showed diminished, shrunken neurites. Furthermore, we showed that zinc promoted neurite outgrowth via the inactivation of RhoA and led to the induction of neuronal gene expression (MAP2 and nestin) in differentiated stem cells. Taken together, zinc promoted AD-MSC proliferation and affected neuronal differentiation, mainly by increasing neurite outgrowth.

  1. Zinc Promotes Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation towards a Neuronal Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element required for cell division, migration, and proliferation. Under zinc-deficient conditions, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors are significantly impaired. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on AD-MSC proliferation and differentiation. We initially examined the effect of zinc on stem cell proliferation at the undifferentiated stage. AD-MSCs showed high proliferation rates on day 6 in 30 μM and 100 μM of ZnCl2. Zinc chelation inhibited AD-MSC proliferation via downregulation of ERK1/2 activity. We then assessed whether zinc was involved in cell migration and neurite outgrowth during differentiation. After three days of neuronal differentiation, TUJ-1-positive cells were observed, implying that AD-MSCs had differentiated into early neuron or neuron-like cells. Neurite outgrowth was increased in the zinc-treated group, while the CaEDTA-treated group showed diminished, shrunken neurites. Furthermore, we showed that zinc promoted neurite outgrowth via the inactivation of RhoA and led to the induction of neuronal gene expression (MAP2 and nestin in differentiated stem cells. Taken together, zinc promoted AD-MSC proliferation and affected neuronal differentiation, mainly by increasing neurite outgrowth.

  2. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

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    Zhifa Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  3. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

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    Mykyta V Sokolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05.These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

  4. Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: role in epithelial tumor cell determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Fernando A; Sierralta, Walter D; Epuñan, Maria J; Minguell, José J

    2004-01-01

    Marrow stroma represents an advantageous environment for development of micrometastatic cells. Within the cellular structure of marrow stroma, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been postulated as an interacting target for disseminated cancer cells. The studies reported here were performed to gain more information on the interaction of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with human bone marrow-derived MSC cells and to investigate whether this interaction affects tumor cell properties. The results showed that after co-culture with MSC, changes were detected in the morphology, proliferative capacity and aggregation pattern of MCF-7 cells, but these parameters were not affected after the co-culture of MSC cells with a non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10. Since the indirect culture of MCF-7 with MSC or its products also resulted in functional changes in the tumor cells, we evaluated whether these effects could be attributed to growth factors produced by MSC cells. It was found that VEGF and IL-6 mimic the effects produced by MSC or its products on the proliferation and aggregation properties of MCF-7, cells, respectively. Thus, it seems that after entry of disseminated tumor cells into the marrow space, their proliferative and morphogenetic organization patterns are modified after interaction with distinct stromal cells and/or with specific signals from the marrow microenvironment.

  5. Conditioned Media from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibits Melanogenesis by Promoting Proteasomal Degradation of MITF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs secrete various beneficial molecules, which have anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation. However, the effect of hUCB-MSCs in melanogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we show that conditioned media (CM derived from hUCB-MSCs inhibit melanogenesis by regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF expression via the ERK signalling pathway. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM strongly inhibited the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced hyperpigmentation in melanoma cells as well as melanocytes. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM induced ERK1/2 activation in melanocytes. In addition, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed the anti-pigmentation activity of the hUCB-MSC-CM in melanocytes and in vitro artificial skin models. We also found that the expression of MITF was appreciably diminished while expression of phosphorylated MITF, which leads to its proteasomal degradation, was increased in cells treated with hUCB-MSC-CM. These results suggested that hUCB-MSC-CM significantly suppresses melanin synthesis via MITF degradation by the ERK pathway activation.

  6. Water Dynamics and Dewetting Transitions in the Small Mechanosensitive Channel MscS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishkin, Andriy; Sukharev, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of confined water in capillaries and nanotubes suggests that gating of ion channels may involve not only changes of the pore geometry, but also transitions between water-filled and empty states in certain locations. The recently solved heptameric structure of the small mechanosensitive channel of Escherichia coli, MscS, has revealed a relatively wide (7–15 Å) yet highly hydrophobic transmembrane pore. Continuum estimations based on the properties of pore surface suggest low conductance and a thermodynamic possibility of dewetting. To test the predictions we performed molecular dynamics simulations of MscS filled with flexible TIP3P water. Irrespective to the initial conditions, several independent 6-ns simulations converged to the same stable state with the pore water-filled in the wider part, but predominantly empty in the narrow hydrophobic part, displaying intermittent vapor-liquid transitions. The polar gain-of-function substitution L109S in the constriction resulted in a stable hydration of the entire pore. Steered passages of Cl− ions through the narrow part of the pore consistently produced partial ion dehydration and required a force of 200–400 pN to overcome an estimated barrier of 10–20 kcal/mole, implying negligibly low conductance. We conclude that the crystal structure of MscS does not represent an open state. We infer that MscS gate, which is similar to that of the nicotinic ACh receptor, involves a vapor-lock mechanism where limited changes of geometry or surface polarity can locally switch the regime between water-filled (conducting) and empty (nonconducting) states. PMID:15111405

  7. Cord blood-derived macrophage-lineage cells rapidly stimulate osteoblastic maturation in mesenchymal stem cells in a glycoprotein-130 dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania J Fernandes

    Full Text Available In bone, depletion of osteoclasts reduces bone formation in vivo, as does osteal macrophage depletion. How osteoclasts and macrophages promote the action of bone forming osteoblasts is, however, unclear. Since recruitment and differentiation of multi-potential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC generates new active osteoblasts, we investigated whether human osteoclasts and macrophages (generated from cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitors induce osteoblastic maturation in adipose tissue-derived MSC. When treated with an osteogenic stimulus (ascorbate, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate these MSC form matrix-mineralising, alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblastic cells. Cord blood-derived progenitors were treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF to form immature proliferating macrophages, or with M-CSF plus receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL to form osteoclasts; culture medium was conditioned for 3 days by these cells to study their production of osteoblastic factors. Both osteoclast- and macrophage-conditioned medium (CM greatly enhanced MSC osteoblastic differentiation in both the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, evident by increased alkaline phosphatase levels within 4 days and increased mineralisation within 14 days. These CM effects were completely ablated by antibodies blocking gp130 or oncostatin M (OSM, and OSM was detectable in both CM. Recombinant OSM very potently stimulated osteoblastic maturation of these MSC and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 actions on MSC. To determine the influence of macrophage activation on this OSM-dependent activity, CM was collected from macrophage populations treated with M-CSF plus IL-4 (to induce alternative activation or with GM-CSF, IFNγ and LPS to cause classical activation. CM from IL-4 treated macrophages stimulated osteoblastic maturation in MSC, while CM from classically-activated macrophages did not. Thus, macrophage-lineage cells

  8. Optimal Route for Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation to Protect Against Neonatal Hyperoxic Lung Injury: Gene Expression Profiles and Histopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kyung Sung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal route of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation. To this end, gene expression profiling was performed to compare the effects of intratracheal (i.t. versus intravenous (i.v. MSC administration. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of each route to protect against neonatal hyperoxic lung injury was also determined. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hyperoxia (90% oxygen from birth for 14 days. Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs labeling with PKH26 were transplanted through either the i.t. (5×10(5 or i.v. (2×10(6 route at postnatal day (P 5. At P14, lungs were harvested for histological, biochemical and microarray analyses. Hyperoxic conditions induced an increase in the mean linear intercept and mean alveolar volume (MAV, indicative of impaired alveolarization. The number of ED-1 positive cells was significantly decreased by both i.t. and i.v. transplantations. However, i.t. administration of MSCs resulted in a greater decrease in MAV and ED-1 positive cells compared to i.v. administration. Moreover, the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased in the i.t. group, but not in the i.v. group. Although the i.t. group received only one fourth of the number of MSCs that the i.v. group did, a significantly higher number of donor cell-derived red PKH 26 positivity were recovered in the i.t. group. Hyperoxic conditions induced the up regulation of genes associated with the inflammatory response, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α, tumor necrosis factor-α and inter leukin-6; genes associated with cell death, such as p53 and caspases; and genes associated with fibrosis, such as connective tissue growth factor. In contrast, hyperoxic conditions induced the dwon-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. These hyperoxia-induced changes in gene expression were decreased in the i.t. group, but not in the i.v. group. Thus

  9. Repair of full-thickness tendon injury using connective tissue progenitors efficiently derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Leshansky, Lucy; Zussman, Eyal; Burman, Michael; Srouji, Samer; Livne, Erella; Abramov, Natalie; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue engineering (TE) encourages scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been proposed to be an important cell source for cell-based TE applications as well as an exciting tool for investigating the fundamentals of human development. Here, we describe the efficient derivation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from hESC lines and fetal tissues. The CTPs were significantly expanded and induced to generate tendon tissues in vitro, with ultrastructural characteristics and biomechanical properties typical of mature tendons. We describe a simple method for engineering tendon grafts that can successfully repair injured Achilles tendons and restore the ankle joint extension movement in mice. We also show the CTP's ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat both in vitro and in vivo. This study offers evidence for the possibility of using stem cell-derived engineered grafts to replace missing tissues, and sets a basic platform for future cell-based TE applications in the fields of orthopedics and reconstructive surgery.

  10. Reconstruction of Multiple Facial Nerve Branches Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cell Sheet-Pellet Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages, and surgical resection with wide margins is generally indicated, despite this treatment being associated with poor postoperative quality of life (QOL. We have previously reported on the therapeutic effects of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs, which exert reconstitution capacity for muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Recently, we further developed a 3D patch-transplantation system using Sk-MSC sheet-pellets. The aim of this study is the application of the 3D Sk-MSC transplantation system to the reconstitution of facial complex nerve-vascular networks after severe damage. Mouse experiments were performed for histological analysis and rats were used for functional examinations. The Sk-MSC sheet-pellets were prepared from GFP-Tg mice and SD rats, and were transplanted into the facial resection model (ST. Culture medium was transplanted as a control (NT. In the mouse experiment, facial-nerve-palsy (FNP scoring was performed weekly during the recovery period, and immunohistochemistry was used for the evaluation of histological recovery after 8 weeks. In rats, contractility of facial muscles was measured via electrical stimulation of facial nerves root, as the marker of total functional recovery at 8 weeks after transplantation. The ST-group showed significantly higher FNP (about three fold scores when compared to the NT-group after 2-8 weeks. Similarly, significant functional recovery of whisker movement muscles was confirmed in the ST-group at 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, engrafted GFP+ cells formed complex branches of nerve-vascular networks, with differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, Sk-MSC sheet-pellet transplantation is potentially useful for functional reconstitution therapy of large defects in facial nerve-vascular networks.

  11. Reconstruction of Multiple Facial Nerve Branches Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cell Sheet-Pellet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kosuke; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kenei; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Kazuno, Akihito; Sakai, Akihiro; Iida, Masahiro; Okami, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages, and surgical resection with wide margins is generally indicated, despite this treatment being associated with poor postoperative quality of life (QOL). We have previously reported on the therapeutic effects of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs), which exert reconstitution capacity for muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Recently, we further developed a 3D patch-transplantation system using Sk-MSC sheet-pellets. The aim of this study is the application of the 3D Sk-MSC transplantation system to the reconstitution of facial complex nerve-vascular networks after severe damage. Mouse experiments were performed for histological analysis and rats were used for functional examinations. The Sk-MSC sheet-pellets were prepared from GFP-Tg mice and SD rats, and were transplanted into the facial resection model (ST). Culture medium was transplanted as a control (NT). In the mouse experiment, facial-nerve-palsy (FNP) scoring was performed weekly during the recovery period, and immunohistochemistry was used for the evaluation of histological recovery after 8 weeks. In rats, contractility of facial muscles was measured via electrical stimulation of facial nerves root, as the marker of total functional recovery at 8 weeks after transplantation. The ST-group showed significantly higher FNP (about three fold) scores when compared to the NT-group after 2-8 weeks. Similarly, significant functional recovery of whisker movement muscles was confirmed in the ST-group at 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, engrafted GFP+ cells formed complex branches of nerve-vascular networks, with differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, Sk-MSC sheet-pellet transplantation is potentially useful for functional reconstitution therapy of large defects in facial nerve-vascular networks.

  12. Integration of donor mesenchymal stem cell-derived neuron-like cells into host neural network after rat spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Qiu, Xue-Cheng; Ma, Yuan-Huan; Duan, Jing-Jing; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Gu, Huai-Yu; Wang, Jun-Mei; Ling, Eng-Ang; Wu, Jin-Lang; Wu, Wutian; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2015-06-01

    Functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily attribute to loss of neural connectivity. We therefore tested if novel tissue engineering approaches could enable neural network repair that facilitates functional recovery after spinal cord transection (SCT). Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically engineered to overexpress TrkC, receptor of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), were pre-differentiated into cells carrying neuronal features via co-culture with NT-3 overproducing Schwann cells in 3-dimensional gelatin sponge (GS) scaffold for 14 days in vitro. Intra-GS formation of MSC assemblies emulating neural network (MSC-GS) were verified morphologically via electron microscopy (EM) and functionally by whole-cell patch clamp recording of spontaneous post-synaptic currents. The differentiated MSCs still partially maintained prototypic property with the expression of some mesodermal cytokines. MSC-GS or GS was then grafted acutely into a 2 mm-wide transection gap in the T9-T10 spinal cord segments of adult rats. Eight weeks later, hindlimb function of the MSC-GS-treated SCT rats was significantly improved relative to controls receiving the GS or lesion only as indicated by BBB score. The MSC-GS transplantation also significantly recovered cortical motor evoked potential (CMEP). Histologically, MSC-derived neuron-like cells maintained their synapse-like structures in vivo; they additionally formed similar connections with host neurites (i.e., mostly serotonergic fibers plus a few corticospinal axons; validated by double-labeled immuno-EM). Moreover, motor cortex electrical stimulation triggered c-fos expression in the grafted and lumbar spinal cord cells of the treated rats only. Our data suggest that MSC-derived neuron-like cells resulting from NT-3-TrkC-induced differentiation can partially integrate into transected spinal cord and this strategy should be further investigated for reconstructing disrupted neural circuits. Copyright

  13. Dopaminergic enhancement of cellular adhesion in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Bai, Bing; Lee, Dong Joon; Diachina, Shannon; Li, Yina; Wong, Sing Wai; Wang, Zhengyan; Tseng, Henry C; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2017-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a well-known neurotransmitter and critical element in the mussel adhesive protein that has gained increasing attention for its role in cellular growth enhancement in biomaterials, including cellular adhesion improvement. As the mechanism underlying this remains unclear, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of DA on the adhesion properties of bone marrow derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) using an hydroxyapatite gelatin nanocomposite biomaterial and to test whether the effects are mediated through various endogenously expressed DA receptors. Primary rMSCs were pretreated with D1-like antagonist, D2-like antagonist, or a combination of these antagonists followed by treatment with 50 μM DA and cellular adhesion quantification at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours post DA addition. DA was found to increase rMSC adhesion and spreading at the 0.5 hour time-point and the dopaminergic effect on cell adhesion was partially blocked by DA antagonists. In addition, the D1-like and D2-like antagonists appeared to have a similar effect on rMSCs. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that the rMSC spreading area was significantly increased in the DA treated group versus the control group. Treatment of the D1-like DA antagonists with DA revealed that the actin filaments of rMSCs could not connect the membrane with the nucleus. In summary, DA was found to enhance early rMSC adhesion partially via DA receptor activation.

  14. Reconstitution of the complete rupture in musculotendinous junction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cell sheet-pellets as a "bio-bond".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Sato, Masato; Mochida, Joji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Significant and/or complete rupture in the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) is a challenging lesion to treat because of the lack of reliable suture methods. Skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cell (Sk-MSC) sheet-pellets, which are able to reconstitute peripheral nerve and muscular/vascular tissues with robust connective tissue networks, have been applied as a "bio-bond". Methods. Sk-MSC sheet-pellets, derived from GFP transgenic-mice after 7 days of expansion culture, were detached with EDTA to maintain cell-cell connections. A completely ruptured MTJ model was prepared in the right tibialis anterior (TA) of the recipient mice, and was covered with sheet-pellets. The left side was preserved as a contralateral control. The control group received the same amount of the cell-free medium. The sheet-pellet transplantation (SP) group was further divided into two groups; as the short term (4-8 weeks) and long term (14-18 weeks) recovery group. At each time point after transplantation, tetanic tension output was measured through the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The behavior of engrafted GFP(+) tissues and cells was analyzed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Results. The SP short term recovery group showed average 64% recovery of muscle mass, and 36% recovery of tetanic tension output relative to the contralateral side. Then, the SP long term recovery group showed increased recovery of average muscle mass (77%) and tetanic tension output (49%). However, the control group showed no recovery of continuity between muscle and tendon, and demonstrated increased muscle atrophy, with coalescence to the tibia during 4-8 weeks after operation. Histological evidence also supported the above functional recovery of SP group. Engrafted Sk-MSCs primarily formed the connective tissues and muscle fibers, including nerve-vascular networks, and bridged the ruptured tendon-muscle fiber units, with differentiation into skeletal muscle cells, Schwann cells

  15. Sertifikaatit ravintolassa : Luomu, UTZ, MSC, ASC

    OpenAIRE

    Hakamäki, Henna

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää tietävätkö ihmiset, mitä sertifikaatit tarkoittavat, olisivatko asiakkaat valmiita maksamaan sertifioiduista raaka-aineista tehdystä ruoasta enemmän ja markkinoivatko ravintolat käytössä olevia sertifikaatteja riittävästi saadakseen siitä hyödyn. Tulosten perusteella pyrittiin selvittämään kannattaako yritysten panostaa sertifikaattien markkinointiin. Teoriaosassa käsitellään neljää opinnäytetyöhön valikoitua sertifikaattia: luomu, UTZ, MSC ...

  16. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9 is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrating recombinant SOX9 protein in regeneration of hyaline cartilage in situ at the site of cartilage injury. We generated a recombinant SOX9 protein which was fused with super positively charged green fluorescence protein (GFP (scSOX9 to facilitate cell penetration. scSOX9 was able to induce chondrogenesis of bone marrow derived MSC in vitro. In a rabbit cartilage injury model, scSOX9 in combination with microfracture significantly improved quality of repaired cartilage as shown by macroscopic appearance. Histological analysis revealed that the reparative tissue induced by microfracture with scSOX9 had features of hyaline cartilage; and collagen type II to type I ratio was similar to that in normal cartilage. This short term in vivo study demonstrated that when administered at the site of microfracture, scSOX9 was able to induce reparative tissue with features of hyaline cartilage.

  17. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wu, Shili; Naccarato, Ty; Prakash-Damani, Manan; Chou, Yuan; Chu, Cong-Qiu; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9) is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrating recombinant SOX9 protein in regeneration of hyaline cartilage in situ at the site of cartilage injury. We generated a recombinant SOX9 protein which was fused with super positively charged green fluorescence protein (GFP) (scSOX9) to facilitate cell penetration. scSOX9 was able to induce chondrogenesis of bone marrow derived MSC in vitro. In a rabbit cartilage injury model, scSOX9 in combination with microfracture significantly improved quality of repaired cartilage as shown by macroscopic appearance. Histological analysis revealed that the reparative tissue induced by microfracture with scSOX9 had features of hyaline cartilage; and collagen type II to type I ratio was similar to that in normal cartilage. This short term in vivo study demonstrated that when administered at the site of microfracture, scSOX9 was able to induce reparative tissue with features of hyaline cartilage.

  18. Comparing and contrasting Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mechanosensitive channels (MscL) - New gain of function mutations in the loop region

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Joshua A.; Elmore, Donald E.; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    Sequence analysis of 35 putative MscL homologues was used to develop an optimal alignment for Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis MscL and to place these homologues into sequence subfamilies. By using this alignment, previously identified E. coli MscL mutants that displayed severe and very severe gain of function phenotypes were mapped onto the M. tuberculosis MscL sequence. Not all of the resulting M. tuberculosis mutants displayed a gain of function phenotype; for instance, norm...

  19. The finite element analysis program MSC Marc/Mentat a first introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Based on simple examples, this book offers a short introduction to the general-purpose finite element program MSC Marc, a specialized program for non-linear problems (implicit solver) distributed by the MSC Software Corporation, which is commonly used in academia and industry. Today the documentation of all finite element programs includes a variety of step-by-step examples of differing complexity, and in addition, all software companies offer professional workshops on different topics. As such, rather than competing with these, the book focuses on providing simple examples, often single-element problems, which can easily be related to the theory that is discussed in finite element lectures. This makes it an ideal companion book to classical introductory courses on the finite element method.

  20. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyaline cartilage defects exhibit a major challenge in the field of orthopedic surgery owing to its limited repair capacity. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as potent cells with a property of cartilage regeneration. We aimed to optimize marrow-derived MSC chondrogenic culture using a small bioactive molecule referred to as BIO. Methods: MSCs from the marrow of NMRI mice were extracted, culture-expanded, and characterized. Micro-mass culture was then established for chondrogenic differentiation (control group. The cultures of MSC in chondrogenic medium supplemented with 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 µM BIO were taken as the experimental groups. Cartilage differentiation was examined by both histological sections and real-time PCR for Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen II at different time points. Moreover, the involvement of the Wnt pathway was investigated. Results: Based on histological sections, there was seemingly more intense metachromatic matrix produced in the cultures with 0.01 µM BIO. In this experimental group, cartilage-specific genes tended to be upregulated at day 14 compared to day 21 of the control group, indicating the accelerating effect of BIO on cartilage differentiation. Overall, there was statistically a significant increase (P=0.01 in the expression level of cartilage-specific genes in cultures with 0.01 µM BIO (enhancing effects. These upregulations appeared to be mediated through the Wnt pathway evident from the significant upregulation of T-cell factor and beta-catenin molecules (P=0.01. Conclusion: Taken together, BIO at 0.01 µM could accelerate and enhance in vitro chondrogenesis of mouse marrow-derived MSCs. Please cite this article as: Baghaban Eslaminejad MR, Fallah N. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:107-116.

  1. Further Developments on Optimum Structural Design Using MSC/Nastran and Sequential Quadratic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzleitner, Ludwig

    1996-01-01

    , here the shape of two dimensional parts with different thickness areas will be optimized. As in the previos paper, a methodology for structural optimization using the commercial finite element package MSC/NASTRAN for structural analysis is described. Three different methods for design sensitivity......This work is closely connected to the paper: K.G. MAHMOUD, H.W. ENGL and HOLZLEITNER: "OPTIMUM STRUCTURAL DESIGN USING MSC/NASTRAN AND SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING", Computers & Structures, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 437-447, (1994). In contrast to that paper, where thickness optimization is described...

  2. Therapeutic use of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the treatment of radio-induced diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouiseddine, Moubarak

    2008-05-01

    Ionising radiation can induce toxic effects on body. They provoke physiological modifications of tissues and organs which can be lethal. Total body irradiation or local abdominal irradiation can induce serious complications. Intestine is the first tissue concerned by these side effects. Radiation induces malabsorption of the intestine and lost of it integrity. Radio-induced physiopathological effects on intestine could lead to distant effects on other tissues and organs such as liver. The actual treatments have a limited efficiency or are not adapted to gastrointestinal damages. Indeed, in this type of lesions, the heterogeneous systems which are concerned and the gravity of lesions complicates the medical care. Our purpose is to show that cell therapy using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) constitutes resolution in this type of illness. The works which are presented in this thesis show that MSC are multi-potent and have heterogeneous expression of molecules. These cells are able to establish themselves in many organs and tissues after injection into irradiated body. Thus we have shown that MSC can prevent the small intestine from radio-induced damages. Indeed we demonstrate that through their actions on gut, MSC can indirectly restore hepatic integrity. (author)

  3. Dynamic of distribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation into adult unconditioned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Carolina; Sierralta, Walter D; Neubauer, Sonia; Rivera, Francisco; Minguell, José J; Conget, Paulette A

    2004-08-27

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for cell therapy relies on their capacity to engraft and survive long-term in the appropriate target tissue(s). Animal models have demonstrated that the syngeneic or xenogeneic transplantation of MSC results in donor engraftment into the bone marrow and other tissues of conditioned recipients. However, there are no reliable data showing the fate of human MSC infused into conditioned or unconditioned adult recipients. In the present study, the authors investigated, by using imaging, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in situ hybridization, the biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived MSC after intravenous infusion into unconditioned adult nude mice. As assessed by imaging (gamma camera), PCR, and in situ hybridization analysis, the authors' results demonstrate the presence of human MSC in bone marrow, spleen, and mesenchymal tissues of recipient mice. These results suggest that human MSC transplantation into unconditioned recipients represents an option for providing cellular therapy and avoids the complications associated with drugs or radiation conditioning.

  4. MiR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by activating β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyang; He, Lihong; Yue, Qing; Lu, Junhou; Kang, Naixin; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in hepatocyte growth factor -treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability. Overexpression of miR-9-5p promoted MSC migration, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-9-5p decreased MSC migration. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we screened the target genes of miR-9-5p and report for the first time that CK1α and GSK3β, two inhibitors of β-catenin signaling pathway, were direct targets of miR-9-5p in MSCs and that overexpression of miR-9-5p upregulated β-catenin signaling pathway. In line with these data, inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathway by FH535 decreased the miR-9-5p-promoted migration of MSCs, while activation of β-catenin signaling pathway by LiCl rescued the impaired migration of MSCs triggered by miR-9-5p inhibitor. Furthermore, the formation and distribution of focal adhesions as well as the reorganization of F-actin were affected by the expression of miR-9-5p. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by upregulating β-catenin signaling pathway, shedding light on the optimization of MSCs for cell replacement therapy through manipulating the expression level of miR-9-5p. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Intravenous infusion umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell in primary immune thrombocytopenia: A two-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yin, Xiaoguang; Sun, Wei; Bai, Jin; Shen, Yawen; Ao, Qiang; Gu, Yongquan; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Four patients with chronic refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) received human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). The hUC-MSC dose was 5?107 to 1?108. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in three patients in 12 months and one patient in 24 months. Three patients received the second hUC-MSC transplantation with the same dose. The median time between hUC-MSC transplantation and response was 12.5 days (range, 7?16). There were no severe adverse events during a...

  6. Adaptive MscS gating in the osmotic permeability response in E. coli: the question of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Miriam; Anishkin, Andriy; Sukharev, Sergei

    2011-05-17

    Microorganisms adapt to osmotic downshifts by releasing small osmolytes through mechanosensitive (MS) channels. We want to understand how the small mechanosensitive channel's (MscS) activation and inactivation, both driven by membrane tension, optimize survival in varying hypoosmotic shock situations. By measuring light scattering with a stopped-flow device, we estimate bacterial swelling time as 30-50 ms. A partial solute equilibration follows within 150-200 ms, during which optical responses from cells with WT MscS deviate from those lacking MS channels. MscS opening rates estimated in patch clamp show the channels readily respond to tensions below the lytic limit with a time course faster than 20 ms and close promptly upon tension release. To address the role of the tension-insensitive inactivated state in vivo, we applied short, long, and two-step osmotic shock protocols to WT, noninactivating G113A, and fast-inactivating D62N mutants. WT and G113A showed a comparable survival in short 1 min 800 mOsm downshock experiments, but G113A was at a disadvantage under a long 60 min shock. Preshocking cells carrying WT MscS for 15 s to 15 min with a 200 mOsm downshift did not sensitize them to the final 500 mOsm drop in osmolarity of the second step. However, these two-step shocks induced death in D62N more than just a one-step 700 mOsm downshift. We conclude MscS is able to activate and exude osmolytes faster than lytic pressure builds inside the cell under abrupt shock. During prolonged shocks, gradual inactivation prevents continuous channel activity and assists recovery. Slow kinetics of inactivation in WT MscS ensures that mild shocks do not inactivate the entire population, leaving some protection should conditions worsen.

