Sample records for heron island australia

  1. Coral reef origins of atmospheric dimethylsulfide at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B.; Jones, Graham B.; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S. M.; Eyre, Bradley D.


    Atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMSa), continually derived from the world's oceans, is a feed gas for the tropospheric production of new sulfate particles, leading to cloud condensation nuclei that influence the formation and properties of marine clouds and ultimately the Earth's radiation budget. Previous studies on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, have indicated coral reefs are significant sessile sources of DMSa capable of enhancing the tropospheric DMSa burden mainly derived from phytoplankton in the surface ocean; however, specific environmental evidence of coral reef DMS emissions and their characteristics is lacking. By using on-site automated continuous analysis of DMSa and meteorological parameters at Heron Island in the southern GBR, we show that the coral reef was the source of occasional spikes of DMSa identified above the oceanic DMSa background signal. In most instances, these DMSa spikes were detected at low tide under low wind speeds, indicating they originated from the lagoonal platform reef surrounding the island, although evidence of longer-range transport of DMSa from a 70 km stretch of coral reefs in the southern GBR was also observed. The most intense DMSa spike occurred in the winter dry season at low tide when convective precipitation fell onto the aerially exposed platform reef. This co-occurrence of events appeared to biologically shock the coral resulting in a seasonally aberrant extreme DMSa spike concentration of 45.9 nmol m-3 (1122 ppt). Seasonal DMS emission fluxes for the 2012 wet season and 2013 dry season campaigns at Heron Island were 5.0 and 1.4 µmol m-2 day-1, respectively, of which the coral reef was estimated to contribute 4 % during the wet season and 14 % during the dry season to the dominant oceanic flux.

  2. Heron Island, Australia (United States)


    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Effect of colony size and surrounding substrate on corals experiencing a mild bleaching event on Heron Island reef flat (southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia) (United States)

    Ortiz, J. C.; Gomez-Cabrera, M. Del C.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.


    In January-May 2006, Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef experienced a mild bleaching event. The effect of colony size, morphology and surrounding substrate on the extent of bleaching was explored. In contrast with previous studies, colony size did not influence bleaching sensitivity, suggesting that there may be a threshold of light and temperature stress beyond which size plays a role. Also contrasting with previous studies, massive corals were more affected by bleaching than branching corals. Massive corals surrounded by sand were more affected than the ones surrounded by rubble or dead coral. It is hypothesized that light reflectance from sand increases stress levels experienced by the colonies. This effect is maximized in massive corals as opposed to branching corals that form dense thickets on Heron Island. These results emphasize the importance of the ecological dynamics of coral communities experiencing low, moderate and high levels of bleaching for the understanding of how coral communities may change under the stress of climate change.

  4. Coral colonisation of a shallow reef flat in response to rising sea level: quantification from 35 years of remote sensing data at Heron Island, Australia (United States)

    Scopélitis, J.; Andréfouët, S.; Phinn, S.; Done, T.; Chabanet, P.


    Observations made on Heron Island reef flat during the 1970s-1990s highlighted the importance of rapid change in hydrodynamics and accommodation space for coral development. Between the 1940s and the 1990s, the minimum reef-flat top water level varied by some tens of centimetres, successively down then up, in rapid response to local engineering works. Coral growth followed sea-level variations and was quantified here for several coral communities using horizontal two-dimensional above water remotely sensed observations. This required seven high spatial resolution aerial photographs and Quickbird satellite images spanning 35 years: 1972, 1979, 1990, 1992, 2002, 2006 and 2007. The coral growth dynamics followed four regimes corresponding to artificially induced changes in sea levels: 1972-1979 (lowest growth rate): no detectable coral development, due to high tidal currents and minimum mean low-tide water level; 1979-1991 (higher growth rate): horizontal coral development promoted by calmer hydrodynamic conditions; 1991-2001(lower growth rate): vertical coral development, induced by increased local sea level by ~12 cm due to construction of new bund walls; 2001-2007 (highest growth rate): horizontal coral development after that vertical growth had become limited by sea level. This unique time-series displays a succession of ecological stage comprising a `catch-up' dynamic in response to a rapid local sea-level rise in spite of the occurrences of the most severe bleaching events on record (1998, 2002) and the decreasing calcification rates reported in massive corals in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef.

  5. Herons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kushlan, James A; Hancock, James


    Herons and their close relatives, the egrets and bitterns, comprise sixty species in total and are found all over the world except in polar regions, and are a strikingly beautiful part of the wetlands they inhabit...

  6. Great Blue Herons in the Lake Champlain Ecosystem An Assessment of the Great Blue Heron Rookeries on Shad Island, Vermont and Valcour Island, New York in 2002 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 2002 breeding season the status of the two largest Great Blue Heron rookeries on Lake Champlain: one on Valcour Island, New York and the other on Shad Island,...

  7. Melville Island, Australia (United States)


    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  8. Great Blue Herons in the Lake Champlain Ecosystem An Assessment of the Rookeries on Shad Island, VT and Valcour Island, New York Spring/Summer 2003 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Champlain is home to four Great Blue Heron rookeries, three large and one small. The Shad Island, Valcour Island and Porter Bay rookeries are large rookeries...

  9. An observational heat budget analysis of a coral reef, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.


    Measurements of the surface energy balance, the structure and evolution of the convective atmospheric reef layer (CARL), and local meteorology and hydrodynamics were made during June 2009 and February 2010 at Heron Reef, Australia, to establish the relative partitioning of heating within the water and atmosphere. Horizontal advection was shown to moderate temperature in the CARL and the water, having a cooling influence on the atmosphere, and providing an additional source or sink of energy to the water overlying the reef, depending on tide. The key driver of atmospheric heating was surface sensible heat flux, while heating of the reef water was primarily due to solar radiation, and thermal conduction and convection from the reef substrate. Heating and cooling processes were more defined during winter due to higher sensible and latent heat fluxes and strong diurnal evolution of the CARL. Sudden increases in water temperature were associated with inundation of warmer oceanic water during the flood tide, particularly in winter due to enhanced nocturnal cooling of water overlying the reef. Similarly, cooling of the water over the reef occurred during the ebb tide as heat was transported off the reef to the surrounding ocean. While these results are the first to shed light on the heat budget of a coral reef and overlying CARL, longer-term, systematic measurements of reef thermal budgets are needed under a range of meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, and across various reef types to elucidate the influence on larger-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes. This is essential for understanding the role of coral reefs in tropical and sub-tropical meteorology; the physical processes that take place during coral bleaching events, and coral and algal community dynamics on coral reefs.

  10. An Assessment of Breeding Great Blue Herons and the Impact of Double-Crested Cormorants in the Shad Island Rookery, Swanton Vermont 2001 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Concern about the effects of invading Double-crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain has prompted investigations in the Great Blue Heron rookery on Shad Island, Vermont...

  11. Sand and nest temperatures and an estimate of hatchling sex ratio from the Heron Island green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) rookery, Southern Great Barrier Reef (United States)

    Booth, David T.; Freeman, Candida


    Sand and nest temperatures were monitored during the 2002-2003 nesting season of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Sand temperatures increased from ˜ 24°C early in the season to 27-29°C in the middle, before decreasing again. Beach orientation affected sand temperature at nest depth throughout the season; the north facing beach remained 0.7°C warmer than the east, which was 0.9°C warmer than the south, but monitored nest temperatures were similar across all beaches. Sand temperature at 100 cm depth was cooler than at 40 cm early in the season, but this reversed at the end. Nest temperatures increased 2-4°C above sand temperatures during the later half of incubation due to metabolic heating. Hatchling sex ratio inferred from nest temperature profiles indicated a strong female bias.

  12. Diel coral reef acidification driven by porewater advection in permeable sands, Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Maher, Damien


    Little is known about how biogeochemical processes in permeable sediments affect the pH of coastal waters. We demonstrate that seawater recirculation in permeable sands can play a major role in proton (H+) cycling in a coral reef lagoon. The diel pH range (up to 0.75 units) in the Heron Island...... lagoon was the broadest ever reported for reef waters, and the night‐time pH (7.69) was comparable to worst‐case scenario predictions for seawater pH in 2100. The net contribution of coarse carbonate sands to the whole system H+ fluxes was only 9% during the day, but approached 100% at night when small...... scale (i.e., flow and topography‐induced pressure gradients) and large scale (i.e., tidal pumping as traced by radon) seawater recirculation processes were synergistic. Reef lagoon sands were a net sink for H+, and the sink strength was a function of porewater flushing rate. Our observations suggest...

  13. Baseline Condition of the Great Blue Heron Rookery on Shad Island 1999 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since the potential for great blue heron displacement and vegetation decline increases as the cormorant population grows, a monitoring program needs to be...

  14. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-p-dioxin Concentrations in Double-crested Cormorant and Black-crowned Night-heron Eggs of Shooters Island and Isle of Meadows, New York (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of eight Double-crested Cormorant and 10 Black-crowned Night-Heron eggs from Shooter's Island and the Isle of Meadows, respectively, were submitted for...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nitrate, phosphate, temperature and other variables collected from time series observations at Heron Island Reef Flat from 2010-06-01 to 2010-12-13 (NODC Accession 0127256) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters data that were collected from a 200-day time series monitoring on the Heron Island...

  16. Heron conservation (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hafner, H.


    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  17. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte


    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  18. Analysis of the Biomass Composition of the Demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica on Heron Island Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabin R. Watson


    Full Text Available Marine sponges are a potential source of important pharmaceutical drugs, the commercialisation of which is restricted by the difficulties of obtaining a sufficient and regular supply of biomass. One way to optimize commercial cell lines for production is the in-depth characterization and target identification through genome scale metabolic modeling and flux analysis. By applying these tools to a sponge, we hope to gain insights into how biomass is formed. We chose Amphimedon queenslandica as it has an assembled and annotated genome, a prerequisite for genome scale modeling. The first stepping stone on the way to metabolic flux analysis in a sponge holobiont, is the characterization of its biomass composition. In this study we quantified the macromolecular composition and investigated the variation between and within sponges of a single population. We found lipids and protein to be the most abundant macromolecules, while carbohydrates were the most variable. We also analysed the composition and abundance of the fatty acids and amino acids, the important building blocks required to synthesise the abundant macromolecule types, lipids, and protein. These data complement the extensive genomic information available for A. queenslandica and lay the basis for genome scale modelling and flux analysis.

  19. Analysis of the biomass composition of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica on Heron Island Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Watson, Jabin R; Brennan, Timothy C R; Degnan, Bernard M; Degnan, Sandie M; Krömer, Jens O


    Marine sponges are a potential source of important pharmaceutical drugs, the commercialisation of which is restricted by the difficulties of obtaining a sufficient and regular supply of biomass. One way to optimize commercial cell lines for production is the in-depth characterization and target identification through genome scale metabolic modeling and flux analysis. By applying these tools to a sponge, we hope to gain insights into how biomass is formed. We chose Amphimedon queenslandica as it has an assembled and annotated genome, a prerequisite for genome scale modeling. The first stepping stone on the way to metabolic flux analysis in a sponge holobiont, is the characterization of its biomass composition. In this study we quantified the macromolecular composition and investigated the variation between and within sponges of a single population. We found lipids and protein to be the most abundant macromolecules, while carbohydrates were the most variable. We also analysed the composition and abundance of the fatty acids and amino acids, the important building blocks required to synthesise the abundant macromolecule types, lipids, and protein. These data complement the extensive genomic information available for A. queenslandica and lay the basis for genome scale modelling and flux analysis.

  20. Air-sea energy exchanges measured by eddy covariance during a localised coral bleaching event, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.


    Despite the widely claimed association between climate change and coral bleaching, a paucity of data exists relating to exchanges of heat, moisture and momentum between the atmosphere and the reef-water surface. We present in situ measurements of reef-water-air energy exchanges made using the eddy covariance method during a summer coral bleaching event at Heron Reef, Australia. Under settled, cloud-free conditions and light winds, daily net radiation exceeded 800 W m-2, with up to 95% of the net radiation during the morning partitioned into heating the water column, substrate and benthic cover including corals. Heating was exacerbated by a mid-afternoon low tide when shallow reef flat water reached 34°C and near-bottom temperatures 33°C, exceeding the thermal tolerance of corals, causing bleaching. Results suggest that local to synoptic scale meteorology, particularly clear skies, solar heating, light winds and the timing of low tide were the primary controls on coral bleaching.

  1. High-intensity cardiac infections of Phthinomita heinigerae n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) in the orangelined cardinalfish, Taeniamia fucata (Cantor), off Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H; Miller, Terrence L


    We report a new species of aporocotylid trematode (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) from the heart of the orangelined cardinalfish, Taeniamia fucata (Cantor), from off Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. We used an integrated approach, analysing host distribution, morphology, and genetic data from the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA, to circumscribe Phthinomita heinigerae n. sp. This is the first species of Phthinomita Nolan & Cribb, 2006 reported from the Apogonidae; existing species and known 'types' are recorded from species of the Labridae, Mullidae, and Siganidae. The new species is distinguished from its 11 congeners in having a body 2977-3539 long and 16.5-22.4 times longer than wide, an anterior testis 6.2-8.2 times longer than wide and 8.3-13.0 times longer than the posterior testis, a posterior testis whose width is 35-56% of the body width, and an ovary positioned 11-13% of the body length from the posterior end, and is entirely anterior to the posterior margin of the anterior testis. In addition, 2-34 base differences (0.4-7.0% sequence divergence over 485 base positions) were detected among the ITS2 sequence representing P. heinigerae n. sp. and the 14 representing other Phthinomita species/molecular types. Prevalence and intensity of infection with P. heinigerae n. sp. was relatively high within the heart tissue of T. fucata, with 19 of 20 fish examined from off Heron Island infected (95%) with 7-25 adult worms (arithmetic mean 16.6). Infections by these parasites accounted for an occupation of 7-30% of the total estimated heart volume.

  2. pH homeostasis during coral calcification in a free ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) experiment, Heron Island reef flat, Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Georgiou, Lucy; Falter, James; Trotter, Julie; Kline, David I; Holcomb, Michael; Dove, Sophie G; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; McCulloch, Malcolm


    Geochemical analyses (δ(11)B and Sr/Ca) are reported for the coral Porites cylindrica grown within a free ocean carbon enrichment (FOCE) experiment, conducted on the Heron Island reef flat (Great Barrier Reef) for a 6-mo period from June to early December 2010. The FOCE experiment was designed to simulate the effects of CO2-driven acidification predicted to occur by the end of this century (scenario RCP4.5) while simultaneously maintaining the exposure of corals to natural variations in their environment under in situ conditions. Analyses of skeletal growth (measured from extension rates and skeletal density) showed no systematic differences between low-pH FOCE treatments (ΔpH = ∼-0.05 to -0.25 units below ambient) and present day controls (ΔpH = 0) for calcification rates or the pH of the calcifying fluid (pHcf); the latter was derived from boron isotopic compositions (δ(11)B) of the coral skeleton. Furthermore, individual nubbins exhibited near constant δ(11)B compositions along their primary apical growth axes (±0.02 pHcf units) regardless of the season or treatment. Thus, under the highly dynamic conditions of the Heron Island reef flat, P. cylindrica up-regulated the pH of its calcifying fluid (pHcf ∼8.4-8.6), with each nubbin having near-constant pHcf values independent of the large natural seasonal fluctuations of the reef flat waters (pH ∼7.7 to ∼8.3) or the superimposed FOCE treatments. This newly discovered phenomenon of pH homeostasis during calcification indicates that coral living in highly dynamic environments exert strong physiological controls on the carbonate chemistry of their calcifying fluid, implying a high degree of resilience to ocean acidification within the investigated ranges.

  3. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat


    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided.

  4. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.


    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in Australi

  5. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Kupriyanova, Elena K; Sun, Yanan; Hove, Harry A Ten; Wong, Eunice; Rouse, Greg W


    Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions. Some species described herein are commonly found in the waters around Lizard Island, but had not previously been formally reported. A new species of Hydroides (H. lirs) and two new species of Semivermilia (S. annehoggettae and S. lylevaili) are described. A taxonomic key to all taxa found at Lizard Island is provided.

  6. Nereididae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Glasby, Christopher J


    Nereididae is one of the most ubiquitous of polychaete families, yet knowledge of their diversity in the northern Great Barrier Reef is poor; few species have been previously reported from any of the atolls or islands including Lizard Island. In this study, the diversity of the family from Lizard Island and surrounding reefs is documented based on museum collections derived from surveys conducted mostly over the last seven years. The Lizard Island nereidid fauna was found to be represented by 14 genera and 38 species/species groups, including 11 putative new species. Twelve species are newly reported from Lizard Island; four of these are also first records for Australia. For each genus and species, diagnoses and/or taxonomic remarks are provided in addition to notes on their habitat on Lizard Island, and general distribution; the existence of tissue samples tied to vouchered museum specimens is indicated. Fluorescence photography is used to help distinguish closely similar species of Nereis and Platynereis. A key is provided to facilitate identification and encourage further taxonomic, molecular and ecological studies on the group.

  7. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian


    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  8. Organochlorine poisoning of herons (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.


    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  9. Decolonizing through integration: Australia's off-shore island territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Wettenhall


    Full Text Available Australia’s three small off-shore island territories – Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean and Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling Islands Group in the Indian Ocean – can be seen as monuments to 19th century British-style colonization, though their early paths to development took very different courses. Their transition to the status of external territories of the Australian Commonwealth in the 20th century – early in the case of Norfolk and later in the cases of Christmas and Cocos – put them on a common path in which serious tensions emerged between local populations which sought autonomous governance and the Commonwealth government which wanted to impose governmental systems similar to those applying to mainstream Australians. This article explores the issues involved, and seeks to relate the governmental history of the three island territories to the exploration of island jurisdictions developed in island studies research.

  10. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda


    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  11. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island. (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J


    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  12. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen


    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale.

  13. The genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.


    A collection of Sinularia specimens from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia) is presented; thirteen different species were recognized, six of which are new to science and are described and figured: S. bremerensis, S. confusa, S. diffusa, S. linnei, S. papula and S. woodyen

  14. The genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia)


    Ofwegen, van, L.P.


    A collection of Sinularia specimens from Bremer and West Woody islands (Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia) is presented; thirteen different species were recognized, six of which are new to science and are described and figured: S. bremerensis, S. confusa, S. diffusa, S. linnei, S. papula and S. woodyensis.

  15. Early human occupation of a maritime desert, Barrow Island, North-West Australia (United States)

    Veth, Peter; Ward, Ingrid; Manne, Tiina; Ulm, Sean; Ditchfield, Kane; Dortch, Joe; Hook, Fiona; Petchey, Fiona; Hogg, Alan; Questiaux, Daniele; Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee; Spooner, Nigel; Levchenko, Vladimir; Skippington, Jane; Byrne, Chae; Basgall, Mark; Zeanah, David; Belton, David; Helmholz, Petra; Bajkan, Szilvia; Bailey, Richard; Placzek, Christa; Kendrick, Peter


    Archaeological deposits from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island, northwest Australia, reveal some of the oldest evidence for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, as well as illustrating the early use of marine resources by modern peoples outside of Africa. Barrow Island is a large (202 km2) limestone continental island located on the North-West Shelf of Australia, optimally located to sample past use of both the Pleistocene coastline and extensive arid coastal plains. An interdisciplinary team forming the Barrow Island Archaeology Project (BIAP) has addressed questions focusing on the antiquity of occupation of coastal deserts by hunter-gatherers; the use and distribution of marine resources from the coast to the interior; and the productivity of the marine zone with changing sea levels. Boodie Cave is the largest of 20 stratified deposits identified on Barrow Island with 20 m3 of cultural deposits excavated between 2013 and 2015. In this first major synthesis we focus on the dating and sedimentology of Boodie Cave to establish the framework for ongoing analysis of cultural materials. We present new data on these cultural assemblages - including charcoal, faunal remains and lithics - integrated with micromorphology, sedimentary history and dating by four independent laboratories. First occupation occurs between 51.1 and 46.2 ka, overlapping with the earliest dates for occupation of Australia. Marine resources are incorporated into dietary assemblages by 42.5 ka and continue to be transported to the cave through all periods of occupation, despite fluctuating sea levels and dramatic extensions of the coastal plain. The changing quantities of marine fauna through time reflect the varying distance of the cave from the contemporaneous shoreline. The dietary breadth of both arid zone terrestrial fauna and marine species increases after the Last Glacial Maximum and significantly so by the mid-Holocene. The cave is abandoned by 6.8 ka when the island becomes increasingly distant

  16. Six genetically distinct clades of Palola (Eunicidae, Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Schulze, Anja


    A total of 36 lots of Palola spp. (Eunicidae, Annelida) were collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Of these, 21 specimens were sequenced for a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. These sequences were analysed in conjunction with existing sequences of Palola spp. from other geographic regions. The samples from Lizard Island form six distinct clades, although none of them can clearly be assigned to any of the nominal species. Four of the six Lizard Island clades fall into species group A and the remaining two into species group B (which also includes the type species, Palola viridis). All sequenced specimens were characterized morphologically as far as possible and a dichotomous key was assembled. Based on this key, the remaining samples were identified as belonging to one of the clades.

  17. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia. (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg


    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  18. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Lohr


    Full Text Available Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km2. Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure, and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features. We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  19. Australia's Efforts to Improve Food Security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. (United States)

    Davy, Deanna


    Australia is a wealthy country; however, available evidence suggests that food security among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples has not yet been achieved. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living in remote, regional, and urban parts of Australia experience food insecurity for a number of reasons that usually include low income and a lack of access to affordable and healthy food. The much higher rate of illness and disease that this population experiences compared to non-indigenous Australians is directly related to food insecurity. This paper examines the food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and recent Australian government efforts to combat this problem. The paper first considers what constitutes a human rights-based approach to achieving food security. Second, it describes the food insecurity that currently exists among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples across the three pillars of food access, food availability, and food use. Third, the paper critically examines recent and current Australian government policy aimed at improving food security. The paper concludes with some reflections regarding how the Australian government can improve its efforts to achieve food security for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

  20. Imported zika virus infection from the cook islands into australia, 2014. (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Daly, Michelle T; Cameron, Jane N; Moore, Peter R; Taylor, Carmel T; Hewitson, Glen R; Humphreys, Jan L; Gair, Richard


    A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

  1. Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Alvestad, Tom; Budaeva, Nataliya


    Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae, is described from the intertidal zone off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. The new species is referred to the genus Neosabellides based on the shape of the prostomium, three pairs of branchiae, 14 thoracic segments with notopodia, 12 thoracic uncinigerous segments, and the first two pairs of abdominal uncinigers of thoracic type. The new species differs from all known species of Neosabellides in having 14 abdominal uncinigerous segments.

  2. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Böggemann, Markus


    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species.

  3. Syllidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Aguado, M Teresa; Murray, Anna; Hutchings, Pat


    Thirty species of the family Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida) from Lizard Island have been identified. Three subfamilies (Eusyllinae, Exogoninae and Syllinae) are represented, as well as the currently unassigned genera Amblyosyllis and Westheidesyllis. The genus Trypanobia (Imajima & Hartman 1964), formerly considered a subgenus of Trypanosyllis, is elevated to genus rank. Seventeen species are new reports for Queensland and two are new species. Odontosyllis robustus n. sp. is characterized by a robust body and distinct colour pattern in live specimens consisting of lateral reddish-brown pigmentation on several segments, and bidentate, short and distally broad falcigers. Trypanobia cryptica n. sp. is found in association with sponges and characterized by a distinctive bright red colouration in live specimens, and one kind of simple chaeta with a short basal spur.

  4. Salmonellosis in a captive heron colony (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.


    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium was one of several factors responsible for losses among young herons being held at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The infection was demonstrated in five black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), three common egrets (Casmerodius albus), two little blue herons (Florida caerulea), one cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), one snowy egret (Leucophoyx thula) and one Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor). The disease was characterized by emaciation, focal liver necrosis, and frequently by a caseo-necrotic enteritis.

  5. Coastal dune activity and foredune formation on Moreton Island, Australia, 1944-2015 (United States)

    Levin, Noam; Jablon, Pierre-Elie; Phinn, Stuart; Collins, Kerry


    The stabilization process of coastal dunes is complex, involving feedback mechanisms and lag times between changes in climatic conditions, vegetation establishment and dune movement. In this study our aim was to examine changes in dune activity and in the establishment of foredunes on Moreton Island, Australia. We used historical aerial photos, satellite images and Lidar data to quantify changes in bare sand areas, dune movement rates, foredune development and coastline changes between 1944 and 2015. We used wind data (1957-2016), to quantify changes in sand drift potential (DP) and in wind directionality, and wave data (1977-2016) to examine changes in wave height and wave direction. We found that transgressive dunes on Moreton Island have started stabilizing in the early 1970s, after a series of continuous foredunes developed on the eastern coast of Moreton Island, in spite of the increase in DP values. Foredunes have started establishing in the 1960s and 1970s during a period of lower wave height and decreased wind directionality. Once established, these foredunes have diminished sand supply to the transgressive dunes, causing a phase shift in the state of dune activity on the island. Coastal dune activity should therefore be examined over time scales of several decades at least, in order to quantify trends and to understand the underlying and causes to observed processes. Understanding the factors responsible for foredune formation is important for explaining dune stabilization on Moreton Island.

  6. New and previously known species of Oenonidae (Polychaeta: Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Zanol, Joana; Ruta, Christine


    The family Oenonidae consists of Eunicida species with prionognath jaws. Its Australian fauna had been reported to comprise six species belonging to Arabella, Drilonereis, and Oenone. This study provides descriptions for four new species, redescriptions for three species (two previously recorded and a new record, Drilonereis cf. logani) and diagnoses for the genera recorded from Australia. Currently, eleven species of oenonids, distributed in three genera, are known for the Australian coast. On Lizard Island, this family shows low abundance (19 specimens collected) and high richness (seven species). Our results suggest that despite the increasing accumulation of information, the biodiversity of the family is still poorly estimated.

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  8. Island groundwater resources, impacts of abstraction and a drying climate: Rottnest Island, Western Australia (United States)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Post, Vincent E. A.; Andersen, Martin S.


    Coastal aquifers provide a source of water for more than one billion people, with island freshwater lenses being some of the most vulnerable coastal groundwater systems due to their susceptibility to saltwater intrusion. Basic hydrogeological and hydrochemical knowledge regarding the recharge and salinisation processes of freshwater lenses is important to ensure sustainable utilisation, especially considering possible climate change effects. This paper makes an assessment of the fate of a freshwater lens in a drying climate through a comparison of current and historic hydrochemical data, which to the author's knowledge is unique to this study. Fresh groundwater stable isotope signatures (δ18O, δ2H) reflect local amount weighted rainfall signatures (δ18O: -3.8‰; δ2H: -15.1‰), and confirm rainfall as the origin of fresh groundwater (δ18O: -4.47 to -3.82‰; δ2H: -20.0 to -16.6‰). Mixing with seawater was identified through enriched groundwater δ18O and δ2H signatures (maximum values of -0.36‰ and -1.4‰ respectively) compared to local rainfall and higher salinity (maximum 29,267 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)) in a number of monitoring wells around the freshwater lens. Enhanced seawater intrusion detected in the northern section of the lens area was identified through significantly increased TDS values over the last 20-40 years, with increases of up to 3000% observed between 1990 and 2014. A reduction in the extent of freshwater by approximately 1 km2 was identified since 1977, which was found to be primarily caused by a reduction in recharge to the freshwater lens due to a ∼20% decline in winter rainfall in the south-west Western Australian region since the mid 1960s. Groundwater abstraction was found to equate to between 5% and 9% of the estimated recharge for the island, and is not a significant factor in the reduction of the lens extent compared to the observed decline in rainfall recharge. Interestingly, seawater intrusion into the fresh

  9. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Bruce, Niel L


    The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  10. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niel L. Bruce


    Full Text Available The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  11. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Ross


    Full Text Available To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y−1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1 and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1 at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change.

  12. New records of Pectinariidae (Polychaeta) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia and the description of two new species. (United States)

    Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat


    Five species of Pectinariidae have previously been reported from Australia. This study documents the first records of this family from the Lizard Island region: Pectinaria antipoda is recorded, in addition to its already currently wide Australian distribution; two new species, Amphictene lizardensis n. sp. and Pectinaria carnosus n. sp. were also discovered and described. A key to all Australian species of Pectinariidae is provided.

  13. Mapping outdoor recreationists' perceived social values for ecosystem services at Hinchinbrook Island National Park, Australia (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Sutton, Stephen G.; Barnes, Melinda; Sherrouse, Benson C.


    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly faced with human impacts. To better understand these changing conditions, biophysical and economic values of nature have been used to prioritize spatial planning efforts and ecosystem-based management of human activities. Less is known, however, about how to characterize and represent non-material values in decision-making. We collected on-site and mailback survey data (n = 209), and analyzed these data using the Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) GIS application to incorporate measures of social value and natural resource conditions on Hinchinbrook Island National Park, Australia. Our objectives in this paper are to: 1) determine the spatial distribution and point density of social values for ecosystem services; 2) examine the relationship between social values and natural resource conditions; and 3) compare social value allocations between two subgroups of outdoor recreationists. Results suggest that high priority areas exist on Hinchinbrook's land and seascapes according to the multiple values assigned to places by outdoor recreationists engaged in consumptive (e.g., fishing) and non-consumptive (e.g., hiking) activities. We examine statistically significant spatial clustering across two subgroups of the survey population for three value types that reflect Recreation, Biological Diversity, and Aesthetic qualities. The relationship between the relative importance of social values for ecosystem services and spatially-defined ecological data is explored to guide management decision-making in the context of an island national park setting.

  14. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia. (United States)

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E


    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones.

  15. Australia. (United States)


    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  16. Cool-water Eocene-Oligocene carbonate sedimentation on a paleobathymetric high, Kangaroo Island, southern Australia (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Matenaar, Joanne; Bone, Yvonne


    The Kingscote Limestone is a thin, biofragmental ~ 41 m thick Paleogene subtropical to cool-temperate carbonate interpreted to have accumulated in a seaway developed between a series of mid-shelf islands. It is a pivotal section that allows interpretation of a region in which there is little exposure of early Cenozoic shelf sediments. Sedimentation occurred on part of the shelf along the northern margin of an extensive Eocene embayment that evolved into a narrow Oligocene ocean following collapse of the Tasman Gateway. Eocene strata are subtropical echinoid-rich floatstones with conspicuous bryozoans, and mollusks, together with large and small benthic foraminifers. Numerous echinoid rudstone storm deposits punctuate the succession. Correlation with coeval Eocene strata across southern Australia supports a regional facies model wherein inner neritic biosiliceous spiculitic sediments passed outboard into calcareous facies. The silica was derived from land covered by a thriving subtropical forest and attendant deep weathering. Oligocene rocks are distinctively cooler cyclic cross-bedded bryozoan rudstones and floatstones with a similar benthic biota but dominated by bryozoans and containing no large benthic foraminifers. These deposits are interpreted as flood-dominated tidal subaqueous dunes that formed in a flood-tide dominated inter-island strait. Omission surfaces at the top of the Eocene and at the top of most Oligocene cycles are Fe-stained hardgrounds that underwent extensive multigeneration seafloor and meteoric diagenesis prior to deposition of the next cycle. Cycles in the Kingscote Limestone, although mostly m-scale and compositionally distinct are similar to those across the region and point to a recurring cycle motif controlled by icehouse eustasy and local paleogeography.

  17. A Holocene pollen and diatom record from Vanderlin Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, lowland tropical Australia (United States)

    Prebble, Matiu; Sim, Robin; Finn, Jan; Fink, David


    Sedimentary, palynological and diatom data from a dunefield lake deposit in the interior of Vanderlin Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria are presented. Prior to the formation of present perennial lake conditions, the intensified Australian monsoon associated with the early Holocene marine transgression allowed Cyperaceae sedges to colonise the alluvial margins of an expansive salt flat surrounded by an open Eucalyptus woodland. As sea level stabilised between 7500 and 4500 cal yr B.P. coastal dunes ceased to develop allowing dense Melaleuca forest to establish in a Restionaceae swamp. Dune-sand input into the swamp was diminished further as the increasingly dense vegetation prevented fluvial and aeolian transported sand arriving from coastal sources. This same process impounded the drainage basin allowing a perennial lake to form between 5500 and 4000 cal yr B.P. Myriophyllum and other aquatic taxa colonised the lake periphery under the most extensive woodland recorded for the Holocene. The palynological data support an effective precipitation model proposed for northern Australia that suggests more variable conditions in the late Holocene. A more precise measure of effective precipitation change is provided by diatom-based inferences that indicate few changes in lake hydrology. Such interpretations are explained in terms of palynological sensitivity to adjustments in local fire regimes where regional precipitation change may only be recorded indirectly through fire promoting mechanisms, including intensified ENSO periodicity and human impact.

  18. An assessment of an environmental gradient using coral geochemical records, Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; McCulloch, M T; Mallela, J; Jupiter, S D; Williams, H Stuart; Lough, J M; Matson, E G


    Coral cores were collected along an environmental and water quality gradient through the Whitsunday Island group, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), for trace element and stable isotope analysis. The primary aim of the study was to examine if this gradient could be detected in coral records and, if so, whether the gradient has changed over time with changing land use in the adjacent river catchments. Y/Ca was the trace element ratio which varied spatially across the gradient, with concentrations progressively decreasing away from the river mouths. The Ba/Ca and Y/Ca ratios were the only indicators of change in the gradient through time, increasing shortly after European settlement. The Mn/Ca ratio responded to local disturbance related to the construction of tourism infrastructure. Nitrogen isotope ratios showed no apparent trend over time. This study highlights the importance of site selection when using coral records to record regional environmental signals. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coral community responses to declining water quality: Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    Thompson, Angus; Schroeder, Thomas; Brando, Vittorio E.; Schaffelke, Britta


    A five-year period (2002-2006) of below-median rainfall followed by a six-year period (2007-2012) of above-median rainfall and seasonal flooding allowed a natural experiment into the effects of runoff on the water quality and subsequent coral community responses in the Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Satellite-derived water quality estimates of total suspended solids (TSS) and chlorophyll- a (Chl) concentration showed marked seasonal variability that was exaggerated during years with high river discharge. During above-median rainfall years, Chl was aseasonally high for a period of 3 months during the wet season (February-April), while TSS was elevated for four months, extending into the dry season (March-June). Coinciding with these extremes in water quality was a reduction in the abundance and shift in the community composition, of juvenile corals. The incidence of coral disease was at a maximum during the transition from years of below-median to years of above-median river discharge. In contrast to juvenile corals, the cover of larger corals remained stable, although the composition of communities varied along environmental gradients. In combination, these results suggest opportunistic recruitment of corals during periods of relatively low environmental stress with selection for more tolerant species occurring during periods of environmental extremes.

  20. The distribution of intra-genomically variable dinoflagellate symbionts at Lord Howe Island, Australia (United States)

    Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Pontasch, Stefanie; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.


    The symbiotic dinoflagellates of corals and other marine invertebrates ( Symbiodinium) are essential to the development of shallow-water coral reefs. This genus contains considerable genetic diversity and a corresponding range of physiological and ecological traits. Most genetic variation arises through the accumulation of somatic mutations that arise during asexual reproduction. Yet growing evidence suggests that occasional sexual reproductive events also occur within, and perhaps between, Symbiodinium lineages, further contributing to the pool of genetic variation available for evolutionary adaptation. Intra-genomic variation can therefore arise from both sexual and asexual reproductive processes, making it difficult to discern its underlying causes and consequences. We used quantitative PCR targeting the ITS2 locus to estimate proportions of genetically homogeneous symbionts and intra-genomically variable Symbiodinium (IGV Symbiodinium) in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis at Lord Howe Island, Australia. We then sampled colonies through time and at a variety of spatial scales to find out whether the distribution of these symbionts followed patterns consistent with niche partitioning. Estimated ratios of homogeneous to IGV Symbiodinium varied between colonies within sites (metres to tens of metres) and between sites separated by hundreds to thousands of metres, but remained stable within colonies through time. Symbiont ratios followed a temperature gradient, with the local thermal maximum emerging as a negative predictor for the estimated proportional abundance of IGV Symbiodinium. While this pattern may result from fine-scale spatial population structure, it is consistent with an increased susceptibility to thermal stress, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that generate IGV (such as inter-lineage recombination and the accumulation of somatic mutations at the ITS2 locus) may have important implications for the fitness of the symbiont and

  1. Transport of Australian Continental Dust to Australia's Great Barrier Reef Region: First Results From Sampling, Remote Sensing, Synoptic and Trajectory Analyses (United States)

    Tapper, N.; O'Loingsigh, T.; de Deckker, P.; Cohen, D.


    As part of a large multi-disciplinary project funded by the Australian Research Council and in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, we established in mid-2008 three PM 2.5 samplers in eastern Australia to determine possible transport of continental dust from the major dust source region of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB). These samplers were located at Fowlers Gap, New South Wales [NSW] (31.09S, 141.70E), Mount Stromlo, NSW (35.30S, 149.00E) and Heron Island, Queensland (23.44S, 151.83E). The latter location is of particular significance because of its proximity to the World Heritage Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and to the tropical rainforest of coastal North Queensland. In previous studies, dust and associated organic material of African origin has been associated with rainforest fertilisation in Amazonia and coral bleaching in the Carribean. In this presentation three case studies of continental dust transport to Heron Island that occurred in the first four months of sampling are examined. In each case transport of soil material from the LEB region and/or western NSW is confirmed by the nature of material sampled, by remote sensing of the dust, by forward and backward air parcel trajectory analysis and by synoptic analysis. In each case the dust arrived over Heron Island 3-7 days after passing over the southern samplers, generally having followed an anti-clockwise curved path to approach Heron Island from the southeast. The potential significance of this finding for the GBR is briefly discussed.

  2. A Description of a Family of Heron Quadrilaterals (United States)

    Sastry, K. R. S.


    Mathematical historians place Heron in the first century. Right-angled triangles with integer sides and area had been determined before Heron, but he discovered such a "non" right-angled triangle, viz 13, 14, 15; 84. In view of this, triangles with integer sides and area are named "Heron triangles." The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta, born in…

  3. Recovery of marine Conus (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) from imposex at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, over a quarter of a century. (United States)

    Wells, Fred E; Keesing, John K; Brearley, Anne


    Imposex is a reproductive abnormality in which female snails begin to transform to males, but do not become functional. It was caused by tributyltin (TBT) used as an antifoulant in boat paints. Imposex was first recorded marine snails (Conus) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, in January 1991, where 88% of individuals at the west end were affected. Most were at moderate Stages 3 and 4 on a scale of 0 (no affect) to 6 (death). TBT was banned on boats 25m in September 2013. In February 2017 only 4% of Conus had imposex, at Stage 1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including the description of two new species and reproductive notes. (United States)

    Capa, María; Rouse, Greg W


    Sphaerodorids are scarce at Lizard Island archipelago and other localities in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Intensive collections at a variety of habitats within the Lizard Island archipelago over the last four decades have resulted in a total of just 11 specimens. Nevertheless, they represent two new species and a new record for Lizard Island. Sphaerodoropsis aurantica n. sp. is characterised by nine longitudinal rows of sessile and spherical dorsal macrotubercles, arranged in a single transverse row per segment; parapodia with around 10 spherical papillae; and compound chaetae with thin shafts and long blades. Sphaerodoropsis plurituberculata n. sp. is characterised by more than 12 more or less clearly arranged longitudinal rows of sessile spherical dorsal tubercles (variable in size), in four transverse rows per segment; parapodia lacking papillae; and semi-compound chaetae with distally enlarged shaft and short blades. Ephesiella australiensis is reported for the first time in Lizard Island. Laboratory observations of live specimens of Sphaerodoropsis plurituberculata n. sp., revealed the use of spermatophores by males. These were found attached externally to the body surface of both sexes, indicating pseudo-copulation.

  5. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. (United States)

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John


    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  6. The Quarantine Protection of Sub-Antarctic Australia: Two Islands, Two Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Potter


    Full Text Available Sub-Antarctic Heard Island and Macquarie Island are among Australia’s offshore properties susceptible to colonization by species introduced by humans. While both islands share World Heritage status and are IUCN Category Ia Protected Areas (Strict Nature Reserves, different quarantine protection regimes are in operation. Macquarie Island’s biosecurity appears to be less catered for while the means and likelihood of introductions are greater. The administrative, political, practical and geographical contexts within which quarantine management planning takes place variously impact on the level of quarantine protection provided to both islands. These and other remote sites of high conservation value are unlikely to receive heightened protection until the issues associated with such management contexts receive greater attention.

  7. Heron as a dark matter detector?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.S.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Seidel, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bandler, S.R.; Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Brouer, S.M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany)


    HERON, which is the acronym for helium: Roton detection of Neutrinos, is a project whose principal goal is a next generation detector of solar neutrinos from the p-p and {sup 7}Be branches. It will utilize superfluid helium as the target material and employ event energy transport out of the target by photon and roton processes unique to helium. Many of the challenges presented for dark matter detection are very similar to those for low energy solar neutrinos. We present new results from our feasibility studies for HERON which indicate an asymmetry in the roton emission distribution from stopping particles and the features are potentially valuable for solar neutrino detection and the question is explored as to whether or not the same helium technique could be valuable for WIMP dark matter detection. (authors). 5 refs.

  8. `HERON` as a dark matter detector?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.S.; Bandler, S.R. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Brouer, S.M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany); Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Seidel, G.M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Physics


    ``{bold HERON}``, which is the acronym for `` {bold He}lium: {bold Ro}ton detection of {bold N}eutrinos``, is a project whose principal goal is a next generation detector of solar neutrinos from the p-p and {sup 7}Be branches. It will utilize superfluid helium as the target material and employ event energy transport out of the target by phonon and roton processes unique to helium. Many of the challenges presented for dark matter detection are very similar to those for low energy solar neutrinos. We present new results from our feasibility studies for {bold HERON} which indicate an asymmetry in the roton emission distribution from stopping particles and the ability to detect simultaneously the ultraviolet fluorescence photons also emitted. These features are potentially valuable for solar neutrino detection and the question is explored as to whether or not the same helium technique could be valuable for WIMP dark matter detection.

  9. A new gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing two species of requiem sharks from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J


    Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) of Gnathia grandilaris n. sp. were collected from the gill filaments and septa of 5 requiem sharks, including a white tip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, and 4 grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in March 2002. Some juvenile gnathiids were then maintained in fresh sea water until they molted to adults. Adult males appeared 19 days following detachment of juveniles from host fishes, but no juveniles molted successfully into females. The current description is based, therefore, on bright field and scanning electron microscopy observations of adult males and third-stage juveniles. Unique features of the male include the triangular-shaped inferior medio-frontal process, 2 areolae on the dorsal surface of the pylopod, and a slender pleotelson (twice as long as wide) with lateral concavities. The third-stage juvenile has distinctive white pigmentation on the black pereon when alive, while the mandible has 9 triangular backwardly directed teeth. This species has the largest male and third-stage juvenile of any Gnathia spp. from Australia and of any gnathiid isopods associated with elasmobranchs.

  10. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound (United States)


    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  11. Coral reproduction on the world’s southernmost reef at Lord Howe Island, Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Andrew H.; Cumbo, Vivian R.; Gudge, Sallyann


    Despite a recent expansion in the geographic extent of coral reproductive research, there remain many regions in the Indo-Pacific where knowledge is limited. For example, Lord Howe Island is the southernmost reef system in the world (31° S); however, very little is known of the reproductive biology...... of the coral fauna. Here, aspects of the reproductive biology and the timing of reproduction for 40 of the approximately 65 species that occur on Lord Howe Island are documented. In December 2010, field assessments of the stage of gamete maturity in Acropora spp. colonies suggested that 5 species spawned...

  12. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.


    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  13. Spionidae (Annelida: 'Polychaeta': Canalipalpata) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes. (United States)

    Meißner, Karin; Götting, Miriam


    Seven species belonging to the spionid genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes were found during the polychaete workshop on Lizard Island in August 2013. One species is new to science and named Scolelepis inversa n. sp., another Scolelepis species is probably also a new species but was represented in our samples by only a single specimen and not formally described. All other species have been reported previously from Australia. Species diagnoses of all species found during the workshop and of Scolelepis balihaiensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1979, Microspio microcera (Dorsey, 1977) and M. minuta (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) have been critically reviewed and amended based on the study of type material. The potential synonymy of Microspio minuta (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) and M. microcera (Dorsey, 1977) is discussed. The new combination Spio jirkovi (Sikorski, 1992) proposed by Sikorski (2013) is returned to Malacoceros. We added DNA barcodes for five species collected in the Lizard Island area to public databases which will be useful in future phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. For Microspio we provide the first sequence data for this genus.

  14. Telothelepodidae, Thelepodidae and Trichobranchidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Hutchings, Pat; de Matos Nogueira, João Miguel; Carrerette, Orlemir


    In a survey of the polychaetes of the Lizard Island region, six species of polychaetes belonging to the families Telothelepodidae Nogueira, Fitzhugh & Hutchings, 2013, Thelepodidae Hessle, 1917 and Trichobranchidae Malmgren, 1866 were found, from material collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Taxonomic Workshop, and material collected by previous projects undertaken by the Australian Museum. This material includes one new species of Rhinothelepus Hutchings, 1974 (Telothelepodidae); one new species of each of the genera, Euthelepus McIntosh, 1885, Streblosoma Sars, 1872, and Thelepus Leuckart, 1849 (Thelepodidae); and one new species of Terebellides Sars, 1835 and another of Trichobranchus Malmgren, 1866 (Trichobranchidae). Keys for identification of these species are provided, together with full descriptions for all species, as well as comparisons with the morphologically most similar congeners.

  15. A taxonomic guide to the fanworms (Sabellidae, Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including new species and new records. (United States)

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna


    This comprehensive taxonomic work is the result of the study of fan worms (Sabellidae, Annelida) collected over the last 40 years from around the Lizard Island Archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Some species described herein are commonly found in Lizard Island waters but had not previously been formally reported in the literature. Most species appear to be not particularly abundant, and few specimens have been collected despite the sampling effort in the area over this time period. After this study, the overall sabellid diversity of the archipelago has been greatly increased (by more than 650%). Before this revision, only four sabellid species had been recorded for Lizard Island, and in this paper we report 31 species, 13 of which belong to nominal species, six are formally described as new species (Euchone danieloi n. sp., Euchone glennoi n. sp., Jasmineira gustavoi n. sp., Megalomma jubata n. sp., Myxicola nana n. sp., and Paradialychone ambigua n. sp.), and the identity of 12 species is still unknown (those referred as cf. or sp.). Two species are newly recorded in Australia and two in Queensland. The invasive species Branchiomma bairdi is reported for the first time at Lizard Island. The genus Paradialychone is reported for Australia for the first time. Standardised descriptions, general photographs of live and/or preserved specimens and distribution data are provided for all species. New species descriptions are accompanied by detailed illustrations and exhaustive morphological information. A dichotomous key for sabellid identification is also included.