  7. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole; Taubenheim, Jan; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC

  8. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.fiedler@med.uni-rostock.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Taubenheim, Jan [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  9. Allogeneic Transplantation of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheets in Canine Critical-Size Supra-Alveolar Periodontal Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumanuma, Yuka; Iwata, Takanori; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Washio, Kaoru; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that induces the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, followed by tooth loss. Although several approaches have been applied to periodontal regeneration, complete periodontal regeneration has not been accomplished. Tissue engineering using a combination of cells and scaffolds is considered to be a viable alternative strategy. We have shown that autologous transplantation of periodontal ligament-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (PDL-MSC) sheets regenerates periodontal tissue in canine models. However, the indications for autologous cell transplantation in clinical situations are limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic transplantation of PDL-MSC sheets using a canine horizontal periodontal defect model. Canine PDL-MSCs were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were cultured on temperature-responsive dishes. Three-layered cell sheets were transplanted around denuded root surfaces either autologously or allogeneically. A mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and collagen gel was placed on the bone defects. Eight weeks after transplantation, dogs were euthanized and subjected to microcomputed tomography and histological analyses. RNA and DNA were extracted from the paraffin sections to verify the presence of EGFP at the transplantation site. Inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontal regeneration was observed in both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantation groups. The allogeneic transplantation group showed particularly significant regeneration of newly formed cementum, which is critical for the periodontal regeneration. Serum levels of inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera showed little difference between the autologous and allogeneic groups. EGFP amplicons were detectable in the paraffin sections of the allogeneic group. These results suggest that

  10. Expansion and maintenance of human embryonic stem cell–derived endothelial cells by TGFβ inhibition is Id1 dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daylon; Nam, Hyung-song; Seandel, Marco; Nolan, Daniel; Janovitz, Tyler; Tomishima, Mark; Studer, Lorenz; Lee, Gabsang; Lyden, David; Benezra, Robert; Zaninovic, Nikica; Rosenwaks, Zev; Rabbany, Sina Y; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Previous efforts to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into endothelial cells have not achieved sustained expansion and stability of vascular cells. To define vasculogenic developmental pathways and enhance differentiation, we used an endothelial cell–specific VE-cadherin promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) (hVPr-GFP) to screen for factors that promote vascular commitment. In phase 1 of our method, inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)β at day 7 of differentiation increases hVPr-GFP+ cells by tenfold. In phase 2, TGFβ inhibition maintains the proliferation and vascular identity of purified endothelial cells, resulting in a net 36-fold expansion of endothelial cells in homogenous monolayers, which exhibited a transcriptional profile of Id1highVEGFR2highVE-cadherin+ ephrinB2+. Using an Id1-YFP hESC reporter line, we showed that TGFβ inhibition sustains Id1 expression in hESC-derived endothelial cells and that Id1 is required for increased proliferation and preservation of endothelial cell commitment. Our approach provides a serum-free method for differentiation and long-term maintenance of hESC-derived endothelial cells at a scale relevant to clinical application. PMID:20081865

  11. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Derived Neuroprogenitors Display Differential Degrees of Susceptibility to BH3 Mimetics ABT-263, WEHI-539 and ABT-199.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Paola García

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress and display lower survival ability relative to their differentiated progeny. Herein, we attempted to investigate the source of this difference by comparing the DNA damage responses triggered by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, in hESCs, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and hESCs-derived neuroprogenitors (NP. We observed that upon camptothecin exposure pluripotent stem cells underwent apoptosis more swiftly and at a higher rate than differentiated cells. However, the cellular response encompassing ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase activation and p53 phosphorylation both on serine 15 as well as on serine 46 resulted very similar among the aforementioned cell types. Importantly, we observed that hESCs and hiPSCs express lower levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 than NP. To assess whether Bcl-2 abundance could account for this differential response we treated cells with ABT-263, WEHI-539 and ABT-199, small molecules that preferentially target the BH3-binding pocket of Bcl-xL and/or Bcl-2 and reduce their ability to sequester pro-apoptotic factors. We found that in the absence of stress stimuli, NP exhibited a higher sensitivity to ABT- 263 and WEHI-539 than hESCs and hiPSCs. Conversely, all tested cell types appeared to be highly resistant to the Bcl-2 specific inhibitor, ABT-199. However, in all cases we determined that ABT-263 or WEHI-539 treatment exacerbated camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Importantly, similar responses were observed after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-xL or Bcl-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Bcl-xL contrary to Bcl-2 contributes to ensure cell survival and also functions as a primary suppressor of DNA double-strand brake induced apoptosis both in pluripotent and derived NP cells. The emerging knowledge of the relative dependence of pluripotent and progenitor cells on Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL activities may help

  12. Generation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Kamalaveni R; Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Molano, R Damaris; Pileggi, Antonello; Villate, Susana; Ricordi, Camillo; Inverardi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We sought to assess the potential of human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) to derive insulin-producing, glucose-responsive cells. We show here that differentiation protocols based on stepwise culture conditions initially described for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) lead to differentiation of cord blood-derived precursors towards a pancreatic endocrine phenotype, as assessed by marker expression and in vitro glucose-regulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of these cells in immune-deficient animals shows human C-peptide production in response to a glucose challenge. These data suggest that human cord blood may be a promising source for regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Results of scatterometer systems analysis for NASA/MSC Earth Observation Sensor Evaluation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, K.; Vlahos, N.; Brandt, O.; Graybeal, G.

    1971-01-01

    Radar scatterometers have applications in the NASA/MSC Earth Observation Aircraft Program. Over a period of several years, several missions have been flown over both land and ocean. In this paper a system evaluation of the NASA/MSC 13.3-GHz Scatterometer System is presented. The effects of phase error between the Scatterometer channels, antenna pattern deviations, aircraft attitude deviations, environmental changes, and other related factors such as processing errors, system repeatability, and propeller modulation, were established. Furthermore, the reduction in system errors and calibration improvement was investigated by taking into account these parameter deviations. Typical scatterometer data samples are presented.

  14. Decellularized extracellular matrices produced from immortal cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta support primary mesenchymal stem cell expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina D Kusuma

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs exhibit undesired phenotypic changes during ex vivo expansion, limiting production of the large quantities of high quality primary MSCs needed for both basic research and cell therapies. Primary MSCs retain many desired MSC properties including proliferative capacity and differentiation potential when expanded on decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM prepared from primary MSCs. However, the need to use low passage number primary MSCs (passage 3 or lower to produce the dECM drastically limits the utility and impact of this technology. Here, we report that primary MSCs expanded on dECM prepared from high passage number (passage 25 human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT transduced immortal MSC cell lines also exhibit increased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Two hTERT-transduced placenta-derived MSC cell lines, CMSC29 and DMSC23 [derived from placental chorionic villi (CMSCs and decidua basalis (DMSCs, respectively], were used to prepare dECM-coated substrates. These dECM substrates showed structural and biochemical differences. Primary DMSCs cultured on dECM-DMSC23 showed a three-fold increase in cell number after 14 days expansion in culture and increased osteogenic differentiation compared with controls. Primary CMSCs cultured on the dECM-DMSC23 exhibited a two-fold increase in cell number and increased osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that immortal MSC cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta produce dECM with varying abilities for supporting increased primary MSC expansion while maintaining important primary MSC properties. Additionally, this is the first demonstration of using high passage number cells to produce dECM that can promote primary MSC expansion, and this advancement greatly increases the feasibility and applicability of dECM-based technologies.

  15. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and the Making of a Market for ‘Sustainable Fish’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    the market for ‘sustainable fish’, but success has been accompanied by serious challenges. The MSC has so far failed to convincingly show that its certification system has positive environmental impacts, and it has marginalized Southern fisheries, especially in low-income countries. As an institutional...... solution to the global fishery crisis, the MSC seems to be better tuned to the creation of a market for ‘sustainable fish’ rather than ‘sustainable fisheries’....

  16. Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells has a neutral effect on obesity-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián D Calligaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major global health issue. Obese patients develop metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of clinical features characterized by insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Its cardiac manifestation, diabetic cardiomyopathy, leads to heart failure. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are envisioned as a therapeutic tool not only for cardiovascular diseases but also for other degenerative conditions. Our aim was to evaluate whether the intravenous administration of MSC modifies cardiac dysfunction in obese mice. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular (normal or high-fat diet (obese. Obese animals received the vehicle (obese, a single dose (obese + 1x MSC or three doses (obese + 3x MSC of 0.5x10(6 syngeneic MSC. Two to three months following MSC administration, cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization, at basal condition and after a pharmacological stress. Compared to normal mice, obese mice presented hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia and cardiac dysfunction after stress condition. Exogenous MSC neither improved nor impaired this cardiac dysfunction. Thus, intravenous administration of MSC has neutral effect on obesity-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy

  17. Response to intravenous allogeneic equine cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells administered from chilled or frozen state in serum and protein free media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Brandon Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Equine Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are commonly transported, chilled or frozen, to veterinary clinics. These MSC must remain viable and minimally affected by culture, transport, or injection processes. The safety of two carrier solutions developed for optimal viability and excipient use were evaluated in ponies, with and without allogeneic cord blood-derived (CB MSC. We hypothesized that neither the carrier solutions nor CB-MSC would elicit measurable changes in clinical, hematological, or biochemical parameters. In 9 ponies (study 1 a bolus of HypoThermosol® FRS (HTS-FRS, CryoStor® CS10 (CS10 or saline was injected IV (n=3/treatment. Study 2, following a one week washout period 5x107 pooled allogeneic CB-MSC were administered IV in HTS-FRS following 24h simulated chilled transport. Study 3, following another one week washout period 5x107 pooled allogeneic CB-MSC were administered IV in CS10 immediately after thawing. Nine ponies received CB-MSCs in study 2 and 3 and three ponies received the cell carrier media without cells. CB-MSCs were pooled in equal numbers from five unrelated donors. In all studies ponies were monitored with physical examination, and blood collection for 7 days following injection. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte populations were also evaluated in each blood sample.In all three studies, physical exam, complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry, and coagulation panel did not deviate from established normal ranges. Proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes increased at 168h post injection in CB-MSC treatment groups regardless of the carrier solution. Decreases in CD4+/CD8+ double positive populations were observed at 24 h and 72 h in CB-MSC treated animals. There was no difference in viability between CB-MSC suspended in HTS-FRS or CS10.HTS-FRS and CS10 used for low volume excipient injection of MSC suspensions was not associated with short-term adverse reactions. HTS-FRS and CS10 both adequately maintain CB-MSC viability

  18. The Therapeutic Effect of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Chemical-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wook Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic effect of human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (M-MSCs on ketamine-induced cystitis (KC in rats. Methods To induce KC, 10-week-old female rats were injected with 25-mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride twice weekly for 12 weeks. In the sham group, phosphate buffered saline (PBS was injected instead of ketamine. One week after the final injection of ketamine, the indicated doses (0.25, 0.5, and 1×106 cells of M-MSCs (KC+M-MSC group or PBS vehicle (KC group were directly injected into the bladder wall. One week after M-MSC injection, the therapeutic outcomes were evaluated via cystometry, histological analyses, and measurement of gene expression. Next, we compared the efficacy of M-MSCs at a low dose (1×105 cells to that of an identical dose of adult bone marrow (BM-derived MSCs. Results Rats in the KC group exhibited increased voiding frequency and reduced bladder capacity compared to rats of the sham group. However, these parameters recovered after transplantation of M-MSCs at all doses tested. KC bladders exhibited markedly increased mast cell infiltration, apoptosis, and tissue fibrosis. Administration of M-MSCs significantly reversed these characteristic histological alterations. Gene expression analyses indicated that several genes associated with tissue fibrosis were markedly upregulated in KC bladders. However the expression of these genes was significantly suppressed by the administration of M-MSCs. Importantly, M-MSCs ameliorated bladder deterioration in KC rats after injection of a low dose (1×105 of cells, at which point BM-derived MSCs did not substantially improve bladder function. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time the therapeutic efficacy of hESC-derived M-MSCs on KC in rats. M-MSCs restored bladder function more effectively than did BM-derived MSCs, protecting against abnormal changes including mast cell infiltration, apoptosis and fibrotic

  19. In vivo MR detection of fluorine-labeled human MSC using the bSSFP sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Emeline J; Gaudet, Jeffrey M; Chen, Yuhua; Gilbert, Kyle M; Foster, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are used to restore deteriorated cell environments. There is a need to specifically track these cells following transplantation in order to evaluate different methods of implantation, to follow their migration within the body, and to quantify their accumulation at the target. Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fluorine-based nanoemulsions is a great means to detect these transplanted cells in vivo because of the high specificity for fluorine detection and the capability for precise quantification. This technique, however, has low sensitivity, necessitating improvement in MR sequences. To counteract this issue, the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging sequence can be of great interest due to the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, it can be applied to obtain 3D images within short acquisition times. In this paper, bSSFP provided accurate quantification of samples of the perfluorocarbon Cell Sense-labeled cells in vitro. Cell Sense was internalized by human MSC (hMSC) without adverse alterations in cell viability or differentiation into adipocytes/osteocytes. The bSSFP sequence was applied in vivo to track and quantify the signals from both Cell Sense-labeled and iron-labeled hMSC after intramuscular implantation. The fluorine signal was observed to decrease faster and more significantly than the volume of iron-associated voids, which points to the advantage of quantifying the fluorine signal and the complexity of quantifying signal loss due to iron.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 facilitates MSC migration via cleavage of IGF-2/IGFBP2 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shou P; Lam, Alan T L; Newman, Jennifer P; Chua, Kevin L M; Kok, Catherine Y L; Chong, Siao T; Chua, Melvin L K; Lam, Paula Y P

    2018-01-01

    The specific mechanism underlying the tumor tropism of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cancer is not well defined. We previously showed that the migration potential of MSCs correlated with the expression and protease activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. Furthermore, highly tumor-tropic MSCs expressed higher levels of MMP-1 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 than poorly migrating MSCs. In this study, we examined the functional roles of IGF-2 and MMP-1 in mediating the tumor tropism of MSCs. Exogenous addition of either recombinant IGF-2 or MMP-1 could stimulate MSC migration. The correlation between IGF-2, MMP-1 expression, and MSC migration suggests that MMP-1 may play a role in regulating MSC migration via the IGF-2 signaling cascade. High concentrations of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) can inhibit IGF-stimulated functions by blocking its binding to its receptors and proteolysis of IGFBP is an important mechanism for the regulation of IGF signaling. We thus hypothesized that MMP-1 acts as an IGFBP2 proteinase, resulting in the cleavage of IGF-2/IGFBP2 complex and extracellular release of free IGF-2. Indeed, our results showed that conditioned media from highly migrating MSCs, which expressed high levels of MMP-1, cleaved the IGF-2/IGFBP2 complex. Taken together, these results showed that the MMP-1 secreted by highly tumor-tropic MSCs cleaved IGF-2/IGFBP2 complex. Free IGF-2 released from the complex may facilitate MSC migration toward tumor.

  1. Functional properties of meat by-products and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) in a high-moisture model petfood system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J A; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E

    2000-05-01

    Contributions to water retention capacity (% WRC) and texture changes were determined for pork by-products (lung lobes, kidneys), chicken viscera (head, feet and viscera) and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) as affected by pH and various salts in a high-moisture model system. The % WRC for meat by-products and MSC was increased by increased pH (4.5-6.8). Pork lungs and MSC had the highest % WRC (pmeat by-products. Meat by-product % WRC was not signifcantly (p>0.05) affected by salt (2%), phosphate (0.3%) or NaOH (0.075%). Chicken viscera had the lowest (pmeat by-products and MSC. Strong negative correlations (p<0.05) were obtained for texture with total collagen, soluble collagen and high ionic strength soluble (HIS) proteins. These results should be considered for product quality changes when these by-products are used in formulation of high moisture pet food products.

  2. Effectiveness of cross-border knowledge transfer in Malaysian MSC status corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sow Yee Pook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become the key asset for the economy to gain competitiveness as more and more countries have shifted or are shifting towards knowledge-based economy, no exception for Malaysia. In order to acquire and transfer technology and/or knowledge from overseas to Malaysia, Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC has been proposed. However, research focuses on cross-border knowledge transfer especially in the context of MSC status corporations in Malaysia is still limited. The factors that affect the effectiveness of cross-border knowledge transfer will be determined and presented in this paper. Quantitative approach has been adopted in this study. The findings of this study show that knowledge characteristics (KC and network characteristics (NC have positive significant relationship with cross-border knowledge transfer. The effects context towards KC and NC will also be examined in this study.

  3. Education of MSc and PhD Students in Fluid Power and Mechatronics at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with education of MSc and PhD students in engineering areas fluid power and mechatronics at the Technical Univ of Denmark, DTU, Lyngby. The new education structure and programs for MSc and PhD students adapted to the change and development of technologies. Focus is on two of twenty...... engineering profilies:(1) Engineeing Design and Product Development and (2)Control Engineering which give possibilitie for specialisation in fluid power and mechatronics design and productdevelopment. Synthesis, design and self-learning competency have a high priority taking the importance of training...

  4. Effective treatment of steroid and therapy-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease with a novel mesenchymal stromal cell product (MSC-FFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Peter; Kuçi, Zyrafete; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Basu, Oliver; Bug, Gesine; Dennis, Michael; Greil, Johann; Barta, Aniko; Kállay, Krisztián M; Lang, Peter; Lucchini, Giovanna; Pol, Raj; Schulz, Ansgar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; von Luettichau, Irene; Herter-Sprie, Grit; Uddin, Mohammad Ashab; Jenkin, Phil; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Buechner, Jochen; Stein, Jerry; Kelemen, Agnes; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Hutter, Martin; Schäfer, Richard; Seifried, Erhard; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bonig, Halvard; Kuçi, Selim

    2018-01-29

    The inability to generate mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) of consistent potency likely is responsible for inconsistent clinical outcomes of patients with aGvHD receiving MSC products. We developed a novel MSC manufacturing protocol characterized by high in vitro potency and near-identity of individual doses, referred to as "MSC-Frankfurt am Main (MSC-FFM)". Herein, we report outcomes of the 69 patients who have received MSC-FFM. These were 51 children and 18 adults with refractory aGvHD grade II (4%), III (36%) or IV (59%). Patients were refractory either to frontline therapy (steroids) (29%) or to steroids and 1-5 additional lines of immunosuppressants (71%) were given infusions in four weekly intervals. The day 28 overall response rate was 83%; at the last follow-up, 61% and 25% of patients were in complete or partial remission. The median follow-up was 8.1 months. Six-month estimate for cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 27% (range, 16-38); leukemia relapse mortality was 2% (range, 0-5). This was associated with a superior six-month overall survival (OS) probability rate of 71% (range, 61-83), compared to the outcome of patients not treated with MSC-FFM. This novel product was effective in children and adults, suggesting that MSC-FFM represents a promising therapy for steroid refractory aGvHD.

  5. Exosomes Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell- (hucMSC- derived exosomes (hucMSC-exosomes have a protective effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Exosomes were characterized under transmission electron microscopy and the particles of exosomes were further examined through nanoparticle tracking analysis. Exosomes (400 μg protein were intravenously administrated immediately following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery in rats. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and apoptotic cells were counted using TUNEL staining. The cardiac fibrosis was assessed using Masson’s trichrome staining. The Ki67 positive cells in ischemic myocardium were determined using immunohistochemistry. The effect of hucMSC-exosomes on blood vessel formation was evaluated through tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells. The results indicated that ligation of the LAD coronary artery reduced cardiac function and induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Administration of hucMSC-exosomes significantly improved cardiac systolic function and reduced cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, hucMSC-exosomes protected myocardial cells from apoptosis and promoted the tube formation and migration of EA.hy926 cells. It is concluded that hucMSC-exosomes improved cardiac systolic function by protecting myocardial cells from apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis. These effects of hucMSC-exosomes might be associated with regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family.

  6. Effects of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cuprizone induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Nessler

    Full Text Available For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model mimicking some aspects of multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear if this effect was achieved by systemic immunomodulation or if there is an active neuroregeneration in the central nervous system (CNS. In order to investigate remyelination and regeneration in the CNS we analysed the effects of intravenously and intranasally applied murine and human bone marrow-derived MSC on cuprizone induced demyelination, a toxic animal model which allows analysis of remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. In contrast to EAE no effects of MSC on de- and remyelination and glial cell reactions were found. In addition, neither murine nor human MSC entered the lesions in the CNS in this toxic model. In conclusion, MSC are not directed into CNS lesions in the cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier is intact and thus cannot provide support for regenerative processes.

  7. Characterization of Tetraploid Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeoung-Eun; Eum, Jin Hee; Chung, Young Gie; Lee, Hoon Taek; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2017-12-01

    Polyploidy is occurred by the process of endomitosis or cell fusion and usually represent terminally differentiated stage. Their effects on the developmental process were mainly investigated in the amphibian and fishes, and only observed in some rodents as mammalian model. Recently, we have established tetraploidy somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived human embryonic stem cells (SCNT-hESCs) and examined whether it could be available as a research model for the polyploidy cells existed in the human tissues. Two tetraploid hESC lines were artificially acquired by reintroduction of remained 1st polar body during the establishment of SCNT-hESC using MII oocytes obtained from female donors and dermal fibroblasts (DFB) from a 35-year-old adult male. These tetraploid SCNT-hESC lines (CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3) were identified by the cytogenetic genotyping (91, XXXY,-6, t[2:6] / 92,XXXY,-12,+20) and have shown of indefinite proliferation, but slow speed when compared to euploid SCNT-hESCs. Using the eight Short Tendem Repeat (STR) markers, it was confirmed that both CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3 lines contain both nuclear and oocyte donor genotypes. These hESCs expressed pluripotency markers and their embryoid bodies (EB) also expressed markers of the three embryonic germ layers and formed teratoma after transplantation into immune deficient mice. This study showed that tetraploidy does not affect the activities of proliferation and differentiation in SCNT-hESC. Therefore, tetraploid hESC lines established after SCNT procedure could be differentiated into various types of cells and could be an useful model for the study of the polyploidy cells in the tissues.

  8. Aiming for outstanding: Action research from students of the MSc in the Teaching of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Lintern, Fiona; Davies, Jamie; McGinty, Andrew; Fisher, Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    The first cohort of a new MSc programme is due to complete the course in August 2014. During the three-year online course students conduct several pieces of action research in their classrooms. There is little research specifically related classroom practice in the pre-tertiary psychology classroom. The following describes the rationale and context of the MSc in the Teaching of Psychology and reports on three students’ final year research. The first considers the benefits of Psychology Applie...

  9. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Fiedler, Tomas [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC. - Highlights: • LPS increased the release of IL-6 and IL-8 in adMSC significantly. • The migration rate of adMSC was not influenced by LPS or LTA. • LPS or LTA did not exert a chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  10. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim; Fiedler, Tomas; Peters, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC. - Highlights: • LPS increased the release of IL-6 and IL-8 in adMSC significantly. • The migration rate of adMSC was not influenced by LPS or LTA. • LPS or LTA did not exert a chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  11. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells utilise Activin-A to suppress Interferon-gamma production by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjana eChaterjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, interferon (IFN-gamma levels in the recipient’s body can strongly influence the clinical outcome. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs are lucrative as biological tolerance-inducers in HSCT settings. Hence, we studied the molecular mechanism of how UC-MSCs influence natural killer (NK cell-mediated IFN-gamma production. Allogeneic NK cells were cultured in direct contact with UC-MSCs or cell free supernatants from MSC cultures (MSC conditioned media. We found that soluble factors secreted by UC-MSCs strongly suppressed IL-12/IL-18-induced IFN-gamma production by NK cells by reducing phosphorylation of STAT4, NF-kB as well as T-bet activity. UC-MSCs secreted considerable amounts of Activin-A, which could suppress IFN-gamma production by NK cells. Neutralisation of Activin-A in MSC-conditioned media significantly abrogated their suppressive abilities. Till date, multiple groups have reported that prostaglandin (PG-E2 produced by MSCs can suppress NK cell functions. Indeed, we found that inhibition of PGE2 production by MSCs could also significantly restore IFN-gamma production. However, the effects of Activin-A and PGE2 were not cumulative. To the best of our knowledge, we are first to report the role of Activin-A in MSC-mediated suppression of IFN-gamma production by NK cells.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro via TLR4 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Fiedler, Tomas [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are capable of multi-lineage differentiation and support regenerative processes. In bacterial infections, resident MSC can come intocontact with and need to react to bacterial components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a typical structure of Gram-negative bacteria, increases the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSC. LPS is usually recognized by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and induces pro-inflammatory reactions in numerous cell types. In this study, we quantified the protein expression of TLR4 and CD14 on adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in osteogenic differentiation and investigated the effect of TLR4 activation by LPS on NF-κB activation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. We found that TLR4 is expressed on adMSC whereas CD14 is not, and that osteogenic differentiation induced an increase of the amount of TLR4 protein whereas LPS stimulation did not. Moreover, we could show that NF-κB activation via TLR4 occurs upon LPS treatment. Furthermore, we were able to show that competitive inhibition of TLR4 completely abolished the stimulatory effect of LPS on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. In addition, the inhibition of TLR4 leads to the complete absence of osteogenic differentiation of adMSC, even when osteogenically stimulated. Thus, we conclude that LPS induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC in vitro through the activation of TLR4 and that the TLR4 receptor seems to play a role during osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell treatment in patients with severe ischaemic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Jørgensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Regenerative treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been promising in patients with ischaemic heart failure but needs confirmation in larger randomized trials. We aimed to study effects of intra-myocardial autologous bone marrow-derived MSC treatment in patients with severe isc...... identified. CONCLUSION: Intra-myocardial injections of autologous culture expanded MSCs were safe and improved myocardial function in patients with severe ischaemic heart failure. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00644410 (ClinicalTrials.gov)....... ischaemic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MSC-HF trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to intra-myocardial injections of MSC or placebo, respectively. The primary endpoint was change in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), measured...

  14. Characterization and Immunomodulatory Effects of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Russell

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies.We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT and bone marrow (BM MSC (derived from the same dogs will have similar differentiation and immune modulatory profiles. Our objectives were to evaluate progenitor and non-progenitor functions as well as other characteristics of AT- and BM-MSC including 1 proliferation rate, 2 cell surface marker expression, 3 DNA methylation levels, 4 potential for trilineage differentiation towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell fates, and 5 immunomodulatory potency in vitro.1 AT-MSC proliferated at more than double the rate of BM-MSC (population doubling times in days for passage (P 2, AT: 1.69, BM: 3.81; P3, AT: 1.80, BM: 4.06; P4, AT: 2.37, BM: 5.34; P5, AT: 3.20, BM: 7.21. 2 Canine MSC, regardless of source, strongly expressed cell surface markers MHC I, CD29, CD44, and CD90, and were negative for MHC II and CD45. They also showed moderate expression of CD8 and CD73 and mild expression of CD14. Minor differences were found in expression of CD4 and CD34. 3 Global DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in BM-MSC compared to AT-MSC. 4 Little difference was found between AT- and BM-MSC in their potential for adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Chondrogenesis was poor to absent for both sources in spite of adding varying levels of bone-morphogenic protein to our standard transforming growth factor (TGF-β3-based induction medium. 5 Immunomodulatory capacity was equal regardless of cell source when tested in

  15. Behavioral Evaluation of hMSC-GFP+ Transplantation in an Hemiparkinson Experimental Model in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Paola Alcázar Arzuza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hMSCs-GFP+ transplantation was evaluated in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease (PD in 27 Wistar rats, or in three experimental groups: control (CON  n=7, injured (LES n=10 and transplanted (LES+T n=10. In order to evaluate the influence of the transplantation on the motor behavior, one month after the injury, rotation behavior induced by apomorphine, neurological test, transversal bar and SNpc cells positive to TH were developed. Using the Anova test, there was a decrease in the number of turns in transplanted animals (p=0.005 as well as in the neurological test (p=0.0004 and in the transverse bar that lead to this group in an intermediate position regarding LES and CON groups. There is a possible recovery of the transplantation-mediated nigroestriatal pathway of hMSC-GFP +.

  16. Physiological oxygen prevents frequent silencing of the DLK1-DIO3 cluster during human embryonic stem cells culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pingyuan; Sun, Yi; Ouyang, Qi; Hu, Liang; Tan, Yueqiu; Zhou, Xiaoying; Xiong, Bo; Zhang, Qianjun; Yuan, Ding; Pan, Yi; Liu, Tiancheng; Liang, Ping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-02-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations are observed in long-term culture (>30 passages) of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); however, little information is available in early cultures. Through a large-scale gene expression analysis between initial-passage hESCs (ihESCs, cell derivatives, possibly through attenuation of the expression and phosphorylation of p53. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 5% oxygen, instead of the commonly used 20% oxygen, is required for preserving the expression of the DLK1-DIO3 cluster. Overall, the data suggest that active expression of the DLK1-DIO3 cluster represents a new biomarker for epigenetic stability of hESCs and indicates the importance of using a proper physiological oxygen level during the derivation and culture of hESCs. © AlphaMed Press.

  17. Advanced finite element simulation with MSC Marc application of user subroutines

    CERN Document Server

    Javanbakht, Zia

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth insight into the general-purpose finite element program MSC Marc, which is distributed by MSC Software Corporation. It is a specialized program for nonlinear problems (implicit solver) which is common in academia and industry. The primary goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive introduction to a special feature of this software: the user can write user-subroutines in the programming language Fortran, which is the language of all classical finite element packages. This subroutine feature allows the user to replace certain modules of the core code and to implement new features such as constitutive laws or new elements. Thus, the functionality of commercial codes (‘black box’) can easily be extended by linking user written code to the main core of the program. This feature allows to take advantage of a commercial software package with the flexibility of a ‘semi-open’ code. .

  18. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Succar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL. At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microparticles: a promising therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Gong, Yong-Zhen; Wu, Ping; Liao, Duan-Fang; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2014-08-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to various cell types of the mesodermal germ layer. Because of their unique ability to home in on injured and cancerous tissues, MSCs are of great potential in regenerative medicine. MSCs also contribute to reparative processes in different pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, many studies have shown that only a small proportion of transplanted MSCs can actually survive and be incorporated into host tissues. The effects of MSCs cannot be fully explained by their number. Recent discoveries suggest that microparticles (MPs) derived from MSCs may be important for the physiological functions of their parent. Though the physiological role of MSC-MPs is currently not well understood, inspiring results indicate that, in tissue repair and anti-cancer therapy, MSC-MPs have similar pro-regenerative and protective properties as their cellular counterparts. Thus, MSC-MPs represent a promising approach that may overcome the obstacles and risks associated with the use of native or engineered MSCs.

  20. New algorithms derived from the synthesis method. Application to diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, Philippe.