  16. Organochlorines accumulate in heron and egret chicks sampled in the Houston Ship Channel (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Shipley, Frank S.; Kiesling, Russell W.


    The National Contaminant Monitoring Program (NCBP) is an effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to measure concentrations of DDT and other persistent chemicals in the environment and to quantify changes in these levels. The NCBP has established a network of sampling stations in segments of the environment for which Federal agencies have authority. The wildlife component of this program, administered by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, includes the periodic sampling of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American black ducks (Anas rubripes). In order to include an estuarine component into the NCBP, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Eggs and chicks (five, ten, and 15 days of age) of snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected in Naragansett Bay, RI; the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), TX; and San Francisco Bay, CA. Great egret (Casmerodius albus) eggs and chicks also were collected at the Texas colony. Eggs and chicks were analyzed for organochlorines; trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon analyses are pending. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all eggs and chicks, and they accumulated as the chicks grew. At each location, black-crowned nightheron chicks accumulated both DDE and PCBs more rapidly than snowy egrets or great egrets. PCBs accumulated more rapidly in night-heron chicks in Rhode Island than California; however, PCB accumulation for snowy egret chicks did not differ among locations. Contaminant accumulation rates in heron and egret chicks could be used as a new wetland component of the NCBP.

  17. Orbiniidae (Annelida: Errantia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia with notes on orbiniid phylogeny. (United States)

    Zhadan, Anna; Stupnikova, Alexandra; Neretina, Tatiana


    The fauna of Orbiniidae (Annelida: Errantia) from the Lizard Island has been studied. Five species were found and each was redescribed and illustrated using light microscopy and SEM. Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991 and Scoloplos dayi Hartmann-Schröder, 1980 collected for the first time since their original descriptions and confirmed through re-examination of their type materials. Molecular analyses were carried out using nuclear 18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA and CO1 gene sequences with evolutionary distances and the Neighbor-Joining Method. The molecular analyses did not support the monophyly of the genera Scoloplos, Leitoscoloplos, Leodamas, and Naineris, and its results are incongruent with morphological data.

  18. Six new species of the genus Armandia Filippi, 1861 (Polychaeta, Opheliidae) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). (United States)

    Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan


    From the study of the material collected during the Polychaete Workshop held in Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) in August 2013, six species belonging to the genus Armandia (Polychaeta, Opheliidae) are newly described. Armandia bifida n. sp. is characterised by the bifid shape of the prechaetal lobe in CH1-CH3, A. dolio n. sp. by the barrel-shaped anal (=pygidial) tube (=funnel), A. filibranchia n. sp. by the extremely long and thin branchiae, A. laminosa n. sp. by the foliose shape and large size of the prechaetal lobe in CH1-CH3, A. paraintermedia n. sp. by the squared-shaped anal tube and size and shape of anal cirri, and A. tubulata n. sp. by the tubular shape of the anal tube. All species are fully described and illustrated, and compared with similar species. Several body characters of taxonomic relevance (e.g., anal tube and parapodia shape) are studied based on SEM micrographs. A key of the Armandia species hitherto described or reported in South-East Asia and Australasia is provided based on features of the anal tube.

  19. Encarsia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Australia and the Pacific Islands attacking Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)--a pictorial key and descriptions of four new species. (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Naumann, I D; De Barro, P J


    After the recent introduction of the pest whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B into Australia, research was undertaken to study the parasitoids of the long established native B. tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The genus Encarsia contains species which are important biological control agents of whiteflies and hard scales. The taxonomy of the Encarsia species attacking B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum in Australia and the Pacific Islands is revised. DNA sequencing of the 28S D2 ribosomal DNA was used to characterize species. Sixteen species are recognized, with 12 occurring in Australia, eight in the Pacific region, and four in both regions. All except one species (E. formosa Gahan) are new records for Australia. Four species are described as new from Australia: E. accenta Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., E. adusta Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., E. oakeyensis Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., and E. ustulata Schmidt & Naumann sp. n. Diagnostic descriptions are given for all species and each species is illustrated. A pictorial key is provided to allow the identification of species by non-specialists.

  20. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J


    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David


    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  2. Three new species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa: Lanceoporidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, tropical Australia. (United States)

    Sebastian, Pascal; Cumming, Robyn L


    The cheilostome bryozoans Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and Calyptotheca tilbrooki n. sp. (Lanceoporidae) are described from inter-reefal, sediment-dominated habitats of the Great Barrier Reef, and Calyptotheca churro n. sp. was washed up on a Heron Island beach, with uncertain origin. Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and C. churro n. sp. belong to a subgroup of Calyptotheca species with numerous small, oval, marginal adventitious avicularia and suboral nodular thickening or umbones. The vicarious avicularia of C. tilbrooki n. sp. are elongate-oval, unlike those of other known Calyptotheca species, and C. tilbrooki n. sp. has more pronounced orificial dimorphism than in any other known Calyptotheca species. Calyptotheca churro n. sp. has the most pronounced suboral umbo of all known Calyptotheca species. This study increases the known Calyptotheca species of the Great Barrier Reef to ten, and of tropical Australia to 14.

  3. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.


    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (Pdioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovk M.V.


    Full Text Available The research was performed in the area of natural reserve "Dneprovsko-Orelsky" and its adjacent territory – the island Pogorely. We discovered the changes of number of grey heron in colonial settlements, determined the principal factors influencing the formation of spatial structure of island bird communities. The analysis of nest distribution towards tree breeding biotopes was performed and stability of spatial structure of bird colonies was proved. We were tracking the number dynamics of pioneer colony and revealed the principal ecological and anthropogenic factors influencing the fluctuation of its abundance.

  5. Correlation or Causality between Land Cover Patterns and the Urban Heat Island Effect? Evidence from Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Deilami


    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified associations between the surface urban heat island (SUHI effect (i.e., SUHI, hereinafter is referred to as UHI and urban growth, particularly changes in land cover patterns. This research questions their causal links to answer a key policy question: If cities restrict urban expansion and encourage people to live within existing urban areas, will that help in controlling UHI? The question has been answered by estimating four models using data from Brisbane, Australia: Model 1—cross-sectional ordinary least square (OLS regression—to examine the association between the UHI effect and land cover patterns in 2013; Model 2—cross-sectional geographically weighted regression (GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 1 possess significant spatial variations; Model 3—longitudinal OLS—to examine whether changes in land cover patterns led to changes in UHI effects between 2004 and 2013; and Model 4—longitudinal GWR—to examine whether the outputs generated from Model 3 vary significantly over space. All estimations were controlled for potential confounding effects (e.g., population, employment and dwelling densities. Results from the cross-sectional OLS and GWR models were consistent with previous findings and showed that porosity is negatively associated with the UHI effect in 2013. In contrast, population density has a positive association. Results from the longitudinal OLS and GWR models confirm their causal linkages and showed that an increase in porosity level reduced the UHI effect, whereas an increase in population density increased the UHI effect. The findings suggest that even a containment of population growth within existing urban areas will lead to the UHI effect. However, this can be significantly minimized through proper land use planning, by creating a balance between urban and non-urban uses of existing urban areas.

  6. Observations of indirect filial cannibalism in response to nest failure of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Dwight, Ian; Young, Laura G.


    During 2011, four separate instances of indirect filial cannibalism, whereby adults consumed their young that died from unknown causes, were observed using video-monitoring techniques in a nesting colony of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) on Alcatraz Island. Though they were not observed actively killing their young, in all four observations adult Black-crowned Night-Herons consumed their young following death (i.e., indirect filial cannibalism). We could not determine cause of chick mortality, but parental neglect was likely a contributing factor in at least two instances. Indirect filial cannibalism is not commonly documented among birds, and understanding how cannibalism contributes to nest failure can help researchers better understand factors that limit nesting populations.

  7. Evidence from nature: interspecies spread of heron hepatitis B viruses. (United States)

    Lin, Li; Prassolov, Alexej; Funk, Anneke; Quinn, Laura; Hohenberg, Heinz; Frölich, Kai; Newbold, John; Ludwig, Arne; Will, Hans; Sirma, Hüseyin; Steinbach, Falko


    Heron hepatitis B viruses (HHBVs) in three subspecies of free-living great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from Florida, USA, were identified and characterized. Eight of 13 samples were positive in all assays used, whereas sera from egrets, which are also members of the family Ardeidae, were negative in the same assays. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of viral DNA sequences from the preS/S region of previously reported and novel HHBV strains isolated from captive grey herons (Germany) and free-ranging great blue herons (USA), respectively, revealed a strong conservation (95 % sequence similarity) with two separate clusters, implying a common ancestor of all strains. Our data demonstrate for the first time that different subspecies of herons are infected by HHBV and that these infections exist in non-captive birds. Phylogenetic analysis and the fact that the different heron species are geographically isolated populations suggest that lateral transmission, virus adaptation and environmental factors all play a role in HHBV spreading and evolution.

  8. Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning program: supporting climate science and enhancing climate services in Pacific Island Countries (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Jones, David; Hendon, Harry; Charles, Andrew; Shelton, Kay; de Wit, Roald; Cottrill, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Seuseu, Sunny; Kaniaha, Salesa


    Over the past few years, significant progress in developing climate science for the Pacific has been achieved through a number of research projects undertaken under the Australian government International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI). Climate change has major impact on Pacific Island Countries and advancement in understanding past, present and futures climate in the region is vital for island nation to develop adaptation strategies to their rapidly changing environment. This new science is now supporting new services for a wide range of stakeholders in the Pacific through the National Meteorological Agencies of the region. Seasonal climate prediction is particularly important for planning in agriculture, tourism and other weather-sensitive industries, with operational services provided by all National Meteorological Services in the region. The interaction between climate variability and climate change, for example during droughts or very warm seasons, means that much of the early impacts of climate change are being felt through seasonal variability. A means to reduce these impacts is to improve forecasts to support decision making. Historically, seasonal climate prediction has been developed based on statistical past relationship. Statistical methods relate meteorological variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) to indices which describe large-scale environment (e.g. ENSO indices) using historical data. However, with observed climate change, statistical approaches based on historical data are getting less accurate and less reliable. Recognising the value of seasonal forecasts, we have used outputs of a dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia), to develop web-based information tools ( which are now used by climate services in 15 partner countries in the Pacific for preparing seasonal climate outlooks. Initial comparison conducted during 2012 has shown that the

  9. Two new hemiurine species (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Spratelloides robustus Ogilby (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) off south-western Australia and records of Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910) from Australian and New Caledonian waters. (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H


    Two new species of hemiurine hemiurid are described from Spratelloides robustus off Woodman Point in southern Western Australia. Hemiurus lignator n. sp. differs from its congeners by a combination of similar-sized suckers, long sinus-sac, tandem testes, relatively elongate shape and unthickened seminal vesicle wall. Parahemiurus xylokopos n. sp. differs from its congeners in a combination of its squat form, its distinctly lobed vitellarium and the proximity of the gonads to the ventral sucker. P. merus (Linton, 1910) is reported from Acanthopagrus australis, Pomatomus saltatrix and Trachinotus coppingeri off northern New South Wales, Caranx sexfasciatus, Scorpis lineolata, Siganus nebulosus, Thunnus tonggol and T. coppingeri off southern Queensland, Cephalopholis boenak and Euthynnus affinis off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, P. saltatrix off southern Western Australia and Priacanthus hamrur off New Caledonia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshelev V. A.


    Full Text Available Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights. For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive features of feathers and various types of heron’s plumages were discussed.The structure of contour feathers of herons is related to the peculiarities of species life pattern. All the species have a relatively small number of contour feathers, despite their large body size. According to this index the herons are more similar to typical wading birds (gulls, sandpipers than for waterfowl. The total number of heron feathers slightly increase in winter, because they are migratory species. Structure of contour feathers of herons corresponds to that of other waterbirds. The rod is not bent, the feathers are large, and the mounting angle to the surface of the body is little. The cores of abdominal feather fracts reduce heat transfer and can be regarded as an adaptation factor to aquatic environment.Buoyancy is provided by heron’s feathers insignificantly, in contrast to the typical waterfowl species. Significant subcutaneous fat stores are typical for herons in spring, autumn and winter, increased buoyancy and being the energy reserves provide thermoregulation in cold environment. Our data indicate weak adaptation of herons’ plumage to aquatic environments, but also confirm its insulating properties, which is prove the herons semi-aquatic rather than aquatic life patterns.Due to color of plumage some three groups of herons were considered: white, mottled and camouflaged. Coloration of second and third group performs a protective function. We didn’t found a clear

  11. Status of the Shad and Metcalfe Island Rookery at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2004 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the sixth year of detailed studies conducted at the Great Blue Heron Rookery on Shad and Metcalfe Islands located within the Missisquoi National Wildlife...

  12. Food Security in Southwest Pacific Island Countries; Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Sydney, Australia, December 12-13, 2000


    Simatupang, Pantjar; Fleming, Euan M.


    This proceedings is a record of a regional workshop on "Food Security in the Southwest Pacific Island Countries", convened to discuss the findings and strategies achieved in a two-year research project "Food Security Strategies for Selected South Pacific Island Countries". The national experts of the participating countries: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and Vanuatu, presented reports of their country studies and the commentators from each country provided additional information.

  13. On Elliptic Curves Via Heron Triangles and Diophantine Triples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Izadi


    Full Text Available In this article, we construct families of elliptic curves arising from the Heron triangles and Diophantine triples with the Mordell-Weil torsion subgroup of Z/2Z × Z/2Z. These families have ranks at least 2 and 3, respectively, and contain particular examples with rank equal to 7

  14. The Oweniidae (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with the description of two new species of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. (United States)

    Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan


    Study of the Oweniidae specimens (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) stored at the Australian Museum, Sydney and newly collected in August 2013 revealed the presence of three species, namely Galathowenia quelis Capa et al., 2012 and two new species belonging to the genus Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. Owenia dichotoma n. sp. is characterised by a very short branchial crown of about 1/3 of thoracic length which bears short, dichotomously-branched tentacles provided with the major division close to the base of the crown. Owenia picta n. sp. is characterised by a long branchial crown of about 4/5 of thoracic length provided with no major divisions, ventral pigmentation on thorax and the presence of deep ventro-lateral groove on the first thoracic chaetiger. A key of Owenia species hitherto described or reported in South East Asia and Australasia regions is provided based on characters of the branchial crown.

  15. A Study of Behavior and Nest Distribution in the Shad Island Rookery Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shad Island is one of the largest Great Blue Heron rookeries on Lake Champlain. Recent concern about the effects of invading Double-crested Cormorants has prompted...

  16. An overlooked Heron of the javan ornis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.


    Meyer and Wiglesworth state in the »Birds of Celebes”, Vol. II, 1898, p. 857, that Ixobrychus eurhythma has been observed in Java, a specimen from that island received from von Schierbrand being in the Dresden Museum. It seems that this statement is overlooked by all authors who have written in rece

  17. Gnathia trimaculata n. sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae), an ectoparasite found parasitising requiem sharks from off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J


    Gnathia trimaculata n. sp. is described from one black tip reef shark Carcharinus melanopterus Quoy & Gaimard and four grey reef sharks C. amblyrhynchos Bleeker collected off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) were maintained in fresh seawater until they moulted into adults. Male adults emerged seven days post-removal (d.p.r) of pranizae from host fishes, whereas the female pranizae completed their moult into adult females 24 d.p.r. Distinctive features include the relatively large size of all stages and the unique mediofrontal process of the male, which is divided into two lobes forming a key-hole shape between them. The female frontal border is characterised by paired simple, pappose setae on the sides of the mid-dorsal area, as well as four long, pappose setae on the mid-dorsal region. The pranizae have eight teeth on each mandible. Live pranizae have stripes and three pairs of distinctive black spots within yellow circles on the sides of the pereonites and this pigmentation pattern persists in the adults. This represents the second description of a gnathiid parasitising elasmobranchs off Australia.

  18. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; De Silva Weliange, Shreenika; Manu-Sione, Inez; Schubert, Lisa


    Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P activity recommendations (P activity for preventing heart disease (P junk food may be beneficial. The study has shown that the Good Start Program was effective in engaging children from Maori and Pacific Island backgrounds and in improving knowledge, and some attitudes and practices, related to healthy eating and physical activity. The evaluation contributes valuable information about components and impacts of this type of intervention, and considerations relevant to this population in order to successfully change behaviours and reduce the burden of chronic disease.

  19. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.


    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  20. Patterns of resource partitioning by nesting herons and ibis: how are odonata exploited? (United States)

    Samraoui, Farrah; Nedjah, Riad; Boucheker, Abdennour; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Samraoui, Boudjéma


    Herons and ibis are colonially nesting waders which, owing to their number, mobility and trophic role as top predators, play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are also good biological models to investigate interspecific competition between sympatric species and predation; two processes which structure ecological communities. Odonata are also numerous, diverse, mobile and can play an important role in aquatic ecosystems by serving as prey for herons and ibis. A relationship between prey size and bird predator has been observed in Numidia wetlands (NE Algeria) after analyzing food boluses regurgitated by six species of birds (Purple Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Glossy Ibis, Little Egret, Squacco Heron and Cattle Egret) during the breeding period, which also shows a temporal gradient for the six species. Both the Levins index and preliminary multivariate analysis of the Odonata as prey fed to nestling herons and ibis, indicated a high degree of resource overlap. However, a distinction of prey based on taxonomy (suborder and family) and developmental stage (larvae or adults) reveals a clear size dichotomy with large-sized predators (Purple Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron and Glossy Ibis) preying on large preys like Aeshnids and Libellulids and small-sized predators feeding mainly on small prey like Zygoptera. Overall, the resource utilization suggests a pattern of resource segregation by coexisting nesting herons and ibis based on the timing of reproduction, prey types, prey size and foraging microhabitats. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob L


    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  2. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora. (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I


    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef.

  3. A new species of Near-shore Marine Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae: Nesogobius) from Kangaroo Island, Australia. (United States)

    Hammer, Michael P; Hoese, Douglass F; Bertozzi, Terry


    Nesogobius is one of two goby genera with all species wholly restricted to temperate Australian waters. Described here is a new member of the genus discovered during near-shore marine and estuarine fish sampling along the central southern Australian coastline. The tiger sandgoby Nesogobius tigrinus sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by a combination of colouration including four prominent vertical black bars on males; morphological characters involving body scales (large), head scales (naked), body depth (slender) and gill opening (wide); meristic counts including a lack of second dorsal and anal fin spines; and mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. The species appears to be a narrow range endemic, restricted to specific sub-tidal habitat in the unique sheltered embayments of northeast Kangaroo Island. This study forms part of ongoing investigations to more fully describe the biodiversity and conservation requirements of the regional ichthyofauna.

  4. A new genus with two new species of lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae),from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia. (United States)

    Herzog, Kaylee S; Jensen, Kirsten


    A new lecanicephalidean genus is erected for cestodes previously recognised as "New Genus 12" (Polypocephalidae) in a phylogenetic analysis of the interrelationship of members of this order. Examination of the cestode fauna of the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia revealed the existence of specimens representing two new species, consistent in morphology with "New Genus 12." Corollapex gen. n. is unique among the 24 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of an apical organ in the form of an external retractable central disk surrounded by eight concave muscular, membrane-bound pads and an internal heterogeneous glandular component. The two new species described herein, Corollapex cairae sp. n. (type species) and Corollapex tingoi sp. n., differ from one another in overall size and number of mature and immature proglottids, and are noted to demonstrate a differential distribution between mature and juvenile host individuals. Additional species diversity in the new genus, beyond C. cairae sp. n., C. tingoi sp. n., and "New Genus 12 n. sp. 1" of Jensen et al. (2016) is suggested. Corollapex gen. n. appears to be restricted to dasyatid hosts in the Indo-West Pacific region.

  5. Impacts of groundwater discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the phenolic metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and grazing by the juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens. (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Freundlich, Grace; Weilnau, Taylor; Verdi, Arielle; Tibbetts, Ian R


    Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH/high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (poly)phenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics.

  6. Pseudobacciger cheneyae n. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophalloidea) from Weber's chromis (Chromis weberi Fowler & Bean) (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Sun, Derek; Bray, Rodney A; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H


    A new species of digenean, Pseudobacciger cheneyae n. sp., is described from the intestines of Weber's chromis (Chromis weberi Fowler & Bean) from off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. This species differs from the three described species of Pseudobacciger Nahhas & Cable, 1964 [P. cablei Madhavi, 1975, P. harengulae Yamaguti, 1938 and P. manteri Nahhas & Cable, 1964] in combinations of the size of the suckers and the length of the caeca. The host of the present species is a perciform (Family Pomacentridae) which contrasts with previous records of the genus which are almost exclusively from clupeiform fishes. The genus Pseudobacciger is presently recognised within the family Faustulidae (Poche, 1926) but phylogenetic analyses of 28S and ITS2 rDNA show that the new species bears no relationship to species of four other faustulid genera (Antorchis Linton, 1911, Bacciger Nicoll, 1924, Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 and Trigonocryptus Martin, 1958) but that instead it is nested within the Gymnophalloidea (Odhner, 1905) as sister to the Tandanicolidae (Johnston, 1927). This result suggests that the Faustulidae is polyphyletic.

  7. Impacts of Groundwater Discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the Phenolic Metabolism of Eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and Grazing by the Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Freundlich, Grace; Weilnau, Taylor; Verdi, Arielle; Tibbetts, Ian R.


    Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (poly)phenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics. PMID:25127379

  8. Impacts of groundwater discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia on the phenolic metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and grazing by the juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arnold

    Full Text Available Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia. Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH/high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens, a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (polyphenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics.

  9. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia. (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B; Owen, Helen


    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters.

  10. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C.; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B.; Owen, Helen


    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters. PMID:28076432

  11. Productivity assessment of two great blue herons colonies in the Roanoke River Floodplain (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Conine Creek colony was comprised of a mix of great egrets and great blue herons. The great egrets outnumbered the great blue herons by at least two to one. We...

  12. Upper airway viruses and bacteria in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Brisbane, Australia: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Hall, Kerry K; Sloots, Theo P; Anderson, Jennie; Chang, Anne B


    Respiratory morbidity in Australian Indigenous children is higher than their non-Indigenous counterparts, irrespective of urban or remote residence. There are limited studies addressing acute respiratory illness (ARI) in urban Indigenous children, particularly those that address the upper airway microbiome and its relationship to disease. We aimed to describe the prevalence of upper airway viruses and bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic urban-based Australian Indigenous children aged less than 5 years. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in an ongoing prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children registered with a primary health care service in the northern suburbs of Brisbane, Australia. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data and bilateral anterior nasal swabs were collected on enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasal swabs to detect 17 respiratory viruses and 7 bacteria. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these microbes at enrolment. Logistic regression was performed to investigate differences in microbe prevalence between children with and without acute respiratory illness with cough as a symptom (ARIwC) at time of specimen collection. Between February 2013 and October 2015, 164 children were enrolled. The median age at enrolment was 18.0 months (IQR 7.2-34.3), 49.4% were boys and 56 children (34.2%) had ARIwC. Overall, 133/164 (81%) nasal swabs were positive for at least one organism; 131 (79.9%) for any bacteria, 59 (36.2%) for any virus and 57 (34.8%) for both viruses and bacteria. Co-detection of viruses and bacteria was more common in females than males (61.4% vs 38.6%, p = 0.044). No microbes, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with the presence of ARIwC. The prevalence of upper airways microbes in asymptomatic children is similar to non-Indigenous children with ARIwC from the same region. Determining the aetiology of ARIwC in this

  13. Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Anna Liza; Verma, Arjun; Harwood, Tim; Hoppenrath, Mona; Murray, Shauna


    Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds.

  14. Dog leucocyte antigen class II diversity and relationships among indigenous dogs of the island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea. (United States)

    Runstadler, J A; Angles, J M; Pedersen, N C


    The genetic polymorphism at the dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II loci DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1 was studied in a large genetically diverse population of feral and wild-type dogs from the large island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea (Bali street dog, dingo and New Guinea singing dog, respectively). Sequence-based typing (SBT) of the hypervariable region of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles was used to determine genetic diversity. No new DQA1 alleles were recognized among the three dog populations, but five novel DLA-DRB1 and 2 novel DLA-DQB1 allele sequences were detected. Additional unknown alleles were postulated to exist in Bali street dogs, as indicated by the large percentage of individuals (15%-33%) that had indeterminate DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles by SBT. All three groups of dogs possessed alleles that were relatively uncommon in conventional purebreds. The New Guinea singing dog and dingo shared alleles that were not present in the Bali street dogs. These findings suggested that the dingo was more closely related to indigenous dogs from New Guinea. Feral dog populations, in particular large ones such as that of Bali, show genetic diversity that existed prior to phenotypic selection for breeds originating from their respective regions. This diversity needs to be identified and maintained in the face of progressive Westernization. These populations deserve further study as potential model populations for the evolution of major histocompatibility complex alleles, for the study of canine genetic diversity, for the development of dog breeds and for studies on the comigration of ancestral human and dog populations.

  15. A Water Quality Study: Heron's Head Park, San Francisco, California (United States)

    Li, A.; Wu, K.; Neiss, J.


    Heron's Head Park, formerly known as Pier 98, is a 24-acre restored wetland, owned and operated by the Port of San Francisco and situated at the base of the Hunter's Point Power Plant. Heron's Head is a unique environment that is built on landfill and is now a thriving marsh maintained primarily by youth and community volunteers. Adjacent to the park stands a PG&E power plant (closed May 2006), a county waste transfer station, and a combined sewer overflow (CSO) pipe. The park is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north, east and south sides of the park. We examined the levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform at nine sites around the park. Utilizing historical data from other San Francisco Bay sites and other similar estuarine settings in California, we assessed the health of the Bay waters surrounding the park. We found the levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates to be within the parameters of historical San Francisco Bay data and similar to settings such as Elkhorn Slough, Tomales Bay and Tijuana Estuary. In our study we did find a potential hazard to human health. Fecal coliform concentrations in waters that border the park range from 340 MPN/100 mL - 24,000 MPN/100 mL. This level significantly exceeds Environmental Protection Agency recommendations of 300 MPN/100 mL for human contact with water.

  16. Relationships among cytochromes P450 and dioxin equivalents in pipping heron embryos from Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillett, D.E.


    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic P450 associated monooxygenases (AHH, EROD, BROD, ECOD) and P450 proteins (CYP1A, CYP2B) were induced up to 85-fold, and were associated with burdens of total PCBs and 11 AHH-active PCB congeners. Dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) of sample extracts, derived by bioassay (H4I1E rat hepatoma cell) and mathematically (product of PCB congener concentration and relative TCDD potency), revealed greatest TCDD-EQs in Cat Island samples. TCDD-EQs were associated with P450s, especially BROD, EROD and CYP1A (r2 = 0.35 to 0.66). TCDD-EQs derived by bioassay were highly correlated with TCDD-EQs derived mathematically (r2 = 0.58 to 0.67) . Multiple regressions were also performed to investigate relationships among P450s and PCB congeners. In summary, these data demonstrate that hepatic P450s of heron embryos are biomarkers of exposure to dioxin-like compounds and provide further evidence that this species has considerable value for assessing wetland and estuarine contamination.

  17. Great Blue Heron Rookery Inventory for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are raw data sheets with the results of a survey done at the Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge Blue Heron Rookery in June of 1990. The volunteers counted the...

  18. Great Blue Heron Rookery Inventory for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are raw data sheets with the results of a survey done at the Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge Blue Heron Rookery in June of 1989. The volunteers counted the...

  19. Great Blue Heron Rookery Census Report for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1980 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of a ground census conducted at the High Point great blue heron rookery at Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge on July 2, 1980.

  20. Great Blue Heron Rookery Census Report for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1982 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 1982 A ground census of the High Point great blue heron rookery at Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge was conducted on June 24, 1982 by refuge personnel. This...

  1. Radiotelemetry locates wintering grounds of DDE-contaminated black-crowned night-herons (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.


    This study was designed to determine if night-herons nesting at Ruby Lake, Nevada, shared a common wintering area with lesser contaminated night-herons nesting farther north in Oregon and Idaho. Radiotelemetry (29 transmitters) and banding studies indicated that the lesser-contaminated Oregon-Idaho night-herons wintered primarily in coastal Mexico (mean 22-23'N latitude), while the Ruby Lake night-herons wintered in the southwestern United States with some in the interior of northern Mexico (mean 29-30?N latitude). We believe the nearly disjunct wintering areas for the populations, and the apparent differing pollutant loads on the wintering areas accounted for the 3-fold higher DDE egg residues at Ruby Lake. Findings from this study emphasize the influence migration patterns can have on pollutants accumulated by populations of migratory birds nesting in relatively unpolluted areas and at relatively short distances apart (400 km).

  2. Great Blue Heron Rookery Inventory for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1995 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are raw data sheets with the results of a survey done at the Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge Blue Heron Rookery in February, March, June and July of 1995....

  3. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.


    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  4. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006 (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.


    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000-2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ??? 100% MeHg) ???0.80 ??g THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained putative biological effect threshold of 2.0 ??g THg/g in whole blood for young of both species was evaluated, which was frequently exceeded, but with no evidence, while still in the colony, of an association with direct mortality. An evaluation of physiological associations with blood residues and post-fledging survival will be presented in future reports in this series. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. [Bioindication of organochlorine pesticides by night heron in Taihu wetland ecosystem]. (United States)

    Dong, Yuanhua; An, Qiong; Gong, Zhongming; Wang, Hui


    Based on field ecological investigation on the colony of herons in Yuantouzhu of Taihu in 1999, the regurgitated foods by chicks of night heron were collected for prey type identification and chemical analysis. Besides, eggs of night heron, and sediments and waters in foraging habitats were sampled for chemical analysis as well. alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in laboratory by gas chromatography. The results indicated that HCH isomers, DDT and its metabolites could be detected in various environments and preys of night heron, although the organochlorined chemicals were banned for almost 20 years. Moreover, The results showed that eggs of night heron could accumulate organochlorine pesticides by as much as a factor of 10(3)-10(4), which can make chemical analysis much easier. So they are good bio-indicators for organochlorine contamination level in wetland environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gozhko


    Full Text Available Aim. The main goal was to assess the current state of herons in the Eastern sea of Azov in Krasnodar region.Methods. We have conducted collecting of material according to conventional ornithological methods of Saemann D. (1970, Kostin, Y. V. (1977, Klimova S. M. (1989, Brave V. M. (1991, and Bogolyubov A. S. (1996.Results. Spring arrivals in the eastern coast of the Azov Sea have been noted from February to April. Jacks suit in the thickets of reeds, rushes to the creases, some species of trees. The breeding season is extended, depending on the time of construction of the nest. Number of eggs per clutch varies from 1 to 5. The incubating of eggs lasts 21-27 days. The development of the chicks lasts 40-55 days. The effectiveness of nesting herons in the studied species in the lower reaches of the Kuban ranges from 78.6% to 83.5%. The basis of herons diet of fish of different species and sizes. Analysis of the castings showed the presence in them of Coleoptera fragments, lake frog, wool and the remnants of rodents.Main conclusions. Studied basic biological periods herons of Eastern Azov region. Established that the size of heron population at the area of interest varies year by year due to effect of anthropogenic and abiotic factors.

  7. The heron that laid the golden egg: metals and metalloids in ibis, darter, cormorant, heron, and egret eggs from the Vaal River catchment, South Africa. (United States)

    van der Schyff, V; Pieters, R; Bouwman, H


    Metal pollution issues are afforded the highest priority in developing countries. Only one previous study has addressed metals in African bird eggs. We determined the concentration of metals and metalloids in bird eggs from four sites in the Vaal River catchment (VRC) of South Africa to provide data on the current situation. We analysed 16 pools of 77 heron, ibis, darter, egret, and cormorant eggs for 18 metals and metalloids using ICP-MS. We found high concentrations of gold (Au), uranium (U), thallium (Tl), and platinum (Pt) in Grey Heron eggs from Baberspan. Great white egrets from Bloemhof Dam had high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Multivariate analyses revealed strong associations between Au and U, and between palladium (Pd) and Pt. The toxic reference value (TRV) for Hg was exceeded in seven pools. Selenium exceeded its TRV in one pool; in the same pool, copper (Cu) reached its TRV. Compared with other studies, VRC bird eggs had high concentrations of contaminants. Based on these high concentrations, human health might be at risk as Grey Herons and humans share similar food and are therefore exposed to the same contaminants.

  8. Australia's polio risk. (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  9. Great Blue Heron Rookery Inventory for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1992 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are raw data sheets with the results of a survey done at the Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge Blue Heron Rookery in June of 1992. There is also a summary...

  10. Great Blue Heron Rookery Inventory for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1994 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are raw data sheets with the results of a survey done at the Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge Blue Heron Rookery in June and July of 1994. There is also a...

  11. Thermodynamics and NMR studies on Duck, Heron and Human HBV encapsidation signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, F.C.; Ottink, O.M.; Ampt, K.A.; Tessari, M.; Wijmenga, S.S.


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is initiated by binding of its reverse transcriptase (P) to the apical stem-loop (AL) and primer loop (PL) of epsilon, a highly conserved RNA element at the 5'-end of the RNA pregenome. Mutation studies on duck/heron and human in vitro systems have shown similarit

  12. An Optimal Double Inequality between Power-Type Heron and Seiffert Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Miao-Kun


    Full Text Available For , the power-type Heron mean and the Seiffert mean of two positive real numbers and are defined by , ; , and , ; , , respectively. In this paper, we find the greatest value and the least value such that the double inequality holds for all with .

  13. A simple diabetes vascular severity staging instrument and its application to a Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal adult cohort of north Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Odette R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an instrument that predicts diabetes-related vascular disease severity using routinely collected data on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of diabetes duration. Methods A complex diabetes severity classification system was simplified and adapted for use with an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult population with type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Detailed vascular health risks and morbidities were mapped to routinely collected measures. Individual–level health screening, hospital separation and mortality data were linked and used to plot mean monthly in-patient hospital cost and percent mortality by disease severity as defined by the newly developed instrument, to test construct validity. Results The revised instrument consists of four combined diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular stages that range from least severe (stage 1 to severe irreversible vascular impairment (stage 4. When applied to data of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population the instrument showed good construct validity, predicting higher hospital cost and mortality as vascular disease severity increased. Conclusions This instrument discriminates between levels of diabetes-related vascular disease severity, displays good construct validity by predicting increased hospital cost and mortality with worsening severity and can be populated with routinely collected data. It may assist with future health service research and its use could be extended to practice settings for health care planning for diabetes management programs and monitoring vascular disease progression.

  14. Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry Workshop Held in Heron Island on 28 June - 2nd July 1989 (United States)


    know if it is a vanadium-containing enzyme. Hans Vilter reported that they found no bromoperoxidase in sargassum or tubinaria, and thus its occurrence...provided by the of food, cold Antarctic waters are Queensland National Parks and Wildlife unsuitable for reproduction . Young Service on behalf of the Great

  15. An Investigation into the Decline of Great Blue Heron Nestlings at the Seneca Pool Colony of Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation into the decline of the Great Blue Heron's population at Iroquois is the main focus of this research. Specific issues such as the possible factors...

  16. Addendum to study plan: Effects of organochlorine pollutants on black-crowned night herons in Pacific Northwest (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A revised version of the study designed to determine the effects of organochlorine pollutants on back-crowned night herons nesting in the Pacific Northwest and to...

  17. Two-stage rifting of Zealandia-Australia-Antarctica: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of the Sisters shear zone, Stewart Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.


    The Sisters shear zone is a newly discovered Late Cretaceous detachment fault system exposed for 40 km along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, southernmost New Zealand. Footwall rocks consist of variably deformed ca. 310 and 105 Ma granites that range from undeformed to protomylonite, mylonite, and ultramylonite. The hanging wall includes non-marine conglomerate and brittley deformed granite. K-feldspar thermochronometry of the footwall indicates moderately rapid cooling (20 30 C°/m.y.) due to tectonic denudation over the interval ca. 89 82 Ma. Return to slow cooling at 82 Ma coincides with the age of the oldest seafloor adjacent to the Campbell Plateau and reflects the mechanical transition from continental extension to lithospheric rupture and formation of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Our findings support a two-stage rift model for continental breakup of this part of the Gondwana margin. Stage one (ca. 101 88 Ma) is the northward propagation of continental extension and the Tasman Ridge as recorded in mylonite dredged from the Ross Sea and the Paparoa core complex. Stage two (ca. 89 82 Ma) is extension between the Campbell Plateau and West Antarctica leading to formation of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge.

  18. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L Johansen

    Full Text Available Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.. Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m, mid-slope (6 m and deep-slope (9 m depth of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz, emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  19. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  20. Exotic island arc Paleozoic terranes on the eastern margin of Gondwana: Geochemical whole rock and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope evidence from Barry Station, New South Wales, Australia (United States)

    Manton, Ryan J.; Buckman, Solomon; Nutman, Allen P.; Bennett, Vickie C.


    Early Paleozoic intra-oceanic terranes crop out along the Peel-Manning Fault System, in the southern New England Orogen, NSW Australia. These are the Cambrian ophiolitic Weraerai terrane and the Siluro-Devonian island arc Gamilaroi terrane. There has been debate whether these terranes formed at the Gondwana margin or if they are intra-oceanic, and were accreted to Gondwana later in the Paleozoic. Major-trace-REE elemental data indicate Weraerai terrane formed in a supra-subduction environment. Rare zircons extracted from Weraerai terrane gabbro-plagiogranite suites at Barry Station yield a U-Pb zircon date of 504.9 ± 3.5 Ma with initial εHf values of + 11.1 indicating a juvenile source. Amphibole-bearing felsic dykes and net-vein complexes are also found within the gabbro with a U-Pb zircon date of 503.2 ± 5.7 Ma and initial εHf values of + 11.6. These are coeval in age with their host rocks and we propose they represent partial melts of the mafic crust during the circulation of seawater. The Gamilaroi trondhjemites of prehnite-pumpellyite-greenschist metamorphic grade terrane yielded very few zircons with an age of 413 ± 8.7 Ma. Zircon initial εHf values range from + 5.0 to + 2.9, indicating an input from an evolved crustal source, unlike the purely oceanic Weraerai terrane. Gamilaroi terrane trondhjemites are enriched in LREE have low K2O and K2O/Na2O ratios and strong negative Nb anomalies consistent with supra-subduction zone environments. Multiple subduction zones may well have existed within the Panthalassa Ocean during the early-mid Paleozoic with the Weraerai-Gamilaroi being accreted onto the Gondwanan margin during the latest Devonian.

  1. Metal Concentrations, Foraging Distances, and Fledging Success of Great Blue Herons Nesting Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, Brett L.; Marco, Jeffrey D.; Rickard, William H.


    Excrement sample and livers of juvenile great blue herons were collected at nests at three widely separated colonies along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to test the validity of using excrement samples as indicators of metal concentrations in tissues of juvenile herons fed food collected by parent birds within a few kilometers of nests. There was no positive relation noted between metal concentrations in excrement and liver samples taken from the same nests. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations were noted in excrement samples collected among the different heron colonies. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations (dry wt.) were higher in excrement than in liver samples but the opposite was noted for Cu, Hg, and Zn. Mercury concentrations in heron liver samples were biomagnified to a greater extent than Cd and Cr. Fledging success and eggshell thickness measurements were used as indicators of population health. These values were equivalent to or better than those noted for heron colonies elsewhere in the United States.

  2. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.


    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  3. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  4. en Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bell


    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.

  5. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands (United States)

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie


    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  6. Influence of the heron colony on heavy metals accumulation in soil of Dniprovsko-Orilsky nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vovk


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the settlements of heron on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. The author considers accumulation of trace elements in different soil horizons. The reasons of the prohibitions has been rate.

  7. Comparison of mathematically-predicted toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioassay-derived dioxin-equivalents (TCDD-EQs) in heron embryos (United States)

    Rattner, B.; Hatfield, J.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Tillitt, D.


    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from an uncontaminated site (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge,VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, and was associated with concentrations of total PCBs and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the Ah receptor. TEQs [mathematically predicted; summed product of PCB congener concentrations using 5 different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)] were compared to TCDD-EQs [derived by bioassay; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H411E rat hepatoma cells]. Although TEQs were up to 15-fold greater than TCDD-EQs, the pattern among sites was consistent and TEQs were highly correlated with TCDD-EQs. TEFs based on single congener mammalian studies yielded TEQs that greatly exceeded values from the H411E bioassay of field sample. TEFs generated from avian egg injection studies yielded TEQs that most closely approximated bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs. Cytochrome P450 parameters were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data document the general predictive value of TEQs and TCDD-EQs for P450 induction in field collected samples, but also indicate the need for development of TEFs for the species and biological end point of concern.

  8. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  9. UGC 4599: Revealing the Extended Structure of a Hoag’s Object Analog with HERON (United States)

    Fusco, Michael; Thilker, David A.; Wen, Fufang; Xia, Junjie; Storment, Stephen; Brosch, Noah; Longstaff, Francis; Kennefick, Julia D.; Rich, Robert Michael; Halos and Environments of Nearby galaxies (HERON) Team


    The Halos and Environments of Nearby Galaxies (HERON) survey utilizes a specialized telescope for imaging low surface brightness halos and galaxy environments. One such galaxy is UGC 4599, whose HERON images show improvements in observing the extended low luminosity structure as compared to previous studies. UGC 4599 is a nearby Hoag-Type Ring Galaxy with an extremely extended HI disk. Hoag's Object is characterized by a blue star-forming ring surrounding an older yellow nucleus. In the case of UGC 4599, the nuclear region was previously revealed to closely follow a De Vaucouleurs luminosity profile, suggesting the object to be at least elliptical-like. While previous photometric studies of UGC 4599 were focused mainly on the bright core and star forming ring of the galaxy, the HERON survey is able to probe the fainter, extended halo. With an eight hour integration time, we find spiral structure surrounding the core and ring of UGC 4599. The main ring of the galaxy is broken with an m=2 (180 degree) symmetry, suggesting a two armed spiral structure. However, once the core and ring of UGC 4599 are modeled with the software GALFIT, a well defined m=1 (single arm) spiral emerges, extending from the central region to several times the radius of the ring. Though the ring appears to break in two places, the spiral structure may be comprised of mainly one dominant arm. In late type galaxies, the pitch angle of spiral arms has been shown to correlate well with the mass of the central Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) in an M-P relation. The pitch angle of the one arm spiral of UGC 4599 is measured to be roughly P=9 degrees, corresponding to a SMBH mass for UGC 4599 of between 107 and 108 solar masses (further constrained pitch angle measurements forthcoming). The outermost edge of UGC 4599 as detected in our imaging may be modeled as an extension of this one armed spiral, or as yet another ring feature. Due to many bright foreground stars, there is difficulty in ascertaining

  10. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia. (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John


    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  11. Productivity and PCDDs/PCDFs in eggs from two great blue heron rookeries near a pulp and paper mill on the Roanoke River, North Carolina (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes nesting data. Observations include: 1. The Conine Creek colony was comprised of > 150 great egret and > 75 great blue heron nests. 2....

  12. Investigation of Eggshell Thickness and Biochemical Indicators of Contaminant Exposure in Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) from Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge supports the largest great blue heron (Ardea herodias) rookery in the State of Virginia. The presence of bioaccumulative...

  13. Delineation of the nature and extent of contamination at the former NAS Key West Skeet Club on Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) conducted a contaminants investigation at the former skeet range on Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge (NWR)....

  14. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rice, C.P.; Riley, W.; Eisemann, J.; Hines, R.K.


    Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Baltimore Harbor, MD and Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC, USA). Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were significantly elevated (up to sixfold and ninefold induction, respectively) in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site but below the known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon receptor-active polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was associated with concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides, total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents (r = 0.30-0.59), providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore

  15. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M


    Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new critical habitat for conservation of the White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis Hume, 1878 (Aves: Ardeidae from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Wangdi


    Full Text Available The White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its extremely small and rapidly dwindling population. Bhutan is home to the highest number of White-bellied Heron and the species is distributed patchily across 11 different sites in central and south-west Bhutan. In this note, we present the first evidence of the species in eastern Bhutan, on the Drangmechhu River in Trashi Yangtse district. The finding extends the distribution of the species in Bhutan and recognizes one more potentially critical habitat for immediate conservation attention. As elsewhere, the new site is found to be primarily threatened by hydropower development. The need for conservation initiatives for the species is immediate and highly recommended.

  17. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba]. (United States)

    Denis Avila, Dennis


    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  18. The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.


    Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

  19. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  20. Financing of terrorism : risks for Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SMITH, Russell G; McCusker, Rob; Walters, Julie


    ... activities - financing of terrorism within Australia - regulatory framework in Australia - evidence of financing of terrorism in Australia - conclusion that Australia is at some risk of terrorist...

  1. Unravelling feeding territoriality in the Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea, in Cananéia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moralez-Silva

    Full Text Available Habitat use by the Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea and discovery of feeding territoriality are discussed here. The results showed the existence of a territorial individual defending an area (2,564.46 ± 943.56 m² close to the mangrove, and non-territorial individuals (9.17 ± 2.54 in the rest of a demarcated area (mean area for the non-territorial: 893.25 ± 676.72. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.47, df = 46, p < 0.05 was found between the overlapping of territorial and non-territorial individuals (2.85 ± 3.07 m² and the mean overlapped area for territorial individuals (171.41 ± 131.40 m². Higher capture (1.52 ± 1.14 × 1.00 ± 1.37 catches/minutes and success rates (0.45 ± 0.31 × 0.21 ± 0.27 and lower energy expenditure rates (45.21 ± 14.96 × 51.22 ± 14.37 steps/minutes; and 3.65 ± 2.55 × 4.94 ± 3.28 stabs/minutes were observed for individuals foraging in areas close to the mangrove. The results suggest that the observed territorial behaviour is more related to a number of food parameters than to intruder pressure, and also that the observed territoriality might be related to defense of areas with higher prey availability.

  2. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Ottinger, M.A.