    1976-05-01

    Two algorithms to compute the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor are presented. These algorithms, the iterative synthesis method (MSI) and the synthesis method by deflation (MSD), are derived from the classical synthesis method (MSC). They retain the most important advantages of MSC (computing time and memory storage reduced with regard to finite difference methods) and avoid its drawbacks: choice of trial functions; choice of weighting functions; choice of the number of terms (for MSD only). Extensive numerical checks of the three methods (MSC, MSI, MSD) were carried out on two fast reactor configurations described in plane geometry (X,Y). Monoenergetic and multigroup theories were successively used. The use of MSI and MSD allows a significant reduction of the discrepancies between the finite difference method and the synthesis method for the reactivity values and the flux distribution [fr

  1. Derivation and characterization of human fetal MSCs: an alternative cell source for large-scale production of cardioprotective microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Arslan, Fatih; Tan, Soon Sim; Tan, Betty; Choo, Andre; Lee, May May; Chen, Tian Sheng; Teh, Bao Ju; Eng, John Kun Long; Sidik, Harwin; Tanavde, Vivek; Hwang, Wei Sek; Lee, Chuen Neng; El Oakley, Reida Menshawe; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Tan, Kok Hian; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2010-06-01

    The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation are increasingly thought to be mediated by MSC secretion. We have previously demonstrated that human ESC-derived MSCs (hESC-MSCs) produce cardioprotective microparticles in pig model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. As the safety and availability of clinical grade human ESCs remain a concern, MSCs from fetal tissue sources were evaluated as alternatives. Here we derived five MSC cultures from limb, kidney and liver tissues of three first trimester aborted fetuses and like our previously described hESC-derived MSCs; they were highly expandable and had similar telomerase activities. Each line has the potential to generate at least 10(16-19) cells or 10(7-10) doses of cardioprotective secretion for a pig model of MI/R injury. Unlike previously described fetal MSCs, they did not express pluripotency-associated markers such as Oct4, Nanog or Tra1-60. They displayed a typical MSC surface antigen profile and differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. Global gene expression analysis by microarray and qRT-PCR revealed a typical MSC gene expression profile that was highly correlated among the five fetal MSC cultures and with that of hESC-MSCs (r(2)>0.90). Like hESC-MSCs, they produced secretion that was cardioprotective in a mouse model of MI/R injury. HPLC analysis of the secretion revealed the presence of a population of microparticles with a hydrodynamic radius of 50-65 nm. This purified population of microparticles was cardioprotective at approximately 1/10 dosage of the crude secretion. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Directed neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noggle Scott A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a culture system for the efficient and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs to neural precursors and neurons. HESC were maintained by manual passaging and were differentiated to a morphologically distinct OCT-4+/SSEA-4- monolayer cell type prior to the derivation of embryoid bodies. Embryoid bodies were grown in suspension in serum free conditions, in the presence of 50% conditioned medium from the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 (MedII. Results A neural precursor population was observed within HESC derived serum free embryoid bodies cultured in MedII conditioned medium, around 7–10 days after derivation. The neural precursors were organized into rosettes comprised of a central cavity surrounded by ring of cells, 4 to 8 cells in width. The central cells within rosettes were proliferating, as indicated by the presence of condensed mitotic chromosomes and by phosphoHistone H3 immunostaining. When plated and maintained in adherent culture, the rosettes of neural precursors were surrounded by large interwoven networks of neurites. Immunostaining demonstrated the expression of nestin in rosettes and associated non-neuronal cell types, and a radial expression of Map-2 in rosettes. Differentiated neurons expressed the markers Map-2 and Neurofilament H, and a subpopulation of the neurons expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion This novel directed differentiation approach led to the efficient derivation of neuronal cultures from HESCs, including the differentiation of tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons. HESC were morphologically differentiated to a monolayer OCT-4+ cell type, which was used to derive embryoid bodies directly into serum free conditions. Exposure to the MedII conditioned medium enhanced the derivation of neural precursors, the first example of the effect of this conditioned medium on HESC.

  3. University-Industry Teaching Collaborations: A Case Study of the MSc in Structural Integrity Co-Produced by Brunel University London and The Welding Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Donovan, Claire; Lee, Jeung

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of an MSc in Structural Integrity co-produced by Brunel University London and industry partner The Welding Institute (TWI), designed to supply 'work-ready' graduates. Pre-, mid- and post-course quantitative surveys were administered to students, and two mid-term focus groups were conducted. Pre- and post-course…

  4. Reconstitution of the complete rupture in musculotendinous junction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cell sheet-pellets as a “bio-bond”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hashimoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant and/or complete rupture in the musculotendinous junction (MTJ is a challenging lesion to treat because of the lack of reliable suture methods. Skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cell (Sk-MSC sheet-pellets, which are able to reconstitute peripheral nerve and muscular/vascular tissues with robust connective tissue networks, have been applied as a “bio-bond”. Methods. Sk-MSC sheet-pellets, derived from GFP transgenic-mice after 7 days of expansion culture, were detached with EDTA to maintain cell–cell connections. A completely ruptured MTJ model was prepared in the right tibialis anterior (TA of the recipient mice, and was covered with sheet-pellets. The left side was preserved as a contralateral control. The control group received the same amount of the cell-free medium. The sheet-pellet transplantation (SP group was further divided into two groups; as the short term (4–8 weeks and long term (14–18 weeks recovery group. At each time point after transplantation, tetanic tension output was measured through the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The behavior of engrafted GFP+ tissues and cells was analyzed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Results. The SP short term recovery group showed average 64% recovery of muscle mass, and 36% recovery of tetanic tension output relative to the contralateral side. Then, the SP long term recovery group showed increased recovery of average muscle mass (77% and tetanic tension output (49%. However, the control group showed no recovery of continuity between muscle and tendon, and demonstrated increased muscle atrophy, with coalescence to the tibia during 4–8 weeks after operation. Histological evidence also supported the above functional recovery of SP group. Engrafted Sk-MSCs primarily formed the connective tissues and muscle fibers, including nerve-vascular networks, and bridged the ruptured tendon–muscle fiber units, with differentiation into skeletal

  5. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  6. Improved isolation protocol for equine cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Betts, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

      BACKGROUND AIMS: A robust methodology for the isolation of cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSCs) from fresh umbilical cord blood has not been reported in any species. The objective of this study was to improve the isolation procedure for equine CB-MSCs. METHODS: Pre......-culture separation of red and white blood cells was done using either PrepaCyte?-EQ medium or Ficoll-Paque? PREMIUM density medium. Regular FBS and MSC-qualified FBS were compared for their ability to support the establishment of putative primary MSC colonies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Prepa...

  7. Enhanced Healing of Diabetic Wounds by Subcutaneous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Derived Stem Cells and Their Conditioned Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Chandrama; Zhao, Liling; Chen, Ke; He, Honghui; Mo, Zhaohui

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the umbilical cord and their conditioned media (CM) can be easily obtained and refined compared with stem cells from other sources. Here, we explore the possibility of the benefits of these cells in healing diabetic wounds. Methodology and Results. Delayed wound healing animal models were established by making a standard wound on the dorsum of eighteen db/db mice, which were divided into three groups with six mice in each: groups I, II, and III received PBS, UC-MSC, and CM, respectively. UC-MSC and their CM significantly accelerated wound closure compared to PBS-treated wounds, and it was most rapid in CM-injected wounds. In day-14 wounds, significant difference in capillary densities among the three groups was noted (n = 6; P UC-MSC-injected wounds compared to the PBS-treated wounds were seen. The expression levels of PDGF-β and KGF were higher in CM-treated wounds than those in UC-MSC-treated wounds. Conclusion. Both the transplantation of UC-MSC and their CM are beneficial to diabetic wound healing, and CM has been shown to be therapeutically better than UC-MSC, at least in the context of diabetic wound healing. PMID:24089612

  8. Brief Report: External Beam Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew S; Tang, Chad; Hong, Wan Xing; Park, Sujin; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Nelson, Geoff; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Bakerman, Isaac; Zhang, Wendy; Neofytou, Evgenios; Connolly, Andrew J; Chan, Charles K; Graves, Edward E; Weissman, Irving L; Nguyen, Patricia K; Wu, Joseph C

    2017-08-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), have great potential as an unlimited donor source for cell-based therapeutics. The risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, however, remains a critical barrier to the clinical application of these cells. Herein, we describe external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as an attractive option for the treatment of this iatrogenic growth. We present evidence that EBRT is effective in arresting growth of hESC-derived teratomas in vivo at day 28 post-implantation by using a microCT irradiator capable of targeted treatment in small animals. Within several days of irradiation, teratomas derived from injection of undifferentiated hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated complete growth arrest lasting several months. In addition, EBRT reduced reseeding potential of teratoma cells during serial transplantation experiments, requiring irradiated teratomas to be seeded at 1 × 10 3 higher doses to form new teratomas. We demonstrate that irradiation induces teratoma cell apoptosis, senescence, and growth arrest, similar to established radiobiology mechanisms. Taken together, these results provide proof of concept for the use of EBRT in the treatment of existing teratomas and highlight a strategy to increase the safety of stem cell-based therapies. Stem Cells 2017;35:1994-2000. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Impact of starting material (fresh versus cryopreserved marrow) on mesenchymal stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alesia; Sackett, Katie; Sumstad, Darin; Kadidlo, Dianne; McKenna, David H

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continue to be investigated in multiple clinical trials as potential therapy for different disorders. There is ongoing controversy surrounding the clinical use of cryopreserved versus fresh MSCs. However, little is known about how cryopreservation affects marrow as starting material. The growth kinetics of MSC cultures derived from fresh versus cryopreserved marrow were compared. Data were reviewed on the growth kinetics of MSCs derived from fresh versus cryopreserved marrow of nine donors. Marrow harvested from each donor was separated into four aliquots (one fresh and three cryopreserved for culture). Data on the date of mononuclear cell cryopreservation/thaw, MSC counts at Passages 1 and 2, MSC doubling, MSC fold expansion, viability (of mononuclear cells and final MSCs), and on flow cytometry markers of mononuclear cells and final MSCs were analyzed for the fresh and cryopreserved marrow groups. In total, 21 MSC lots (seven fresh and 14 cryopreserved) were obtained. The average age of cryopreserved mononuclear cell product was 295 days (range, 18-1241 days). There were no significant differences between MSC numbers at Passage 1 (p = 0.1), final MSC numbers (p = 0.5), MSC doubling (p = 0.7), or MSC fold expansion (p = 0.7). A significant difference was observed in viability by flow cytometry for both mononuclear cells (p = 0.002) and final MSCs (p = 0.009), with higher viability in the fresh marrow group. This study demonstrates that MSCs derived from cryopreserved marrow have the same growth characteristics as fresh marrow-derived MSCs. Further studies are needed to explore potential differences in clinical efficacy. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, F G J; Vervat, C; van Pel, M; de Haas, V; Vijfhuizen, L S; Eising, E; Kroes, W G M; 't Hoen, P A C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Egeler, R M; van Tol, M J D; Ball, L M

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous disease covering a spectrum ranging from aplasia (RCC) to myeloproliferation (RAEB(t)). In adult-type MDS there is increasing evidence for abnormal function of the bone-marrow microenvironment. Here, we extensively studied the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from children with MDS. MSCs were expanded from the bone-marrow of 17 MDS patients (RCC: n=10 and advanced MDS: n=7) and pediatric controls (n=10). No differences were observed with respect to phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunomodulatory capacity or hematopoietic support. mRNA expression analysis by Deep-SAGE revealed increased IL-6 expression in RCC- and RAEB(t)-MDS. RCC-MDS MSC expressed increased levels of DKK3, a protein associated with decreased apoptosis. RAEB(t)-MDS revealed increased CRLF1 and decreased DAPK1 expressions. This pattern has been associated with transformation in hematopoietic malignancies. Genes reported to be differentially expressed in adult MDS-MSC did not differ between MSC of pediatric MDS and controls. An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. In vivo MR detection of fluorine-labeled human MSC using the bSSFP sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribot EJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emeline J Ribot,1 Jeffrey M Gaudet,1,2 Yuhua Chen,1 Kyle M Gilbert,1 Paula J Foster1,2 1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are used to restore deteriorated cell environments. There is a need to specifically track these cells following transplantation in order to evaluate different methods of implantation, to follow their migration within the body, and to quantify their accumulation at the target. Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using fluorine-based nanoemulsions is a great means to detect these transplanted cells in vivo because of the high specificity for fluorine detection and the capability for precise quantification. This technique, however, has low sensitivity, necessitating improvement in MR sequences. To counteract this issue, the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP imaging sequence can be of great interest due to the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Furthermore, it can be applied to obtain 3D images within short acquisition times. In this paper, bSSFP provided accurate quantification of samples of the perfluorocarbon Cell Sense-labeled cells in vitro. Cell Sense was internalized by human MSC (hMSC without adverse alterations in cell viability or differentiation into adipocytes/osteocytes. The bSSFP sequence was applied in vivo to track and quantify the signals from both Cell Sense-labeled and iron-labeled hMSC after intramuscular implantation. The fluorine signal was observed to decrease faster and more significantly than the volume of iron-associated voids, which points to the advantage of quantifying the fluorine signal and the complexity of quantifying signal loss due to iron. Keywords: bSSFP, fluorine MRI, mesenchymal stem cell, mouse, cell tracking

  12. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  13. The therapeutic effects of MSc1 nanocomplex, synthesized by nanochelating technology, on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitic C57/BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakharzadeh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Saideh Fakharzadeh,1 Mohammad Ali Sahraian,2 Maryam Hafizi,1 Somayeh Kalanaky,1 Zahra Masoumi,1 Mehdi Mahdavi,1 Nasser Kamalian,3 Alireza Minagar,4 Mohammad Hassan Nazaran1 1Department of Research and Development, Sodour Ahrar Shargh Company, Tehran, Iran; 2MS Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Pathology, Medical School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Neurology, LSU Health Sciences Centre, Shreveport, LA, USA Purpose: Currently approved therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS at best only slow down its progression. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize novel technologies in order to synthesize smart multifunctional structures. In the present study, for the first time we evaluated the therapeutic potential of MSc1 nanocomplex, which was designed based on novel nanochelating technology. Materials and methods: MSc1 cell-protection capacity, with and without iron bond, was evaluated against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat pheochromocytoma-12 cells. The ability of MSc1 to maintain iron bond at pH ranges of 1–7 was evaluated. Nanocomplex toxicity was examined by estimating the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitic mice were injected with MSc1 14 days after disease induction, when the clinical symptoms appeared. The clinical score, body weight, and disease-induced mortality were monitored until day 54. In the end, after collecting blood samples for assessing hemoglobin and red blood cell count, the brains and livers of the mice were isolated for hematoxylin and eosin staining and analysis of iron content, respectively. Results: The results showed that MSc1 prevented H2O2-induced cell death even after binding with iron, and it preserved its bond with iron constant at pH ranges 1–7. The nanocomplex intraperitoneal LD50 was 1,776.59 mg/kg. MSc1 prompted therapeutic

  14. Constructing solvable groups with derived length four and four character degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to construct solvable groups with derived length four and four character degrees. We then use this method to present a number of new families of groups with derived length four and four character degrees.

  15. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1–60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  16. Evaluation of a dental pulp-derived cell sheet cultured on amniotic membrane substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Adachi, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Takeshi; Mazda, Osam; Kanamura, Narisato; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are transplanted for periodontal tissue regeneration, and the periodontal ligament (PDL) is regenerated using a cultured cell sheet. This cultured cell sheet is prepared using PDL-derived cells, growth factors, and amniotic membrane (AM). Dental pulp (DP)-derived cells can be easily obtained from extracted wisdom teeth, proliferate rapidly, and are less susceptible to bacterial infection than PDL-derived cells. Thus, to prepare a novel cell sheet, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM as a culture substrate for immunohistochemical examination. Wisdom teeth extracted from three adults were cut along the cement-enamel border. DP tissue was collected, minced, and primarily cultured. After three or four passage cultures, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM, followed by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and immunofluorescence staining. DP-derived cells cultured on AM formed a layered structure. Cells positive for vimentin, Ki-67, ZO-1, desmoplakin, CD29, 44, 105 or 146, STRO-1, collagen IV or VII or laminin 5 or α5 chain were localized. DP-derived cells proliferated on AM, while retaining the properties of DP, which allowed the cultured cell sheet to be prepared. In addition, the cultured cell sheet contained MSC, which suggests its potential application in periodontal tissue regeneration.

  17. Combination therapy with intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells and articulated joint distraction for repair of a chronic osteochondral defect in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yohei; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Mahmoud, Elhussein Elbadry; Kamei, Goki; Adachi, Nobuo; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated intra-articular injection of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with articulated joint distraction as treatment for osteochondral defects. Large osteochondral defects were created in the weight-bearing area of the medial femoral condyle in rabbit knees. Four weeks after defect creation, rabbits were divided into six groups: control group, MSC group, distraction group, distraction + MSC group, temporary distraction group, and temporary distraction + MSC group. Groups with MSC received intra-articular injection of MSCs. Groups with distraction underwent articulated distraction arthroplasty. Groups with temporary distraction discontinued the distraction after 4 weeks. The rabbits were euthanized at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment except temporary distraction groups which were euthanized at only 12 weeks. Histological scores in the distraction + MSC group were significantly better than in the control, MSC group or distraction group at 4 and 8 weeks, but showed no further improvement. At 12 weeks, the temporary distraction + MSC group showed the best results, demonstrating hyaline cartilage repair with regeneration of the osteochondral junction. In conclusion, joint distraction with intra-articular injection of MSCs promotes early cartilage repair, and compressive loading of the repair tissue after temporary distraction stimulates articular cartilage regeneration. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enhanced Healing of Diabetic Wounds by Subcutaneous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Derived Stem Cells and Their Conditioned Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrama Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from the umbilical cord and their conditioned media (CM can be easily obtained and refined compared with stem cells from other sources. Here, we explore the possibility of the benefits of these cells in healing diabetic wounds. Methodology and Results. Delayed wound healing animal models were established by making a standard wound on the dorsum of eighteen db/db mice, which were divided into three groups with six mice in each: groups I, II, and III received PBS, UC-MSC, and CM, respectively. UC-MSC and their CM significantly accelerated wound closure compared to PBS-treated wounds, and it was most rapid in CM-injected wounds. In day-14 wounds, significant difference in capillary densities among the three groups was noted (n=6; P<0.05, and higher levels of VEGF, PDGF, and KGF expression in the CM- and UC-MSC-injected wounds compared to the PBS-treated wounds were seen. The expression levels of PDGF-β and KGF were higher in CM-treated wounds than those in UC-MSC-treated wounds. Conclusion. Both the transplantation of UC-MSC and their CM are beneficial to diabetic wound healing, and CM has been shown to be therapeutically better than UC-MSC, at least in the context of diabetic wound healing.

  19. Effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on chronic visceral hypersensitivity in a radio-induced colonic ulceration model in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Patients who undergo pelvic radiotherapy may develop significant incidence of undesirable chronic gastrointestinal complications resulting from radiation-induced damages around the tumour. Chronic visceral pain is one of the radiation-induced side effects that greatly affects the quality of life of 'cancer survivors'. The lack of effective analgesic treatment highlights the importance of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. In our laboratory, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) based approach showed beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative effects in a rat model of irreversible radiationinduced colonic ulcers. The goal of my work was to assess the relevance of this model to study radiation-induced visceral persistent hypersensitivity and its modulation by MSC treatment. We first demonstrated that this model is associated with long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity and central neuronal sensitization. In this context we showed then that mast cells (MC) are involved in the mechanism of peripheral sensitization. Moreover, we suggested the implication of the neuro-mediator NO . in the pathophysiology of persistent radiation-induced visceral hypersensitivity. We also suggested that MSC treatment reversed radiation-induced hypersensitivity by a mechanism that in part may involve the modulation of MC activation and/or the decrease in the number of MC and nerve fiber interactions. In addition, MSC treatment reduced the percentage of nitrinergic neurons, increased after irradiation, and restored colonic muscular contractibility. Such processes may promote the therapeutic benefit of MSC observed in our study. In conclusion, this work provided new insights on the therapeutic benefit of MSC in our study model and a new argument in favour of their use in a future clinical trial to cure abdomino-pelvic radiotherapy side effects. (author) [fr

  20. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from horses after euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Carmen; Eydt, Carina; Geburek, Florian; Kaiser, Lena; Päbst, Felicitas; Burk, Janina; Pfarrer, Christiane; Staszyk, Carsten

    2017-11-01

    Allogeneic equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs) have been proposed for use in regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine. A source of allogeneic eMSCs might be the bone marrow from euthanized horses. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro characteristics of equine bone marrow derived eMSC (eBM-MSCs) from euthanized horses (eut-MSCs) and from narcotized horses (nar-MSCs). Eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs showed typical eMSC marker profiles (positive: CD44, CD90; negative: CD11a/CD18 and MHCII) and possessed tri-lineage differentiation characteristics. Although CD105 and MHCI expression varied, no differences were detected between eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs. Proliferation characteristics did not differ between eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs, but age dependent decrease in proliferation and increase in MHCI expression was detected. These results suggest the possible use of eut-MSCs for therapeutic applications and production of commercial available eBM-MSC products.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles: a glimmer of hope in treating Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lee Chuen; Katsuda, Takeshi; Gailhouste, Luc; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of extracellular plaques resulting from the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). To date, a definitive cure for this disease is still lacking as the currently approved drugs used are mainly symptomatic treatments. The revolutionary discovery of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has shed new light on the development of disease-modifying treatments for AD, owing to their potential in delivering the therapeutic agents to the brain. The feasibility of harnessing EVs for clinical applications is highly dependent on the donor cell, which determines the intrinsic properties of EVs. The merit of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as therapeutic delivery vehicles, and the proven therapeutic effects of the EVs derived from these cells, make researchers esteem MSCs as ideal producers of EVs. Therefore, MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) emerge to be an appealing therapeutic delivery approach for the treatment of AD. Here, we discuss perspectives on the therapeutic strategies using MSC-EVs to treat AD and the associated challenges in clinical application. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Gastric cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells impact peripheral blood mononuclear cells via disruption of Treg/Th17 balance to promote gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Chen, Bin; Sun, Xiao-Xian; Zhao, Xiang-Dong; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Li; Xu, Chang-Gen; Shen, Bo; Su, Zhao-Liang; Xu, Wen-Rong; Zhu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Gastric cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) are important resident stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and have been shown to play a key role in gastric cancer progression. Whether GC-MSCs exert a tumor-promoting function by affecting anti-tumor immunity is still unclear. In this study, we used GC-MSC conditioned medium (GC-MSC-CM) to pretreat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors. We found that GC-MSC-CM pretreatment markedly reversed the inhibitory effect of PBMCs on gastric cancer growth in vivo, but did not affect functions of PBMCs on gastric cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in vitro. PBMCs pretreated with GC-MSC-CM significantly promoted gastric cancer migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro and liver metastases in vivo. Flow cytometry analysis showed that GC-MSC-CM pretreatment increased the proportion of Treg cells and reduced that of Th17 cells in PBMCs. CFSE labeling and naïve CD4 + T cells differentiation analysis revealed that GC-MSC-CM disrupted the Treg/Th17 balance in PBMCs by suppressing Th17 cell proliferation and inducing differentiation of Treg cells. Overall, our collective results indicate that GC-MSCs impair the anti-tumor immune response of PBMCs through disruption of Treg/Th17 balance, thus providing new evidence that gastric cancer tissue-derived MSCs contribute to the immunosuppressive TME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  4. ANALYSIS WITH MSC ADAMS OF A 5-FINGER AND 3-PHALANX /FINGER UNDER-ACTUATEDMECHANICAL HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analysis with MSC ADAMS of a 5-fingered and 3-phalanx/finger underactuatedmechanical hand, designed by the author to work on industrial robots. Moreover, in order to increasegrasping safety in the automated handling process, the author has fitted each finger with a locking sequence inthe final phase of grasping. Thus, the mechanism of mechanical hand is considered to be a mechanical systemand is treated like a set of rigid bodies connected by mechanical linkages and elastic elements. To model andsimulate this mechanism with MSC ADAMS programme, the author covered the following stages: constructionof the model, testing-simulation, validation, finishing, parameterization, and optimization

  5. Cell therapy medicinal product regulatory framework in Europe and its application for MSC based therapy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis eAncans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs, including cell therapy products, form a new class of medicines in the European Union. Since ATMPs are at the forefront of scientific innovation in medicine, specific regulatory framework has been developed for these medicines and implemented from 2009. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT has been established at European Medicines Agency (EMA for centralized classification, certification and evaluation procedures, and other ATMP related tasks. Guidance documents, initiatives and interaction platforms are available to make the new framework more accessible for small and medium-sized enterprises, academia, hospitals and foundations. Good understanding of centralised and national components of the regulatory system is required to plan product development. It is in the best interests of cell therapy developers to utilise provided resources starting with the preclinical stage. Whilst there have not been mesenchymal stem cell (MSC based medicine authorisations in the EU, three MSC products have received marketing approval in other regions since 2011. Information provided on regulatory requirements, procedures and initiatives is aimed to facilitate MSC based medicinal product development and authorisation in the EU.

  6. Conditioned Media from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Induced the Apoptosis and Differentiation in Human Glioma Cell Lines In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs. We found (1 MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2 MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3 real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4 furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy.

  7. Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Kidwai, Fahad Karim; Zou, Yu; Tong, Huei Jinn; Liu, Xiaochen; Islam, Intekhab; Toh, Wei Seong; Raghunath, Michael; Cao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-Kert(ACC)) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-Kert(AFF) were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-Kert(AFF) showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during

  8. The modeling experience of fuel element units operation under MSC.MARC and MENTAT 2008R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, G.; Kashirin, B.; Kosaurov, A.; Konovalov, Y.; Kuznetsov, A.; Medvedev, A.; Novikov, V.; Vatulin, A.

    2009-01-01

    MSC Software is leading developer of CAE-software in the world, so behaviour of fuel elements modeling with MSC.MARC use is of great practical importance. Behaviour of fuel elements usually is modeled in the elastic-viscous-plastic statement with account on fuel swelling during irradiation. For container type fuel elements contact interaction between fuel pellets and cladding or other parts of fuel element in top and bottom plugs must be in account. Results of simulated behaviour of various type fuel elements - container type fuel elements for PWR and RBMK reactors, dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors are presented. (authors)

  9. Effects Of Hypoxia in Long-Term In Vitro Expansion of Human Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Laureano, Álvaro; Valim, Vanessa; Dahmer, Alice; Zambonato, Bruna; Sehn, Filipe; Wilke, Ianaê; Bruschi, Lia; Silva, Maria Aparecida Lima da; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo; Silla, Lucia

    2017-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are considered multipotent stromal, non-hematopoietic cells with properties of self-renovation and differentiation. Optimal conditions for culture of MSC have been under investigation. The oxygen tension used for cultivation has been studied and appears to play an important role in biological behavior of mesenchymal cells. The aim is characterize MSC in hypoxia and normoxia conditions comparing their morphological and functional characteristics. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from 15 healthy donors and cultured. MSC obtained from each donor were separated into two cultivation conditions normoxia (21% O 2 ) and hypoxia (three donors at 1%, three donors at 2%, five donors at 3%, and four donors at 4% O 2 ) up to second passage. MSC were evaluated for proliferation, differentiation, immunophenotyping, size and cell complexity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial activity, and autophagy. Culture conditions applied did not seem to affect immunophenotypic features and cellular plasticity. However, cells subjected to hypoxia showed smaller size and greater cellular complexity, besides lower proliferation (P cells cultured in low O 2 tension had lower mitochondrial activity (P Cell. Biochem. 118: 3072-3079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  11. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Dzobo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell–matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures.

  12. Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, C.M.A.H.; Ward-van Oostwaard, D.; Monshouwer-Kloots, J.; van den Brink, S.; van Rooijen, M.A.; Xu, X.; Zweigerdt, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Passier, R.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can proliferate indefinitely while retaining the capacity to form derivatives of all three germ layers. We have reported previously that hESC differentiate into cardiomyocytes when cocultured with a visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2). Insulin/insulin-like

  13. Fibroblasts derived from human pluripotent stem cells activate angiogenic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Shamis

    Full Text Available Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/hiPSC are promising cell sources for the derivation of large numbers of specific cell types for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. We have describe a directed differentiation protocol that generates fibroblasts from both hESC and hiPSC (EDK/iPDK that support the repair and regeneration of epithelial tissue in engineered, 3D skin equivalents. In the current study, we analyzed the secretory profiles of EDK and iPDK cells to investigate the production of factors that activate and promote angiogenesis. Analysis of in vitro secretion profiles from EDK and iPDK cells demonstrated the elevated secretion of pro-angiogenic soluble mediators, including VEGF, HGF, IL-8, PDGF-AA, and Ang-1, that stimulated endothelial cell sprouting in a 3D model of angiogenesis in vitro. Phenotypic analysis of EDK and iPDK cells during the course of differentiation from hESCs and iPSCs revealed that both cell types progressively acquired pericyte lineage markers NG2, PDGFRβ, CD105, and CD73 and demonstrated transient induction of pericyte progenitor markers CD31, CD34, and Flk1/VEGFR2. Furthermore, when co-cultured with endothelial cells in 3D fibrin-based constructs, EDK and iPDK cells promoted self-assembly of vascular networks and vascular basement membrane deposition. Finally, transplantation of EDK cells into mice with hindlimb ischemia significantly reduced tissue necrosis and improved blood perfusion, demonstrating the potential of these cells to stimulate angiogenic responses in vivo. These findings demonstrate that stable populations of pericyte-like angiogenic cells can be generated with high efficiency from hESC and hiPSC using a directed differentiation approach. This provides new cell sources and opportunities for vascular tissue engineering and for the development of novel strategies in regenerative medicine.

  14. L1TD1 Is a Marker for Undifferentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Raymond Ching-Bong; Ibrahim, Abel; Fong, Helen; Thompson, Noelle; Lock, Leslie F.; Donovan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are stem cells capable of differentiating into cells representative of the three primary embryonic germ layers. There has been considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms regulating stem cell pluripotency, which will ultimately lead to development of more efficient methods to derive and culture hESC. In particular, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog are transcription factors known to be important in maintenance of hESC. However, many of the downstream ...