    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate non-invasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four to six day-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; n=7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body weight of nestling; n=6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 days of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32 - 0.74, p < 0.02), but exhibited only modest dose-dependence. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited by lead, although effects on other biochemical endpoints were marginal. Tarsus growth rate was inversely related to feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead, but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  3. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.


    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only tax

  4. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.


    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only

  5. Effects of embryonic and adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on hepatic microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activities in great blue herons (Ardea herodias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)


    In a continuing effort to evaluate biomarkers of exposure of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors examined the effect of TCDD on hepatic microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activities. Heron embryos were exposed in ovo to 2 {micro}g TCDD/kg egg (or corn oil vehicle) and sacrificed at hatch or 7 d posthatch. Adult herons were exposed intraperitoneally to 20 {micro}g TCDD/kg and sacrificed 2 weeks later. The sex of the birds was known for the adults only. Hepatic microsomes of herons of each age group were able to hydroxylate testosterone at the 2{beta}, 6{beta}, 15{alpha}, 16{alpha}, or 16{beta} positions. In 7-d-old chicks, an additional unidentified compound was formed. The age of the untreated herons had a strong influence on the activities of the five hydroxylases, with changes of up to 17-fold. The TCDD significantly induced 2{beta}-, 6{beta}, and 15{alpha}-testosterone hydroxylase activities in the adult females, 15{alpha} in the adult males, and 6{beta}-testosterone hydroxylase activity in the hatchlings. In the 7-d-old chicks, induction was no longer apparent. A significant correlation existed between hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and 6{beta}-testosterone hydroxylase activity in hatchlings and adult female herons. The TCDD-induced changes in testosterone hydroxylase activities occurred at doses that resulted in tissue concentrations and levels of EROD induction that were environmentally relevant, but did not result in overt toxicities.

  6. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.


    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  7. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  8. Galapagos Islands (United States)


    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Money, Manipulation and Misunderstanding on Manus Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen


    Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...

  10. A new species of Numbakullidae Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea, Peracarida, Crustacea from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stępień


    Full Text Available A new species of Numbakulla Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea is described from Heron Island (southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland collected during the Census of Coral Reefs Ecosystem (CReefs program. The new species is the third member of the family and can be recognized by the combination of characters as: length/width ratio of the body, which is 6:7, pereonite 4 longer than the rest, the presence of eyes, a blunt rostrum, antenna article 2 elongated, cheliped carpus with row of inner setae, pereopod 6 carpus with spines, pleopod endopod with denticles.

  11. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia. (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn


    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  12. New records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with remarks on the distribution of the Pseudoceros Lang, 1884 and Pseudobiceros Faubel, 1984 species of the Indo-Pacific Marine Region. (United States)

    Marquina, Daniel; Aguado, M Teresa; Noreña, Carolina


    In the present work eleven polyclad species of Lizard Island are studied. Seven of them are new records for this locality of the Australian coral reef and one is new to science, Lurymare clavocapitata n. sp. (Family Prosthiostomidae). The remaining recorded species belong to the genera Pseudoceros (P. bimarginatus, P. jebborum, P. stimpsoni, P. zebra, P. paralaticlavus and P. prudhoei) and Pseudobiceros (Pb. hancockanus, Pb. hymanae, Pb. flowersi and Pb. uniarborensis). Regardless of the different distribution patterns, all pseudocerotid species show brilliant colours, but similar internal morphology. Furthermore, differences in the form and size of the stylet are characteristic, because it is a sclerotic structure that is not affected during fixation. In Pseudoceros, the distance between the sucker and the female pore also differs among species. These features do not vary enough to be considered as diagnostic, but they provide information that can help to disentangle similarly coloured species complexes. A key of the genera Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros of the Indo-Pacific region is provided, in order to facilitate the identification of species from this area.

  13. Willets gather in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. (United States)


    Willets gather around a plant in the shallow waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Willets are best identified in flight by their black-and-white wing pattern; on the ground by their thick black bills and gray legs. They breed in southern Canada, the United States and the West Indies, wintering from the southern U.S. to central South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  14. Surface topography of two trematodes parasites infecting grey heron Ardea cinerea Jouyi (Aves, Ciconiiformes) in Qena, Egypt. (United States)

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed


    Apharyngostrigea ardeolina and Echinoparyphium recurvatum are two important digenean parasites that were recovered from small intestine of grey heron with an infection rate (16.2%) and (8.8%) respectively. The surface topography of two species was redescribed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Using SEM studies showed that the body surface of two trematodes were covered by contact receptors, several types of sensory tegumental papillae which may have useful function in orientation and feeding through increasing the surface area of absorption, could also play a role in sensation or in selection of the materials for ingestion by the fluke. The head collar of E. recurvatum is reniform in shape, bearing uninterrupted double row of 41 collar finger-like spines, a total including 4 end group ones on both ventral corners., tegumental spines were tongue-shaped without a terminal tip.

  15. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  16. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young


    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  17. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010. (United States)

    Turner, Aj


    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions.

  18. Healthcare in Australia. (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally


    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014.

  19. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of eastern Australia subtropical coral communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Dalton

    Full Text Available Despite increases in the frequency and intensity of disturbances on coral reefs over the past few decades, the response of subtropical coral assemblages to climate change is poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap on Australian reefs and provide a baseline for future comparisons, we quantified spatial (10-100's of kilometres and temporal (decadal patterns of benthic assemblages across a latitudinal gradient along the east Australian coastline (23.5° S to 31.5° S. Benthic community composition was quantified at six locations from the southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland (Heron Reef, 23.5° S, 152° E to northern New South Wales (31° S, 153.1° E and at Lord Howe Island (31.5° S, 159.1° E. Our results indicate significant latitudinal differences in benthic assemblages, while community composition at some sites was more similar to those hundreds of kilometres away than to that of neighbouring reefs. A general trend was observed with decreasing cover of Acroporidae with increasing latitude, corresponding with an increasing cover of Pocilloporidae and Dendrophylliidae. Heron Reef comprised a high proportion of Acropora corals (43% total coral cover and coralline algae (44%. In contrast, high-latitude reefs were dominated by mixed coral assemblages (0-52% and high macroalgal cover (16-27%. Decadal comparisons of high-latitude reefs showed regional stability of benthic assemblages (9 out of 11 assemblages remained stable at > 75% similarity, during a period of warming oceans (0.15-0.24°C per decade. Such temporal stability suggests that eastern Australian subtropical communities may be more resistant than tropical reef communities that have experienced assembly shifts caused by perturbations associated with recent global climate change. Despite the clear differences in the structure of coral assemblages evident in our spatial surveys, we suggest that the temporal stability of high-latitude reefs may provide a limited refuge for

  1. Australia in the Pacific. (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian


    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  2. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus. (United States)

    Gabriel, M.


    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  3. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins


    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  4. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  5. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    articles. 45. Volume 10 No. 2 July 2004 - SAJP. Robert M Kaplan, MB ChB, FRANZCP, MA. The Liaison ... World War II, psychoanalysis was brought to Australia by ... (PBS) in which prescribed drugs are subsidised to keep them to the cost of a ...

  6. Classification in Australia. (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  7. Lingue e migrazione. Un caso di studio: l’Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter focuses upon two contrasting features of the linguistic situation in Australia. On the one hand, together with nationhood, the past hundred or so years have seen the evolution of a distinct national variety of English in Australia recognizable also outside Australia. On the other, Australia, though a young nation, has been continuously inhabited by the various Aborigine and Torre Strait Islander communities for thousands of years. These have traditionally spoken a wide variety of different languages, some of which of great interest to linguists due to their peculiarity. Increasingly, although the use of Aborigine languages has until very recently been in steady decline, since the 1950s in particular, diverse ethnic groups speaking a variety of languages, both European and Asian, have settled in Australia. The National Policy on Languages (1987 formally directed Australia towards multilingualism and the teaching of English as a first and second language is promoted together with that of Aborigine and community languages. Consequently, Australia has been one of the first nations to try to capitalise on its own linguistic diversity, both as a means of strengthening links with the outside world and as a way of promoting a multiethnic and multicultural society at home. Australia presents then an interesting case study for those working with discourse in immigration domains who are concerned with the way that language policy (or the lack of one may effect social harmony and serve not only as an indicator of the way that migrants are received and treated, but also a catalyst in itself for greater mutual respect.

  8. Australia’s 2009 Defense White Paper: A Martimte Focus for Uncertain Times (United States)


    like Australia . Finally, there is recognition of “new security risks,” including climate change (with its potential for major problems in the South...policy makers. In particular, ongoing problems in East Timor, the Solomon Islands , Fiji , and Papua New Guinea will require continuing attention.38 The...Pacific region, Australia inescap-ably is a participant in the most politically, economically, and strategically dynamic part of the world. The region

  9. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray


    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  10. Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin. (United States)

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Stewart, Kathryn; Rantakokko, Panu; Bignert, Anders; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Qiu, Yanling; Ma, Zhijun; Bergman, Åke


    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g(-1) lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g(-1)lw). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Population options for Australia. (United States)

    Ruddock, P


    In an address to the Australian Population Association Biennial Conference during October 1998, the Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Minister Philip Ruddock argued that neither the zero net overseas migration policy nor the massive boost in immigration are in the national interest of Australia. Environmental groups generally view that Australia should adopt a policy of zero net overseas migration. On the other hand, business and industry bodies consider that a substantial increase in the migration intake is needed in order to increase economic growth and to reduce the impact of an aging population. Moreover, some are concerned about population targets reaching up to 50 million in 50 years time. Thus, management of immigration policy is a difficult balancing act between competing objectives. The Minister concluded that their immigration program must operate on a totally global and nondiscriminatory basis regarding matters such as race, religion, color, and ethnic origin.

  12. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  13. Year book Australia 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castles, I. (comp.)


    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all asepcts of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence, international relations, culture and environment. The first Official Year Book was published early in 1908. This is the seventieth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1984 to 1985. More detailed, and in most cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications.

  14. Tissue banking in australia. (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen


    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  15. Canine rabies in Australia: a review of preparedness and research needs. (United States)

    Sparkes, J; Fleming, P J S; Ballard, G; Scott-Orr, H; Durr, S; Ward, M P


    Australia is unique as a populated continent in that canine rabies is exotic, with only one likely incursion in 1867. This is despite the presence of a widespread free-ranging dog population, which includes the naturalized dingo, feral domestic dogs and dingo-dog cross-breeds. To Australia's immediate north, rabies has recently spread within the Indonesian archipelago, with outbreaks occurring in historically free islands to the east including Bali, Flores, Ambon and the Tanimbar Islands. Australia depends on strict quarantine protocols to prevent importation of a rabid animal, but the risk of illegal animal movements by fishing and recreational vessels circumventing quarantine remains. Predicting where rabies will enter Australia is important, but understanding dog population dynamics and interactions, including contact rates in and around human populations, is essential for rabies preparedness. The interactions among and between Australia's large populations of wild, free-roaming and restrained domestic dogs require quantification for rabies incursions to be detected and controlled. The imminent risk of rabies breaching Australian borders makes the development of disease spread models that will assist in the deployment of cost-effective surveillance, improve preventive strategies and guide disease management protocols vitally important. Here, we critically review Australia's preparedness for rabies, discuss prevailing assumptions and models, identify knowledge deficits in free-roaming dog ecology relating to rabies maintenance and speculate on the likely consequences of endemic rabies for Australia.

  16. American Outlaws in Australia



    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  17. The regolith in Australia (United States)

    Ollier, C. D.


    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  18. STS-65 Earth observation of northern Australia (winter burning) from OV-102 (United States)


    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows late winter burning in northern Australia and the extreme northern coastal area that includes the Cobourg Peninsula, as well as Melville and Bathurst Islands. These fires were probably set intentionally to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. The very dark lowland areas on Melville Island represent mangrove woodland. In contrast to some other tropical regions (for example Madagascar and Indonesia), no soil erosion (sediment plumes) is visible in this photograph.

  19. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros, Laia [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina [Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament de Salut Publica (Bioestadistica), Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:


    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites.

  20. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  1. Is Western Australia. (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom


    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  2. Fresh Ideas for Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With Kevin Rudd at the helm,Australia seems poised to embrace major changesAustralia’s prime minister-elect Kevin Rudd has caught the atten- tion of the Chinese with his modest appearance,fluent Mandarin and personal bonds with China. Rudd,50,graduated from the Australian National University in Canberra, where he majored in Chinese language and history.He is the first Mandarin-speaking leader from an English-speaking country and is known in China by the elegant name Lu Kewen.As a diplomat,he worked in the Australian Embassy in Beijing in the 1980s.

  3. Electromagnetic induction in Australia (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  4. Cultural safety and maternity care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. (United States)

    Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue; Barclay, Lesley


    To discuss cultural safety and critique the provision of culturally appropriate maternity services to remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in Australia. The literature and policies around 'culture' and 'cultural safety' are discussed and applied to the provision of maternity services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in remote areas of Australia. The current provision of maternity services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, particularly those living in remote Australia, appears largely inadequate. The provision of culturally safe maternity care requires health system reform at all levels including: the individual practitioner response; the educational preparation of practitioners; the delivery of maternity services and the development of policy at local, state and national level. This paper considers the changes that can be made from the individual practitioner through to the design and implementation of maternity services. Cultural safety provides a useful framework to improve the delivery of maternity services to remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and their families.

  5. Eight new species of Macvicaria Gibson and Bray, 1982 (Digenea: Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova


    Full Text Available Nine morphologically distinct species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 were recovered from six families, ten genera and twelve species of marine fishes in the waters off the coast of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia: M. shotteri n. sp. in Apogon fasciatus (type-host, Sillaginodes punctatus and Sillago bassensis from Moreton Bay (type-locality, off southern Western Australia and off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. mekistomorphe n. sp. in Sillago maculata from Moreton Bay; M. mutovitellina n. sp. in Dactylophora nigricans from off southern Western Australia; M. flexuomeatus n. sp. in Goniistius gibbosus (type-host and Cheilodactylus rubrolabiatus from southern Western Australia; M. vitellocopiosa n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus from off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. dextrocaula n. sp. in Notolabrus parilus (type-host and N. fucicola (Richardson (Labridae from off southern Western Australia (type-locality and Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. heronensis Bray & Cribb, 1989 in Trachinotus coppingeri off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; M. adomeae n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. kingscotensis n. sp. in Neoodax balteatus (type-host and Haletta semifasciata off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. We have used the following characters to distinguish between the species of Macvicaria: general body form; length/width ratio; size of cirrussac; length of forebody; post-testicular extent of caeca; egg size; and the position of the genital pore. Most of the species of Macvicaria showed interspecific differences in all of the characters enumerated, the most dramatic being in the position of the genital pore in one species. All 11 specimens recovered from 2 species of Notolabrus were found to have a dextral genital pore. This is the second report of amphitypy in the Opecoelidae. All of the host species, apart from Apogon fasciatus, are endemic to Australian or Australian and New Zealand

  6. The remittances of migrant Tongan and Samoan nurses from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Richard PC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and remittances are of considerable importance in the small Pacific island states. There has been a significant migration of skilled health workers in recent decades to metropolitan fringe states, including Australia and New Zealand. This paper reports the findings of a re-analysis of survey of Samoan and Tongan migrants in Australia where the sample is split between nurse households and others. Methods The study analyzes the survey data with a view to comparing the remittance behaviour and determinants of remittances for nurses and other migrant households, using both descriptive, cross-tabulations and appropriate econometric methods. Results It is found that a significantly higher proportion of nurse households sent remittances home, and, on average remitted more. Remittances of nurse households did not decline significantly over time contrary to what has generally been predicted. This was in contrast to other migrant households in the sample, for whom remittances showed a sharp decline after 15 years absence. Remittances contribute much more to the income of migrant sending countries, than the cost of the additional human capital in nurse training. Conclusions Given the shortage of nurses in Australia and New Zealand, and therefore the high demand for immigrant nurses, investment by Pacific island governments and families in nurse training constitutes a rational use of economic resources. Policies encouraging investment in home countries may be more effective than policies directly discouraging brain drain in contributing to national development.

  7. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.


    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  9. Estimation of heavy metals in little blue heron (Egretta caerulea collected from sepetiba bay, rio de janeiro, brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira


    Full Text Available Samples of liver and kidney of Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea collected on Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analysed for their copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium and nickel content. Mean concentration levels in liver and kidney (μg.g-1 dry weight were 6.32955 and 6.57136 (Cd; 78.17409 and 96.89409 (Zn; 44.01727 and 65.20864 (Cu; 41.15091 and 39.62318 (Pb; 2.80091 and 4.16455 (Cr; and 9.27182 and 9.91091 (Ni, respectively. Results indicate relatively high trace metal contamination in E. caerulea, showing potential widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects at trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.Amostras de fígado e rim de Garça-azul pequena (Egretta caerulea coletadas na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foram analisadas quanto às concentrações-traço de cobre, zinco, cádmio, chumbo, cromo e níquel. Os níveis médios de concentração no fígado e no rim (μg.g-1 de peso seco foram 6,32955 e 6,57136 (Cd; 78,17409 e 96,89409 (Zn; 44,01727 e 65,20864 (Cu; 41,15091 e 39,62318 (Pb; 2,80091 e 4,16455 (Cr e 9,27182 e 9,91091 (Ni, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam contaminação relativamente alta de metais traço em E. caerulea, evidenciando potencial poder de generalização adversa de efeitos biológicos e mutagênicos em níveis tróficos, e, por conseguinte sinalizando risco para a saúde humana.

  10. Breeding success of a colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae in pasturelands of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez


    Full Text Available The breeding success of a double-brooding colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius was studied in pasturelands of Costa Rica. Mean clutch size in the first clutches (2.9 eggs/nest was higher than in second and repeat clutches (2.3 eggs/nest. Breeding success was similar in the first attempt and second attempts(20.7 % and 21.7 %, respectively. In both attempts earlier nests enjoyed a higher breeding success. Starvation of the youngest chicks within the nest and destruction of nests by bad weather conditions were the main factors related to nestling death. No effects of human activity on the reproduction of the breeding colony were observed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1131-1134. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Estudiamos el éxito reproductivo de una colonia del ave Cochlearius cochlearius en una zona ganadera de Costa Rica. El promedio de huevos por nido fue mayor durante el periodo de primeras puestas (2.9 huevos/nido que durante el periodo de segundas puestas y reposiciones (2.3 huevos/nido. El éxito reproductor de los dos periodos fue similar (20.7 % y 21.7 %, respectivamente. En ambos tuvieron más éxito las parejas que comenzaron la puesta antes. Las principales causas de mortandad fueron inanición de los pollos más jóvenes del nido y la destrucción de los nidos debido a condiciones climáticas adversas. No notamos efectos adversos por la actividad humana

  11. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández


    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  12. Australia's marine virtual laboratory (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe


    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  13. Australia: historical earthquake studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCue


    Full Text Available Historical studies of earthquakes in Australia using information dating back to 1788 have been comprehensive, if not exhaustive. Newspapers have been the main source of historical earthquake studies. A brief review is given here with an introduction to the pre-European aboriginal dreamtime information. Some of the anecdotal information of the last two centuries has been compiled as isoseismal maps. Relationships between isoseismal radii and magnitude have been established using post-instrumental data allowing magnitudes to be assigned to the pre-instrumental data, which can then be incorporated into the national earthquake database. The studies have contributed to hazard analyses for the building codes and stimulated research into microzonation and paleo-seismology.

  14. Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose


    Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (, a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE


    Full Text Available This research examines, from a qualitative perspective, some public opinion related to issues associated with the management of a tensed situation. In that process, it identifies some of the subtle differences in the Anglo-Latino cultural expectations. Martin, an Argentine tourist, contracted the Gullien-Barre syndrome in Australia, while enjoying his honeymoon vacation on a Tasmanian island with his partner Carolina. With the passing of days, Martin lost his mobility and was finally hospitalized in emergency. Doctors induced Martin into a coma temporarily because his muscles were paralyzed by the action of the virus. Health costs were more expensive than the family could absorb in Australia. The family had to request the intervention of the Argentine embassy and chancellery for help. In other words, this incident contrasts two world views: hospitality as the institution that historically developed to care and protect travelers versus hospitality as the commercial practice of exploitation.

  16. Blue-winged teals in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)


    Two male blue-winged teals are joined by a female in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The teals inhabit marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, wintering as far south as South America. The 92,000- acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  17. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia. (United States)

    Simmons, G S; Young, P R; Hanger, J J; Jones, K; Clarke, D; McKee, J J; Meers, J


    To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas. Blood or tissue samples from 708 koalas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia were tested for KoRV pol provirus gene using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Prevalence of KoRV provirus-positive koalas was 100% in four regions of Queensland and New South Wales, 72.2% in mainland Victoria, 26.6% on four Victorian islands and 14.8% on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Estimated proviral copy number per cell in four groups of koalas from Queensland and Victoria showed marked variation, ranging from a mean of 165 copies per cell in the Queensland group to 1.29 × 10(-4) copies per cell in one group of Victorian koalas. The higher prevalence of KoRV-positive koalas in the north of Australia and high proviral loads in Queensland koalas may indicate KoRV entered and became endogenous in the north and is spreading southwards. It is also possible there are genetic differences between koalas in northern and southern Australia that affect susceptibility to KoRV infection or endogenisation, or that environmental factors affecting transmission in northern states are absent or uncommon in southern regions. Although further studies are required, the finding of proviral copy numbers orders of magnitude lower than what would be expected for the presence of a single copy in every cell for many Victorian animals suggests that KoRV is not endogenous in these animals and likely reflects ongoing exogenous infection. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh


    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  19. Magnitude 8.1 Earthquake off the Solomon Islands (United States)


    On April 1, 2007, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake rattled the Solomon Islands, 2,145 kilometers (1,330 miles) northeast of Brisbane, Australia. Centered less than ten kilometers beneath the Earth's surface, the earthquake displaced enough water in the ocean above to trigger a small tsunami. Though officials were still assessing damage to remote island communities on April 3, Reuters reported that the earthquake and the tsunami killed an estimated 22 people and left as many as 5,409 homeless. The most serious damage occurred on the island of Gizo, northwest of the earthquake epicenter, where the tsunami damaged the hospital, schools, and hundreds of houses, said Reuters. This image, captured by the Landsat-7 satellite, shows the location of the earthquake epicenter in relation to the nearest islands in the Solomon Island group. Gizo is beyond the left edge of the image, but its triangular fringing coral reefs are shown in the upper left corner. Though dense rain forest hides volcanic features from view, the very shape of the islands testifies to the geologic activity of the region. The circular Kolombangara Island is the tip of a dormant volcano, and other circular volcanic peaks are visible in the image. The image also shows that the Solomon Islands run on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the edge of the Pacific plate, the section of the Earth's crust that carries the Pacific Ocean and its islands. The earthquake occurred along the plate boundary, where the Australia/Woodlark/Solomon Sea plates slide beneath the denser Pacific plate. Friction between the sinking (subducting) plates and the overriding Pacific plate led to the large earthquake on April 1, said the United States Geological Survey (USGS) summary of the earthquake. Large earthquakes are common in the region, though the section of the plate that produced the April 1 earthquake had not caused any quakes of magnitude 7 or larger since the early 20th century, said the USGS.