  15. Cell therapy medicinal product regulatory framework in Europe and its application for MSC-based therapy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancans, Janis

    2012-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), including cell therapy products, form a new class of medicines in the European Union. Since the ATMPs are at the forefront of scientific innovation in medicine, specific regulatory framework has been developed for these medicines and implemented from 2009. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) has been established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for centralized classification, certification and evaluation procedures, and other ATMP-related tasks. Guidance documents, initiatives, and interaction platforms are available to make the new framework more accessible for small- and medium-sized enterprises, academia, hospitals, and foundations. Good understanding of the centralized and national components of the regulatory system is required to plan product development. It is in the best interests of the cell therapy developers to utilize the resources provided starting with the pre-clinical stage. Whilst there have been no mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based medicine authorizations in the EU, three MSC products have received marketing approval in other regions since 2011. The information provided on the regulatory requirements, procedures, and initiatives is aimed at facilitating MSC-based medicinal product development and authorization in the EU. PMID:22912639

  16. Corneal endothelial expansion promoted by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Nakahara

    Full Text Available Healthy corneal endothelium is essential for maintaining corneal clarity, as the damage of corneal endothelial cells and loss of cell count causes severe visual impairment. Corneal transplantation is currently the only therapy for severe corneal disorders. The greatly limited proliferative ability of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs, even in vitro, has challenged researchers to establish efficient techniques for the cultivating HCECs, a pivotal issue for clinical applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate conditioned medium (CM obtained from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs (MSC-CM for use as a consistent expansion protocol of HCECs. When HCECs were maintained in the presence of MSC-CM, cell morphology assumed a hexagonal shape similar to corneal endothelial cells in vivo, as opposed to the irregular cell shape observed in control cultures in the absence of MSC-CM. They also maintained the functional protein phenotypes; ZO-1 and Na(+/K(+-ATPase were localized at the intercellular adherent junctions and pump proteins of corneal endothelium were accordingly expressed. In comparison to the proliferative potential observed in the control cultures, HCECs maintained in MSC-CM were found to have more than twice as many Ki67-positive cells and a greatly increased incorporation of BrdU into DNA. MSC-CM further facilitated the cell migration of HCECs. Lastly, the mechanism of cell proliferation mediated by MSC-CM was investigated, and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 was observed in HCECs after exposure to MSC-CM. The inhibitor to PI 3-kinase maintained the level of p27(Kip1 for up to 24 hours and greatly blocked the expression of cyclin D1 and D3 during the early G1 phase, leading to the reduction of cell density. These findings indicate that MSC-CM not only stimulates the proliferation of HCECs by regulating the G1 proteins of the cell cycle but also maintains the characteristic differentiated phenotypes necessary

  17. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  18. Scaffold preferences of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose-derived stem cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice influence the tissue engineering of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenburg, Gretel; Flade, Viktoria; Garbe, Annette I; Lauer, Günter; Labudde, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    We have analysed the growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow, and of adipose derived stem cells (ASC) from murine abdominal fat tissue, of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic animals grown directly on two types of hydroxyapatite ceramic bone substitutes. BONITmatrix® and NanoBone® have specific mechanical and physiochemical properties such as porosity and an inner surface that influence cellular growth. Both MSC and ASC were separately seeded on 200mg of each biomaterial and cultured for 3 weeks under osteogenic differentiation conditions. The degree of mineralisation was assessed by alizarin red dye and the specific alkaline phosphatase activity of the differentiated cells. The morphology of the cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cells was confirmed by analysing the expression of bone-specific genes (Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin) by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Comparison of BONITmatrix® and NanoBone® showed cell type-specific preferences in terms of osteogenic differentiation. MSC-derived osteoblast-like cells spread optimally on the surface of NanoBone® but not BONITmatrix® granules. In contrast BONITmatrix® granules conditioned the growth of osteoblast-like cells derived from ASC. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cultured cells on all matrices was confirmed by specific gene expression. Our results show that the in vitro growth and osteogenic differentiation of murine MSC or ASC of GFP transgenic mice are distinctly influenced by the ceramic substratum. While NanoBone® granules support the proliferation and differentiation of murine MSC isolated from bone marrow, the growth of murine ASC is supported by BONITmatrix® granules. NanoBone® is therefore recommended for use as scaffold in tissue engineering that requires MSC, whereas ASC can be combined with BONITmatrix® for

  19. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan Christian

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering. Each project description provides a brief overview of the purpose as well as the main activities. Further, a weighting between theoretical analysis, experimental work and computer modelling has been proposed. Usually...... page. Furthermore, other ideas for projects may be discussed with a potential supervisor. Many private engineering companies have a homepage on which they state that they would like to collaborate with students on a master project....

  20. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Cologne (Germany); Liu, Siyuan [National Institutes of Health, Language Section, Voice, Speech and Language Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 {mu}g/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  1. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia; Henning, Tobias D.; Liu, Siyuan

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 μg/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  2. A Sweet Potion to Put Embryonic Stem Cells to Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik D. Deb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are rapidly revolutionizing the areas of drug screening and therapy. In view of their applications and high operational costs at global multicentric setups, the ability to store and transport hESCs and derivatives under ambient temperatures, and their cryopreservation without compromising the stemness, function, and viability, is becoming imperative. Here we discuss the need for a natural cryoprotectant and biopreservative with a potential to improve cryopreservation, ambient temperature storage, and shipping of hESCs and derivatives. Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with therapeutic properties, protects the integrity of cells against desiccation, dehydration, and extreme heat or cold, and has been successfully tested for some somatic stem cell types. However, the biggest setback is the inability of mammalian cells to internalize trehalose. Here we review the methods being developed at different laboratories to facilitate its intercellular transport and advocate the need for similar advances in hESCs.

  3. Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells exerts therapeutic effects on parkinsonian model of rats: Focusing on neuroprotective effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayra Judith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow with secretory functions of various neurotrophic factors. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is also reported as one of chemokines released from MSCs. In this research, the therapeutic effects of MSCs through SDF-1α were explored. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 μg was injected into the right striatum of female SD rats with subsequent administration of GFP-labeled MSCs, fibroblasts, (i.v., 1 × 107 cells, respectively or PBS at 2 hours after 6-OHDA injection. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test for 1 month with consequent euthanasia for immunohistochemical evaluations. Additionally, to explore the underlying mechanisms, neuroprotective effects of SDF-1α were explored using 6-OHDA-exposed PC12 cells by using dopamine (DA assay and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Rats receiving MSC transplantation significantly ameliorated behaviorally both in cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test compared with the control groups. Correspondingly, rats with MSCs displayed significant preservation in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive fibers in the striatum and the number of TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc compared to that of control rats. In the in vitro study, SDF-1α treatment increased DA release and suppressed cell death induced by 6-OHDA administration compared with the control groups. Conclusions Consequently, MSC transplantation might exert neuroprotection on 6-OHDA-exposed dopaminergic neurons at least partly through anti-apoptotic effects of SDF-1α. The results demonstrate the potentials of intravenous MSC administration for clinical applications, although further explorations are required.

  4. Partial suppression of the respiratory defect of qrs1/her2 glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase mutants by overexpression of the mitochondrial pentatricopeptide Msc6p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Bruno S; Ferreira-Júnior, José Ribamar; Barros, Mario H

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a large body of evidences indicates the existence in the mitochondrial matrix of foci that contain different proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. Some of these proteins have a pentatricopeptide repeat motif that constitutes their RNA-binding structures. Here we report that MSC6, a mitochondrial pentatricopeptide protein of unknown function, is a multi copy suppressor of mutations in QRS1/HER2 a component of the trimeric complex that catalyzes the transamidation of glutamyl-tRNAQ to glutaminyl-tRNAQ. This is an essential step in mitochondrial translation because of the lack of a specific mitochondrial aminoacyl glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. MSC6 over-expression did not abolish translation of an aberrant variant form of Cox2p detected in QRS1/HER2 mutants, arguing against a suppression mechanism that bypasses Qrs1p function. A slight decrement of the mitochondrial translation capacity as well as diminished growth on respiratory carbon sources media for respiratory activity was observed in the msc6 null mutant. Additionally, the msc6 null mutant did not display any impairment in RNA transcription, processing or turnover. We concluded that Msc6p is a mitochondrial matrix protein and further studies are required to indicate the specific function of Msc6p in mitochondrial translation.

  5. Periodontal Ligament Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Increase Proliferation and Glycosaminoglycans Formation of Temporomandibular Joint Derived Fibrochondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ disorders are common disease in maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study is to regenerate fibrocartilage with a mixture of TMJ fibrochondrocytes and periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs. Materials and Methods. Fibrochondrocytes and PD-MSC were cocultured (ratio 1 : 1 for 3 weeks. Histology and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs assay were performed to examine the deposition of GAG. Green florescent protein (GFP was used to track PD-MSC. Conditioned medium of PD-MSCs was collected to study the soluble factors. Gene expression of fibrochondrocytes cultured in conditioned medium was tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Results. Increased proliferation of TMJ-CH was observed in coculture pellets when compared to monoculture. Enhanced GAG production in cocultures was shown by histology and GAG quantification. Tracing of GFP revealed the fact that PD-MSC disappears after coculture with TMJ-CH for 3 weeks. In addition, conditioned medium of PD-MSC was also shown to increase the proliferation and GAG deposition of TMJ-CH. Meanwhile, results of qPCR demonstrated that conditioned medium enhanced the expression levels of matrix-related genes in TMJ-CH. Conclusions. Results from this study support the mechanism of MSC-chondrocyte interaction, in which MSCs act as secretor of soluble factors that stimulate proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition of chondrocytes.

  6. Micro-Raman Imaging for Biology with Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Malvaso, Federica

    2015-05-05

    Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that can provide complex information on the vibrational state of the molecules. It defines the unique fingerprint that allow the identification of the various chemical components within a given sample. The aim of the following thesis work is to analyze Raman maps related to three pairs of different cells, highlighting differences and similarities through multivariate algorithms. The first pair of analyzed cells are human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), while the other two pairs are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from T lymphocytes and keratinocytes, respectively. Although two different multivariate techniques were employed, ie Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, the same results were achieved: the iPSCs derived from T-lymphocytes show a higher content of genetic material both compared with the iPSCs derived from keratinocytes and the hESCs . On the other side, equally evident, was that iPS cells derived from keratinocytes assume a molecular distribution very similar to hESCs.

  7. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  8. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsyn, Mark W; Daans, Jasmijn; Spaepen, Gie; Chatterjee, Shyama; Vermeulen, Katrien; D'Haese, Patrick; Van Tendeloo, Viggo Fi; Van Marck, Eric; Ysebaert, Dirk; Berneman, Zwi N; Jorens, Philippe G; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2007-12-14

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC) are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (h)MSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neurotrophin (NT)3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP) were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i) was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii) did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii) was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive

  9. Human embryonic mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium rescues kidney function in rats with established chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne van Koppen

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major health care problem, affecting more than 35% of the elderly population worldwide. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. Beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been described, however it is unclear whether the MSCs themselves or their secretome is required. We hypothesized that MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM reduces progression of CKD and studied functional and structural effects in a rat model of established CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX combined with L-NNA and 6% NaCl diet in Lewis rats. Six weeks after SNX, CKD rats received either 50 µg CM or 50 µg non-CM (NCM twice daily intravenously for four consecutive days. Six weeks after treatment CM administration was functionally effective: glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (PAH clearance were significantly higher in CM vs. NCM-treatment. Systolic blood pressure was lower in CM compared to NCM. Proteinuria tended to be lower after CM. Tubular and glomerular damage were reduced and more glomerular endothelial cells were found after CM. DNA damage repair was increased after CM. MSC-CM derived exosomes, tested in the same experimental setting, showed no protective effect on the kidney. In a rat model of established CKD, we demonstrated that administration of MSC-CM has a long-lasting therapeutic rescue function shown by decreased progression of CKD and reduced hypertension and glomerular injury.

  10. Derivative expansion and renormalisation group flows

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F

    2001-01-01

    We study the convergence of the derivative expansion for flow equations. The convergence strongly depends on the choice for the infrared regularisation. Based on the structure of the flow, we explain why optimised regulators lead to better physical predictions. This is applied to O(N)-symmetric real scalar field theories in 3d, where critical exponents are computed for all N. In comparison to the sharp cut-off regulator, an optimised flow improves the leading order result up to 10%. An analogous reasoning is employed for a proper time renormalisation group. We compare our results with those obtained by other methods.

  11. Structural Investigation of MscL Gating Using Experimental Data and Coarse Grained MD Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deplazes, Evelyne; Louhivuori, Martti; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Marrink, Siewert J.; Corry, Ben

    The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) has become a model system in which to understand mechanosensation, a process involved in osmoregulation and many other physiological functions. While a high resolution closed state structure is available, details of the open structure and the

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and enhance reconditioning of donor lungs after circulatory death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew L; Zhao, Yunge; Robert Smith, J; Weiss, Mark L; Kron, Irving L; Laubach, Victor E; Sharma, Ashish K

    2017-12-21

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury after transplantation as well as acute shortage of suitable donor lungs are two critical issues impacting lung transplant patients. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to attenuate lung IR injury and improve of ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP)-mediated rehabilitation in donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice underwent sham surgery or lung IR using an in vivo hilar-ligation model with or without MSCs or EVs. In vitro studies used primary iNKT cells and macrophages (MH-S cells) were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation with/without co-cultures with MSCs or EVs. Also, separate groups of WT mice underwent euthanasia and 1 h of warm ischemia and stored at 4 °C for 1 h followed by 1 h of normothermic EVLP using Steen solution or Steen solution containing MSCs or EVs. Lungs from MSCs or EV-treated mice had significant attenuation of lung dysfunction and injury (decreased edema, neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase levels) compared to IR alone. A significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α, CXCL1 and HMGB1) and upregulation of keratinocyte growth factor, prostaglandin E2 and IL-10 occurred in the BAL fluid from MSC or EV-treated mice after IR compared to IR alone. Furthermore, MSCs or EVs significantly downregulated iNKT cell-produced IL-17 and macrophage-produced HMGB1 and TNF-α after hypoxia/reoxygenation. Finally, EVLP of DCD lungs with Steen solution including MSCs or EVs provided significantly enhanced protection versus Steen solution alone. Co-cultures of MSCs or EVs with lung endothelial cells prevents neutrophil transendothelial migration after exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation and TNF-α/HMGB1 cytomix. These results suggest that MSC-derived EVs can attenuate lung inflammation and injury after IR as well as enhance EVLP-mediated reconditioning of

  13. Canine Platelet Lysate Is Inferior to Fetal Bovine Serum for the Isolation and Propagation of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith A.; Gibson, Thomas W. G.; Chong, Andrew; Co, Carmon; Koch, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are increasingly investigated for their clinical utility in dogs. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common culture supplement used for canine MSC expansion. However, FBS content is variable, its clinical use carries risk of an immune response, and its cost is increasing due to global demand. Platelet lysate (PL) has proven to be a suitable alternative to FBS for expansion of human MSC. Hypothesis and Objectives We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) MSC could be isolated and expanded equally in PL and FBS at conventionally-used concentrations with differentiation of these MSC unaffected by choice of supplement. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of canine PL in comparison with FBS at four stages: 1) isolation, 2) proliferation, 3) spontaneous differentiation, and 4) directed differentiation. Results 1) Medium with 10% PL was unable to isolate MSC. 2) MSC, initially isolated in FBS-supplemented media, followed a dose-dependent response with no significant difference between PL and FBS cultures at up to 20% (AT) or 30% (BM) enrichment. Beyond these respective peaks, proliferation fell in PL cultures only, while a continued dose-dependent proliferation response was noted in FBS cultures. 3) Further investigation indicated PL expansion culture was inducing spontaneous adipogenesis in concentrations as low as 10% and as early as 4 days in culture. 4) MSC isolated in FBS, but expanded in either FBS or PL, maintained ability to undergo directed adipogenesis and osteogenesis, but not chondrogenesis. Conclusions/Significance Canine PL did not support establishment of MSC colonies from AT and BM, nor expansion of MSC, which appear to undergo spontaneous adipogenesis in response to PL exposure. In vivo studies are warranted to determine if concurrent use of MSC with any platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic, neutral or antagonistic effects. PMID:26353112

  14. Canine Platelet Lysate Is Inferior to Fetal Bovine Serum for the Isolation and Propagation of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Russell

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are increasingly investigated for their clinical utility in dogs. Fetal bovine serum (FBS is a common culture supplement used for canine MSC expansion. However, FBS content is variable, its clinical use carries risk of an immune response, and its cost is increasing due to global demand. Platelet lysate (PL has proven to be a suitable alternative to FBS for expansion of human MSC.We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT and bone marrow (BM MSC could be isolated and expanded equally in PL and FBS at conventionally-used concentrations with differentiation of these MSC unaffected by choice of supplement. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of canine PL in comparison with FBS at four stages: 1 isolation, 2 proliferation, 3 spontaneous differentiation, and 4 directed differentiation.1 Medium with 10% PL was unable to isolate MSC. 2 MSC, initially isolated in FBS-supplemented media, followed a dose-dependent response with no significant difference between PL and FBS cultures at up to 20% (AT or 30% (BM enrichment. Beyond these respective peaks, proliferation fell in PL cultures only, while a continued dose-dependent proliferation response was noted in FBS cultures. 3 Further investigation indicated PL expansion culture was inducing spontaneous adipogenesis in concentrations as low as 10% and as early as 4 days in culture. 4 MSC isolated in FBS, but expanded in either FBS or PL, maintained ability to undergo directed adipogenesis and osteogenesis, but not chondrogenesis.Canine PL did not support establishment of MSC colonies from AT and BM, nor expansion of MSC, which appear to undergo spontaneous adipogenesis in response to PL exposure. In vivo studies are warranted to determine if concurrent use of MSC with any platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic, neutral or antagonistic effects.

  15. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the molecular cargo of extracellular vesicles derived from porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Puranik, Amrutesh S.; Woollard, John R.; Tang, Hui; Dasari, Surendra; Lerman, Amir; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Methods Simultaneous expression profiles of m...

  16. ISL1 protein transduction promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananeh Fonoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to provide an unlimited source of cardiomyocytes, which are invaluable resources for drug or toxicology screening, medical research, and cell therapy. Currently a number of obstacles exist such as the insufficient efficiency of differentiation protocols, which should be overcome before hESC-derived cardiomyocytes can be used for clinical applications. Although the differentiation efficiency can be improved by the genetic manipulation of hESCs to over-express cardiac-specific transcription factors, these differentiated cells are not safe enough to be applied in cell therapy. Protein transduction has been demonstrated as an alternative approach for increasing the efficiency of hESCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes. METHODS: We present an efficient protocol for the differentiation of hESCs in suspension by direct introduction of a LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Islet1 (ISL1 recombinant protein into the cells. RESULTS: We found that the highest beating clusters were derived by continuous treatment of hESCs with 40 µg/ml recombinant ISL1 protein during days 1-8 after the initiation of differentiation. The treatment resulted in up to a 3-fold increase in the number of beating areas. In addition, the number of cells that expressed cardiac specific markers (cTnT, CONNEXIN 43, ACTININ, and GATA4 doubled. This protocol was also reproducible for another hESC line. CONCLUSIONS: This study has presented a new, efficient, and reproducible procedure for cardiomyocytes differentiation. Our results will pave the way for scaled up and controlled differentiation of hESCs to be used for biomedical applications in a bioreactor culture system.

  17. Derivation of NEM2 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea079

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea079 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying compound heterozygous mutations in the NEB gene, exon 55 deletion & c.15110dupA, indicative of Nemaline Myopathy Type 2 (NEM2. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XY and STR analysis demonstrated a male Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 86% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 54% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.25, Novelty of 1.21. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  18. Mechanical loading regulates human MSC differentiation in a multi-layer hydrogel for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Neven J; Aisenbrey, Elizabeth A; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Qi, H Jerry; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-07-01

    A bioinspired multi-layer hydrogel was developed for the encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a platform for osteochondral tissue engineering. The spatial presentation of biochemical cues, via incorporation of extracellular matrix analogs, and mechanical cues, via both hydrogel crosslink density and externally applied mechanical loads, were characterized in each layer. A simple sequential photopolymerization method was employed to form stable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a soft cartilage-like layer of chondroitin sulfate and low RGD concentrations, a stiff bone-like layer with high RGD concentrations, and an intermediate interfacial layer. Under a compressive load, the variation in hydrogel stiffness within each layer produced high strains in the soft cartilage-like layer, low strains in the stiff bone-like layer, and moderate strains in the interfacial layer. When hMSC-laden hydrogels were cultured statically in osteochondral differentiation media, the local biochemical and matrix stiffness cues were not sufficient to spatially guide hMSC differentiation after 21 days. However dynamic mechanical stimulation led to differentially high expression of collagens with collagen II in the cartilage-like layer, collagen X in the interfacial layer and collagen I in the bone-like layer and mineral deposits localized to the bone layer. Overall, these findings point to external mechanical stimulation as a potent regulator of hMSC differentiation toward osteochondral cellular phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells and defibrotide in an arterial rat thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilli, Dilek; Kılıç, Emine; Yumuşak, Nihat; Beken, Serdar; Uçkan Çetinkaya, Duygu; Karabulut, Ramazan; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegu L

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and defibrotide (DFT) in a rat model of femoral arterial thrombosis. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were included. An arterial thrombosis model by ferric chloride (FeCl3) was developed in the left femoral artery. The rats were equally assigned to 5 groups: Group 1-Sham-operated (without arterial injury); Group 2-Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected; Group 3-MSC; Group 4-DFT; Group 5-MSC + DFT. All had two intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml: the 1st injection was 4 h after the procedure and the 2nd one 48 h after the 1st injection. The rats were sacrificed 7 days after the 2nd injection. Although the use of human bone marrow-derived (hBM) hBM-MSC or DFT alone enabled partial resolution of the thrombus, combining them resulted in near-complete resolution. Neovascularization was two-fold better in hBM-MSC + DFT treated rats (11.6 ± 2.4 channels) compared with the hBM-MSC (3.8 ± 2.7 channels) and DFT groups (5.5 ± 1.8 channels) (P < 0.0001 and P= 0.002, respectively). The combined use of hBM-MSC and DFT in a rat model of arterial thrombosis showed additive effect resulting in near-complete resolution of the thrombus.

  20. Post-MSc technological design (PDEng) traineeships by Dutch universities of technology catalyse industrial innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The two-year post-MSc technological design traineeships organized by the Dutch Universities of Technology, and leading to the Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng) degree, are still going strong after 28 years of existence. In 1986 the Dutch government and the Dutch industry - both aiming to

  1. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sean P; Pyle, April D

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  2. Trophic effects of adipose-tissue-derived and bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance cartilage generation by chondrocytes in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleumeekers, M M; Nimeskern, L; Koevoet, J L M; Karperien, M; Stok, K S; van Osch, G J V M

    2018-01-01

    Combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes has great potential for cell-based cartilage repair. However, there is much debate regarding the mechanisms behind this concept. We aimed to clarify the mechanisms that lead to chondrogenesis (chondrocyte driven MSC-differentiation versus MSC driven chondroinduction) and whether their effect was dependent on MSC-origin. Therefore, chondrogenesis of human adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) and bone-marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs) combined with bovine articular chondrocytes (bACs) was compared. hAMSCs or hBMSCs were combined with bACs in alginate and cultured in vitro or implanted subcutaneously in mice. Cartilage formation was evaluated with biochemical, histological and biomechanical analyses. To further investigate the interactions between bACs and hMSCs, (1) co-culture, (2) pellet, (3) Transwell® and (4) conditioned media studies were conducted. The presence of hMSCs-either hAMSCs or hBMSCs-increased chondrogenesis in culture; deposition of GAG was most evidently enhanced in hBMSC/bACs. This effect was similar when hMSCs and bAC were combined in pellet culture, in alginate culture or when conditioned media of hMSCs were used on bAC. Species-specific gene-expression analyses demonstrated that aggrecan was expressed by bACs only, indicating a predominantly trophic role for hMSCs. Collagen-10-gene expression of bACs was not affected by hBMSCs, but slightly enhanced by hAMSCs. After in-vivo implantation, hAMSC/bACs and hBMSC/bACs had similar cartilage matrix production, both appeared stable and did not calcify. This study demonstrates that replacing 80% of bACs by either hAMSCs or hBMSCs does not influence cartilage matrix production or stability. The remaining chondrocytes produce more matrix due to trophic factors produced by hMSCs.

  3. Gestational Age-Dependent Increase of Survival Motor Neuron Protein in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sota Iwatani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common genetic neurological disease leading to infant death. It is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN 1 gene and subsequent reduction of SMN protein in motor neurons. Because SMN is ubiquitously expressed and functionally linked to general RNA metabolism pathway, fibroblasts (FBs are most widely used for the assessment of SMN expression in SMA patients but usually isolated from skin biopsy samples after the onset of overt symptoms. Although recent translational studies of SMN-targeted therapies have revealed the very limited time window for effective SMA therapies during perinatal period, the exact time point when SMN shortage became evident is unknown in human samples. In this study, we analyzed SMN mRNA and protein expression during perinatal period by using umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs obtained from preterm and term infants.MethodsUC-MSCs were isolated from 16 control infants delivered at 22–40 weeks of gestation and SMA fetus aborted at 19 weeks of gestation (UC-MSC-Control and UC-MSC-SMA. FBs were isolated from control volunteer and SMA patient (FB-Control and FB-SMA. SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSCs and FBs was determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot.ResultsUC-MSC-Control and UC-MSC-SMA expressed the comparable level of MSC markers on their cell surface and were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. At steady state, SMN mRNA and protein expression was decreased in UC-MSC-SMA compared to UC-MSC-Control, as observed in FB-SMA and FB-Control. In response to histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid, SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSC-SMA and FB-SMA was increased. During perinatal development from 22 to 40 weeks of gestation, SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSC-Control was positively correlated with gestational age.ConclusionUC-MSCs isolated from 17 fetus/infant of 19–40 weeks of gestation

  4. Hydrogel elasticity and microarchitecture regulate dental-derived mesenchymal stem cell-host immune system cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Yu, Bo; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-09-15

    The host immune system (T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines) has been shown to compromise bone regeneration ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have recently shown that hydrogel, used as an encapsulating biomaterial affects the cross-talk among host immune cells and MSCs. However, the role of hydrogel elasticity and porosity in regulation of cross-talk between dental-derived MSCs and immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the modulus of elasticity and porosity of the scaffold influence T-lymphocyte-dental MSC interplay by regulating the penetration of inflammatory T cells and their cytokines. Moreover, we demonstrated that alginate hydrogels with different elasticity and microporous structure can regulate the viability and determine the fate of the encapsulated MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Our in vivo data show that alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity could prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascades, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. Additionally, dental-derived MSCs encapsulated in hydrogel with higher elasticity exhibited lower expression levels of NF-kB p65 and Cox-2 in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the mechanical characteristics and microarchitecture of the microenvironment encapsulating MSCs, in addition to presence of T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines, affect the fate of encapsulated dental-derived MSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that alginate hydrogel regulates the viability and the fate of the encapsulated dental-derived MSCs through modulation of NF-kB pathway. Alginate hydrogels with smaller pores and higher elasticity prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced MSC apoptosis by down-regulating the Caspase-3- and 8- associated proapoptotic cascade, leading to higher amounts of ectopic bone regeneration. MSCs encapsulated in

  5. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Romain; Peiffer, Isabelle; Hatzfeld, Antoinette; Charbord, Pierre; Hatzfeld, Jacques A

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs (hES-MSCs), and hMSCs. Analysis of differentiation genes indicated that hES-MSCs express the sarcomeric muscle lineage in addition to the classical mesenchymal lineages, suggesting they are more primitive than hMSCs. Transcript analysis of membrane antigens suggests that IL1R1(low), BMPR1B(low), FLT4(low), LRRC32(low), and CD34 may be good candidates for the detection and isolation of the most primitive hMSCs. The expression in hMSCs of cytokine genes, such as IL6, IL8, or FLT3LG, without expression of the corresponding receptor, suggests a role for these cytokines in the paracrine control of stem cell niches. Our database may be shared with other laboratories in order to explore the considerable clinical potential of hES-MSCs, which appear to represent an intermediate developmental stage between hESCs and hMSCs.

  6. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timper, Katharina; Seboek, Dalma; Eberhardt, Michael; Linscheid, Philippe; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Keller, Ulrich; Mueller, Beat; Zulewski, Henryk

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin

  7. Treatment of human embryonic stem cells with different combinations of priming and inducing factors toward definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtani, Yasser; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Farrokhi, Ali; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a universal, cost-effective, and competent DE with the capability to further differentiate into endodermal derivatives. In this study, by using a 2-step differentiation strategy, we have treated hESCs for 1 day with "priming" small molecules (SM), [stauprimide, NSC-308848, rapamycin (Rapa), and/or CHIR] and for the next 3 days with "inducing" SM (LY294002, cymarin, IDE1, and/or IDE2) in conjunction with activin A. In the positive control group, we treated hESCs with Wnt3a (25 ng/mL) for 1 day and activin A (100 ng/mL; W/A100-A100) for the next 3 days. Gene expression analysis showed that treatment of hESCs with 100 nM Rapa and 50 ng/mL activin A (Rapa-A50) out of 25 combinations of factors gave rise to higher expressions of 2 DE-specific genes, SOX17 and FOXA2. Similar results were obtained after treating 2 other hESC lines with this regimen. To investigate the competency of Rapa-A50-induced DE for further differentiation into endodermal derivatives, these cells and W/A100-A100-induced DE cells (positive control) were further differentiated into pancreatic progenitors (PP), then into pancreatic endocrine (PE) cells using 5 previously described differentiation protocols. Gene analysis of differentiated cells showed that the established protocols were insufficient to enable universal differentiation into PE, whereas Rapa-A50-induced DE cells were more competent for PP differentiation in a protocol-dependent manner. Additionally, Rapa-A50-induced DE had the capability to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) as efficiently as W/A100-A100-induced DE. These data have indicated that hESCs primed with Rapa, and induced by a lower concentration of activin A, could lead to DE that had the capability to further differentiate into HLCs and PP cells, but not PE cells. Thus, current protocols

  8. Purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment in a case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher D; Wongsaisri, Pornpatcharin; Htut, Thein; Grossman, Terry

    2017-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiple organ system autoimmune disorder for which there is no known cure. We report a case of a young adult lady with SLE and Sjogren's with diagnostic and clinical resolution following purified umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and globulin component protein macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) therapy in a combined multidisciplinary integrative medicine protocol. Our patient had complete reversal of all clinical and laboratory markers. We recommend a prospective randomized double blind study to assess the sustained efficacy of MSC and GcMAF in the treatment of autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Supportive and Unsupportive Extracellular Matrix Substrates for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Maintenance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, Despina; Iskender, Banu; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Borg-Bartolo, Simon; Haddock, Marie-Claire; Baxter, Melissa A.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.; Kimber, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have indefinite replicative potential and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. hESCs are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeder cells of human origin. In addition, feeder-free culture systems can be used to support hESCs, in which the adhesive substrate plays a key role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal or differentiation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components define the microenvironment of the niche for many types of stem cells, but their role in the maintenance of hESCs remains poorly understood. We used a proteomic approach to characterize in detail the composition and interaction networks of ECMs that support the growth of self-renewing hESCs. Whereas many ECM components were produced by supportive and unsupportive MEF and human placental stromal fibroblast feeder cells, some proteins were only expressed in supportive ECM, suggestive of a role in the maintenance of pluripotency. We show that identified candidate molecules can support attachment and self-renewal of hESCs alone (fibrillin-1) or in combination with fibronectin (perlecan, fibulin-2), in the absence of feeder cells. Together, these data highlight the importance of specific ECM interactions in the regulation of hESC phenotype and provide a resource for future studies of hESC self-renewal. PMID:23658023

  10. Treatment of radio-induced colorectal lesions with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC): part of the inflammatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessout, R.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the last decades, radiotherapy established as a major tool in the treatment of abdomino-pelvic cancers. Despite great technological evolutions, radiotherapy remains associated with side effects that can sometimes be really harmful, this being mainly due to the toxicity of ionizing radiations for healthy tissues surrounding the tumor. As part of abdomino-pelvic radio-therapies, these side effects mainly affect the gastrointestinal tract, which is very sensitive to radiations. The development of curative treatments thus became a priority. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) showed their immunomodulatory ability as well as their ability to regenerate tissue in many models. During my thesis, we aimed at giving rise to the therapeutic advantage brought by MSC in the treatment of radioinduced damage as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results allowed us to demonstrate the efficiency of our treatment with an effect both on the colic epithelial structure and on its contractile functions. We demonstrated that this therapeutical efficiency depends on two processes. Stimulation of the epithelial proliferation through the Wnt pathway allows the epithelial regeneration process to be enhanced. The increased local corticosterone secretion allows the number and the activation state of T lymphocytes to diminish. Our results moreover suggest the existence of a link between the two observed phenomenons thus providing with a new proof of the combinatory effects of MSC therapy. (author)

  11. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from equine bone marrow and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Orthopaedic injury is the most common cause of lost training days or premature retirement in the equine athlete. Cell-based therapies are a potential new treatment option in musculo-skeletal diseases. Mesenthymal stromal cells (MSC) have been derived from multiple sources in the horse...