  20. Hawaiian Island Archipelago (United States)


    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  1. Northwest Australia's Saladin crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.


    High-quality Saladin crude oil from offshore Western Australia has been assayed. The 48.2[degree] API, 0.02 wt % sulfur crude's characteristics--determined in 1990--are presented here for the first time. The estimated 30--40 million bbl field, south of Barrow Island, is produced from two platforms in 58 ft of water in block TP 3. Production began in late 1989 from three platforms with three wells each and from two wells drilled directionally from Thevenard Island. The paper lists data on the following properties: API gravity, density, sulfur content, pour point, flash point, viscosity, salinity, heat of combustion, ash content, asphaltene content, wax content, and metal content for the whole crude and various fractions.

  2. Migration from India to Australia. (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A


    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  3. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model (United States)

    Gould, Peter


    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  4. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander


    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  5. On some Aphyllophorales from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jülich, W.


    A collection of Aphyllophorales from Australia and Tasmania has been studied. Fifteen species have been identified and the following new taxa are described: Amaurohydnum flavidum gen. et spec. nov., Amauromyces pallidus gen. et spec. nov., Hyphoderma cinnamomeum, Lindtneria pellicularis, Resinicium

  6. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)


    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  7. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy


    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  8. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  9. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  10. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P


    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided.

  11. Night Heron Incubation Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  12. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Cornish, Lisa Michelle; Fearnley, Emily; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn


    Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001–2012) and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations. PMID:26393508

  13. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal


    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012 and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  14. Review of Australia's polio surveillance. (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N


    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  15. Shemya Island prehistory (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  16. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  17. Classifying Pacific islands (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.


    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  18. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm in the Solomon Islands. (United States)

    Bradbury, Richard S; Hii, Sze Fui; Harrington, Humpress; Speare, Richard; Traub, Rebecca


    Although hookworm is highly prevalent in the Solomon Islands, the species involved are unknown. We initiated this study in response to finding Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm in a peacekeeper in Australia who had returned from the Solomon Islands. Kato-Katz fecal surveys performed in 2013 and 2014 in 2 village groups in East Malaita, Solomon Islands, identified hookworm-positive samples. These specimens were tested by cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox-1) gene multiplex PCR and sequenced. Of 66 positive specimens, 54 (81.8%) contained only Necator americanus, 11 (16.7%) contained only A. ceylanicum, and 1 (1.5%) contained both species. A. duodenale was not found. Haplotype analysis of cox-1 sequences placed all human isolates (99% bootstrap support) of A. ceylanicum within the zoonotic clade rather than the human-specific clade. This study confirms that A. ceylanicum is endemic in the East Malaita region of this Pacific Island nation. The strain of the A. ceylanicum in this region can be shared among humans, dogs, and cats.

  19. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.


    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole


    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  1. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.


    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  2. Abundance, breeding and food of the Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea (Aves, Ardeidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary, a recently colonized area in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Gianuca


    Full Text Available We document the expansion of the breeding distribution of the Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758 to 850 km beyond its previous southern limit in South America. In addition we present data on abundance, breeding biology and food of the species in the Patos Lagoon estuary, the area which the species recently colonized. The maximum abundance recorded in the breeding colony and in a nocturnal roosting site was 53 and 49 individuals respectively. Nesting occurred from September to March. Birds nested in a mixed breeding colony together with about 3,000 breeding pairs of seven other species of Pelecaniformes, in a swampy forest near the margin of the estuary. Five nests were between 1.5 and 4.3 m from the ground, on the shrub Daphnopsis racemosa (Thymelaeaceae, on the trees Sebastiana brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae and Mimosa bimucronata (Leguminosae, or on the bamboo Bambusa sp. (Poaceae. Four nests produced two fledglings each, while one nest was abandoned. Of 13 grouped samples of food regurgitated by five nestlings, Pink Shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Perez-Farfante, 1967 constituted 70% in mass, while total length of ingested fishes and shrimps varied mostly between 20 and 50 mm. Estuarine prey items represented 99% of the total food mass. The recent southward expansion of the breeding range of the Little Blue Heron in South America may be a response to climate warming of the Patos Lagoon estuary. Degradation of estuaries in the southwestern Atlantic may also be forcing the birds to breed in areas outside previous geographical range.

  3. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski


    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  4. Using DNA Barcoding and Standardized Sampling to Compare Geographic and Habitat Differentiation of Crustaceans: A Hawaiian Islands Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julian Caley


    Full Text Available Recently, the Census of Marine Life has explored methods to assess coral reef diversity by combining standardized sampling (to permit comparison across sites with molecular techniques (to make rapid counts of species possible. To date, this approach has been applied across geographically broad scales (seven sites spanning the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, focusing on similar habitats at all sites (10–12 m forereef. Here we examine crustacean spatial diversity patterns for a single atoll, comparing results for four sites (comprising forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats at French Frigate Shoals (FFS, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA, within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The Bray-Curtis index of similarity across these habitats at FFS was the same or greater than the similarity between similar habitats on Heron Island and Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef and much greater than similarity between more widely separated localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean (e.g., Ningaloo, Moorea, French Polynesia or the Line Islands. These results imply that, at least for shallow reefs, sampling multiple locations versus sampling multiple habitats within a site maximizes the rate at which we can converge on the best global estimate of coral reef biodiversity.

  5. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay


    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  6. Zero-tolerance biosecurity protects high-conservation-value island nature reserve. (United States)

    Scott, John K; McKirdy, Simon J; van der Merwe, Johann; Green, Roy; Burbidge, Andrew A; Pickles, Greg; Hardie, Darryl C; Morris, Keith; Kendrick, Peter G; Thomas, Melissa L; Horton, Kristin L; O'Connor, Simon M; Downs, Justin; Stoklosa, Richard; Lagdon, Russell; Marks, Barbara; Nairn, Malcolm; Mengersen, Kerrie


    Barrow Island, north-west coast of Australia, is one of the world's significant conservation areas, harboring marsupials that have become extinct or threatened on mainland Australia as well as a rich diversity of plants and animals, some endemic. Access to construct a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant, Australia's largest infrastructure development, on the island was conditional on no non-indigenous species (NIS) becoming established. We developed a comprehensive biosecurity system to protect the island's biodiversity. From 2009 to 2015 more than 0.5 million passengers and 12.2 million tonnes of freight were transported to the island under the biosecurity system, requiring 1.5 million hrs of inspections. No establishments of NIS were detected. We made four observations that will assist development of biosecurity systems. Firstly, the frequency of detections of organisms corresponded best to a mixture log-normal distribution including the high number of zero inspections and extreme values involving rare incursions. Secondly, comprehensive knowledge of the island's biota allowed estimation of false positive detections (62% native species). Thirdly, detections at the border did not predict incursions on the island. Fourthly, the workforce detected more than half post-border incursions (59%). Similar approaches can and should be implemented for all areas of significant conservation value.

  7. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia. (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A


    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  8. A New Leanchoiliid Megacheiran Arthropod from the Lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale, South Australia


    Edgecombe, Gregory D; Diego C. García-Bellido; Paterson, John R


    The Leanchoiliidae is well-known from abundant material of Leanchoilia, from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang Konservat-Lagerstätten. The first Australian member of the group is Oestokerkus megacholix gen. et sp. nov., described from the Emu Bay Shale (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4), at Buck Quarry, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, and is intermediate in age between the well known leanchoiliid species from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang. Phylogenetic analysis of “short great appendage” arthro...

  9. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia


    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark


    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find a...

  10. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia


    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark


    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find a...

  11. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today (United States)

    Cox, Robyn


    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  12. Serious Incident Management in Australia (United States)

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara


    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  13. Rural Adult Education in Australia. (United States)

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  14. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse


    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…

  15. Governing International Education in Australia (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder


    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  16. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 eastern margin of the Australia plate (United States)

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan


    The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most seismically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3,000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand. Since 1900, there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke's Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults' strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

  17. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  18. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  19. Electrochemical island growth (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  20. Surveillance of Space in Australia (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  1. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne


    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  2. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne


    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  3. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver


    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  4. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia. (United States)

    March, Lynette M; Bagga, Hanish


    Arthritis affects around 3 million people in Australia, representing about 15% of the population. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Osteoarthritis is the third leading cause of life-years lost due to disability. Obesity and joint injury are important potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Obesity is also an important predictor of progression of osteoarthritis. Currently, about 19000 hip and 20000 knee replacements are performed for osteoarthritis in Australia each year. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and the need for total joint replacement surgery are likely to increase because of a combination of increasing risk factors (age, obesity, injury), increasing expectations for improved quality of life, and improved surgical and anaesthetic techniques making surgery possible for more people. Services to provide these cost-effective procedures need to be increased. Primary and secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing obesity, preventing injury and improving rehabilitation and physical activity are urgently required.

  5. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  6. Modelling Australia's Retail Mortgage Rate


    Abbas Valadkhani; Sajid Anwar


    There is an ongoing controversy over whether banks’ mortgage rates rise more readily than they fall due to their asymmetric responses to changes in the cash rate. This paper examines the dynamic interplay between the cash rate and the variable mortgage rate using monthly data in the post-1989 era. Unlike previous studies for Australia, our proposed threshold and asymmetric error-correction models account for both the amount and adjustment asymmetries. We found thatrate rises have much larger ...

  7. An island of compassion. (United States)

    Brumley, David


    This narrative describes the experience of a palliative care physician from Australia visiting the palliative care service at a cancer hospital in India. The place of compassion in an environment of limited resources is discussed.

  8. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David


    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  9. Ecological specialization to fluctuating resources prevents long-distance migratory raptors from becoming sedentary on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora's falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora's falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: New data reveal that Eleonora's falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change.

  10. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, J.


    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  11. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011. (United States)

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul


    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given the

  12. Probabilistic estimation of dune retreat on the Gold Coast, Australia (United States)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.


    Sand dunes are an important natural buffer between storm impacts and development backing the beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. The ability to forecast dune erosion at a prediction horizon of days to a week would allow efficient and timely response to dune erosion in this highly populated area. Towards this goal, we modified an existing probabilistic dune erosion model for use on the Gold Coast. The original model was trained using observations of dune response from Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, USA (Plant and Stockdon 2012. Probabilistic prediction of barrier-island response to hurricanes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(F3), F03015). The model relates dune position change to pre-storm dune elevations, dune widths, and beach widths, along with storm surge and run-up using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian approach captures the uncertainty of inputs and predictions through the conditional probabilities between variables. Three versions of the barrier island response Bayesian network were tested for use on the Gold Coast. One network has the same structure as the original and was trained with the Santa Rosa Island data. The second network has a modified design and was trained using only pre- and post-storm data from 1988-2009 for the Gold Coast. The third version of the network has the same design as the second version of the network and was trained with the combined data from the Gold Coast and Santa Rosa Island. The two networks modified for use on the Gold Coast hindcast dune retreat with equal accuracy. Both networks explained 60% of the observed dune retreat variance, which is comparable to the skill observed by Plant and Stockdon (2012) in the initial Bayesian network application at Santa Rosa Island. The new networks improved predictions relative to application of the original network on the Gold Coast. Dune width was the most important morphologic variable in hindcasting dune retreat, while hydrodynamic variables, surge and

  13. St. Vincent Island Tour (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  14. Marine and Island Ecology. (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others


    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…


    Friman, Patrick C


    At last, the field of applied behavior analysis has a beautifully crafted, true textbook that can proudly stand cover to cover and spine to spine beside any of the expensive, imposing, and ornately designed textbooks used by college instructors who teach courses in conventional areas of education or psychology. In this review, I fully laud this development, credit Cooper, Heron, and Heward for making it happen, argue that it signifies a checkered flag for students and professors, and recommend the book for classes in applied behavior analysis everywhere. Subsequently, I review its chapters, each of which could easily stand alone as publications in their own right. Finally, I supply a cautionary note, a yellow flag to accompany the well-earned checkered flag, by pointing out that, as is true with all general textbooks on applied behavior analysis, a major portion of the references involves research on persons who occupy only a tail of the normal distribution. To attain the mainstream role Skinner envisioned and most (if not all) behavior analysts desire, the field will have to increase its focus on persons who reside under the dome of that distribution.

  16. Channel response to a new hydrological regime in southwestern Australia (United States)

    Callow, J. N.; Smettem, K. R. J.


    The Kent River flows from semi-arid headwaters in the agricultural (wheatbelt) region of Western Australia to a wetter and forested lower-catchment. It is set in an atypical fluvial environment, with rainfall decreasing inland towards a low-relief upper catchment. Replacement of native deep-rooted perennial vegetation with shallow-rooted seasonal crops has altered the hydrology of the upper catchment. Clearing for agriculture has also increased recharge of regional groundwater systems causing groundwater to rise and mobilise salt stores. This has increased stream salinity which has degradation riparian vegetation and decreased flow resistance. Elevated groundwater has also affected streamflow, increasing flow duration and annual discharge. The altered hydrological regime has affected geomorphic stability, resulting in channel responses that include incision and removal of uncohesive material. Channel response is variable, showing a high dependence on channel morphotype, channel boundary material and severity of salinity (degree of vegetation degradation). Response in confined reaches bounded by sandy material has been characterised by minor lateral bank erosion. In the fine-grained, wider, low-gradient reaches, mid-channel islands have been stripped of sandy sediment where vegetation has degraded. Following an initial period of high erosion rates in these reaches, the channel is now slowly adjusting to a new set of boundary conditions. The variable response has significant implications for management of salt affected rivers in southwestern Australia.

  17. Men's health and communities of practice in Australia. (United States)

    Henwood, Maree; Shaw, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy; Marjoribanks, Timothy; Kendrick, Madeleine


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the social opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men created through Men's Groups/Sheds across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. Men's Sheds are a safe space, resembling a work-shop setting or backyard shed, where men are encouraged to socialise and participate in health promotion, informal learning and engage in meaningful tasks both individually and at the community level. Design/methodology/approach Explore five case study sites through Wenger's (1998) active communities of practice (CoP). Qualitative methods are presented and analysed; methods comprise semi-structured interviews and yarning circles (focus groups). Five Indigenous leaders/coordinators participated in semi-structured interviews, as well as five yarning circles with a total of 61 Indigenous men. Findings In a societal context in which Indigenous men in Australia experience a number of social and health issues, impeding their quality of life and future opportunities, the central finding of the paper is that the effective development of social relations and socially designed programs through Men's Groups, operating as CoP, may contribute to overcoming many social and health well-being concerns. Originality/value Contributions will provide a better understanding of how Indigenous men are engaging with Men's Sheds, and through those interactions, are learning new skills and contributing to social change.

  18. Zooplankton responses to increasing sea surface temperatures in the southeastern Australia global marine hotspot (United States)

    Kelly, Paige; Clementson, Lesley; Davies, Claire; Corney, Stuart; Swadling, Kerrie


    Southeastern Australia is a 'hotspot' for oceanographic change. Here, rapidly increasing sea surface temperatures, rising at more than double the global trend, are largely associated with a southerly extension of the East Australian Current (EAC) and its eddy field. Maria Island, situated at the southern end of the EAC extension at 42°S, 148°E, has been used as a site to study temperature-driven biological trends in this region of accelerated change. Zooplankton have short life cycles (usually biological effects of an increased southward flow of the EAC. Data from in-situ net drops and the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR), collected since 2009, together with historical zooplankton abundance data, have been analysed in this study. Like the North Atlantic, zooplankton communities of southeastern Australia are responding to increased temperatures through relocation, long-term increases in warm-water species and a shift towards a zooplankton community dominated by small copepods. The biological trends present evidence of extended EAC influence at Maria Island into autumn and winter months, which has allowed for the rapid establishment of warm-water species during these seasons, and has increased the similarity between Maria Island and the more northerly Port Hacking zooplankton community. Generalised Linear Models (GLM) suggest the high salinity and low nutrient properties of EAC-water to be the primary drivers of increasing abundances of warm-water species off southeastern Australia. Changes in both the species composition and size distribution of the Maria Island zooplankton community will have effects for pelagic fisheries. This study provides an indication of how zooplankton communities influenced by intensifying Western Boundary currents may respond to rapid environmental change.

  19. Immigration and unemployment in Australia. (United States)

    Tsokhas, K


    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  20. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation (United States)


    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  1. Australia. (United States)

    Penn, Ray


    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  2. Databases of the people aboard the VOC ships Batavia & Zeewijk – An analysis of the potential for finding the Dutch castaways’ human remains in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.


    General Introduction The reefs surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos in Western Australia were a notorious hazard to shipping in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (fig. 1). The Dutch East India Company (VOC) made sure to mark this island group on its maps and skippers had strict instructions to a

  3. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations. (United States)

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S


    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  4. Editorial : islands : objects of representation


    Baldacchino, Godfrey


    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  5. Telemedicine in the Solomon Islands: 2006 to 2009. (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra; Negin, Joel; Hersch, Fred; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Jagilli, Rooney; Houasia, Patrick; Gorringe, Lilijana; Christie, Annie


    Telemedicine has been used in the Solomon Islands since 2000. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine telemedicine use in the Solomon Islands from January 2006 to June 2009. During the study period 66 telemedicine cases were submitted to the store and forward telemedicine system being used there. These included orthopaedic, oncology, cardiothoracic, infectious, congenital, gastroenterology and dermatology cases. Most cases (52%) were submitted by doctors at the National Referral Hospital (NRH) in Honiara. The majority of responses came from the NRH (27%). A final, firm recommendation regarding patient diagnosis and/or care was given for 46% of the cases. Interviews were conducted with 23 stakeholders in the Solomon Islands and in Australia to better understand the current and future use of telemedicine. The interviews identified the fragility of the Solomon Islands infrastructure, including the lack of training, as the largest barrier to the future use of telemedicine. The best use of telemedicine appears to be case sharing within the Solomon Islands, with connections to clinicians in other countries as a secondary benefit when particular expertise is required.

  6. Drought variability in the eastern Australia and New Zealand summer drought atlas (ANZDA, CE 1500-2012) modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cook, Edward R.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Allen, Kathy; Fenwick, Pavla; Cook, Benjamin I.; O'Donnell, Alison; Lough, Janice; Grierson, Pauline; Baker, Patrick


    Agricultural production across eastern Australia and New Zealand is highly vulnerable to drought, but there is a dearth of observational drought information prior to CE 1850. Using a comprehensive network of 176 drought-sensitive tree-ring chronologies and one coral series, we report the first Southern Hemisphere gridded drought atlas extending back to CE 1500. The austral summer (December-February) Palmer drought sensitivity index reconstruction accurately reproduces historically documented drought events associated with the first European settlement of Australia in CE 1788, and the leading principal component explains over 50% of the underlying variance. This leading mode of variability is strongly related to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation tripole index (IPO), with a strong and robust antiphase correlation between (1) eastern Australia and the New Zealand North Island and (2) the South Island. Reported positive, negative, and neutral phases of the IPO are consistently reconstructed by the drought atlas although the relationship since CE 1976 appears to have weakened.

  7. Myristica lancifolia Poiret (Myristicaceae) new to Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessup, L.W.; Wilde, de W.J.J.O.


    Material of a Myristica recently collected in the Northern Territory of Australia appeared to belong to M. lancifolia Poiret, a species known from the Moluccas, not previously recorded for Australia. It is described as a new subspecies, M. lancifolia Poiret subsp. australiana Jessup & de Wilde, and

  8. Policy and Indigenous Languages in Australia (United States)

    McKay, Graham


    The use of Indigenous languages has been declining over the period of non-Aboriginal settlement in Australia as a result of repressive policies, both explicit and implicit. The National Policy on Languages (Lo Bianco, 1987) was the high point of language policy in Australia, given its national scope and status and its attempt to encompass all…

  9. Skilled Migration: Australia. Working Paper No. 63 (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald


    Migration patterns to and from Australia are becoming complex with migration programmes increasingly targeted towards meeting the needs of the labour market and regional development. This paper provides an analysis of the permanent and temporary movements of people to and from Australia in the last three years and their impact on the skilled…

  10. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond


    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  11. Heat Island Compendium (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  12. Nunivak Island muskox studies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  13. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific) (United States)


    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  14. Plutonium and uranium contamination in soils from former nuclear weapon test sites in Australia (United States)

    Child, D. P.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.


    The British government performed a number of nuclear weapon tests on Australian territory from 1952 through to 1963 with the cooperation of the Australian government. Nine fission bombs were detonated in South Australia at Emu Junction and Maralinga, and a further three fission weapons were detonated in the Monte Bello Islands off the coast of Western Australia. A number of soil samples were collected by the Australian Radiation Laboratories in 1972 and 1978 during field surveys at these nuclear weapon test sites. They were analysed by gamma spectrometry and, for a select few samples, by alpha spectrometry to measure the remaining activities of fission products, activation products and weapon materials. We have remeasured a number of these Montebello Islands and Emu Junction soil samples using the ANTARES AMS facility, ANSTO. These samples were analysed for plutonium and uranium isotopic ratios and isotopic concentrations. Very low 240Pu/239Pu ratios were measured at both sites (∼0.05 for Alpha Island and ∼0.02 for Emu Field), substantially below global fallout averages. Well correlated but widely varying 236U and plutonium concentrations were measured across both sites, but 233U did not correlate with these other isotopes and instead showed correlation with distance from ground zero, indicating in situ production in the soils.

  15. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments between Indonesia and NW Australia - source and transport by ocean currents


    F. X. Gingele; P. De Deckker; Hillenbrand, C. -D.


    The clay mineral distribution in sediments between Indonesia and NW Australia has been assessed on the basis of 166 core-top samples. Clay mineral assemblages are closely related to the geology and weathering regime of the adjacent hinterland and allow the distinction of four clay mineral provinces. Three provinces, Western, Central and Eastern Province are situated along the Indonesian Islands Arc, from Sumatra in the west to Timor in the east. Illite is the major clay mineral of the Western...

  16. Holding back the tiger: Successful control program protects Australia from Aedes albopictus expansion (United States)

    Devine, Gregor; Davis, Joseph; Crunkhorn, Bruce; van den Hurk, Andrew; Whelan, Peter; Russell, Richard; Walker, James; Horne, Peter; Ehlers, Gerhard; Ritchie, Scott


    Background The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses and is a highly invasive and aggressive biter. Established populations of this species were first recognised in Australia in 2005 when they were discovered on islands in the Torres Strait, between mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea. A control program was implemented with the original goal of eliminating Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait. We describe the evolution of management strategies that provide a template for Ae. albopictus control that can be adopted elsewhere. Methodology / Principal findings The control strategy implemented between 2005 and 2008 targeted larval habitats using source reduction, insect-growth regulator and pyrethroid insecticide to control larvae and adults in the containers. However, the infrequency of insecticide reapplication, the continual accumulation and replacement of containers, and imminent re-introduction of mosquitoes through people’s movement from elsewhere compromised the program. Consequently, in 2009 the objective of the program changed from elimination to quarantine, with the goal of preventing Ae albopictus from infesting Thursday and Horn islands, which are the transport hubs connecting the Torres Strait to mainland Australia. However, larval control strategies did not prevent the species establishing on these islands in 2010. Thereafter, an additional strategy adopted by the quarantine program in early 2011 was harborage spraying, whereby the vegetated, well shaded resting sites of adult Ae. albopictus were treated with a residual pyrethroid insecticide. Inclusion of this additional measure led to a 97% decline in Ae. albopictus numbers within two years. In addition, the frequency of container treatment was increased to five weeks between treatments, compared to an average of 8 weeks that occurred in the earlier iterations of the program. By 2015 and 2016, Ae. albopictus populations on the two

  17. Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Trawley, Steven; Hendrieckx, Christel


    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also...... at increased risk of psychological distress. A better understanding of the motivators, behaviours and psychological well-being of young people with diabetes and their parents will inform improvement of resources for supporting self-management and reducing the burden of diabetes. The Diabetes MILES (Management...... and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Youth-Australia Study is the first large-scale, national survey of the impact of diabetes on the psychosocial outcomes of Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS/DESIGN: The survey was web-based to enable a large-scale, national...