  12. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Delambre, Jerome; Zilber, Sebastien; Duffiet, Pascal; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with iliac crest bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The prevalence of healing and prevention of re-tears were correlated with the number of MSCs received at the tendon-to-bone interface. Forty-five patients in the study group received concentrated bone marrow-derived MSCs as an adjunct to single-row rotator cuff repair at the time of arthroscopy. The average number of MSCs returned to the patient was 51,000 ± 25,000. Outcomes of patients receiving MSCs during their repair were compared to those of a matched control group of 45 patients who did not receive MSCs. All patients underwent imaging studies of the shoulder with iterative ultrasound performed every month from the first postoperative month to the 24th month. The rotator cuff healing or re-tear was confirmed with MRI postoperatively at three and six months, one and two years and at the most recent follow up MRI (minimum ten-year follow-up). Bone marrow-derived MSC injection as an adjunctive therapy during rotator cuff repair enhanced the healing rate and improved the quality of the repaired surface as determined by ultrasound and MRI. Forty-five (100 %) of the 45 repairs with MSC augmentation had healed by six months, versus 30 (67 %) of the 45 repairs without MSC treatment by six months. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injection also prevented further ruptures during the next ten years. At the most recent follow-up of ten years, intact rotator cuffs were found in 39 (87 %) of the 45 patients in the MSC-treated group, but just 20 (44 %) of the 45 patients in the control group. The number of transplanted MSCs was determined to be the most relevant to the outcome in the study group, since patients with a loss of tendon integrity at any time up to the ten-year follow-up milestone received fewer MSCs as compared with those who had maintained a successful repair during the same interval. This

  13. Seismic analysis of plutonium glovebox by MSC/NASTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaru; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Korosawa, Makoto; Fukushima, Susumu; Hoshina, Hirofumi.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic analysis of the structural strength of gloveboxes is important for plutonium confinement evaluation. However, the analytical methods must be developed for evaluating the mutual displacement between the window frame and acrylic resin window panel with regard to plutonium confinement during an earthquake. Therefore, seismic analysis for a standard glovebox in Plutonium Fuel Research Facility at Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI has been conducted by FEM (Finite Element Method) computer code MSC/NASTRAN (MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation NASA Structural Analysis). Modelling of glovebox window frame has been investigated from the results of natural frequency analysis and static analysis. After the acquisition of a suitable model, displacement around the window frame and glovebox structural strength have been evaluated in detail by use of floor response spectrum analysis and time-history (transient response) analysis. (author)

  14. Changing strategy and implementation of a new treatment protocol for cleft palate surgery in "Maria Sklodowska Curie" (MSC) Children's Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, Radu; Mark, Hans

    2014-12-01

    In "Maria Sklodowska Curie" (MSC) Children's Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, cleft palate repair has been performed according to von Langenbeck since 1984. The speech was good in most patients but wide clefts had a high percentage of fistulas, abnormal speech due to short length and limited mobility of the soft palate. In 2009, the protocol was changed to Gothenburg Delayed Hard Palate Closure, (DHPC) technique. The present evaluation was performed to study the implementation of this technique. One hundred and sixty-eight patients with cleft palate were admitted, 89 isolated cleft palate (ICP), 53 unilateral (UCLP) and 26 bilateral (BCLP). In these, 228 surgical interventions were performed. Soft Palate Repair (SPR) and Hard Palate Repair (HPR) were performed with the DHPC procedure. The transfer to this technique was successfully performed in three steps: one team visit to Gothenburg by a surgeon from MSC and two visits by surgeons from Gothenburg to the MSC. Patients with SPR and HPR were operated on without major complications and there were no differences in results between Gothenburg surgeons and MSC surgeons. The interventions with SPR and HPR technique were proven to be easy to teach and learn and successfully performed without major complications. For cleft patients at MSC hospital it has meant earlier surgery, less re-operations and complications. This report shows a successful change of strategy for palatal repair with improved outcome regarding surgery. In future, speech and growth will be followed on a regular basis and will be compared with results from the Gothenburg Cleft Team.

  15. System Trade-Off Study and Opto-Thermo Analysis of a Sunshield on the MSC of the KOMPSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC is the payload of KOMPSAT-2 which is designed for earth imaging in optical and near-infrared region on a sun-synchronous orbit. The telescope in the MSC is a Ritchey-Chretien type with large aperture. The telescope structure should be well stabilized and the optical alignment should be kept steady so that best images can be achieved. However, the MSC is exposed to adverse thermal environment on the orbit which can give impacts on optical performance. Solar incidence can bring non-uniform temperature rise on the telescope tube which entails unfavorable thermal distortion. Three ways of preventing the solar radiation were proposed, which were installing external mechanical shield, internal shield, and maneuvering the spacecraft. After trade-off study, internal sun shield was selected as a practical and optimal solution to minimize the effect of the solar radiation. In addition, detailed designs of the structure and sunshield were produced and analyses have been performed. The results were assessed to verify their impacts to the image quality. It was confirmed that the internal sunshield complies with the requirements and would improve image quality.

  16. Comparing estimates of EMEP MSC-Wand UFORE models in air pollutant reduction by urban trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guidolotti, G.; Salvatio, M.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 19 (2016), s. 19541-19550 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : i-Tree * UFORE, EMEP/MSC-Wmodel * urban forest * atmospheric pollutants * O3 * NO2 * PM10 Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  17. Covariant Derivatives and the Renormalization Group Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    The renormalization group equation for N-point correlation functions can be interpreted in a geometrical manner as an equation for Lie transport of amplitudes in the space of couplings. The vector field generating the diffeomorphism has components given by the β functions of the theory. It is argued that this simple picture requires modification whenever any one of the points at which the amplitude is evaluated becomes close to any other. This modification necessitates the introduction of a connection on the space of couplings and new terms appear in the renormalization group equation involving covariant derivatives of the β function and the curvature associated with the connection. It is shown how the connection is related to the operator product expansion coefficients, but there remains an arbitrariness in its definition.

  18. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy identifies early lineage commitment in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraud, Philip; Ng, Elizabeth S; Caine, Sally; Yu, Qing C; Hirst, Claire; Mayberry, Robyn; Bruce, Amanda; Wood, Bayden R; McNaughton, Don; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G

    2010-03-01

    Human ESCs (hESCs) are a valuable tool for the study of early human development and represent a source of normal differentiated cells for pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications and ultimately for cell replacement therapies. For all applications, it will be necessary to develop assays to validate the efficacy of hESC differentiation. We explored the capacity for FTIR spectroscopy, a technique that rapidly characterises cellular macromolecular composition, to discriminate mesendoderm or ectoderm committed cells from undifferentiated hESCs. Distinct infrared spectroscopic "signatures" readily distinguished hESCs from these early differentiated progeny, with bioinformatic models able to correctly classify over 97% of spectra. These data identify a role for FTIR spectroscopy as a new modality to complement conventional analyses of hESCs and their derivatives. FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to provide low-cost, automatable measurements for the quality control of stem and differentiated cells to be used in industry and regenerative medicine. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  20. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  1. Generation and characterisation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells by explant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Z; Maqbool, M; George, E; Hassan, R; Ramasamy, R

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord (UC) have been considered as an important tool for treating various malignancies, tissue repair and organ regeneration. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are better alternative to MSCs that derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) as they are regarded as medical waste with little ethical concern for research and easily culture-expanded. In this present study, the foetal distal end of human UC was utilised to generate MSC by explant method. Upon in vitro culture, adherent cells with fibroblastic morphology were generated with rapid growth kinetics. Under the respective inductive conditions, these cells were capable of differentiating into adipocytes and osteocytes; express an array of standard MSC's surface markers CD29, CD73, CD90, CD106 and MHC-class I. Further assessment of immunosuppression activity revealed that MSCs generated from UC had profoundly inhibited the proliferation of mitogen-activated T lymphocytes in a dosedependent manner. The current laboratory findings have reinforced the application of explant method to generate UCMSCs thus, exploring an ideal platform to fulfil the increasing demand of MSCs for research and potential clinical use.

  2. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Sherman

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  3. EphA2 is a biomarker of hMSCs derived from human placenta and umbilical cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Pei Shen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: EphA2 can be used to distinguish and isolate MSCs from a primary culture of placenta-derived cells. EphA2-sorted MSCs exhibited superior responsiveness to TNF-α signaling in an inflammatory environment compared with unsorted MSCs or MSC-like cells.

  4. Inflammatory effects of autologous, genetically modified autologous, allogeneic, and xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cells after intra-articular injection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, J H; Ishihara, A; Wellman, M L; Russell, D S; Bertone, A L

    2013-01-01

    To compare the clinical and inflammatory joint responses to intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) including autologous, genetically modified autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic cells in horses. Six five-year-old Thoroughbred mares had one fetlock joint injected with Gey's balanced salt solution as the vehicle control. Each fetlock joint of each horse was subsequently injected with 15 million MSC from the described MSC groups, and were assessed for 28 days for clinical and inflammatory parameters representing synovitis, joint swelling, and pain. There were not any significant differences between autologous and genetically modified autologous MSC for synovial fluid total nucleated cell count, total protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, fetlock circumference, oedema score, pain-free range-of-motion, and soluble gene products that were detected for at least two days. Allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC produced a greater increase in peak of inflammation at 24 hours than either autologous MSC group. Genetically engineered MSC can act as vehicles to deliver gene products to the joint; further investigation into the therapeutic potential of this cell therapy is warranted. Intra-articular MSC injection resulted in a moderate acute inflammatory joint response that was greater for allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC than autologous MSC. Clinical management of this response may minimize this effect.

  5. A co-culture system with three different primary human cell populations reveals that biomaterials and MSC modulate macrophage-driven fibroblast recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Hugo R; Barros da Silva, Patrícia; Barbosa, Mário A; Almeida, Catarina R

    2018-03-01

    The biological response to implanted biomaterials is a complex and highly coordinated phenomenon involving many different cell types that interact within 3D microenvironments. Here, we increased the complexity of a 3D platform to include at least 3 cell types that play a role in the host response upon scaffold implantation. With this system, it was possible to address how immune responses triggered by 3D biomaterials mediate recruitment of stromal cells that promote tissue regeneration, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC), or a foreign body response, fibroblasts. Primary human macrophages yielded the highest fibroblast recruitment when interacting with chitosan scaffolds but not polylactic acid. Interestingly, when there were MSC and fibroblasts in the same environment, macrophages in chitosan scaffolds again promoted a significant increase on fibroblast recruitment, but not of MSC. However, macrophages that were firstly allowed to interact with MSC within the scaffolds were no longer able to recruit fibroblasts. This study illustrates the potential to use different scaffolds to regulate the dynamics of recruitment of proregenerative or fibrotic cell types through immunomodulation. Overall, this work strengths the idea that ex vivo predictive systems need to consider the different players involved in the biological response to biomaterials and that timing of arrival of specific cell types will affect the outcome. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Koprowski

    Full Text Available Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  7. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Piotr; Grajkowski, Wojciech; Balcerzak, Marcin; Filipiuk, Iwona; Fabczak, Hanna; Kubalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS) channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS) family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  8. Functional vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells via mesenchymal stem cell intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Loh, Yuin-Han; Daley, George Q.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an important role in vascular homeostasis and disease. Although adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used as a source of contractile SMC, they suffer from limited proliferation potential and culture senescence, particularly when originating from older donors. By comparison, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can provide an unlimited source of functional SMC for autologous cell-based therapies and for creating models of vascular disease. Our goal was to develop an efficient strategy to derive functional, contractile SMC from hiPSC. Methods and results We developed a robust, stage-wise, feeder-free strategy for hiPSC differentiation into functional SMC through an intermediate stage of multipotent MSC, which could be coaxed to differentiate into fat, bone, cartilage, and muscle. At this stage, the cells were highly proliferative and displayed higher clonogenic potential and reduced senescence when compared with parental hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, when exposed to differentiation medium, the myogenic proteins such as α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain were significantly upregulated and displayed robust fibrillar organization, suggesting the development of a contractile phenotype. Indeed, tissue constructs prepared from these cells exhibited high levels of contractility in response to receptor- and non-receptor-mediated agonists. Conclusion We developed an efficient stage-wise strategy that enabled hiPSC differentiation into contractile SMC through an intermediate population of clonogenic and multipotent MSC. The high yield of MSC and SMC derivation suggests that our strategy may facilitate an acquisition of the large numbers of cells required for regenerative medicine or for studying vascular disease pathophysiology. PMID:22941255

  9. Regional differences in expression of specific markers for human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steen B; Møllgård, Kjeld; Olesen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts generally includes expression analysis of markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Expression is usually detected by immunocytochemical staining of entire colonies...... of hESC, using one colony for each individual marker. Four newly established hESC lines showed the expected expression pattern and were capable of differentiating into the three germ layers in vitro. Neighbouring sections of entire colonies grown for 4, 11, 21 and 28 days respectively were stained...

  10. Effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and dermal fibroblasts on diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jong-Seok; Han, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Hyup-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang

    2017-07-01

    A previous study demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCB-MSCs) have superior wound-healing activity compared with fibroblasts in vitro. However, wound healing in vivo is a complex process that involves multiple factors. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of hUCB-MSCs and fibroblasts on diabetic wound healing in vivo. This study especially focused on collagen synthesis and angiogenesis, which are considered to be the important factors affecting diabetic wound healing. Porous polyethylene discs were loaded with either fibroblasts or hUCB-MSCs, and a third group, which served as a control, was not loaded with cells. The discs were then implanted in the back of diabetic mice. During the first and the second week after implantation, the discs were harvested, and collagen level and microvascular density were compared. In terms of collagen synthesis, the hUCB-MSC group showed the highest collagen level (117.7 ± 8.9 ng/mL), followed by the fibroblast group (83.2 ± 5.2 ng/mL) and the no-cell group (60.0 ± 4.7 ng/mL) in the second week after implantation. In terms of angiogenesis, the microvascular density in the hUCB-MSC group was 56.8 ± 16.4, which was much higher than that in the fibroblast group (14.3 ± 4.0) and the no-cell group (5.7 ± 2.1) in the second week after implantation. These results demonstrate that hUCB-MSCs are superior to fibroblasts in terms of their effect on diabetic wound healing in vivo. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of allogeneic platelet lysate and fetal bovine serum for in vitro expansion of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering approaches. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used for in vitro MSC expansion; however, the use of FBS may be associated with ethical, scientific, and safety issues. This study aimed to compare the ability of allogeneic platelet lysate (PL) and FBS to cause equine bone marrow-derived MSC expansion. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate in media supplemented with either PL or FBS, and cell proliferation properties and characteristics were examined. There were no significant differences in MSC yield, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and population doubling time between PL and FBS cultures. In addition, both PL-MSCs and FBS-MSCs showed similar results in term of ALP staining, osteogenic differentiation, and RT-PCR, although there were subtle differences in morphology, growth pattern, and adhesive properties. These results suggest that PL is a suitable alternative to FBS for use in equine MSC expansion, without the problems related to FBS use. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  12. Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Left Ventricular Function, Perfusion, and Remodeling in a Porcine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Bin; Huang, He; Sun, Ping; Ma, Shi-Ze; Liu, An-Heng; Xue, Jian; Fu, Jin-Hui; Liang, Yu-Qian; Liu, Bing; Wu, Dong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a new strategy for treatment of ischemic heart disease. Although umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have been used preferentially in the acute ischemia model, data for the chronic ischemia model are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of UC-MSCs originated from Wharton’s jelly in the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia in a porcine model induced by ameroid constrictor. Four weeks after ameroid constrictor placement, the surviving animals were divided randomly into two groups to undergo saline injection (n = 6) or UC-MSC transplantation (n = 6) through the left main coronary artery. Two additional intravenous administrations of UC-MSCs were performed in the following 2 weeks to enhance therapeutic effect. Cardiac function and perfusion were examined just before and at 4 weeks after intracoronary transplantation. The results showed that pigs with UC-MSC transplantation exhibited significantly greater left ventricular ejection fraction compared with control animals (61.3% ± 1.3% vs. 50.3% ± 2.0%, p UC-MSC treatment improves left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodeling in a porcine model with chronic myocardial ischemia. Significance Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many patients with chronic myocardial ischemia are not suitable for surgery and have no effective drug treatment; they are called “no-option” patients. This study finds that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells transplanted by intracoronary delivery combined with two intravenous administrations was safe and could significantly improve left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodeling in a large-animal model of chronic myocardial ischemia, which provides a new choice for the no-option patients. In addition, this study used clinical-grade mesenchymal stem cells with delivery and assessment methods commonly used clinically to facilitate further clinical transformation. PMID

  13. Läätsa Kalatööstus järjekordne MSC sertifikaadi omanik / Alar Mik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mik, Alar

    2014-01-01

    MSC (Marine Stewardship Council)-märgis toodetel tõendab, et tegemist on keskkonnaalaselt vastutustundliku ettevõttega, kelle toodangutsükkel on kala püüdmisest kuni valmistoodangu tarbijani jõudmiseni rangelt seaduslik ja keskkonnasäästlik. Vestlusest ettevõtte juhatuse liikme Toomas Auliga

  14. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  15. INFUSION OF THIRD-PARTY MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS (MSC) AFTER KIDNEY AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: A PHASE I-II, OPEN-LABEL, CLINICAL STUDY (EudraCT 2011-001822-81 & NCT01429038)

    OpenAIRE

    DETRY, Olivier; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène; LECHANTEUR, Chantal; SOMJA, Joan; DE ROOVER, Arnaud; WEEKERS, Laurent; SQUIFFLET, Jean-Paul; Honoré, Pierre; DELVENNE, Philippe; MEURISSE, Michel; BAUDOUX, Etienne; BEGUIN, Yves

    2013-01-01

    MSC cells have demonstrated significant immunosuppressive effects in various in vivo and in vitro studies. This study aims to be the first evaluation of the safety and tolerability of third party MSC infusion after cadaveric kidney and liver transplantation in a prospective phase I-II study, taking advantage of our centre expertise and experience in MSC use in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation and using an already functioning GMP-compliant laboratory producing...

  16. Design and validation of a consistent and reproducible manufacture process for the production of clinical-grade bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codinach, Margarita; Blanco, Margarita; Ortega, Isabel; Lloret, Mireia; Reales, Laura; Coca, Maria Isabel; Torrents, Sílvia; Doral, Manel; Oliver-Vila, Irene; Requena-Montero, Miriam; Vives, Joaquim; Garcia-López, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have achieved a notable prominence in the field of regenerative medicine, despite the lack of common standards in the production processes and suitable quality controls compatible with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Herein we describe the design of a bioprocess for bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC isolation and expansion, its validation and production of 48 consecutive batches for clinical use. BM samples were collected from the iliac crest of patients for autologous therapy. Manufacturing procedures included: (i) isolation of nucleated cells (NC) by automated density-gradient centrifugation and plating; (ii) trypsinization and expansion of secondary cultures; and (iii) harvest and formulation of a suspension containing 40 ± 10 × 10(6) viable cells. Quality controls were defined as: (i) cell count and viability assessment; (ii) immunophenotype; and (iii) sterility tests, Mycoplasma detection, endotoxin test and Gram staining. A 3-week manufacturing bioprocess was first designed and then validated in 3 consecutive mock productions, prior to producing 48 batches of BM-MSC for clinical use. Validation included the assessment of MSC identity and genetic stability. Regarding production, 139.0 ± 17.8 mL of BM containing 2.53 ± 0.92 × 10(9) viable NC were used as starting material, yielding 38.8 ± 5.3 × 10(6) viable cells in the final product. Surface antigen expression was consistent with the expected phenotype for MSC, displaying high levels of CD73, CD90 and CD105, lack of expression of CD31 and CD45 and low levels of HLA-DR. Tests for sterility, Mycoplasma, Gram staining and endotoxin had negative results in all cases. Herein we demonstrated the establishment of a feasible, consistent and reproducible bioprocess for the production of safe BM-derived MSC for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bret R; Golding, Sarah E; Rao, Raj R; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2010-04-02

    The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR) and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs) and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR), showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ]) in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  18. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  19. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-xiao; Liu, Zhi-gang; Liu, Xiao-jiao; Chen, Qian-xue

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5–3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions. PMID:26981097

  20. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5-3.0 atm impact force. The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.

  1. Fibrous hyaluronic acid hydrogels that direct MSC chondrogenesis through mechanical and adhesive cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iris L; Khetan, Sudhir; Baker, Brendon M; Chen, Christopher S; Burdick, Jason A

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning has recently gained much interest due to its ability to form scaffolds that mimic the nanofibrous nature of the extracellular matrix, such as the size and depth-dependent alignment of collagen fibers within hyaline cartilage. While much progress has been made in developing bulk, isotropic hydrogels for tissue engineering and understanding how the microenvironment of such scaffolds affects cell response, these effects have not been extensively studied in a nanofibrous system. Here, we show that the mechanics (through intrafiber crosslink density) and adhesivity (through RGD density) of electrospun hyaluronic acid (HA) fibers significantly affect human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) interactions and gene expression. Specifically, hMSC spreading, proliferation, and focal adhesion formation were dependent on RGD density, but not on the range of fiber mechanics investigated. Moreover, traction-mediated fiber displacements generally increased with more adhesive fibers. The expression of chondrogenic markers, unlike trends in cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization, was influenced by both fiber mechanics and adhesivity, in which softer fibers and lower RGD densities generally enhanced chondrogenesis. This work not only reveals concurrent effects of mechanics and adhesivity in a fibrous context, but also highlights fibrous HA hydrogels as a promising scaffold for future cartilage repair strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MSC/NASTRAN ''expert'' techniques developed and applied to the TFTR poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The TFTR poloidal field (PF) coils are being analyzed by PPPL and Grumman using MSC/NASTRAN as a part of an overall effort to establish the absolute limiting conditions of operation for TFTR. Each of the PF coils will be analyzed in depth, using a detailed set of finite element models. Several of the models developed are quite large because each copper turn, as well as its surrounding insulation, was modeled using solid elements. Several of the finite element models proved large enough to tax the capabilities of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC), specifically disk storage space. To allow the use of substructuring techniques with their associated data bases for the larger models, it became necessary to employ certain infrequently used MSC/NASTRAN ''expert'' techniques. The techniques developed used multiple data bases and data base sets to divide each problem into a series of computer runs. For each run, only the data required was kept on active disk space, the remainder being placed in inactive ''FILEM'' storage, thus, minimizing active disk space required at any time and permitting problem solution using the NMFECC. A representative problem using the TFTR OH-1 coil global model provides an example of the techniques developed. The special considerations necessary to obtain proper results are discussed

  3. Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Angiogenesis during Ischemic Stroke Recovery.

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    Hyo Suk Nam

    Full Text Available The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation in ischemic stroke might depend on the timing of administration. We investigated the optimal time point of MSC transplantation. After MSC treatment, we also investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which play a role in vascular and tissue remodeling.Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (2 × 10(6, passage 5 were administrated intravenously after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. First, we determined the time point of MSC transplantation that led to maximal neurological recovery at 1 h, 1 day, and 3 days after MCAO. Next, we measured activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, neurological recovery, infarction volume, and vascular density after transplanting MSCs at the time that led to maximal neurological recovery.Among the MSC-transplanted rats, those of the MSC 1-hour group showed maximal recovery in the rotarod test (P = 0.023 and the Longa score (P = 0.018. MMP-2 activity at 1 day after MCAO in the MSC 1-hour group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P = 0.002, but MMP-9 activity was not distinct. The MSC 1-hour group also showed smaller infarction volume and higher vascular density than did the control group.In a permanent model of rodent MCAO, very early transplantation of human MSCs (1 h after MCAO produced greater neurological recovery and decreased infraction volume. The elevation of MMP-2 activity and the increase in vascular density after MSC treatment suggest that MSCs might help promote angiogenesis and lead to neurological improvement during the recovery phase after ischemic stroke.

  4. Silicone Substrate with Collagen and Carbon Nanotubes Exposed to Pulsed Current for MSC Osteodifferentiation

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    Daniyal Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have the potential for clinical translation through their induction into osteoblasts for regeneration. Bone healing can be driven by biophysical stimulation using electricity for activating quiescent adult stem cells. It is hypothesized that application of electric current will enhance their osteogenic differentiation, and addition of conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs to the cell substrate will provide increased efficiency in current transmission. Cultured MSCs were seeded and grown onto fabricated silicone-based composites containing collagen and CNT fibers. Chemical inducers, namely, glycerol phosphate, dexamethasone, and vitamin C, were then added to the medium, and pulsatile submilliampere electrical currents (about half mA for 5 cycles at 4 mHz, twice a week were applied for two weeks. Calcium deposition indicative of MSC differentiation and osteoblastic activity was quantified through Alizarin Red S and spectroscopy. It was found that pulsed current significantly increased osteodifferentiation on silicone-collagen films without CNTs. Under no external current, the presence of 10% (m/m CNTs led to a significant and almost triple upregulation of calcium deposition. Both CNTs and current parameters did not appear to be synergistic. These conditions of enhanced osteoblastic activities may further be explored ultimately towards future therapeutic use of MSCs.

  5. Enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes by combining hanging drop culture and 5-azacytidine treatment.

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    Yoon, Byung Sun; Yoo, Seung Jun; Lee, Jeoung Eun; You, Seungkwon; Lee, Hoon Taek; Yoon, Hyun Soo

    2006-04-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cardiac diseases. It is, however, challenged by a limited supply of appropriate cells. Therefore, we have investigated whether functional cardiomyocytes can be efficiently generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In this study, we developed an efficient protocol for the generation of functional cardiomyocytes from hESCs by combining hanging drop culture and 5-azacytidine, a well-known demethylating agent, and then evaluated the expression of cardiac-specific markers. hESCs were cultured both in the medium without or with 0.1, 1, or 10 microM of 5-azacytidine under a hanging drop culture. The expression of several cardiac-specific markers was determined by real-time PCR, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy. To verify the structural and functional properties of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes, we performed electron microscopy and electrophysiological recording. The efficiency of beating cell generation was significantly improved in the hanging drop culture compared with that in suspension culture. Treatment of hESCs with 0.1 microM of 5-azacytidine for 1-3 days significantly increased the number of beating cells and simultaneously enhanced the expression of cardiac-specific markers. Transmission electron microscopy and electrophysiological recording showed that hESC-derived cardiomyocytes acquired structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that differentiation of hESCs into cardiomyocytes can be enhanced by the combination of hanging drop culture and 5-azacytidine treatment. Also the methylation status of genes related to cardiomyocyte development may play an important role in the differentiation of hESCs into cardiomyocytes.

  6. Effects of BIO on proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of mouse marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Nasrin Fallah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitroexpansion of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs into large number is necessary fortheir application in cell-based treatment of articular cartilage defects. On the other hand,some studies have indicated that BIO (6-Bromoindirubin-3-Oxime possesses mitogeniceffects on cell culture. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of BIO onin vitro expansion and chondrogenic differentiation of mouse marrow-derived MSCs. Theculture was established using bone marrow tissue obtained from 10 NMRI mice. MSC natureof the isolated cells was verified according to the minimal criteria proposed for MSC.Passaged-3 cells were seeded in 24-well culture plates and treated by 0.05, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and1.5 μM BIO forsevendays. The culture without BIO was taken as the control. At the end ofcultivation period, the cultures were examinedfor viable cell number which was then used tocalculate population doubling time (PDT. The BIO with higher proliferation-promoting effectwas investigated for its chondrogenic effect on MSC culture. There was significantly moreviable cells at the cultures treated by 0.1 μM BIO. At this culture the cells tended to doubletheir population in rapid rate (each 43.07 hr than the cells treated with the other BIOconcentrations (p< 0.05. Interestingly treatment of MSC chondrogenic culture with 0.1 μMBIO ledto the up-regulation of cartilage specific genes including aggrecan, collagen II andSox9. In conclusion BIO at 0.1 μM could enhance mouse MSC in vitro proliferation as well astheir chondrogenic differentiation. These findings would be of great importance for the fieldof regenerative medicine.

  7. Cartilage Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expresses Lubricin In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Nakagawa, Yusuke; Muneta, Takeshi; Otabe, Koji; Ozeki, Nobutake; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Udo, Mio; Saito, Ryusuke; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Koga, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lubricin expression in the superficial cartilage will be a crucial factor in the success of cartilage regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source and the use of aggregates of MSCs has some advantages in terms of chondrogenic potential and efficiency of cell adhesion. Lubricin expression in transplanted MSCs has not been fully elucidated so far. Our goals were to determine (1) whether cartilage pellets of human MSCs expressed lubricin in vitro chondrogenesis, (2) whether aggregates of human MSCs promoted lubricin expression, and (3) whether aggregates of MSCs expressed lubricin in the superficial cartilage after transplantation into osteochondral defects in rats. Methods For in vitro analysis, human bone marrow (BM) MSCs were differentiated into cartilage by pellet culture, and also aggregated using the hanging drop technique. For an animal study, aggregates of BM MSCs derived from GFP transgenic rats were transplanted to the osteochondral defect in the trochlear groove of wild type rat knee joints. Lubricin expression was mainly evaluated in differentiated and regenerated cartilages. Results In in vitro analysis, lubricin was detected in the superficial zone of the pellets and conditioned medium. mRNA expression of Proteoglycan4 (Prg4), which encodes lubricin, in pellets was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated MSCs. Aggregates showed different morphological features between the superficial and deep zone, and the Prg4 mRNA expression increased after aggregate formation. Lubricin was also found in the aggregate. In a rat study, articular cartilage regeneration was significantly better in the MSC group than in the control group as shown by macroscopical and histological analysis. The transmission electron microscope showed that morphology of the superficial cartilage in the MSC group was closer to that of the intact cartilage than in the control group. GFP positive cells remained in the repaired tissue and

  8. Molecular pathways reflecting poor intrauterine growth are found in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Sukarieh, Rami; Joseph, Roy; Leow, Shi Chi; Li, Ying; Löffler, Mona; Aris, Izzuddin M; Tan, Jun Hao; Teh, Ai Ling; Chen, Li; Holbrook, Joanna D; Ng, Kai Lyn; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Yap Seng; Summers, Scott A; Gluckman, Peter D; Stünkel, Walter

    2014-10-10

    Are molecular pathways reflecting the biology of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates preserved in umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)? MSCs from SGA newborns were found to express an altered EGR-1-dependent gene network involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and oxidative stress. Individuals with suboptimal intrauterine development are at greater risk of metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Umbilical cords (n = 283) from the GUSTO (growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes) birth cohort study, and primary MSC isolates established from SGA and matched control cases (n = 6 per group), were subjected to gene expression analysis and candidate genes were studied for functional validation. Umbilical cord specimens were derived from babies born at the National University Hospital (NUH) in Singapore. Local ethical approval was obtained. MSC isolates were established in Wharton's jelly and molecular analysis was conducted by gene expression microarrays and RT-PCR. Cells from SGA and control groups were compared in the presence and absence of insulin and candidate gene function was studied via siRNA-mediated gene knockdown and over-expression experiments in MSCs. Using repeated measure ANOVAs, proliferation rates of MSCs isolated from SGA neonates were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01). In the absence of insulin, EGR-1 levels were found to be significantly reduced in the group of SGA-derived MSCs, whereas EGR-1 expression was found to be up-regulated in the same group in the presence of insulin (P < 0.01). EGR-1 was found to induce expression of COX-2 in the SGA group (P < 0.01) and both, EGR-1 and COX-2 stimulated glucose uptake in MSCs (P < 0.01). EGR-1 and COX-2 levels were associated in whole umbilical cords (n = 283, P < 0.01) and EGR-1 positively correlated with abdominal circumference and birthweight (n = 91, P < 0.01 and n = 91, P < 0.01). Cell models may not entirely

  9. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

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    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  10. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

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    Silvina Epsztejn-Litman

    Full Text Available We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX human embryonic stem cell (HESC line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19, monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19 and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  11. Innovative taught MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    A relatively new, fully accredited MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy, is now offered through a joint collaboration with the Laboratory of Human Anatomy, University of Glasgow and the Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art. This degree combines training in digital technologies and intensive human anatomy training as a result of a long-standing successful partnership between these two esteemed institutes. The student also has to complete a research dissertation which encompasses both the digital perspective and a related medical, dental, surgical, veterinary (comparative anatomy) or life science specialty to enhance development in the digital field for a variety of specialties. This article discusses the background in development of this degree, the course structure and the career prospects and destinations for graduates of this unique degree programme.

  12. A defined, feeder-free, serum-free system to generate in vitro hematopoietic progenitors and differentiated blood cells from hESCs and hiPSCs.

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    Giorgia Salvagiotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human ESC and iPSC are an attractive source of cells of high quantity and purity to be used to elucidate early human development processes, for drug discovery, and in clinical cell therapy applications. To efficiently differentiate pluripotent cells into a pure population of hematopoietic progenitors we have developed a new 2-dimensional, defined and highly efficient protocol that avoids the use of feeder cells, serum or embryoid body formation. Here we showed that a single matrix protein in combination with growth factors and a hypoxic environment is sufficient to generate from pluripotent cells hematopoietic progenitors capable of differentiating further in mature cell types of different lineages of the blood system. We tested the differentiation method using hESCs and 9 iPSC lines generated from different tissues. These data indicate the robustness of the protocol providing a valuable tool for the generation of clinical-grade hematopoietic cells from pluripotent cells.

  13. Advances of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of cartilage defects: a systematic review.

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    Gopal, Kaliappan; Amirhamed, Haji Alizadeh; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies represent a new option for treating damaged cartilage. However, the outcomes following its clinical application have seldom been previously compared. The present paper presents the systematic review of current literatures on MSC-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinical applications. Ovid, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar online databases were searched using several keywords, which include "cartilage" and "stem cells". Only studies using bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) to treat cartilage defects clinically were included in this review. The clinical outcomes were compared, and the quality of the tissue repair was analysed where possible. Of the 996 articles, only six (n = 6) clinical studies have described the use of BM-MSC in clinical applications. Two studies were cohort observational trials, three were case series, and one was a case report. In the two comparative trials, BM-MSCs produced superior repair to cartilage treatment without cells and have comparable outcomes to autologous chondrocyte implantation. The case series and case-control studies have demonstrated that use of BM-MSCs resulted in better short- to long-term clinical outcomes with minimal complications. In addition, histological analyses in two studies have resulted in good repair tissue formation at the damaged site, composed mainly of hyaline-like cartilage. Although results of the respective studies are highly indicative that BM-MSC-based therapy is superior, due to the differences in methods and selection criteria used, it was not possible to make direct comparison between the studies. In conclusion, published studies do suggest that BM-MSCs could provide superior cartilage repair. However, due to limited number of reports, more robust studies might be required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn.

  14. Use of most significant change (MSC) technique to evaluate health promotion training of maternal community health workers in Cianjur district, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limato, Ralalicia; Ahmed, Rukhsana; Magdalena, Amelia; Nasir, Sudirman; Kotvojs, Fiona

    2018-02-01

    Maternal health promotion is a defined activity in the community integrated posts (Posyandu) in Indonesia. However, it is often neglected due to limited knowledge and skills of the community health workers (kader). We conducted health promotion training for the kader and village midwives in four villages in Cianjur district. This study describes the use of "most significant change" (MSC) technique to evaluate impact of health promotion to the beneficiaries and community at large. The MSC uses stories as raw data. Through interviews focused on perception of change, stories were collected from four pregnant women, eight kader and three village midwives. A Panel consisting of policy and programme managers and implementers read all the stories. The story by a pregnant woman who routinely attended Posyandu was selected as the story with most significant change. Her story highlighted changes in kader's knowledge and communication of health messages and attitude towards pregnant women. She expressed these changes impacted community awareness about health and to seek help from kader.The MSC technique enabled stakeholders to view raw data and evaluate the impact of health promotion from the beneficiary's perspective. At the same time, recipients of health promotion contributed to the decision process of evaluation through their stories. The different perspectives on the MSC reflected individual's objectives of the health promotion. The application of this technique is limited in maternal health promotion programme in Indonesia, and none have been published in peer reviewed journals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Messinian post-evaporitic paleogeography of the Po Plain-Adriatic region by 3D numerical modeling: implications for the Central Mediterranean desiccation during the MSC

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    Amadori, Chiara; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Di Giulio, Andrea; Fantoni, Roberto; Ghielmi, Manlio; Sternai, Pietro; Toscani, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) has been the topic of a number of studies, in particular in onshore areas, as they offer a unique opportunity to analyze the controlling factors and the geological consequences of the estimated 1.5 km sea-level drop. During the MSC, the geometry of western and eastern sides of the Mediterranean basin was similar to the present day basin while, important changes took place in the central portion as a consequence of the (still ongoing) tectonic activity of the Apennine domain. Recent high-resolution 2D seismo-stratigraphic and 1D backstripping analysis by Eni E&P group described a step-wise sea-level lowering during evaporitic and post-evaporitic MSC phases in the Po Plain-Northern Adriatic foreland (PPAF), with a sea-level drop not exceeding 900 m. Thanks to a dense grid of 2D seismic profiles, integrated with ca. 200 well logs (confidential data, courtesy of ENI E&P), a 3D reconstruction of the entire northern PPAF basin geometry and the facies distribution during the Latest Messinian time has been carried out. In this study, we performed a 3D backstripping and lithospheric scale uplift calculations of the northern PPAF basin testing the 800-900m of sea-level draw down. The resulted restored Latest Messinian paleotopography (corresponding to the bottom Pliocene in the most of the study area) and related shoreline position, strongly fit with the recentmost continental/marine facies distribution maps. The latest Messinian morphology shows deep marine basins persisting during the entire MSC period, filled by clastic turbiditic sediments and a wide emerged area along the Southern Alps margin and Friulian-Venetian basin. A 3D reconstruction of the Latest Messinian surface shows peculiar river incisions along the Southern Alps margin; these V-shape canyons perfectly fit with the present day fluvial network, dating back the drainage origin at least at the Messinian acme. Moreover, if in a well-constrained marginal

  16. Human umbilical blood mononuclear cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells serve as interleukin-21 gene delivery vehicles for epithelial ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weihua; Wang, Jing; He, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Yu, Fangliu; Jiang, Longwei; Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Junsong; Dou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system, and its overall cure rate remains low. The present study investigated human umbilical blood mononuclear cell (UBMC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UBMC-MSCs) as interleukin-21 (IL-21) gene delivery vehicles for ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice. MSCs were isolated from UBMCs and the expanded cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Cultured UBMCs were differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes using appropriate media and then the UBMC-MSCs were transfected with recombinant pIRES2-IL-21-enhancement green fluorescent protein. UBMC-MSCs expressing IL-21 were named as UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Mice with A2780 ovarian cancer were treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21 intravenously, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the tumor volume and mouse survival. To address the mechanism of UBMC-MSC-IL-21 against ovarian cancer, the expression of IL-21, natural killer glucoprotein 2 domain and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A/B were detected in UBMC-MSC-IL-21 and in the tumor sites. Interferon-γ-secreting splenocyte numbers and natural killer cytotoxicity were significantly increased in the UBMC-MSC-IL-21-treated mice as compared with the UBMC-MSCs or the UBMC-MSC-mock plasmid-treated mice. Most notably, tumor growth was delayed and survival was prolonged in ovarian-cancer-bearing mice treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Our data provide important evidence that UBMC-MSCs can serve as vehicles for IL-21 gene delivery and inhibit the established tumor. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Comparison of immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy and inflamed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Farinawati Binti; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy (SCD) and inflamed pulp deciduous (SCDIP) tissues. The overall hypothesis is that SCDIP possess equal immune properties with SCD and could be used as an alternative tissue source in regenerative medicine. An intra-oral examination was carried out to assess the status of the pulp tissues and group them according to healthy or inflamed. Primary cells were established from these groups, and basic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) characterizations were conducted. The expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), namely HLA-G, HLA-DR, and HLA-ABC were examined in both cell lines using flow cytometry. We further compared the immunosuppressive effects of SCD and SCDIP on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Supernatants were tested for cytokine profiling using multiplex array. While SCD exhibited typical MSC characteristics, SCDIP on the other hand, did not. Compared with SCDIP, SCD effectively suppresses mitogen-induced T cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, as well as express a higher percentage of HLA-ABC and HLA-G. In addition, levels of several cytokines, such as TNF-α, TNF-β, and IL-2, were drastically suppressed in SCD than SCDIP. Furthermore, a high level of IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, was present in SCD compared with SCDIP. These findings suggest that SCDIP is highly dysfunctional in terms of their stemness and immunomodulatory properties. SCDIP is not a viable therapeutic cell source especially when used in graft versus host disease (GvHD) and organ rejection.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from different cell sources and their potential for regenerative and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, R; Germanguz, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    2013-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have great potential as a robust source of progenitors for regenerative medicine. The novel technology also enables the derivation of patient-specific cells for applications to personalized medicine, such as for personal drug screening and toxicology. However, the biological characteristics of iPSCs are not yet fully understood and their similarity to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is still unresolved. Variations among iPSCs, resulting from their original tissue or cell source, and from the experimental protocols used for their derivation, significantly affect epigenetic properties and differentiation potential. Here we review the potential of iPSCs for regenerative and personalized medicine, and assess their expression pattern, epigenetic memory and differentiation capabilities in relation to their parental tissue source. We also summarize the patient-specific iPSCs that have been derived for applications in biological research and drug discovery; and review risks that must be overcome in order to use iPSC technology for clinical applications.

  19. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.J. Calkoen

    2015-03-01

    An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets.

  20. A Fuzzy Group Prioritization Method for Deriving Weights and its Software Implementation

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    Tarifa Almulhim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods involve pairwise comparisons to obtain the preferences of decision makers (DMs. This paper proposes a fuzzy group prioritization method for deriving group priorities/weights from fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices. The proposed method extends the Fuzzy Preferences Programming Method (FPP by considering the different importance weights of multiple DMs . The elements of the group pairwise comparison matrices are presented as fuzzy numbers rather than exact numerical values, in order to model the uncertainty and imprecision in the DMs’ judgments. Unlike the known fuzzy prioritization techniques, the proposed method is able to derive crisp weights from incomplete and fuzzy set of comparison judgments and does not require additional aggregation procedures. A prototype of a decision tool is developed to assist DMs to implement the proposed method for solving fuzzy group prioritization problems in MATLAB. Detailed numerical examples are used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  1. GROα regulates human embryonic stem cell self-renewal or adoption of a neuronal fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtolica, Ana; Larocque, Nick; Genbacev, Olga; Ilic, Dusko; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher K.; Zdravkovic, Tamara; McMaster, Michael; Campisi, Judith; Fisher, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Previously we reported that feeders formed from human placental fibroblasts (hPFs) support derivation and long-term self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) under serum-free conditions. Here, we show, using antibody array and ELISA platforms, that hPFs secrete ~6-fold higher amounts of the CXC-type chemokine, GROα, than IMR 90, a human lung fibroblast line, which does not support hESC growth. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry and immunoblot approaches revealed that hESCs express CXCR, a GROα receptor. We used this information to develop defined culture medium for feeder-free propagation of hESCs in an undifferentiated state. Cells passaged as small aggregates and maintained in the GROα-containing medium had a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers, and exhibited apical–basal polarity, i.e., had the defining features of pluripotent hESCs. They also differentiated into the three primary (embryonic) germ layers and formed teratomas in immunocompromised mice. hESCs cultured as single cells in the GROα-containing medium also had a normal karyotype, but they downregulated markers of pluripotency, lost apical–basal polarity, and expressed markers that are indicative of the early stages of neuronal differentiation—βIII tubulin, vimentin, radial glial protein, and nestin. These data support our hypothesis that establishing and maintaining cell polarity is essential for the long-term propagation of hESCs in an undifferentiated state and that disruption of cell–cell contacts can trigger adoption of a neuronal fate. PMID:21396766

  2. Intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow-derived ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells in acute myocardial infarction patients is feasible and safe up to 5 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Sander F; van Ramshorst, Jan; Hoogslag, Georgette E; Boden, Helèn; Velders, Matthijs A; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Roelofs, Helene; Al Younis, Imad; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Fibbe, Willem E; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L; Atsma, Douwe E

    2013-10-01

    In experimental studies, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) models has been associated with enhanced neovascularization and myogenesis. Clinical data however, are scarce. Therefore, the present study evaluates the safety and feasibility of intramyocardial MSC injection in nine patients, shortly after AMI during short-term and 5-year follow-up. Periprocedural safety analysis demonstrated one transient ischemic attack. No other adverse events related to MSC treatment were observed during 5-year follow-up. Clinical events were compared to a nonrandomized control group comprising 45 matched controls. A 5-year event-free survival after MSC-treatment was comparable to controls (89 vs. 91 %, P = 0.87). Echocardiographic imaging for evaluation of left ventricular function demonstrated improvements up to 5 years after MSC treatment. These findings were not significantly different when compared to controls. The present safety and feasibility study suggest that intramyocardial injection of MSC in patients shortly after AMI is feasible and safe up to 5-year follow-up.

  3. Chromatin remodeling agent trichostatin A: a key-factor in the hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived of adult bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinken Mathieu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC derived of adult bone marrow to undergo in vitro hepatic differentiation was investigated. Results Exposure of hMSC to a cocktail of hepatogenic factors [(fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite (ITS and dexamethasone] failed to induce hepatic differentiation. Sequential exposure to these factors (FGF-4, followed by HGF, followed by HGF+ITS+dexamethasone, however, resembling the order of secretion during liver embryogenesis, induced both glycogen-storage and cytokeratin (CK18 expression. Additional exposure of the cells to trichostatin A (TSA considerably improved endodermal differentiation, as evidenced by acquisition of an epithelial morphology, chronological expression of hepatic proteins, including hepatocyte-nuclear factor (HNF-3β, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, CK18, albumin (ALB, HNF1α, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2 and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα, and functional maturation, i.e. upregulated ALB secretion, urea production and inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent activity. Conclusion hMSC are able to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. TSA is hereby essential to promote differentiation of hMSC towards functional hepatocyte-like cells.

  4. Comparison of the behavior of fibroblast and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell on nitrogen plasma-treated gelatin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasertsung, I.; Kanokpanont, S.; Mongkolnavin, R.; Wong, C.S.; Panpranot, J.; Damrongsakkul, S.

    2013-01-01

    The attachment and growth behavior of mouse fibroblast (L929) and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) on nitrogen plasma-treated and untreated gelatin films was investigated and compared. The gelatin films were prepared by solution casting (0.05% w/v) and crosslinked using dehydrothermal treatment. The crosslinked gelatin films were treated with nitrogen alternating current (AC) 50 Hz plasma systems at various treatment time. The results on the attachment and growth of two cells; L929 and MSC, on plasma-treated gelatin film showed that the number of attached and proliferated cells on plasma-treated gelatin films was significantly increased compared to untreated samples. However, no significant difference between the number of attached L929 and MSC on plasma-treated gelatin was observed. The shorter population doubling time and higher growth rate of cells cultured on plasma-treated film indicated the greater growth of cells, compared to ones on untreated films. The greatest enhancement of cell attachment and growth were noticed when the film was treated with nitrogen plasma for 9 to 15 s. This suggested that the greater attachment and growth of both cells on gelatin films resulted from the change of surface properties, i.e. hydrophilicity, surface energy, and chemistry. The suitable water contact angle and oxygen/nitrogen ratio (O/N) of gelatin film for best L929 and MSC attachment were observed at 27–32° and 1.4, respectively. These conditions also provided the best proliferation of cells on plasma-treated gelatin films. - Highlights: • We compared the attachment and growth behavior of L929 and MSC. • The attachment of two cells on plasma-treated gelatin was significantly increased. • The shorter population doubling time and higher growth rate of cells were observed. • L929 fibroblast exhibited the greater proliferation, compared to MSC

  5. Enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogels for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keming; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Lee, Fan; Bae, Ki Hyun; Gao, Shujun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds facilitates the cell expansion process and supplies pluripotent cells of high quality for broad-spectrum applications in regenerative medicine. Herein, we report an enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. HA-Tyr hydrogels were formed by crosslinking the tyramine moieties with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). By changing the HRP and H2O2 concentration, we prepared HA-Tyr hydrogels of different mechanical strength and studied the self-renewal properties of hESCs in these scaffolds. We observed that both the chemical composition and mechanical strength of substrates were important factors affecting cell proliferation and pluripotency. The HA-Tyr hydrogel with a compressive modulus of ∼350Pa supported the proliferation of hESCs at the pluripotent state in both mTeSR1 medium and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that hESCs proliferated well and formed spheroid structures in 3D, without undergoing apoptosis. The hESCs cultured in HA-Tyr hydrogels showed high expression of CD44 and pluripotency markers. These cells exhibited the capability to form cell derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the genetic integrity of the hESCs was unaffected in the 3D cultivation system. The scope of this study is to provide a stable 3D cultivation system for the expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards clinical applications. We report an enzyme mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. Unlike other HA-based photo-crosslinked hydrogel systems reported, we investigated the effects of mechanical strength of hydrogels on the self-renewal properties of hESCs in 3D. Then, we characterized hESCs cultured in hydrogels with lower mechanical strength

  6. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung; Yoo, Eun-Sun; Chan Ra, Jeong; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. ► Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. ► AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. ► AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-α, G-CSF, and TGF-β. ► AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-α, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-α, G-CSF, and TGF-β. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  7. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret R Adams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  8. The Higgs mass derived from the U(3) Lie group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole; Bohr, Henrik; Jensen, Mogens O Stibius

    2015-01-01

    The Higgs mass value is derived from a Hamiltonian on the Lie group U(3) where we relate strong and electroweak energy scales. The baryon states of nucleon and delta resonances originate in specific Bloch wave degrees of freedom coupled to a Higgs mechanism which also gives rise to the usual gauge...... boson masses. The derived Higgs mass is around 125 GeV. From the same Hamiltonian, we derive the relative neutron to proton mass ratio and the N and Delta mass spectra. All compare rather well with the experimental values. We predict scarce neutral flavor baryon singlets that should be visible...... in scattering cross-sections for negative pions on protons, in photoproduction on neutrons, in neutron diffraction dissociation experiments and in invariant mass spectra of protons and negative pions in B-decays. The fundamental predictions are based on just one length scale and the fine structure constant...

  9. Comparison of Osteogenesis between Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Sheets on Poly-ε-Caprolactone/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds in Canine Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and MSC sheets have effective potentials of bone regeneration. Composite polymer/ceramic scaffolds such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP are widely used to repair large bone defects. The present study investigated the in vitro osteogenic potential of canine adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs and Ad-MSC sheets. Composite PCL/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with Ad-MSCs or wrapped with osteogenic Ad-MSC sheets (OCS were also fabricated and their osteogenic potential was assessed following transplantation into critical-sized bone defects in dogs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of osteogenic Ad-MSCs (O-MSCs and OCS was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated Ad-MSCs (U-MSCs. The ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 mRNA levels were upregulated in O-MSCs and OCS as compared to U-MSCs. In a segmental bone defect, the amount of newly formed bone was greater in PCL/β-TCP/OCS and PCL/β-TCP/O-MSCs/OCS than in the other groups. The OCS exhibit strong osteogenic capacity, and OCS combined with a PCL/β-TCP composite scaffold stimulated new bone formation in a critical-sized bone defect. These results suggest that the PCL/β-TCP/OCS composite has potential clinical applications in bone regeneration and can be used as an alternative treatment modality in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Activation of cardiac progenitor cells through paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Chiaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Yamahara, Kenichi; Hagino, Ikuo; Mori, Hidezo; Sawa, Yoshiki; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Nagaya, Noritoshi

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation has been proved to be promising strategy to treat the failing heart. The effect of MSC transplantation is thought to be mediated mainly in a paracrine manner. Recent reports have suggested that cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) reside in the heart. In this study, we investigated whether MSC had paracrine effects on CPC in vitro. CPC were isolated from the neonatal rat heart using an explant method. MSC were isolated from the adult rat bone marrow. MSC-derived conditioned medium promoted proliferation of CPC and inhibited apoptosis of CPC induced by hypoxia and serum starvation. Chemotaxis chamber assay demonstrated that MSC-derived conditioned medium enhanced migration of CPC. Furthermore, MSC-derived conditioned medium upregulated expression of cardiomyocyte-related genes in CPC such as β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In conclusion, MSC-derived conditioned medium had protective effects on CPC and enhanced their migration and differentiation

  11. Employability and career experiences of international graduates of MSc Public Health: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunaaisie, C; Manyara, A M; Annett, H; Bird, E L; Bray, I; Ige, J; Jones, M; Orme, J; Pilkington, P; Evans, D

    2018-05-08

    This article aims to describe the public health career experiences of international graduates of a Master of Science in Public Health (MSc PH) programme and to contribute to developing the evidence base on international public health workforce capacity development. A sequential mixed methods study was conducted between January 2017 and April 2017. Ninety-seven international graduates of one UK university's MSc PH programme were invited to take part in an online survey followed by semistructured interviews, for respondents who consented to be interviewed. We computed the descriptive statistics of the quantitative data obtained, and qualitative data were thematically analysed. The response rate was 48.5%. Most respondents (63%) were employed by various agencies within 1 year after graduation. Others (15%) were at different stages of doctor of philosophy studies. Respondents reported enhanced roles after graduation in areas such as public health policy analysis (74%); planning, implementation and evaluation of public health interventions (74%); leadership roles (72%); and research (70%). The common perceived skills that were relevant to the respondents' present jobs were critical analysis (87%), multidisciplinary thinking (86%), demonstrating public health leadership skills (84%) and research (77%). Almost all respondents (90%) were confident in conducting research. Respondents recommended the provision of longer public health placement opportunities, elective courses on project management and advanced statistics, and 'internationalisation' of the programme's curriculum. The study has revealed the relevance of higher education in public health in developing the career prospects and skills of graduates. International graduates of this MSc PH programme were satisfied with the relevance and impact of the skills they acquired during their studies. The outcomes of this study can be used for curriculum reformation. Employers' perspectives of the capabilities of these

  12. Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…

  13. Genome-wide identification of microRNA targets in human ES cells reveals a role for miR-302 in modulating BMP response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchina, Inna; Elkabetz, Yechiel; Hafner, Markus; Sheridan, Robert; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Tuschl, Thomas; Sander, Chris; Studer, Lorenz; Betel, Doron

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators in many cellular processes, including stem cell self-renewal. Recent studies demonstrated their function as pluripotency factors with the capacity for somatic cell reprogramming. However, their role in human embryonic stem (ES) cells (hESCs) remains poorly understood, partially due to the lack of genome-wide strategies to identify their targets. Here, we performed comprehensive microRNA profiling in hESCs and in purified neural and mesenchymal derivatives. Using a combination of AGO cross-linking and microRNA perturbation experiments, together with computational prediction, we identified the targets of the miR-302/367 cluster, the most abundant microRNAs in hESCs. Functional studies identified novel roles of miR-302/367 in maintaining pluripotency and regulating hESC differentiation. We show that in addition to its role in TGF-β signaling, miR-302/367 promotes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by targeting BMP inhibitors TOB2, DAZAP2, and SLAIN1. This study broadens our understanding of microRNA function in hESCs and is a valuable resource for future studies in this area. PMID:22012620

  14. Defining the genomic signature of totipotency and pluripotency during early human development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Galan

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes, in vivo pluripotency (20 genes, and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes, and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions.

  15. Foetal stem cell derivation & characterization for osteogenic lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mangala Gowri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mesencymal stem cells (MSCs derived from foetal tissues present a multipotent progenitor cell source for application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present study was carried out to derive foetal mesenchymal stem cells from ovine source and analyze their differentiation to osteogenic linage to serve as an animal model to predict human applications. Methods: Isolation and culture of sheep foetal bone marrow cells were done and uniform clonally derived MSC population was collected. The cells were characterized using cytochemical, immunophenotyping, biochemical and molecular analyses. The cells with defined characteristics were differentiated into osteogenic lineages and analysis for differentiated cell types was done. The cells were analyzed for cell surface marker expression and the gene expression in undifferentiated and differentiated osteoblast was checked by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT PCR analysis and confirmed by sequencing using genetic analyzer. Results: Ovine foetal samples were processed to obtain mononuclear (MNC cells which on culture showed spindle morphology, a characteristic oval body with the flattened ends. MSC population CD45 - /CD14 - was cultured by limiting dilution to arrive at uniform spindle morphology cells and colony forming units. The cells were shown to be positive for surface markers such as CD44, CD54, integrinβ1, and intracellular collagen type I/III and fibronectin. The osteogenically induced MSCs were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and mineral deposition. The undifferentiated MSCs expressed RAB3B, candidate marker for stemness in MSCs. The osteogenically induced and uninduced MSCs expressed collagen type I and MMP13 gene in osteogenic induced cells. Interpretation & conclusions: The protocol for isolation of ovine foetal bone marrow derived MSCs was simple to perform, and the cultural method of obtaining pure spindle morphology cells was established

  16. A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.

    2009-01-01

    In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…

  17. Culture Medium Supplements Derived from Human Platelet and Plasma: Cell Commitment and Proliferation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Muraglia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Present cell culture medium supplements, in most cases based on animal sera, are not fully satisfactory especially for the in vitro expansion of cells intended for human cell therapy. This paper refers to (i an heparin-free human platelet lysate (PL devoid of serum or plasma components (v-PL and (ii an heparin-free human serum derived from plasma devoid of PL components (Pl-s and to their use as single components or in combination in primary or cell line cultures. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC primary cultures were obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and umbilical cord. Human chondrocytes were obtained from articular cartilage biopsies. In general, MSC expanded in the presence of Pl-s alone showed a low or no proliferation in comparison to cells grown with the combination of Pl-s and v-PL. Confluent, growth-arrested cells, either human MSC or human articular chondrocytes, treated with v-PL resumed proliferation, whereas control cultures, not supplemented with v-PL, remained quiescent and did not proliferate. Interestingly, signal transduction pathways distinctive of proliferation were activated also in cells treated with v-PL in the absence of serum, when cell proliferation did not occur, indicating that v-PL could induce the cell re-entry in the cell cycle (cell commitment, but the presence of serum proteins was an absolute requirement for cell proliferation to happen. Indeed, Pl-s alone supported cell growth in constitutively activated cell lines (U-937, HeLa, HaCaT, and V-79 regardless of the co-presence of v-PL. Plasma- and plasma-derived serum were equally able to sustain cell proliferation although, for cells cultured in adhesion, the Pl-s was more efficient than the plasma from which it was derived. In conclusion, the cells expanded in the presence of the new additives maintained their differentiation potential and did not show alterations in their karyotype.