  18. Royal Commissions into Policing: Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Beckley


    Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.

  19. Ultrawide-field fundus photography of the first reported case of gyrate atrophy from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloney TP


    Full Text Available Thomas P Moloney,1 Stephen O’Hagan,1 Lawrence Lee2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, QLD, Australia; 2City Eye Centre, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare chorioretinal dystrophy inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We describe the first documented case of gyrate atrophy from Australia in a 56-year-old woman with a history of previous diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and worsening night vision in her right eye over several years. She was myopic and bilaterally pseudophakic, and fundus examination revealed pale optic discs and extensive peripheral chorioretinal atrophy exposing bare sclera bilaterally with only small islands of normal-appearing retina at each posterior pole. Visual field testing showed grossly constricted fields, blood testing showed hyperornithinemia, and further questioning revealed consanguinity between the patient’s parents. We then used the patient’s typical retinal findings of gyrate atrophy to demonstrate the potential use of ultrawide-field fundus photography and angiography in diagnosis and monitoring response in future treatment. Keywords: gyrate atrophy, ultrawide-field retinal photography, angiography, retinal photography, hyperornithinemia

  20. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia. (United States)

    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark


    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find an ancient association between Australia, New Guinea, and the Mamanwa (a Negrito group from the Philippines), with divergence times for these groups estimated at 36,000 y ago, and supporting the view that these populations represent the descendants of an early "southern route" migration out of Africa, whereas other populations in the region arrived later by a separate dispersal. We also detect a signal indicative of substantial gene flow between the Indian populations and Australia well before European contact, contrary to the prevailing view that there was no contact between Australia and the rest of the world. We estimate this gene flow to have occurred during the Holocene, 4,230 y ago. This is also approximately when changes in tool technology, food processing, and the dingo appear in the Australian archaeological record, suggesting that these may be related to the migration from India.

  1. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students (United States)

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo


    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  2. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference (United States)

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva


    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  3. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speight, Jane; Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth


    . Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database. An online...... in metropolitan areas. DISCUSSION: A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin). Diabetes MILES--Australia represents a major achievement in the study of diabetes...... in Australia, where for the first time, the focus is on psychosocial and behavioural aspects of this condition at a national level....

  4. Fifty years of immunisation in Australia (1964-2014): the increasing opportunity to prevent diseases. (United States)

    Royle, Jenny; Lambert, Stephen B


    Medicine has seen dramatic changes in the last 50 years, and vaccinology is no different. Australia has made a significant contribution to world knowledge on vaccine-preventable diseases. Certain deadly diseases have disappeared or become rare in Australia following successful introduction of vaccines. As diseases become rarer, public knowledge about the diseases and their serious consequences has decreased, and concerns about potential vaccine side effects have increased. To maintain confidence in immunisations, sharing of detailed information about the vaccines and the diseases we are trying to prevent is integral to the continued success of our public health programme. Modern quality immunisation programmes need to communicate complex information to immunisation providers and also to the general community. Improving immunisation coverage rates and eliminating the gap in coverage and timeliness between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous people has become a high priority.

  5. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.


    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  6. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieshout, P. van [DesignPower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)


    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  7. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines


    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.


    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  8. Mesozoic/Cenozoic tectonic events around Australia (United States)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Gaina, Carmen; Tikku, Anahita; Mihut, Dona; Cande, Steven C.; Stock, Joann M.

    We use an absolute and relative plate motion model for the plates around Australia to identify major plate tectonic events, evaluate their causes, and investigate their effects on anomalous intraplate subsidence or uplift and on the history of oceanic crustal accretion. An event at ˜136 Ma is marked by the onset of sea floor spreading between Greater India and Australia. At about this time long-lived subduction east of Australia ceased, probably due to subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge, changing this plate boundary to a transform margin. Between 130 and 80 Ma, Australia and East Antarctica moved eastward in the Atlantic-Indian mantle hotspot reference frame. This can be plausibly linked to ridge push from the NW-SE oriented spreading center NW of Australia and to the inferred geometry and continued subduction of the Phoenix plate beneath the West Antarctic margin. A drastic change in spreading direction between the Indian and Australian plates from NE-SW to N-S occurred at about 99 Ma, possibly caused by a change in absolute motion of the Pacific Plate. Chron 27 (˜61 Ma) marks the onset of relative motion between East and West Antarctica, and a change in the relative motion between Australia and Antarctica. It may be linked to the subduction of a segment of the Neo-Tethyan Ridge. Both events caused anomalous subsidence on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. The almost stationary position of Australia w.r.t. the mantle from ˜80 Ma to ˜40 Ma may reflect the progressive subduction of the Pacific-Phoenix ridge to the east of New Zealand preceding 80 Ma, resulting in a diminished trench suction force east of Australia. Preliminary reconstructions to close the Pacific-Australian plate circuit based on recently collected geophysical data indicate that a tectonic event at 43 Ma may mark the onset of renewed subduction east of Australia. At the same time spreading in the Wharton Basin between India and Australia ceased, and tectonic reactivation is

  9. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  10. Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae is native to Australia, not New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mesibov


    Full Text Available Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895 is partly redescribed and illustrated. Its native range is shown to be in the cool-climate uplands of New South Wales, Australia. H. luxuriosa was originally labelled as collected by L.M. D’Albertis at Sorong in New Guinea. D’Albertis collected on Sorong Island in 1872 and spent the following year in Sydney, New South Wales, before returning to Europe with his New Guinea specimens. It is possible that D’Albertis himself collected H. luxuriosa in 1873, and that the mislabelling occurred later.

  11. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  12. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar


    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  13. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  14. A white pelican and egrets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)


    A white pelican and several small egrets rest on the bank of a pond in in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The range of the egret includes southern and eastern states, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  15. A white pelican and egrets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)


    A white pelican and several small egrets rest on the bank of a pond in in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The range of the egret includes southern and eastern states, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)


    A Black-necked Stilt sits on its nest in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. They usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  17. Gallinules in the waters of KSC-Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)


    A mother gallinule (right) calls her two chicks to enter the algae-covered water in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Gallinules, called Moorhens in the Old World, are duck-like swimming birds that constantly bob their heads while moving. They are identified by the prominent red bill with yellow tip and red frontal shield as well as white feathers under the tail, as shown here on the mother. Gallinules range throughout the Americas, from southern Canada to southern South America, inhabiting freshwater marshes and ponds with cattails and other aquatic vegetation. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. Takarajima: A Treasured Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward


    Full Text Available This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology’s interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific ‘treasure hunting’.

  20. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence (United States)



    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  1. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert


    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  2. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  3. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.


    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  4. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts? (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.


    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  5. Climate change and wind power in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millais, C. [Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Sydney (Australia)


    The article represents a stern criticism of Australia's attitude to climate change. Its climate change policy is described as 'Neanderthal'. The Australian government is said to be strongly opposed to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Government's policy appears to be driven by vested interests in fossil fuels. A list of eight flaws in Australia's 2% renewables target is given; the target is said to be far too small for a country with so much renewables potential. However, investment in the country's enormous wind power potential is increasing and targets are given; six reasons why Australia needs to invest in wind power are given. It is suggested that by the end of this decade, 10% of Australia's electricity could come from wind power - a web site address giving further details is given.

  6. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie


    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  7. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia


    John van Kooy


    The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  8. Refugee women as entrepreneurs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van Kooy


    Full Text Available The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that ‘entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

  9. The Goethe Institute with Implications for Australia (United States)

    Garrick, Natalie


    The work of the Goethe Institute in teaching German to foreigners and in fostering interest in German culture is described. The desirability of a change in attitude in Australia toward foreign language study is discussed. (RM)

  10. Some Future Challenges for Languages in Australia. (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.


    Considers the future challenges for languages in Australia. Discusses the place of language in policy, the place of languages in the curriculum, the role of professional associations, and redeveloping a constituency for languages. (Author/VWL)

  11. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  12. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  13. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future. (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka


    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  14. Clean energy scenarios for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, H. [Energy Strategies Pty Ltd., Manuka (Australia); Diesendorf, M. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Institute of Environmental Studies; Denniss, R. [Parliament House, Canberra (Australia). Office of Senator Bob Brown


    Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a 'fossil-fuel dependent' country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting and backcasting methods, under conditions of continuing economic growth and a restriction to the use of existing commercial technologies with small improvements. The principal scenario achieves the above target by implementing on the demand-side a medium-level of efficient energy use and substantial solar hot water together with a supply side combination of mainly natural gas, bioenergy and wind power. In doing so the scenario also achieves a 78% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity. Within the large uncertainties in future prices, it is possible that the economic savings from efficient energy use could pay for all or a large part of the additional costs of renewable energy. (author)

  15. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  16. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  17. Return migration from Australia: a case study. (United States)

    Lukomskyj, O; Richards, P


    "The study investigates the departure from Australia of former settlers who arrived during the 1980 calendar year. The 1980 settler arrival cohort [consists] of 75,167 visaed migrants.... The study has three main aims: (i) to analyse departures from Australia of the 1980 settler arrival cohort with a view to gauging the success of Australia's immigration program in retaining settlers; (ii) to examine the retention rates of settlers with respect to characteristics...including age, sex, marital status, country of last residence, and settler eligibility category; and (iii) to consider implications of the findings." Australia's present immigration policy is discussed, previous research on return migration from Australia is summarized, and a detailed analysis of the departure data is presented. "This study found that by August 1984, 12.4 per cent of non-refugee settlers who arrived in Australia during 1980 had departed permanently but that only 0.6 per cent of the 1980 refugee cohort had done so." These figures represent a decline in immigrant departure rates since the 1960s and early 1970s. Small differences in departure rates by place of birth, age, and marital status, which may have demographic consequences if sustained over time, are noted. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  18. Two new subspecies of the leaf-tailed gecko Phyllurus ossa (Lacertilia: Carphodactylidae) from mid-eastern Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Couper, Patrick; Hoskin, Conrad J


    Following the discovery of a new population of Phyllurus ossa on Whitsunday Island in the Cumberland Island Group, eastern Queensland, we conducted both genetic and morphological analyses to assess differences between all known populations. The analyses revealed three genetically distinct, morphologically diagnosable, geographical units. The differences are such that we recognise these as subspecies: Phyllurus ossa ossa restricted to the Mt Ossa/Mt Pelion/ Mt Charlton/ St Helens Gap area; P. ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. on Mt Dryander and in the Conway Range and P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov. currently only known from Whitsunday Island. There are now 11 recognised taxa in Phyllurus. The three P. ossa subspecies are narrowly distributed and closely associated with exposed rock in low to mid-elevation vine forests. Their current distributions are shaped by past climate change that progressively contracted and fragmented the distribution of rainforests in eastern Australia. The recognition of these subspecies has land management/conservation implications.

  19. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan... (United States)


    ... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson County Central Library, Lopez Island Public Library, North Olympic Public Library, Oak Harbor Public...

  20. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  1. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour


    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  2. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island (United States)

    Levinson, Steven


    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  3. The Flores Island tsunamis (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  4. Fire regimes and vegetation change in tropical northern Australia during the late-Holocene (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lydia; Moss, Patrick; Ulm, Sean; Sloss, Craig; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine


    This study explores the impact of human occupation and abandonment on fire regimes and vegetation communities in the South Wellesley Islands, Gulf of Carpentaria, tropical northern Australia, using charcoal and pollen analysis from four sediment records. Pollen analysis from wetland sediments reveal vegetation succession from mangrove communities to hypersaline mudflats and open woodlands occurred during the late-Holocene. Aquatic species replaced salt tolerant species as the prograding shoreline and dune development formed the Marralda wetlands by 800 cal a BP on the south east coast of Bentinck Island. Wetlands developed on the north and west coast by 500 and 450 cal a BP, respectively. The timing of wetland initiation indicates localised late-Holocene sea level regression, stabilisation and coastal plain development in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Wetland initiation encouraged permanent human occupation of the South Wellesley archipelago, with ongoing archaeological research finding permanent occupation in the last 1500 years, followed by a significant increase in sites from 700 years ago, which peaks over the last 300 years. Macro-charcoal (>125μm) accumulation rates provide a record of fire intensity and frequency across the Island. Both local and regional fire events increase in the last 700 years as traditional owners occupied the Island, with local fires occurring every 104 and 74 years on average (N= 4 and 5 respectively). In the 1950's traditional Indigenous Kaiadilt fire management practices ceased, with the frequency and peak magnitude of fire events significantly increasing and vegetation communities becoming more open. The South Wellesley Islands were unoccupied until the 1980's and were not influenced by European occupation. This study of an Island ecosystem during the late-Holocene provides insight into the effect of human presence and fire regimes on vegetation composition and distribution in a fire resilient environment.

  5. A Bayesian rupture model of the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake in Southwest Pacific with coral reef displacement measurements (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Luo, Haipeng; Furlong, Kevin P.


    On 1st April 2007 a Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake occurred in the western Solomon Islands of the Southwest Pacific and generated a regional tsunami with run-up heights of up to 12 m. A Bayesian inversion model is constructed to derive fault dip angle and cumulative co-seismic and early post-seismic slip using coral reef displacement measurements, in which both data misfit and moment magnitude are used as constraints. Results show three shallow, high-slip patches concentrated along the trench from west of Ranongga Island to Rendova Island on a fault plane dipping 20°, and a maximum dip slip of 11.6 m beneath Ranongga Island. Considerable subsidence on Simbo Island outboard of the trench on the subducting plate is not well explained with this model, but may be related to the effects of afterslip and/or Simbo Island's location near the triple junction among the Australia, Woodlark and Pacific plates.

  6. Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. (United States)

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Meek, Paul D; Johnson, Rebecca N


    The taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family Soricidae recorded from Australia. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the Asian gray or long-tailed shrew (C. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast Asian white-toothed shrew (C. fuliginosa). The Christmas Island shrew is currently listed as endangered and has not been recorded in the wild since 1984-1985, when 2 specimens were collected after an 80-year absence. We aimed to obtain DNA sequence data for cytochrome b (cytb) from Christmas Island shrew museum specimens to determine their taxonomic affinities and to confirm the identity of the 1980s specimens. The Cytb sequences from 5, 1898 specimens and a 1985 specimen were identical. In addition, the Christmas Island shrew cytb sequence was divergent at the species level from all available Crocidura cytb sequences. Rather than a population of a widespread species, current evidence suggests the Christmas Island shrew is a critically endangered endemic species, C. trichura, and a high priority for conservation. As the decisions typically required to save declining species can be delayed or deferred if the taxonomic status of the population in question is uncertain, it is hoped that the history of the Christmas Island shrew will encourage the clarification of taxonomy to be seen as an important first step in initiating informed and effective conservation action.

  7. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R


    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed.

  8. New record of the genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916 (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from Hainan Island, China (United States)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng


    The monotypic genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916, which was established based on material from the Indian Ocean and previously only known from the type localities, Australia and Japan, is now newly recorded from the South China Sea. A detailed description of Phycocaris simulans Kemp, 1916 based on the specimen collected from Hainan Island is presented. Specific features and the differences between the Indian Ocean and the present material are described.

  9. Paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia. (United States)

    Er, Jeremy; Wallis, Peter; Maloney, Samuel; Norton, Robert


    Bacteraemias in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of local epidemiology and trends is important to inform practitioners of likely pathogens in the sick child. This study aimed to determine trends over time in pathogenic organisms causing paediatric bacteraemia in North Queensland and to audit a hospital's blood culture results with respect to contamination rate. This was a retrospective review of 8385 blood cultures collected from children attending a tertiary centre in North Queensland over a 10-year period (2001-2010). There were 696 positive blood cultures (8.3%) with 70 different bacterial species detected. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 48.6% and 51.4% of isolates, respectively. Overall, bacteraemia accounted for 4.7 per 1000 admissions. The rate of contamination was 60.6% among positive blood cultures and 5.0% for all blood cultures sampled. These results were compared with previous published reports. Notable differences were seen in the frequencies of Salmonella and group A Streptococcus bacteraemias in North Queensland when compared with other reports. There was also a decline in vaccine-preventable infections such as S. pneumoniae and an increasing trend of community-acquired MRSA bacteraemia. This study has demonstrated the unique profile of causative pathogens of paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia. In light of the increasing prevalence of MRSA, empiric treatment for sepsis for children in this region needs to be reconsidered. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  11. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census. (United States)

    Hayes, G R


    This paper presents some of the background behind the installation and use of a microcomputer for census processing and briefly reviews the results of the 1981 census in the light of the Cook Islands' special demographic situation. Since independence from New Zealand in 1965, the Cook Islands has gradually developed a capacity for statistics gathering in general and census taking in particular. The 1981 quinquennial census represents a watershed in the development of local personnel without the aid of external advisors; it was the 1st census to be processed within the Cook Islands by means of a computer. Both the installation of the microcomputer and the processing of the 1981 census are counted as successes. This is due to a number of factors, namely: a long period of careful planning procedures which preceded the choice of system and installation; the enthusiasm of the local staff closely involved in the planning; the emphasis on training; tests of the equipment before installation by computer practitioners with knowledge of local needs and capacities; reasonable goal setting; and the supply, with the system, of adequate spare parts tools and maintenance and training manuals. Like many island populations, that of the Cook Islands is characterized by considerable instability as illustrated by the 1981 census results. As the rate and direction of population change varies from island to island, generalizations across the nation as a whole are difficult. For example, while some of the northern atolls experienced population decline during the latest intercensal period, most had their popultion increase in 1981. All the southern islands declined during the 1976-81 period at annual rates varying from 0.6% to 3.2%. The explanation for these patterns of change lies primarily in the different rates and direction of external migration on each island, as Cook Islanders are exempt from immigration regulations to New Zealand and Australia. In recent years, women have formed a

  12. The ecology of and fishery for Coryphaena spp. in the waters around Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Kingsford


    Full Text Available Two species of dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, are found in Australian waters and off the north-eastern coast of New Zealand. Both species (also called Mahi-mahi, or dorado are generally found in tropical waters, but only C. hippurus is captured in southern waters (to 34°S. Dolphinfish are caught by recreational and commercial fishers, using either trolled or baited lines. Most catch records do not allow the identification of fish to the species level. Dolphinfish are also an incidental catch of foreign and domestic pelagic fisheries (e.g. long-lining for tunas and billfishes and 10-70 tonnes are taken per year in the Australia-New Zealand region. Although Coryphaena are known to associate with objects (e.g. traps for carangids and navigation buoys and are a focus for recreational fishers, Fish Attraction Devices (FADs are not used by commercial fishers off the coast of Australia and New Zealand. FADs are, however, used by fishers in the Pacific Islands. Recreational catches of Coryphaena may exceed the commercial catch in some areas. Good data for New South Wales, Australia, gave estimates of 11.7 and 12.7 tonnes of Coryphaena caught in 1994 and 1995 respectively, which represented 1.1-1.8x the recorded commercial catch. Approximately ~12,600 fish have been tagged since 1973 around Australia and data on returns are only available for 108 fish (0.86% recovery. Tagged Coryphaena were found to move distances of up to 440 kilometres and at estimated speeds of up to 20 kilometres per day. The time between tag and recapture varied from 0-360 days and fish moved 0-440 kilometres. The majority of fish were caught around the same drifting object near where they were tagged. The collection of Coryphaena larvae in Queensland and New South Wales, along the east coast of Australia, indicates spawning in these waters. Most larvae have been collected in the austral summer and autumn and typically in surface waters well offshore

  13. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.


    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  14. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wutzler, B.

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper.

  15. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia? (United States)

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb


    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  16. Toward a sustainable energy future in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinrade, P. [Melbourne Univ., VIC (Australia). School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies; Marsden Jacob Associates, Camberwell, VIC (Australia)


    Envisioning Australia's energy future through a 'strong sustainability' framework would see a future that is based on the efficient and equitable use of energy, sourced from a diverse range of renewable, distributed energy systems. Supply and use of this energy would produce low or zero greenhouse gases and other emissions. A sustainable energy future in Australia would also see a shift in focus to meeting energy service needs (rather increased energy consumption). Importantly, energy users would be empowered, being knowledgeable and active participants in energy markets. In reality, Australia currently stands a long way from this vision: energy-related greenhouse gas emissions are growing rapidly; take up of renewable energy is slow, particularly of distributed energy forms such as solar photovoltaics; and energy intensity of the economy is declining at a slower rate than many other OECD economies. Furthermore, Australians consume far more energy than is required to meet the service needs of even modern lifestyles. If Australia is to move towards a sustainable energy future, then significant barriers must be overcome including aspects of Australia's economic structure, a misdirected energy market reform process and a lack of visionary thinking by decision makers. Hope comes in the form of the broader Australian community who intuitively support a sustainable energy vision but currently lack the institutional, market and regulatory support to make it happen. [Author].

  17. Mantle heterogeneities beneath the Northeast Indian Ocean as sampled by intra-plate volcanism at Christmas Island (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; Rushmer, Tracy; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Turner, Simon; O'Neill, Craig


    The intra-plate region of the Northeast Indian Ocean, located between the Ninetyeast Ridge and the North West Shelf of Australia, contains numerous submerged seamounts and two sub-aerially exposed volcanic island groups. While the Cocos (Keeling) Archipelago is a coral atoll, Christmas Island is the only sub-aerially exposed volcanic island and contains Late Cretaceous, Eocene and Pliocene lavas. The lavas are predominantly basaltic in composition, except for one sampled flow that is trachytic. Although the evolution of the western margin of Australia, and the seismicity in the intra-plate region, has received considerable attention, the origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean is still a matter of debate. In order to constrain the origin of volcanism on Christmas Island and the associated Seamount Province we analysed 14 Christmas Island samples for major and trace element abundances and 12 of these for Nd, Hf and Pb isotope compositions. The trace element patterns of the lavas are similar to many ocean island basalts, while high 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb suggest affiliation with the DUPAL anomaly. The reconstructed position of Christmas Island during the Eocene (44-37 Ma) places the island in close proximity to the (present-day) upper mantle low-seismic velocity anomalies. Moreover, an enriched mantle (EM-2) type component in addition to the DUPAL anomaly is observed in the Eocene volcanic phase. The younger Pliocene (~ 4 Ma) sequences at Christmas Island are inferred to be the product of partial melting of existing material induced by lithospheric flexure.

  18. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...... production via SSDG. Furthermore, the paper gives an update on the implementation in Mauritius of the proposed incentives.......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...