  18. Wnt signalling mediates the cross-talk between bone marrow derived pre-adipocytic and pre-osteoblastic cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Abdallah, Basem M; Aldamash, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    ) (mMSC(Bone)) or adipogenic (mMSC(Adipo)) lineage. To identify the molecular mechanism determining the lineage commitment, we compared the basal gene expression profile of mMSC(Bone) versus mMSC(Adipo) using Affymetrix GeneChip® MG430A 2.0 Array. Gene annotation analysis based on biological function...... revealed an over-representation of skeletal development genes in mMSC(Bone) while genes related to lipid metabolism and immune response were highly expressed in mMSC(Adipo). In addition, there was a significant up-regulation of canonical Wnt signalling genes in mMSC(Bone) compared to mMSC(Adipo) (p...

  19. In vivo MR detection of fluorine-labeled human MSC using the bSSFP sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Ribot, Emeline J; Gaudet, Jeffrey M; Chen, Yuhua; Gilbert, Kyle M; Foster, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Emeline J Ribot,1 Jeffrey M Gaudet,1,2 Yuhua Chen,1 Kyle M Gilbert,1 Paula J Foster1,2 1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are used to restore deteriorated cell environments. There is a need to specifically track these cells following transplantation in order to evaluate different methods of implantation, to follow their migra...

  20. Cyclodextrin derivatives with cyanohydrin and carboxylate groups as artificial glycosidases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Ortega-Caballero, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Two cyclodextrin derivatives (1 and 2) were prepared in an attempt to create glycosidase mimics with a general acid catalyst and a nucleophilic carboxylate group. The catalysts 1 and 2 were found to catalyse the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside at pH 8.0, but rapidly underwent...... decomposition with loss of hydrogen cyanide to convert the cyanohydrin to the corresponding aldehyde. The initial rate of the catalysis shows that the cyanohydrin group in these molecules functions as a good catalyst, but that the carboxylate has no positive effect. The decomposition product aldehydes display...

  1. Isolation and differentiation of chondrocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells using dlk1/FA1 as a novel surface marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Mahmood, Amer

    2009-01-01

    of dlk1/FA1 as a novel surface marker for chondroprogenitor cells during hESC differentiation. We found that, Dlk1/FA1 is expressed specifically in cells undergoing transition from proliferating to prehypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification of the mouse limb. In hESC cells, dlk1/FA1...... was not expressed by undifferentiated hESC, but expressed during in vitro embryoid bodies (hEBs) formation upon down-regulation of undifferentiated markers e.g. Oct 3/4. Similarly, dlk1/FA1 was expressed in chondrocytic cells during in vivo teratoma formation. Interestingly, treatment of hEBs with Activin B......, a member of TGF-ss family, markedly increased Dlk1 expression in association with up-regulation of the mesoderm-specific markers (e.g. FOXF1, KDR and VE-cadherin) and SOX9. dlk1/FA1(+) cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were capable of differentiating into chondrocytic cells when...

  2. In Vitro Differentiation and Propagation of Urothelium from Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Stephanie L; Kurzrock, Eric A

    2018-01-01

    Bioengineering of bladder tissue, particularly for those patients who have advanced bladder disease, requires a source of urothelium that is healthy, capable of significant proliferation in vitro and immunologically tolerated upon transplant. As pluripotent stem cells have the potential to fulfill such criteria, they provide a critical cell source from which urothelium might be derived in vitro and used clinically. Herein, we describe the in vitro differentiation of urothelium from the H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line through the definitive endoderm (DE) phase via selective culture techniques. The protocol can be used to derive urothelium from other hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells.

  3. Comparsion between Intravenous Delivered Human Fetal Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Treatment of Rat Cerebral Infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Bin; Ma, Bu-Qing; Guan, Yun-Qian; Zhou, Yi-Dan

    2016-10-10

    Objective To compare the effecacy of human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) with human mononuclear cell (hMNC) in treating rat cerebral infarct.Methods The SD rat models of cerebral infarct were established by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO). Rats were divided into four groups: sham,ischemia vehicle,MSC,and MNC transplantation groups. For the transplantation group,1×10 6 hMSCs or hMNCs were intravascularly transplanted into the tail vein 1 hour after the ischemia onset. The ischemia vehicle group received dMCAO surgery and intravascular saline injection 1,3,5,and 7 days after the ischemia onset,and then behavioral tests were performed. At 48 h after the ischemia onset,the abundance of Iba- 1,the symbol of activated microglia,was evaluated in the peri-ischemia striatum area; meanwhile,the neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in ipsilateral peri-ischemia striatum area were also measured. Results The relative infarct volume in ischemia vehicle group,hMSC group,and hMNC transplantation group were (37.85±4.40)%,(33.41±3.82)%,and (30.23±3.63)%,respectively. The infarct volumes of MSC group (t=2.100,P=0.034) and MNC group (t=2.109,P=0.0009) were significantly smaller than that of ischemia vehicle group,and that of MNC group was significantly smaller than that of MSC group (t=1.743,P=0.043). One day after transplantation,the score of ischemia vehicle group in limb placing test was (4.32±0.71)%,which was significantly lower than that in sham group (9.73±0.36)% (t=2.178,P=8.61×10 -11 ). The scores of MSC and MNC group,which were (5.09±0.62)% (t=2.1009,P=0.024) and (5.90±0.68)% (t=2.1008,P=0.0001),respectively,were significantly higher than that of ischemia vehicle group; also,the score of MNC group was significantly higher than that of MSC group(t=2.1009,P=0.0165). The contralateral forelimb scores of MSC and MNC groups in beam walking test were (5.56±0.86)% (t=2

  4. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung [Department of Microbiology, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Eun-Sun [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chan Ra, Jeong [Stem Cell Research Center, RNL BIO, Seoul 153-768 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung-Ha, E-mail: ykh@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-{alpha}, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  5. Education of 'nuclear' students (BSc and MSc curricula) at the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, K.; Zeman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague has been educating nuclear power engineering experts for nearly half a century. The article describes the current status and prospects of education of new specialists at the faculty for all nuclear power-related areas within the MSc and BSc level curricula. The current transition to 'European type' structured education, enabling students who have graduated from the BSc programme to continue smoothly their MSc programme, is outlined. The major courses of the 'Nuclear Engineering' educational specialisation, focused on nuclear power, environment, and dosimetry, are highlighted, including the number of lessons taught in each study year. (author)

  6. Enhancement of Median Nerve Regeneration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment in an Absorbable Conduit: Improvement of Peripheral Nerve Morphology with Enlargement of Somatosensory Cortical Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teixeira Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN, 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1, electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in 3 groups: MN Intact (n=4, PCL-Only (n=3 and PCL+MSC (n=3. Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group or without (PCL-Only group injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to 5 animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383±390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively than the PCL-Only group (2,226±575 fibers; 1.6 mm2. In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN.

  7. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  8. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Miyoung; Jeong, Sang Young; Ha, Jueun; Kim, Miyeon; Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Chang, Jong Wook; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Jeon, Hong Bae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications

  9. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Miyoung; Jeong, Sang Young; Ha, Jueun; Kim, Miyeon; Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Soon-Jae [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Wook [Research Institute for Future Medicine Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 137-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hong Bae, E-mail: jhb@medi-post.co.kr [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications.

  10. Potential of Osteoblastic Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Associated with a Polymer/Ceramic Composite to Repair Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Gileade P; Lopes, Helena B; Almeida, Adriana L G; Abuna, Rodrigo P F; Gimenes, Rossano; Souza, Lucas E B; Covas, Dimas T; Beloti, Marcio M; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2017-09-01

    One of the tissue engineering strategies to promote bone regeneration is the association of cells and biomaterials. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate if cell source, either from bone marrow or adipose tissue, affects bone repair induced by osteoblastic cells associated with a membrane of poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (PVDF-TrFE/BT). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were isolated from rat bone marrow and adipose tissue and characterized by detection of several surface markers. Also, both cell populations were cultured under osteogenic conditions and it was observed that MSC from bone marrow were more osteogenic than MSC from adipose tissue. The bone repair was evaluated in rat calvarial defects implanted with PVDF-TrFE/BT membrane and locally injected with (1) osteoblastic cells differentiated from MSC from bone marrow, (2) osteoblastic cells differentiated from MSC from adipose tissue or (3) phosphate-buffered saline. Luciferase-expressing osteoblastic cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue were detected in bone defects after cell injection during 25 days without difference in luciferin signal between cells from both sources. Corroborating the in vitro findings, osteoblastic cells from bone marrow combined with the PVDF-TrFE/BT membrane increased the bone formation, whereas osteoblastic cells from adipose tissue did not enhance the bone repair induced by the membrane itself. Based on these findings, it is possible to conclude that, by combining a membrane with cells in this rat model, cell source matters and that bone marrow could be a more suitable source of cells for therapies to engineer bone.

  11. Do ABO blood group antigens hamper the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Guido; Hult, Annika; von Bahr, Lena; Alm, Jessica J; Heldring, Nina; Hamad, Osama A; Stenbeck-Funke, Lillemor; Larsson, Stella; Teramura, Yuji; Roelofs, Helene; Nilsson, Bo; Fibbe, Willem E; Olsson, Martin L; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Investigation into predictors for treatment outcome is essential to improve the clinical efficacy of therapeutic multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We therefore studied the possible harmful impact of immunogenic ABO blood groups antigens - genetically governed antigenic determinants - at all given steps of MSC-therapy, from cell isolation and preparation for clinical use, to final recipient outcome. We found that clinical MSCs do not inherently express or upregulate ABO blood group antigens after inflammatory challenge or in vitro differentiation. Although antigen adsorption from standard culture supplements was minimal, MSCs adsorbed small quantities of ABO antigen from fresh human AB plasma (ABP), dependent on antigen concentration and adsorption time. Compared to cells washed in non-immunogenic human serum albumin (HSA), MSCs washed with ABP elicited stronger blood responses after exposure to blood from healthy O donors in vitro, containing high titers of ABO antibodies. Clinical evaluation of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients found only very low titers of anti-A/B agglutination in these strongly immunocompromised patients at the time of MSC treatment. Patient analysis revealed a trend for lower clinical response in blood group O recipients treated with ABP-exposed MSC products, but not with HSA-exposed products. We conclude, that clinical grade MSCs are ABO-neutral, but the ABP used for washing and infusion of MSCs can contaminate the cells with immunogenic ABO substance and should therefore be substituted by non-immunogenic HSA, particularly when cells are given to immunocompentent individuals.

  12. Reduction of myeloid suppressor cell derived nitric oxide provides a mechanistic basis of lead enhancement of alloreactive CD4+ T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrer, David G.; Hueber, Sara; Laiosa, Michael D.; Eckles, Kevin G.; McCabe, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The persistent environmental toxicant and immunomodulator, lead (Pb), has been proposed to directly target CD4 + T cells. However, our studies suggest that CD4 + T cells are an important functional, yet indirect target. In order to identify the direct target of Pb in the immune system and the potential mechanism of Pb-induced immunotoxicity, myeloid suppressor cells (MSCs) were evaluated for their ability to modulate CD4 + T cell proliferation after Pb exposure. Myeloid suppressor cells regulate the adaptive immune response, in part, by inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. It is thought that the mechanism of MSC-dependent regulation involves the release of the bioactive gas, nitric oxide (NO), blocking cell signaling cascades downstream of the IL-2 receptor and thus preventing T cells from entering cell-cycle. In mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), increasing numbers of MSCs suppressed T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and this suppression is strikingly abrogated with 5 μM lead (Pb) treatment. The Pb-sensitive MSC population is CD11b + , GR1 + and CD11c - and thus phenotypically consistent with MSCs described in other literature. Inhibition of NO-synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for the production of NO, enhanced alloreactive T cell proliferation in MLC. Moreover, Pb attenuated NO production in MLC, and exogenous replacement of NO restored suppression in the presence of Pb. Significantly, MSC from iNOS-/- mice were unable to suppress T cell proliferation. An MSC-derived cell line (MSC-1) also suppressed T cell proliferation in MLC, and Pb disrupted this suppression by attenuating NO production. Additionally, Pb disrupted NO production in MSC-1 cells in response to treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and LPS or in response to concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. However, neither the abundance of protein nor levels of mRNA for the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS) were altered with Pb treatment. Taken together these data suggest that Pb

  13. Proteomic analysis of human blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst and can differentiate into any cell type in the human body. These cells hold a great potential for regenerative medicine, but to obtain enough cells needed for medical treatment, culture is required......, the blastocoel fluid, which is in contact with all the cells in the blastocyst, including hESCs. Fifty-three surplus human blastocysts were donated after informed consent, and blastocoel fluid was isolated by micromanipulation. Using highly sensitive nano-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass...... from the ICM of the human blastocyst are exposed to via the blastocoel fluid. These results can be an inspiration for the development of improved culture conditions for hESCs....

  14. Retinal vascular injuries and intravitreal human embryonic stem cell-derived haemangioblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Lanza, Robert; Lu, Shi-Jiang; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate whether intravitreally applied haemangioblasts (HB) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are helpful for the repair of vascular damage caused in animals by an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), by an induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) or by an induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Human embryonic stem cell-derived HBs were transplanted intravitreally into C57BL/6J mice (OIR model), into male Wistar rats with an induced DR and into male Wistar rats undergoing induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Control groups of animals received an intravitreal injection of endothelial cells (ECs) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). We examined the vasculature integrity in the mice with OIR, the blood-retina barrier in the rats with induced DR, and retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density in retina flat mounts of the rats with the retinal ischaemic-reperfusion retinopathy. In the OIR model, the study group versus control groups showed a significantly (p < 0.001) smaller retinal avascular area [5.1 ± 2.7%;n = 18 animals versus 12.2 ± 2.8% (PBS group; n = 10 animals) and versus 11.8 ± 3.7% (EC group; n = 8 animals)] and less retinal neovascularization [6.3 ± 2.5%;n = 18 versus 15.2 ± 6.3% (n = 10; PBS group) and versus 15.8 ± 3.3% (n = 8; EC group)]. On retinal flat mounts, hESC-HBs were integrated into damaged retinal vessels and stained positive for PECAM (CD31) as EC marker. In the DR model, the study group versus the EC control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) better blood-retina barrier function as measured at 2 days after the intravitreal injections [study group: 20.2 ± 12.8 μl/(g × hr); n = 6; versus EC control group: 52.9 ± 9.9 μl/(g × hr; n = 6)]. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, the groups did not differ significantly in retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density at 2, 5 and 7 days after baseline. By integrating into

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix enhances chondrogenic phenotype of and cartilage formation by encapsulated chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanheng; Lin, Hang; Shen, He; Wang, Bing; Lei, Guanghua; Tuan, Rocky S

    2018-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular matrix (MSC-ECM) is a natural biomaterial with robust bioactivity and good biocompatibility, and has been studied as a scaffold for tissue engineering. In this investigation, we tested the applicability of using decellularized human bone marrow derived MSC-ECM (hBMSC-ECM) as a culture substrate for chondrocyte expansion in vitro, as well as a scaffold for chondrocyte-based cartilage repair. hBMSC-ECM deposited by hBMSCs cultured on tissue culture plastic (TCP) was harvested, and then subjected to a decellularization process to remove hBMSCs. Compared with chondrocytes grown on TCP, chondrocytes seeded onto hBMSC-ECM exhibited significantly increased proliferation rate, and maintained better chondrocytic phenotype than TCP group. After being expanded to the same cell number and placed in high-density micromass cultures, chondrocytes from the ECM group showed better chondrogenic differentiation profile than those from the TCP group. To test cartilage formation ability, composites of hBMSC-ECM impregnated with chondrocytes were subjected to brief trypsin treatment to allow cell-mediated contraction, and folded to form 3-dimensional chondrocyte-impregnated hBMSC-ECM (Cell/ECM constructs). Upon culture in vitro in chondrogenic medium for 21 days, robust cartilage formation was observed in the Cell/ECM constructs. Similarly prepared Cell/ECM constructs were tested in vivo by subcutaneous implantation into SCID mice. Prominent cartilage formation was observed in the implanted Cell/ECM constructs 14 days post-implantation, with higher sGAG deposition compared to controls consisting of chondrocyte cell sheets. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hBMSC-ECM is a superior culture substrate for chondrocyte expansion and a bioactive matrix potentially applicable for cartilage regeneration in vivo. Current cell-based treatments for focal cartilage defects face challenges, including chondrocyte dedifferentiation, need for

  16. "Spurring You on and Rooting for Each Other"--The Potential Value of Group Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Clair L.; Morris, Dinah J.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored students' experience of collaborating to undertake a neuromusculoskeletal group research project which was conducted in partial fulfilment of their MSc course. A phenomenological approach was adopted to gain insight into participants' experience of learning and working in a group. Six participants who were all…

  17. Impact of adipose tissue or umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells on the immunogenicity of human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefang Tan

    Full Text Available The application of autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC transplantation is a promising approach in therapeutic cardiovascular diseases and ischemic diseases. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity of EPCs, adipose tissue (AD-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and umbilical cord (UC-derived MSCs by flow cytometry and the mixed lymphocyte reaction. The impact of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs on the immunogenicity of EPCs was analyzed by the mixed lymphocyte reaction and cytokine secretion in vitro and was further tested by allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC induced immuno-rejection on a cell/matrigel graft in an SCID mouse model. EPCs and AD-MSCs express higher levels of MHC class I than UC-MSCs. All three kinds of cells are negative for MHC class II. UC-MSCs also express lower levels of IFN-γ receptor mRNA when compared with EPCs and AD-MSCs. EPCs can stimulate higher rates of proliferation of lymphocytes than AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs. Furthermore, AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs can modulate immune response and inhibit lymphocyte proliferation induced by EPCs, mainly through inhibition of the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Compared with UC-MSCs, AD-MSCs can significantly improve vessel formation and maintain the integrity of neovascular structure in an EPC+MSC/matrigel graft in SCID mice, especially under allo-PBMC induced immuno-rejection. In conclusion, our study shows that AD-MSC is a powerful candidate to minimize immunological rejection and improve vessel formation in EPC transplantation treatment.

  18. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells regress aortic aneurysm via the NF-kB, Smad3 and Akt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki-Ogata, Aika; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko; Narita, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    We have confirmed that aortic aneurysm (AA) can be regressed by the administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). We investigated the kinetics of signaling pathways in AA following treatment with BM-MSCs. Angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated by intravenous injection of 1 × 10 6 BM-MSCs in 0.2 mL saline (BM-MSCs group, n = 5) or 0.2 mL saline (saline group, n = 5). Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after injection and subjected to measurements of the incidence of AA and levels of phosphorylated proteins. Levels of proteins in conditioned media of BM-MSCs were also measured. The incidence of AA in the BM-MSCs group was reduced (BM-MSC 40% versus saline 100%, P kB and pSTAT1 were reduced (pNF-kB: 0.28 versus 0.45 unit/mL, P kB, pAkt, and pSmad3 were correlated with aortic diameters. Trophic factors including IGFPB-3, NRF, Activin A and PDGF-AA were secreted from BM-MSCs (IGFBP-3: 35.2 pg/mL, NRF: 3.1 pg/mL, Activin A: 3.1 pg/mL, PDGF-AA: 0.45 pg/mL). Our findings suggested that the therapeutic mechanism of BM-MSC-mediated AA regression could contribute to regulation of the NF-kB, Smad3 and Akt signaling pathways. In addition, paracrine actions by factors including NRF, IGFBP-3, Activin A and PDGF-AA might have affected these signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tefera Belachew', MD, MSc, DLSHTM, Tilahun Yemane, MD, MSc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary quality was assessed by asking the consumption of the major food groups. (cereals-legumes, fruits .... different food groups, their cost and values given to them by the society in ..... Guide to Daily Food Choices. Home and Garden.

  20. Cellular therapy without cells: extracellular vesicles promote activation of stem cells after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow (MSC) have been shown to be effective in several cell therapeutic treatments. However, MSC accumulate in lungs after i.v. injection. How do MSC transfer their potential to organs with therapeutic need? We show that released extracellular vesicles (EV) might be playing an active role in this transfer. EV were isolated from MSC supernatant and characterized with flow cytometry, proteomics and next generation sequencing. Our data showed the transfer of RNAs, clustering into several protective gene groups. Besides, we repeatedly detected genomic DNA on vesicles. Using a plant - derived detector gene we showed horizontal DNA transfer via EV. Furthermore, we showed that EV were able to salvage stem/progenitor cells in vitro from radiation suppression. Three selected proteins from proteomics data were examined for stem cell protection after irradiation. EV derived from down-regulated producer MSC showed a substantial loss of protection in irradiated stem cells supporting their relevance for stem cell protection. Finally, we showed that EV after i.v. injection into lethally irradiated animals colocalize within 2-4 hours with hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow giving hint to direct protection of stem cells by EV. In conclusion, EV derived from bone marrow MSC were able to transfer several cargo compounds leading potentially to change of the genetic properties. Importantly, EV protect irradiated hematopoietic stem cells, stimulate their recovery and proliferation and rescue lethally irradiated animals long-term. Thus, EV might be an alternative for future cell therapeutic treatment particularly in radiation-based events. (author)

  1. Derivation of space groups in mm2, 222 and mmm crystal classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, G.D.

    1987-08-01

    An algebraic approach is developed to derive space groups using 4x4 Seitz matrices for the crystal classes mm2, 222 and mmm in the orthorhombic system. The advantage of the present method is that it is relatively simple and can be adapted to introduce space groups to beginners. One of the advantages of the present method is that it admits a geometrical visualization of the symmetry elements of space group. The method can easily be extended to other crystal classes in a straightforward way. 16 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Impact of transient down-regulation of DREAM in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán-Lozano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the functions of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, DREAM interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a Ca2+-dependent manner, preventing CREB binding protein (CBP recruitment. Furthermore, CREB and CBP are involved in maintaining ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. However, a previous knockout study revealed the protective function of DREAM depletion in brain aging degeneration and that aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cells (SCs function. Interestingly, we found that DREAM is expressed in different cell types, including human ESCs (hESCs, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs, and human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs, and that transitory inhibition of DREAM in hESCs reduces their pluripotency, increasing differentiation. We stipulate that these changes are partly mediated by increased CREB transcriptional activity. Overall, our data indicates that DREAM acts in the regulation of hESC pluripotency and could be a target to promote or prevent differentiation in embryonic cells.

  3. The promise of human embryonic stem cells in aging-associated diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabut, Odessa; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2011-01-01

    Aging-associated diseases are often caused by progressive loss or dysfunction of cells that ultimately affect the overall function of tissues and organs. Successful treatment of these diseases could benefit from cell-based therapy that would regenerate lost cells or otherwise restore tissue function. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) promise to be an important therapeutic candidate in treating aging-associated diseases due to their unique capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. To date, there are numerous hESC lines that have been developed and characterized. We will discuss how hESC lines are derived, their molecular and cellular properties, and how their ability to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers is determined. We will also outline the methods currently employed to direct their differentiation into populations of tissue-specific, functional cells. Finally, we will highlight the general challenges that must be overcome and the strategies being developed to generate highly-purified hESC-derived cell populations that can safely be used for clinical applications. PMID:21566262

  4. Use of the Fox derivatives in the solution of the word problem for groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1988-09-01

    Applying Fox's free partial derivative, the word problem of a finitely presented group has been reduced to the problem of finding an algorithm for determining the existence of a root of a system of linear equations over the integral group ring. The solubility of the word problem for torsion-free one-relator groups and torsion-free polycyclic-by-finite groups has been deduced. (author). 10 refs

  5. Vanadate impedes adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells derived from different depots within bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Alexander Jacobs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIO is associated with an increase in bone marrow adiposity which skews the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC progenitors away from osteoblastogenesis and towards adipogenesis. We have previously found that vanadate, a non-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, prevents GIO in rats, but it was unclear whether vanadate directly influenced adipogenesis in bone-derived MSCs. For the present study, we investigated the effect of vanadate on adipogenesis in primary rat MSCs derived from bone marrow (bmMSCs and from the proximal end of the femur (pfMSCs. By passage 3 after isolation, both cell populations expressed the MSC cell surface markers CD90 and CD106, but not the haematopoietic marker CD45. However, although variable, expression of the fibroblast marker CD26 was higher in pfMSCs than in bmMSCs. Differentiation studies using osteogenic and adipogenic induction media (OM and AM, respectively demonstrated that pfMSCs rapidly accumulated lipid droplets within 1 week of exposure to AM, while bmMSCs isolated from the same femur only formed lipid droplets after 3 weeks of AM treatment. Conversely, pfMSCs exposed to OM produced mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM after 3 weeks, compared to 1 week for OM-treated bmMSCs. Vanadate (10 µM added to AM resulted in a significant reduction in AM-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic gene markers (PPARγ2, aP2, adipsin in both pfMSCs and bmMSCs. Pharmacological concentrations of glucocorticoids (1 µM alone did not induce lipid accumulation in either bmMSCs or pfMSCs, but resulted in significant cell death in pfMSCs. Our findings demonstrate the existence of at least two fundamentally different MSC depots within the femur, and highlights the presence of MSCs capable of rapid adipogenesis within the proximal femur, an area prone to osteoporotic fractures. In addition, our results suggest that the increased bone marrow

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  7. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  8. Safety and Efficacy of the Intravenous Infusion of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients With Heart Failure: A Phase 1/2 Randomized Controlled Trial (RIMECARD Trial [Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravenous Infusion Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cardiopathy]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Jorge; Verdugo, Fernando J; González, Paz L; Larrea, Ricardo E; Abarzua, Ema; Goset, Carlos; Rojo, Pamela; Palma, Ivan; Lamich, Ruben; Pedreros, Pablo A; Valdivia, Gloria; Lopez, Valentina M; Nazzal, Carolina; Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; Cuenca, Jimena; Brobeck, Matthew J; Patel, Amit N; Figueroa, Fernando E; Khoury, Maroun

    2017-10-27

    Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) are easily accessible and expanded in vitro, possess distinct properties, and improve myocardial remodeling and function in experimental models of cardiovascular disease. Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been previously assessed for their therapeutic potential in individuals with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, no clinical trial has evaluated intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs in these patients. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of the intravenous infusion of UC-MSC in patients with chronic stable heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction under optimal medical treatment were randomized to intravenous infusion of allogenic UC-MSCs (Cellistem, Cells for Cells S.A., Santiago, Chile; 1×10 6 cells/kg) or placebo (n=15 per group). UC-MSCs in vitro, compared with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, displayed a 55-fold increase in the expression of hepatocyte growth factor, known to be involved in myogenesis, cell migration, and immunoregulation. UC-MSC-treated patients presented no adverse events related to the cell infusion, and none of the patients tested at 0, 15, and 90 days presented alloantibodies to the UC-MSCs (n=7). Only the UC-MSC-treated group exhibited significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up assessed both through transthoracic echocardiography ( P =0.0167 versus baseline) and cardiac MRI ( P =0.025 versus baseline). Echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction change from baseline to month 12 differed significantly between groups (+7.07±6.22% versus +1.85±5.60%; P =0.028). In addition, at all follow-up time points, UC-MSC-treated patients displayed improvements of New York Heart Association functional class ( P =0.0167 versus baseline) and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire ( P <0.05 versus baseline). At study completion

  9. Phenotypic modulation of auto-reactive cells by insertion of tolerogenic molecules via MSC-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarizadeh, Aram; Delirezh, Nowruz; Morshedi, Ahhmad; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Farshid, Amir-Abbas; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Auto-reactive cells-mediated immune responses are responsible for the current tissue damages during autoimmunity. Accordingly, functional modulation of auto-reactive cells has been a pivotal aim in many of recent studies. In the current study, we investigated the possibility for insertion of regulatory molecules onto auto-reactive cells through exosomal nano-shuttles as a novel approach for phenotype modification of auto-reactive cells. The exosomes were isolated from supernatant of mesenchymal stem cells culture. Resultant exosomes co-cultured with lymphocytes were harvested from established EAE mice in the presence of antigenic MOG35-55 peptide. After 24 hr, insertion of exosomal tolerogenic molecules (PD-L1, TGF-β, galectin-1) onto auto-reactive cells were explored through flow cytometry. The potency of exosomal inserted membrane molecules to modulate phenotype of auto-reactive lymphocytes was assessed upon ELISA test for their-derived cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17. Incorporation of exosomal molecules into lymohocytes' membrane was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses for surface levels of mentioned molecules. Additionally, the decreased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected in exosome pre-treated lymphocytes upon stimulation with MOG peptide. Mesenchymal stem cells -derived exosomes showed to be efficient organelles for insertion of bioactive tolerogenic molecules onto auto-reactive cells and modulation of their phenotypes.

  10. Comparative study of human-induced pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow cells, hair keratinocytes, and skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Wolf, Frieder; Azizian, Azadeh; Stauske, Michael; Tiburcy, Malte; Wagner, Stefan; Hübscher, Daniela; Dressel, Ralf; Chen, Simin; Jende, Jörg; Wulf, Gerald; Lorenz, Verena; Schön, Michael P; Maier, Lars S; Zimmermann, Wolfram H; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Guan, Kaomei

    2013-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a unique opportunity for the generation of patient-specific cells for use in disease modelling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to compare human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from different somatic cell sources regarding their generation efficiency and cardiac differentiation potential, and functionalities of cardiomyocytes. We generated hiPSCs from hair keratinocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and skin fibroblasts by using two different virus systems. We show that MSCs and fibroblasts are more easily reprogrammed than keratinocytes. This corresponds to higher methylation levels of minimal promoter regions of the OCT4 and NANOG genes in keratinocytes than in MSCs and fibroblasts. The success rate and reprogramming efficiency was significantly higher by using the STEMCCA system than the OSNL system. All analysed hiPSCs are pluripotent and show phenotypical characteristics similar to human embryonic stem cells. We studied the cardiac differentiation efficiency of generated hiPSC lines (n = 24) and found that MSC-derived hiPSCs exhibited a significantly higher efficiency to spontaneously differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes when compared with keratinocyte-, and fibroblast-derived hiPSCs. There was no significant difference in the functionalities of the cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs with different origins, showing the presence of pacemaker-, atrial-, ventricular- and Purkinje-like cardiomyocytes, and exhibiting rhythmic Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ sparks in hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, spontaneously and synchronously beating and force-developing engineered heart tissues were generated. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells can be reprogrammed from all three somatic cell types, but with different efficiency. All analysed iPSCs can differentiate into cardiomyocytes, and the functionalities of cardiomyocytes derived from different cell

  11. Does an Injection of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded in Fibrin Glue Influence Rotator Cuff Repair Outcomes? A Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sang; Sung, Chang Hun; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kwak, Sang Joon; Koh, Yong Gon

    2017-07-01

    The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue engineering approach has been developed to improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on clinical outcomes and to evaluate its effect on structural integrity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hypothesis was that the application of adipose-derived MSCs would improve outcomes after the surgical repair of a rotator cuff tear. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 182 patients treated with arthroscopic surgery for a rotator cuff tear, 35 patients treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair alone (conventional group) were matched with 35 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue (injection group) based on sex, age, and lesion size. Outcomes were assessed with respect to the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM) (including forward flexion, external rotation at the side, and internal rotation at the back), and functional measures of the Constant score and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale. Repaired tendon structural integrity was assessed by using MRI at a minimum of 12 months after surgery, and the mean clinical follow-up was 28.8 ± 4.2 months in the conventional group and 28.3 ± 3.8 months in the injection group. The mean VAS score at rest and during motion improved significantly in both groups after surgery. However, there were no significant differences between the groups at the final follow-up ( P = .256 and .776, respectively). Compared with preoperative measurements, forward flexion and external rotation at the side significantly improved at the final follow-up in both groups (all P rotation at the back were observed in either group ( P = .625 and .834 for the conventional and injection groups, respectively

  12. Intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid promote regeneration of massive cartilage defects in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Ogay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD MSCs with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA could promote regeneration of massive cartilage in rabbits. Material and methods: The SD MSCs were harvested from the knees of 10 Flemish giant rabbits, expanded in culture, and characterized. A reproducible 4-mm cylindrical defect was created in the intercondylar groove area using a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty of femoral condyle COR (De Puy, Mitek. The defect was made within the cartilage layer without destruction of subchondral bone. Two weeks after the cartilage defect, SD MSCs (2 × 106 cell/0.15 ml were suspended in 0.5% low molecular weight HA (0.15 ml and injected into the left knee, and HA solution (0.30 ml alone was placed into the right knee. Cartilage regeneration in the experimental and control groups were evaluated by macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, and 60 days. Results: On day 10, after intra-articular injection of SD MSCs, we observed an early process of cartilage regeneration in the defect area. Histological studies revealed that cartilage defect was covered by a thin layer of spindle-shaped undifferentiated cells and proliferated chodroblasts. In contrast, an injection of HA did not induce reparation of cartilage in the defect area. At 30 days, macroscopic observation showed that the size of cartilage defect after SD MSC injection was significantly smaller than after HA injection. Histological score was also better in the MSC- treated intercondylar defect. At 60 days after MSC treatment, cartilage defect was nearly nonexistent and looked similar to an intact cartilage. Conclusion: Thus, intra-articular injection of SD MSCs can adhere to the defect in the intercondylar area, and promote cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

  13. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Immune-Mediated Liver Injury and Compromise Virus Control During Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengmeng; Yuan, Xu; Liu, Dan; Ma, Yuhong; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Jun; Yu, Mengxue; Li, Changyong; Guo, Deyin

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10 6 BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1.3) through the tail vein. In vivo imaging system revealed that BM-MSCs were accumulated in the injured liver, and they attenuated immune-mediated liver injury during HBV infection, as shown by lower alanine aminotransferase levels, reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. Importantly, administration of BM-MSCs restrained the increased expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D), an important receptor required for NK cell activation in the liver from HBV-infected mice. BM-MSCs also reduced NKG2D expression on NK cells and suppressed the cytotoxicity of NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, BM-MSC-derived transforming growth factor-β1 suppressed NKG2D expression on NK cells. As a consequence, BM-MSC treatment enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in vivo. These results demonstrate that adoptive transfer of BM-MSCs influences innate immunity and limits immune-mediated liver injury during acute HBV infection by suppressing NK cell activity. Meanwhile, the effect of BM-MSCs on prolonging virus clearance needs to be considered in the future.

  14. Analysis of mitochondrial function and localisation during human embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B J Prowse

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC derivatives show promise as viable cell therapy options for multiple disorders in different tissues. Recent advances in stem cell biology have lead to the reliable production and detailed molecular characterisation of a range of cell-types. However, the role of mitochondria during differentiation has yet to be fully elucidated. Mitochondria mediate a cells response to altered energy requirements (e.g. cardiomyocyte contraction and, as such, the mitochondrial phenotype is likely to change during the dynamic process of hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that manipulating mitochondrial biogenesis alters mesendoderm commitment. To investigate mitochondrial localisation during early lineage specification of hESCs we developed a mitochondrial reporter line, KMEL2, in which sequences encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP are targeted to the mitochondria. Differentiation of KMEL2 lines into the three germ layers showed that the mitochondria in these differentiated progeny are GFP positive. Therefore, KMEL2 hESCs facilitate the study of mitochondria in a range of cell types and, importantly, permit real-time analysis of mitochondria via the GFP tag.

  15. A new method for analyzing fluid-structure interaction using MSC/NASTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeal, R.H.; Citerley, R.; Chargin, M.

    1979-01-01

    A popular method for analyzing compressible fluids in flexible containers is to represent the fluid by a three-dimensional finite element model in which the pressure is the unknown nodal point variable, and to represent the structure by another finite element model in which displacement components are the unknown nodal point variables. This method has the computational drawback that the matrix terms coupling the fluid to the structure are unsymmetric. This paper shows that symmetric fluid-structure coupling can be achieved if either the fluid or the structure is represented by its uncoupled vibrational modes, and if additional auxiliary variables are defined. The resulting system equations can be solved efficiently for the coupled vibration modes and for the coupled dynamic response by a general purpose finite element program, such as MSC/NASTRAN. (orig.)

  16. Coculturing with endothelial cells promotes in vitro maturation and electrical coupling of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Gupta, Renuka; Rioult, Damien; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Courjaret, Raphael; Machaca, Khaled; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Stanley, Edouard G; Rafii, Shahin; Elliott, David A; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Rafii, Arash

    2017-06-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are a promising source of repopulating cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that we could improve maturation of cardiomyocytes and facilitate electrical interconnections by creating a model that more closely resembles heart tissue; that is, containing both endothelial cells (ECs) and cardiomyocytes. We induced cardiomyocyte differentiation in the coculture of an hESC line expressing the cardiac reporter NKX2.5-green fluorescent protein (GFP), and an Akt-activated EC line (E4 + ECs). We quantified spontaneous beating rates, synchrony, and coordination between different cardiomyocyte clusters using confocal imaging of Fura Red-detected calcium transients and computer-assisted image analysis. After 8 days in culture, 94% ± 6% of the NKX2-5GFP + cells were beating when hESCs embryonic bodies were plated on E4 + ECs compared with 34% ± 12.9% for controls consisting of hESCs cultured on BD Matrigel (BD Biosciences) without ECs at Day 11 in culture. The spatial organization of beating areas in cocultures was different. The GFP + cardiomyocytes were close to the E4 + ECs. The average beats/min of the cardiomyocytes in coculture was faster and closer to physiologic heart rates compared with controls (50 ± 14 [n = 13] vs 25 ± 9 [n = 8]; p < 0.05). The coculture with ECs led to synchronized beating relying on the endothelial network, as illustrated by the loss of synchronization upon the disruption of endothelial bridges. The coculturing of differentiating cardiomyocytes with Akt-activated ECs but not EC-conditioned media results in (1) improved efficiency of the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol and (2) increased maturity leading to better intercellular coupling with improved chronotropy and synchrony. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Multiple Myeloma-Derived Exosomes Regulate the Functions of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially via Modulating miR-21 and miR-146a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes derived from cancer cells can affect various functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs via conveying microRNAs (miRs. miR-21 and miR-146a have been demonstrated to regulate MSC proliferation and transformation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 secreted from transformed MSCs in turn favors the survival of multiple myeloma (MM cells. However, the effects of MM exosomes on MSC functions remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of OPM2 (a MM cell line exosomes (OPM2-exo on regulating the proliferation, cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF transformation, and IL-6 secretion of MSCs and determined the role of miR-21 and miR-146a in these effects. We found that OPM2-exo harbored high levels of miR-21 and miR-146a and that OPM2-exo coculture significantly increased MSC proliferation with upregulation of miR-21 and miR-146a. Moreover, OPM2-exo induced CAF transformation of MSCs, which was evidenced by increased fibroblast-activated protein (FAP, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 expressions and IL-6 secretion. Inhibition of miR-21 or miR-146a reduced these effects of OPM2-exo on MSCs. In conclusion, MM could promote the proliferation, CAF transformation, and IL-6 secretion of MSCs partially through regulating miR21 and miR146a.

  18. http://doaj.org/publisher/metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Qu1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC have been widely used in basic research and clinical trials in treatment of many diseases, but how to obtain a large number and high quality of stable and reliable mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application is still a scientific research needs to be resolved. Since each laboratory used different culture methods, the productivity of the different cultures may vary. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize a stable and reliable hucMSC culture procedure. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord were isolated and cultured in different culture medium. By comparing the morphology, passage, proliferation and using flow cytometry to detect the immunophenotypes of the cells, optimized cultural method was selected. Results: By comparison of the time of cells migrating out from the tissue, cell growth status, cell number and expression of CD90 andCD73 of the hucMSCs, we found that X-VIVO15+10% fetal bovine serum group, X-VIVO15+2% fetal bovine serum and 2% UltroserG group, and MSC basal medium+UltraGRO-Advanced group had an earlier migration time from the umbilical cord and shorter confluence time to cover 80%-90% of the cuturing flask. The Huc-MSCs cultured with MSC basal medium+2% UltraGRO-Advanced group revealed the fastest proliferation. The expression of CD90 and CD73 in Huc-MSCs cultured with MSC basal medium+2% UltraGRO-Advanced group were above 90%, while the expression of CD90 and CD73 in other groups were below 90%. The expression of CD34 and CD45 surface antigens were low in huc-MSCs from all the groups. Conclusion: In summary, MSC basal medium-UltraGRO-Advanced group was the optimal culture medium for human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

  19. Co-Seeding Human Endothelial Cells with Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Calcium Phosphate Scaffold Enhances Osteogenesis and Vascularization in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Chen, Wenchuan; Zhang, Chi; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Hu, Kevin; Reynolds, Mark A; Bao, Chongyun; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-06-01

    A major challenge in repairing large bone defects with tissue-engineered constructs is the poor vascularization in the defect. The lack of vascular networks leads to insufficient oxygen and nutrients supply, which compromises the survival of seeded cells. To achieve favorable regenerative effects, prevascularization of tissue-engineered constructs by co-culturing of endothelial cells and bone cells is a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for prevascularization of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold on bone regeneration in vivo for the first time. HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs formed microcapillary-like structures in vitro. HUVECs promoted mineralization of hiPSC-MSCs on CPC scaffolds. Four groups were tested in a cranial bone defect model in nude rats: (1) CPC scaffold alone (CPC control); (2) HUVEC-seeded CPC (CPC-HUVEC); (3) hiPSC-MSC-seeded CPC (CPC-hiPSC-MSC); and (4) HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs on CPC scaffolds (co-culture group). After 12 weeks, the co-culture group achieved the greatest new bone area percentage of 46.38% ± 3.8% among all groups (p < 0.05), which was more than four folds of the 10.61% ± 1.43% of CPC control. In conclusion, HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs substantially promoted bone regeneration. The novel construct of HUVECs co-cultured with hiPSC-MSCs delivered via CPC scaffolds is promising to enhance bone and vascular regeneration in orthopedic applications.

  20. Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts are the providers of pro-invasive matrix metalloproteinase 13 in primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecomte, Julie; Masset, Anne; Blacher, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    producing cells were exclusively α-SMA(+) cells and derived from GFP(+) BM cells. To investigate their impact on tumor invasion, we isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the BM of wild-type and MMP13-deficient mice. Wild-type MSC promoted cancer cell invasion in a spheroid assay, whereas MSCs obtained......)-derived cells to generate different fibroblast subsets that putatively produce the matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and affect cancer cell invasion. A murine model of skin carcinoma was applied to mice, irradiated, and engrafted with BM isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. We...

  1. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirstead, Hans S; Nistor, Gabriel; Bernal, Giovanna; Totoiu, Minodora; Cloutier, Frank; Sharp, Kelly; Steward, Oswald

    2005-05-11

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. OPCs were injected 7 d or 10 months after injury. In both cases, transplanted cells survived, redistributed over short distances, and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. Animals that received OPCs 7 d after injury exhibited enhanced remyelination and substantially improved locomotor ability. In contrast, when OPCs were transplanted 10 months after injury, there was no enhanced remyelination or locomotor recovery. These studies document the feasibility of predifferentiating hESCs into functional OPCs and demonstrate their therapeutic potential at early time points after spinal cord injury.

  2. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  3. Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exhibit Preferential Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation and Enhanced Matrix Production Compared With Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoluk, Natasha; Hawkins, Richard; Tokish, John; Mercuri, Jeremy

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of various mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) types for orthopaedic applications is currently being investigated. While the concept of MSC therapy is well grounded in the basic science of healing and regeneration, little is known about individual MSC populations in terms of their propensity to promote the repair and/or regeneration of specific musculoskeletal tissues. Two promising MSC sources, adipose and amnion, have each demonstrated differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in the setting of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. However, no study to date has directly compared the differentiation potential of these 2 MSC populations. To compare the ability of human adipose- and amnion-derived MSCs to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Controlled laboratory study. MSC populations from the human term amnion were quantified and characterized via cell counting, histologic assessment, and flow cytometry. Differentiation of these cells in comparison to commercially purchased human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADSCs) in the presence and absence of differentiation media was evaluated via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone and cartilage gene transcript markers and histology/immunohistochemistry to examine ECM production. Analysis of variance and paired t tests were performed to compare results across all cell groups investigated. The authors confirmed that the human term amnion contains 2 primary cell types demonstrating MSC characteristics-(1) human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) and (2) human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs)-and each exhibited more than 90% staining for MSC surface markers (CD90, CD105, CD73). Average viable hAEC and hAMSC yields at harvest were 2.3 × 10 6 ± 3.7 × 10 5 and 1.6 × 10 6 ± 4.7 × 10 5 per milliliter of amnion, respectively. As well, hAECs and hAMSCs demonstrated significantly greater osteocalcin ( P = .025), aggrecan ( P

  4. Comparison of the glycosphingolipids of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Karin; Barone, Angela; Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta; Johansson, Bengt R; Breimer, Michael E; Funa, Keiko; Teneberg, Susann

    2017-04-01

    High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry. A high similarity between the nonacid glycosphingolipids of hiPSC and hESC was found. The nonacid glycosphingolipids P1 pentaosylceramide, x2 pentaosylceramide and H type 1 heptaosylceramide, not previously described in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), were characterized in both hiPSC and hESC. The composition of acid glycosphingolipids differed, with increased levels of GM3 ganglioside, and reduced levels of GD1a/GD1b in hiPSC when compared with hESC. In addition, the hESC glycosphingolipids sulf-globopentaosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide were lacking in hiPSC. Neural stem cells differentiating from hiPSC had a reduced expression of sialyl-lactotetra, whereas expression of the GD1a ganglioside was significantly increased. Thus, while sialyl-lactotetra is a marker of undifferentiated hPSC, GD1a is a novel marker of neural differentiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Jhaveri, Hiral M. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pune (India); Mishra, Gyan C. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Wani, Mohan R., E-mail: mohanwani@nccs.res.in [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  6. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  7. Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jinshui; Robert, Carine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Jang, Yoon-Young; Liu Hua; Sharkis, Saul; Baylin, Stephen Bruce [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD 21231-1000 (United States); Rassool, Feyruz Virgilia, E-mail: frassool@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate a similar cell cycle profile, with increased S phase cells and decreased G0/G1. {yields} iPSC and hESC increased ROS and decreased DSBs, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate elevated DSB repair activity, including nonhomologous end-joining, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC however show a partial apoptotic response to DNA damage, compared to hESC. {yields} DNA damage responses may constitute important markers for the efficacy of iPSC reprogramming. - Abstract: To maintain the integrity of the organism, embryonic stem cells (ESC) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and can have disastrous consequences if not repaired correctly, leading to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESC (hESC) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. Adult somatic cells can be induced to 'dedifferentiate' into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and reprogram into cells of all three germ layers. Whether iPSC have reprogrammed the DNA damage response is a critical question in regenerative medicine. Here, we show that hESC demonstrate high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can contribute to DNA damage and may arise from high levels of metabolic activity. To potentially counter genomic instability caused by DNA damage, we find that hESC employ two strategies: First, these cells have enhanced levels of DNA repair proteins, including those involved in repair of DSBs, and they demonstrate elevated nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity and repair efficacy, one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Second, they are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, as evidenced by a high level of apoptosis upon irradiation. Importantly, iPSC, unlike the parent cells they are derived

  8. Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jinshui; Robert, Carine; Jang, Yoon-Young; Liu Hua; Sharkis, Saul; Baylin, Stephen Bruce; Rassool, Feyruz Virgilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → iPSC and hESC demonstrate a similar cell cycle profile, with increased S phase cells and decreased G0/G1. → iPSC and hESC increased ROS and decreased DSBs, compared with differentiated parental cells. → iPSC and hESC demonstrate elevated DSB repair activity, including nonhomologous end-joining, compared with differentiated parental cells. → iPSC however show a partial apoptotic response to DNA damage, compared to hESC. → DNA damage responses may constitute important markers for the efficacy of iPSC reprogramming. - Abstract: To maintain the integrity of the organism, embryonic stem cells (ESC) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and can have disastrous consequences if not repaired correctly, leading to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESC (hESC) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. Adult somatic cells can be induced to 'dedifferentiate' into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and reprogram into cells of all three germ layers. Whether iPSC have reprogrammed the DNA damage response is a critical question in regenerative medicine. Here, we show that hESC demonstrate high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can contribute to DNA damage and may arise from high levels of metabolic activity. To potentially counter genomic instability caused by DNA damage, we find that hESC employ two strategies: First, these cells have enhanced levels of DNA repair proteins, including those involved in repair of DSBs, and they demonstrate elevated nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity and repair efficacy, one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Second, they are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, as evidenced by a high level of apoptosis upon irradiation. Importantly, iPSC, unlike the parent cells they are derived from, mimic hESC in their ROS levels

  9. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro, E-mail: aarmesilla@cib.csic.es [Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiopathology, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, Gema; Silva, Augusto [Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiopathology, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  10. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Selleri, Silvia; Bifsha, Panojot; Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Ren?e; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-...

  11. Unraveling the global microRNAome responses to ionizing radiation in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA comprise a group of short ribonucleic acid molecules implicated in regulation of key biological processes and functions at the post-transcriptional level. Ionizing radiation (IR causes DNA damage and generally triggers cellular stress response. However, the role of miRNAs in IR-induced response in human embryonic stem cells (hESC has not been defined yet. Here, by using system biology approaches, we show for the first time, that miRNAome undergoes global alterations in hESC (H1 and H9 lines after IR. Interrogation of expression levels of 1,090 miRNA species in irradiated hESC showed statistically significant changes in 54 genes following 1 Gy of X-ray exposures; global miRNAome alterations were found to be highly temporally and cell line--dependent in hESC. Time-course studies showed that the 16 hr miRNAome radiation response of hESC is much more robust compared to 2 hr-response signature (only eight genes, and may be involved in regulating the cell cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR performed on some miRNA species confirms the robustness of our miRNA microarray platform. Positive regulation of differentiation-, cell cycle-, ion transport- and endomembrane system-related processes were predicted to be negatively affected by miRNAome changes in irradiated hESC. Our findings reveal a fundamental role of miRNAome in modulating the radiation response, and identify novel molecular targets of radiation in hESC.

  12. Generation of Corneal Keratocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsenberg, Andrew J; Funderburgh, James L

    2016-01-01

    Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) offer an important resource as a limitless supply of any differentiated cell type of the human body. Keratocytes, cells from the corneal stroma, may have the potential for restoration of vision in cell therapy and biomedical engineering applications, but these specialized cells are not readily expanded in vitro. Here we describe a two-part method to produce keratocytes from the H1 hESC cell line. The hESC cells, maintained and expanded in feeder-free culture medium are first differentiated to neural crest cells using the stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) of the PA6 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The resulting neural crest cells are selected by their expression of cell-surface CD271 and subsequently cultured as 3D pellets in a defined differentiation medium to induce a keratocyte phenotype.

  13. Downregulation of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM/CD146) Accelerates Cellular Senescence in Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ji Hye; Kim, Miyeon; Bae, Yun Kyung; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Jeon, Hong Bae

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating various diseases have increased in recent years. To ensure that treatment is effective, an adequate MSC dosage should be determined before these cells are used for therapeutic purposes. To obtain a sufficient number of cells for therapeutic applications, MSCs must be expanded in long-term cell culture, which inevitably triggers cellular senescence. In this study, we investigated the surface markers of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) associated with cellular senescence using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and 242 cell surface-marker antibodies. Among these surface proteins, we selected the melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146) for further study with the aim of validating observed expression differences and investigating the associated implications in hUCB-MSCs during cellular senescence. We observed that CD146 expression markedly decreased in hUCB-MSCs following prolonged in vitro expansion. Using preparative sorting, we found that hUCB-MSCs with high CD146 expression displayed high growth rates, multilineage differentiation, expression of stemness markers, and telomerase activity, as well as significantly lower expression of the senescence markers p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase, compared with that observed in hUCB-MSCs with low-level CD146 expression. In contrast, CD146 downregulation with small interfering RNAs enhanced the senescence phenotype. In addition, CD146 suppression in hUCB-MSCs caused downregulation of other cellular senescence regulators, including Bmi-1, Id1, and Twist1. Collectively, our results suggest that CD146 regulates cellular senescence; thus, it could be used as a therapeutic marker to identify senescent hUCB-MSCs. One of the fundamental requirements for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies is the expansion of MSCs during long-term culture because a sufficient number of functional cells is required

  14. Presentation of MSc in Higher Education Dissertation School Meeting : What are the key dimensions of the personal tutor role for nurse education today?,

    OpenAIRE

    Leddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of MSc in Higher Education Dissertation School Meeting : What are the key dimensions of the personal tutor role for nurse education today?, A literature review, Missenden Abbey, June 2009, presentation

  15. Purification and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by membrane filtration and membrane migration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong Reng; Heish, Chao-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Muduli, Saradaprasan; Li, Hsing-Fen; Higuchi, Akon; Kumar, S. Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Chen, Da-Chung; Benelli, Giovanni; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Cheng, Nai-Chen; Wang, Han-Chow; Wu, Gwo-Jang

    2017-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are easily isolated from fat tissue without ethical concerns, but differ in purity, pluripotency, differentiation ability, and stem cell marker expression, depending on the isolation method. We isolated hADSCs from a primary fat tissue solution using: (1) conventional culture, (2) a membrane filtration method, (3) a membrane migration method where the primary cell solution was permeated through membranes, adhered hADSCs were cultured, and hADSCs migrated out from the membranes. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers and pluripotency genes, and osteogenic differentiation were compared for hADSCs isolated by different methods using nylon mesh filter membranes with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 80 μm. hADSCs isolated by the membrane migration method had the highest MSC surface marker expression and efficient differentiation into osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation ability of hADSCs and MSC surface marker expression were correlated, but osteogenic differentiation ability and pluripotent gene expression were not. PMID:28071738

  16. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity.We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs.Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of tumor initiation, development and

  17. Use of MSC/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, James; Mccann, David

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the thermal modeling and analysis effort being conducted to investigate the transient temperature and thermal stress characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter brake components and subsystems. Models are constructed of the brake stator as well as of the entire brake assembly to analyze the temperature distribution and thermal stress during the landing and braking process. These investigations are carried out on a UNIVAC computer system with MSC/NASTRAN Version 63. Analytical results and solution methods are presented and comparisons are made with SINDA results.

  18. Anti-aging effects of vitamin C on human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Young; Ku, Seung-Yup; Huh, Yul; Liu, Hung-Ching; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have arisen as a source of cells for biomedical research due to their developmental potential. Stem cells possess the promise of providing clinicians with novel treatments for disease as well as allowing researchers to generate human-specific cellular metabolism models. Aging is a natural process of living organisms, yet aging in human heart cells is difficult to study due to the ethical considerations regarding human experimentation as well as a current lack of alternative experimental models. hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) bear a resemblance to human cardiac cells and thus hPSC-derived CMs are considered to be a viable alternative model to study human heart cell aging. In this study, we used hPSC-derived CMs as an in vitro aging model. We generated cardiomyocytes from hPSCs and demonstrated the process of aging in both human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived CMs. Aging in hESC-derived CMs correlated with reduced membrane potential in mitochondria, the accumulation of lipofuscin, a slower beating pattern, and the downregulation of human telomerase RNA (hTR) and cell cycle regulating genes. Interestingly, the expression of hTR in hiPSC-derived CMs was not significantly downregulated, unlike in hESC-derived CMs. In order to delay aging, vitamin C was added to the cultured CMs. When cells were treated with 100 μM of vitamin C for 48 h, anti-aging effects, specifically on the expression of telomere-related genes and their functionality in aging cells, were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that hPSC-derived CMs can be used as a unique human cardiomyocyte aging model in vitro and that vitamin C shows anti-aging effects in this model.

  19. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reversed the suppressive deficiency of T regulatory cells from peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis in a co-culture – a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Yan; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The immunoregulatory function of T regulatory cells (Tregs) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have shown that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) exert regulatory effect on the functions of immune cells. Thus, we investigated whether UC-MSCs could improve the impaired function of Tregs from MS patients. Co-cultures of UC-MSCs with PBMCs of MS patients were performed for 3 days. Flow cytometry was used to determine the frequency of Tregs. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the suppressive capacity of Tregs. ELISA was conducted for cytokine analysis in the co-cultures. Our results showed that UC-MSCs significantly increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127low/− Tregs in resting CD4+ T cells (pUC-MSC-primed Tregs of MS patients significantly inhibited the proliferation of PHA-stimulated autologous and allogeneic CD4+CD25− T effector cells (Teffs) from MS patients and healthy individuals compared to non-UC-MSC-primed (naïve) Tregs from the same MS patients (pUC-MSC-primed Tregs from MS patients and naïve Tregs from healthy subjects. The impaired suppressive function of Tregs from MS can be completely reversed in a co-culture by UC-MSC modulation. This report is the first to demonstrate that functional defects of Tregs in MS can be repaired in vitro using a simple UC-MSC priming approach. PMID:27705922

  20. Ischemia postconditioning and mesenchymal stem cells engraftment synergistically attenuate ischemia reperfusion-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuchen; Chen, Liangwan; Wu, Xiaonan; Lin, Jiangbo; Fang, Jun; Chen, Xiangqi; Wei, Shijin; Xu, Jianxin; Gao, Qin; Kang, Mingqiang

    2012-11-01

    It has been reported that ischemic postconditioning (IPO) or mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) engraftment could protect organs from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We investigated the synergetic effects of combined treatment on lung injury induced by I/R. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: sham-operated control, I/R, IPO, MSC engraftment, and IPO plus MSC engraftment. Lung injury was assessed by arterial blood gas analysis, the wet/dry lung weight ratio, superoxide dismutase level, malondialdehyde content, myeloperoxidase activity, and tissue histologic changes. Cytokine expression was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end assay and annexin V staining. MSC engraftment or IPO alone markedly attenuated the lung wet/dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase production, and lung pathologic injury and enhanced arterial partial oxygen pressure, superoxide dismutase content, inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and decreased cell apoptosis in lung tissue, compared with the I/R group. In contrast, IPO pretreatment enhanced the protective effects of MSC on I/R-induced lung injury compared with treatment alone. Moreover, in the combined treatment group, the number of MSC engraftments in the lung tissue was increased, associated with enhanced survival of MSCs compared with MSC treatment alone. Additional investigation showed that IPO treatment increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in I/R lung tissue. IPO might contribute to the homing and survival of transplanted MSCs and enhance their therapeutic effects through improvement of the microenvironment of I/R injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  2. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expresses in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and stimulates their proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fenxi; Wang, Congrui; Jing, Suhua; Ren, Tongming; Li, Yonghai; Cao, Yulin; Lin, Juntang

    2013-01-01

    The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been widely used in cell transplant therapy, and the proliferative ability of bmMSCs is one of the determinants of the therapy efficiency. Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a transmembrane protein is responsible for binding, internalizing and degrading oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). It has been identified that LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and monocytes. In these cells, low concentration of ox-LDL (<40 μg/mL) stimulates their proliferation via LOX-1 activation. However, it is poor understood that whether LOX-1 is expressed in bmMSCs and which role it plays. In this study, we investigated the status of LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs and its function on bmMSC proliferation. Our results showed that primary bmMSCs exhibiting a typical fibroblast-like morphology are positive for CD44 and CD90, but negative for CD34 and CD45. LOX-1 in both mRNA and protein levels is highly expressed in bmMSCs. Meanwhile, bmMSCs exhibit a strong potential to take up ox-LDL. Moreover, LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs is upregulated by ox-LDL with a dose- and time-dependent manner. Presence of ox-LDL also enhances the proliferation of bmMSCs. Knockdown of LOX-1 expression significantly inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation. These findings indicate that LOX-1 plays a role in bmMSC proliferation. - Highlights: ► LOX-1 expresses in bmMSCs and mediates uptake of ox-LDL. ► Ox-LDL stimulates upregulation of LOX-1 in bmMSCs. ► Ox-LDL promotes bmMSC proliferation and expression of Mdm2, phosphor-Akt, phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-NF-κB. ► LOX-1 siRNA inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation and expression cell survival signals