  19. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac


    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  20. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia. (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy


    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  2. What does the Development of the European Core Curriculum for Cardiovascular Nurses Mean for Australia? (United States)

    Neubeck, Lis; Lin, Stella Hsi-Man; Ferry, Cate; Gallagher, Robyn


    A core curriculum for the continuing professional development of nurses has recently been published by the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions of the European Society of Cardiology. This core curriculum was envisaged to bridge the educational gap between qualification as a nurse and an advance practice role. In addition, the shared elements and international consensus on core themes creates a strong pathway for nursing career development that is directly relevant to Australia. Education programs for nurses in Australia must meet the mandatory standards of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council (ANMAC), but without a national core curriculum, there can be considerable variation in the content of such courses. The core curriculum is developed to be adapted locally, allowing the addition of nationally relevant competencies, for example, culturally appropriate care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals. Two existing specialist resources could be utilised to deliver a tailored cardiovascular core curriculum; the Heart Education Assessment and Rehabilitation Toolkit (HEART) online ( and HeartOne ( Both resources could be further enhanced by incorporating the core curriculum. The release of the European core curriculum should be viewed as a call to action for Australia to develop a core curriculum for cardiovascular nurses.

  3. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands]. (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin


    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  4. Cushion plants as islands. (United States)

    Tepedino, V J; Stanton, N L


    The acarine fauna of two abundant species of cushion plant on the high, short-grass prairie of S.E. Wyoming were used to test The MacArthur-Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography. Multiple regression analysis using area, distance and percent moisture as independent variables and number of mite species and number of mite individuals were run for the two sampling dates. Results showed area alone to be consistently and highly correlated (r=0.84-0.94) with both species and individuals for one cushion species. The slopes of the species-area and individuals-area curves are among the highest recorded and were significantly higher on the second sampling date. Selective seasonal changes in the fauna were shown by increases both in numbers of species and individuals, mainly on larger cushions, for the later sampling period. It is hypothesized that seasonal changes are due to an increase in the number of predator species in response to an increase in the number of prey items. The slopes of the species-area curves are compared with those in the literature and it is argued that slope values are more dependent upon the taxonomic group being studied than on whether the island is insular or oceanic. Finally, we suggest that The MacArthur-Wilson Theory is not applicable to islands which 1) exhibit continuous growth, 2) lack a discrete species source, and 3) are relatively transitory.

  5. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan


    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  6. Night Heron Time Budget Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is one of the main restrictions of sustainable development. We examine whether or not freight transport is sensitive of the environment in Australia, particularly in the state of Victoria. Because, freight transports is one of the significant factors of environmental pollution. In the study we discuss the decision taken by the government of Victoria; and what kind of measurement is applied by the government. We also discuss which policy should be followed to achieve green transportation. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of environmental measurement on growing of the transport sector. The economics of Australia has a structure growing fast, in order to parallel the increasing growth of the transport sector. It tries to apply Kyoto protocol to the transport sector. In conclusion, the environmental pollution and CO2 emissions decrease in Australia although the transport sector grows day by day.

  8. Multiculturalism and transcultural nursing in Australia. (United States)

    Gorman, D


    The author looks at Australia's multicultural society and identifies the failure of the nursing profession to provide nursing services that meet the commitment of Australia to preserve the cultural backgrounds and meet the needs of the people nurses serve. The author suggests ways in which this problem can be addressed. It is argued that there is a need to ensure that transcultural nursing services are recognized and made accessible to people from diverse cultural backgrounds. Nurses need educational preparation to provide them with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to work with people from different cultures. Moreover, the cultural profile of the nursing profession should approximate those served. Nurses today must recognize these critical needs and be committed to provide transcultural nursing care that is so essential in Australia's multicultural society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić


    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  10. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman


    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  11. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy


    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  12. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia. (United States)

    Wong, S


    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration."

  13. Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J


    We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.

  14. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gilmour


    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  15. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006 (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.


    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  16. Os teoremas de Stewart e de Heron e o cálculo da área de um triângulo em função dos lados


    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Maziozeki de


    Organizou-se esta dissertação a partir da constatação de que teoremas de matemáticos como Matthew Stewart e Heron são pouco empregados nas aulas de matemática do ensino fundamental e médio. As contribuições desses matemáticos no cálculo das cevianas e da área de triângulos podem simplificar a solução de muitos problemas. Como ponto de partida, elaborou-se uma atividade extraclasse contendo quatro questões centradas no Teorema de Stewart e aplicou-se a mesma a três turmas do ensino m´edio do ...

  17. Os teoremas de Stewart e de Heron e o cálculo da área de um triângulo em função dos lados


    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Maziozeki de


    Organizou-se esta dissertação a partir da constatação de que teoremas de matemáticos como Matthew Stewart e Heron são pouco empregados nas aulas de matemática do ensino fundamental e médio. As contribuições desses matemáticos no cálculo das cevianas e da área de triângulos podem simplificar a solução de muitos problemas. Como ponto de partida, elaborou-se uma atividade extraclasse contendo quatro questões centradas no Teorema de Stewart e aplicou-se a mesma a três turmas do ensino m´edio do ...

  18. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  19. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.


    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  20. Late colonization of Easter Island. (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P


    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  1. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  2. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Annual Conference Of Australia Sister Cities Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Australia Sister Cities Association(ASCA),the CPAFFC delegation visited Australia and attended the Annual Conference of ASCA in Devonport of Tasmania State from November 11 to 22,2006.

  3. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  4. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.


    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  5. Business Cycle Synchronization Between Australia and New Zealand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jie Wei; Minsoo Lee; Christopher Gan


    .... By analyzing the shock-transmission channels via trade, monetary policy, and exchange rates between Australia and New Zealand we can infer that if Australia and New Zealand trade less, have more...

  6. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  7. A comparative analysis of island floras challenges taxonomy-based biogeographical models of speciation. (United States)

    Igea, Javier; Bogarín, Diego; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Savolainen, Vincent


    Speciation on islands, and particularly the divergence of species in situ, has long been debated. Here, we present one of the first, complete assessments of the geographic modes of speciation for the flora of a small oceanic island. Cocos Island (Costa Rica) is pristine; it is located 550 km off the Pacific coast of Central America. It harbors 189 native plant species, 33 of which are endemic. Using phylogenetic data from insular and mainland congeneric species, we show that all of the endemic species are derived from independent colonization events rather than in situ speciation. This is in sharp contrast to the results of a study carried out in a comparable system, Lord Howe Island (Australia), where as much as 8.2% of the plant species were the product of sympatric speciation. Differences in physiography and age between the islands may be responsible for the contrasting patterns of speciation observed. Importantly, comparing phylogenetic assessments of the modes of speciation with taxonomy-based measures shows that widely used island biogeography approaches overestimate rates of in situ speciation.

  8. Finding of Parastrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) in Rattus rattus in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; López-González, Mercedes; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Segovia, Matías; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Casanova, Juan Carlos; Valladares, Basilio; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Feliu, Carlos


    Parastrongylus cantonensis is a parasite of murid rodents that can infect humans and cause health problems as eosinophilic meningitis. Although it is endemic in south Asia, the Pacific islands, Australia, USA, and a few Caribbean islands, it has been extended to new geographical regions. In the Canary Islands (Spain) a survey of helminths of Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus domesticus was carried out. Furthermore, five species of molluscs were examined for nematode larvae to determine whether they are potential intermediate hosts of P. cantonensis. Nematodes were found in the lungs of 15% of 67 R. rattus examined in Tenerife, one of the four studied islands, with a prevalence of 20% in the highest focus of infection. Based on morphological and molecular analysis, with the complete internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) nucleotide sequences, nematodes were identified as P. cantonensis. Larval nematodes found from snails and slugs were identified as third-stage (L(3)) Metastrongyloidea, but the molecular study showed that they did not belong to P. cantonensis. This is the first finding of angiostrongyliasis in rats in the Canary Islands (Spain). New molecular data for this species and Parastrongylus dujardini are reported. The presence of P. cantonensis in Tenerife could be of importance from the public health point of view. Further studies are required in order to look for other potential foci of infections in the Canary Islands.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites of feral cats from Christmas Island. (United States)

    Adams, P J; Elliot, A D; Algar, D; Brazell, R I


    To investigate the gastrointestinal parasites present in feral cats on Christmas Island, with particular interest in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Faecal and serum samples were collected from 28 and 25 cats respectively that were trapped as part of an ongoing eradication program being run on Christmas Island by the Department of Environment and Conservation. Faecal samples were screened microscopically for helminth and protozoan parasites. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to T gondii using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a latex agglutination test (LAT). The most common helminth parasites detected were Toxocara cati (present in 15 of 28 faecal samples), Strongyloides sp (13/28), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, (7/28), an unidentified capillarid (6/28) and Ancylostoma sp (4/28). Based on serology, T gondii was the most common parasite detected (protozoan or otherwise) with antibodies detected in 24 serum samples by IFA and 23 serum samples by LAT. Cats on Christmas Island harbour many of the helminth and protozoan parasites reported from feral cats elsewhere in Australia. The high seroprevalence of T gondii in these cats indicates a high level of exposure to the parasite in this environment.

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH monitored from benthic Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment (FOCE) -type study in Heron Island reef flat (NODC Accession 0113856) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean acidification poses multiple challenges for coral reefs on molecular to ecological scales, yet previous experimental studies of the impact of projected CO2...

  11. A preliminary study of the genus Nymphicula Snellen from Australia, New Guinea and the south Pacific (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae: Acentropinae). (United States)

    Agassiz, David


    The species of Nymphicula occurring in Australia and south Pacific islands are described and illustrated. 22 new species are described: N. adelphalis, N. christinae, N. conjunctalis, N. edwardsi, N. hampsoni, N. ochrepunctalis, N. torresalis, N. beni, N. irianalis, N. michaeli, N. monticola, N. nokensis, N. plumbilinealis, N. submarginalis, N. susannae, N. tariensis, N. xanthocostalis, N. fionae, N. insulalis, N. lactealis, N. lifuensis, N. cheesmanae. A replacement name is proposed for Cataclysta dialitha Tams: Nymphicula samoensis.

  12. Enhancing Trilateral Disaster Preparedness and Relief Cooperation between Japan, U.S. and Australia: Approaches from Various Civil-Military Perspectives (United States)


    not well coordinated, as in the case of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, where key stakeholders were sometimes preoccupied with carving up disaster zones...Southeast Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines , Vietnam) and Pacific Island countries. This ongoing commitment positions Australia as the 9th largest overall...Forces serving as the linchpin. This implies that the ROK, Thailand and the Philippines , also allied countries with the U.S., may also have the

  13. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C


    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia. (United States)

    Marriott, Helen E.


    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  15. Australia's Universities--Through the Looking Glass. (United States)

    Penington, David


    Upheaval in Australia's university system in recent years can be attributed in large part to two influences dating to 1987: accession of John Dawkins to the Ministry of Employment, Education, and Training and the advent of federal regulation of industrial relations in education, which has undermined the collegial decision-making tradition. (MSE)

  16. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I (United States)

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem


    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  17. Eritrea: Lessons for Australia's Language Policy. (United States)

    Andreoni, Helen


    Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…

  18. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia. (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally


    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Sapovirus in Children, Australia (United States)

    Takeda, Naokazu; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Tu, Elise T.V.; McIver, Christopher J.; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A.


    Sapovirus was detected in 7 of 95 stool specimens from children with gastroenteritis of unknown etiology in Sydney, Australia, from August 2001 to August 2002 and from February 2004 to August 2004, by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal capsid region showed all human sapovirus genogroups. PMID:16494732

  20. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia. (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P


    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  1. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.


    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  2. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle


    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  3. Perception of Innovative Crop Insurance in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.


    Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low, possib

  4. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia. (United States)

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia


    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  5. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback (United States)

    Cradduck, Lucy


    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  6. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen


    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  7. The future of astronomy in Australia (United States)

    Sadler, Elaine M.


    Australian astronomy has a bright future, thanks largely to recent government investments in major new telescopes, instruments and research centres. There are some short-term challenges as Australia's focus continues to shift from the current (mainly) national facilities for radio and optical astronomy to new multinational and global facilities.

  8. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia. (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.


    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  9. The Narrowing Focus: Australia's Changing Language Policy. (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony


    Identifies the stages in the development of language policy in Australia and notes that language issues are no longer considered central to a multicultural society. Argues that the underlying rationale for language policy has moved to the economic sphere and that policymakers must understand the nature of language learning. (19 references)…

  10. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia. (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn


    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  11. Australia: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    chemicals; the major U.S. exports to Australia include aircraft and parts, chemicals, computers, and pharmaceuticals . Unlike the situation with most...previously proposed as the East Asian Economic Caucus (EAEC) by former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir, the United States was reportedly able to

  12. Conservation status of bryophytes in eastern Australia


    Streimann, Heinar


    No bryophyte conservation programs are in place in Australia as the knowledge of bryophytes is poor, especially of their habitat preferences and distribution. The conservation of species against habitats is discussed and it is maintained on present evidence that areas conserved for vascular plants and/or animal habitats, as national parks and forest reserves, in most cases would adequately conserve bryophytes.

  13. Australia's international health relations in 2003. (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon


    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  14. Lantern Festival —— Canberra, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol Keil


    <正>Each year, for the last 21 years, the ACT Branch of the Australia China Friendship Society has celebrated the Lantern Festival on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. In preparation for the Festival we hold a lantern-making workshop for the general public

  15. Physiotherapy in Critical Care in Australia



    A physiotherapist is part of the multidisciplinary team in most intensive care units in Australia. Physiotherapists are primary contact practitioners and use a comprehensive multisystem assessment that includes the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems to formulate individualized treatment plans. The traditional focus of treatment has been the respiratory management of both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. However, the emerging evidence of the l...

  16. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana


    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  17. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana


    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  18. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna


    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  19. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael


    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  20. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee


    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  1. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly


    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  2. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia (United States)


    ... for a maximum of 5 millimeters of stem on the imported litchi fruit was included in Australia's market... Australia's market access request, it had been intended only as part of a general description of Australia's... ] State Horticultural Society, 118,\\3\\ and a paper entitled ``Is It Still Profitable to Grow Lychee in...

  3. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee


    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  4. Intergenerational Differences in Acculturation Orientations of Turkish Speakers in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagmur, K.


    In this paper, acculturation and language orientations among Turkish speakers in Australia (n = 283) are discussed. Compared to West European countries, the Turkish community in Australia is much smaller. Given the prevalent pluralism ideology in Australia, a high level of sociocultural adjustment

  5. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim


    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  6. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean


    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete


    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  7. The submental island flap. (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F


    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  8. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi


    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  9. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica (United States)


    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  10. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  11. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  12. Rain on small tropical islands (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.


    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  13. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  14. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae in Australia and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Crews


    Full Text Available The spider family Selenopidae Simon occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, currently containing nearly 200 species in five genera. We relimit and revise the family to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and Asia. The family Selenopidae is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul and Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous errors in the definition. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: S. bursarius Karsch, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, S. ollarius Zhu, Sha, and Chen, and S. radiatus Latreille, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha, and Chen is recognized as a junior synonym of S. radiatus, syn. n. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with A. baginawa sp. n., and is known only from the Philippine island of Mindoro. Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with G. careus sp. n., and is known only from Papua New Guinea. Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and has 24 species: K. australiensis (L. Koch comb. n., K. gangarie sp. n., K. monteithi sp. n., K. alanlongbottomi sp. n., K. keithlongbottomi sp. n., K. larryoo sp. n., K. jarrit sp. n., K. marrayagong sp. n., K. raveni sp. n., K. badgeradda sp. n., K. burbidgei sp. n., K. karrawarla sp. n., K. julianneae sp. n., K. martamarta sp. n., K. manaayn sp. n., K. vadlaadambara sp. n., K. pilkingtoni sp. n., K. deserticola sp. n., K. ngarutjaranya sp. n., K. francesae sp. n., K. toolbrunup sp. n., the type species K. ellenae sp. n., K. jenniferae sp. n., and K. dawara sp. n. The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal: M. agumbensis (Tikader, comb. n., the type of the genus M. mahishasura sp. n., M. montigenus (Simon, comb. n., M. nilgirensis (Reimoser comb. n., and M. shiva sp. n. The genus Pakawops gen. n. is

  15. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  16. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.


    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  17. Big News: The Indian Media and Student Attacks in Australia


    Matt Wade


    By any measure, 2009 was a big year for news in India. And yet the safety of Indian students in Australia ranked among the major news events in India that year. The India-Australia Poll 2013 found 65 per cent of respondents believed the Indian media had accurately reported the problems faced by Indian students in Australia in 2009-10. That implies two-thirds of Indians accepted the Indian media’s mostly negative depictions of Australia. Those who believed the media reporting about Australia h...

  18. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  19. Bartonella-like DNA detected in Ixodes tasmani ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Vilcins, Inger-Marie E; Kosoy, Michael; Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M


    A total of 42 ticks comprising Ixodes tasmani (n = 41) and Ixodes trichosuri (n = 1) were collected from wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at the Koala Convention Centre, Philip Island, Victoria, Australia and screened for the presence of Bartonella using the target gene gltA. Bartonella-like DNA was detected in 4 of the 19 pooled tick samples (21%). All positive ticks were male. Analysis of partial sequences for the gltA gene indicated the presence of a Bartonella-related species similar to that reported in another Ixodid species. This is the first report of Bartonella-like organisms in a native Australian marsupial.

  20. Shared medical appointments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men. (United States)

    Stevens, John A; Dixon, John; Binns, Andrew; Morgan, Bob; Richardson, Jeff; Egger, Garry


    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health is generally the worst of any population group in Australia. Inaccessibility to health services is one possible cause of this. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) appear to be a culturally competent and appropriate way of improving access to, and the quality of, primary healthcare services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The objective of this article is to assess the acceptability and appropriateness of SMAs as an adjunct process in primary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men. As part of a broader study on SMAs, three SMA sessions were delivered at an Aboriginal men's health centre in northern New South Wales. One-day training sessions in SMA facilitation were also provided to two groups of 12-14 Aboriginal health workers (AHWs). Mixed methods were used to assess patient and provider satisfaction, subjective outcomes, and operational procedures in the SMA groups, as well as interest in the SMA process by AHWs. Satisfaction with SMAs among Aboriginal men was unanimously positive, with the numbers in the group increasing over time. Patients most enjoyed the 'yarn up' nature of SMAs with peer support, which reduced the 'scary' and culturally 'unnatural' nature of one-on-one consultations with a general practitioner (GP). AHWs who were trained to a level to conduct SMAs saw this as an effective way of improving cultural competence in, and accessibility of, their various Aboriginal health services. The results, though not generalisable, suggest that SMAs may offer a culturally safe and appropriate tool to enhance Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' access to primary care.

  1. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling


    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  2. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  3. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Garvey


    Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.

  4. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training (United States)

    Davidson, Jim


    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  5. A New Solar Thermal Facility in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W.; Imenes, A.; Hinkley, J.; Benito, R.; McEvoy, S.; Hart, G.; McGregor, J.; Chensee, M.; Wong, K.; Wong, J.; Bolling, R.


    The abundance of high quality solar radiation in Australia has long fuelled activity in solar energy, particularly CSP. The National Solar Energy Centre is being established in Australia as a centre to promote all facets of concentrating solar thermal technology, from fundamental R and D to active demonstrations and testing platforms. The Centre comprises a 550kW solar tower with very high heliostat packing density, linear concentrators that will drive both an organic Rankine cycle and solar chiller, and eventually a dish concentrator. Other papers in these conference proceedings discuss in detail particular aspects of design, fabrication and testing of components of the tower. This paper provides an overview of the intended activities of the Centre and particularly the opportunities for international collaboration, including high temperature receiver design and testing, medium temperature receivers, solarized Brayton cycles, thermochemical reactors and materials for solar hydrogen production, and improved small solar trough technology. (Author)

  6. Gun Control in Australia: A Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Sarre


    Full Text Available In recent months there has been an upsurge in contributions to the popular press from social commentators insisting that guns make our nation safer. This essay questions these assertions. The paper provides evidence to support a contrary affirmation: that is, in order to have a reduction in gun violence, there needs to be a reduction in the number of guns generally, and a continuation of the legal controls that currently shape firearms policy in Australia.

  7. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  8. Heroin users in Australia: population trends. (United States)

    Kaya, C Yalçin; Tugai, Yuliya; Filar, Jerzy A; Agrawal, Manju R; Ali, Robert L; Gowing, Linda R; Cooke, Richard


    The aim of this paper is to identify certain important population trends among heroin users in Australia for the period 1971 - 97, such as: population growth, initiation, i.e. the number who were initiated to heroin in a given year, and quitting, i.e. the number that quit using heroin. For this purpose, we summarize and extract relevant characteristics from data from National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS 1998) conducted in Australia in 1998. We devise a systematic procedure to estimate historical trends from questions concerning past events. It is observed from our findings that the size of the heroin user population in Australia is in a sharp increase, especially from the early 1980s onwards. The general trend obtained for the period 1971 - 97 is strikingly similar to that obtained by Hall et al. (2000) for the dependent heroin user population in Australia, even though their study was based on different datasets and a different methodology. In our reconstruction of the time history we also detect a levelling-off prior to 1990. Initiation is also observed to be on a sharp increase. The latter trend is accompanied by a similar trend of quitting, perhaps indicating a relatively short heroin use career. A sharp decrease in both initiation and quitting is observed after 1990. In conclusion, in the case of the trend in the population of heroin users a high rate of growth has been identified that is consistent with the existing literature. In the process, we demonstrated that even a static survey such as NDSHS 1998 can, sometimes, be used to extract historical (dynamic) trends of certain important variables.

  9. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?


    Kingwell, Ross S.


    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  10. Happy New Year from Queensland, Australia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet


    I hope you enjoyed a magical celebration. I have had an exciting time here.In Australia, we celebrate New Year’s Eve with champagne and parties. At 10seconds to midnight, everyone stops to count in the new year at full volume, beforeshouting" Happy New Year", kissing the nearest person, and breaking into araucous (沙哑的) version of "Auld Lang Syne". Loud cheers resound in hotels,halls, nightclubs and backyards across the country.

  11. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in Australia


    Ric Battellino; John Broadbent; Philip Lowe


    In January 1990, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) began announcing and explaining changes in the target cash rate. This has increased public understanding of monetary policy and, by increasing the attention given to changes in interest rates, has affected the way in which changes in policy are transmitted to the economy. In addition, the discipline of having to announce and explain changes in the target cash rate to the public has led to a clearer focus on the objectives of monetary policy...

  12. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.

  13. Australia, Give You Endless Possibilities as Imagination…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      It's a place where the light changes everything. From the friendly attitude of its people, to the breathtaking blue of its skies and glistening gold of its sandy beaches. A place unlike any other, with animals and scenery you'll find nowhere else on earth and an unmatched diversity of fiavours, scents and sights. It is Australia, where the possibilities are only as endless as your imagination.……

  14. Symptomotology and Racial Politics in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Buchanan


    Full Text Available Jindabyne (a movie directed by Ray Lawrence, 2006 begins with the murder of a young aboriginal woman, but its real focus is the way people respond to this murder. In doing so, it tells several interesting truths about race relations in Australia today. I want to suggest that Jindabyne can usefully be read as a national allegory (in Jameson’s sense of the word. It maps or diagrams the cultural and political tropes of the present moment in history. My basic hypothesis is that it cannot be a coincidence that Jindabyne should give such prominence to the cultural problematic of the apology at this particular juncture in Australia’s history. Although this aspect of the film is scarcely mentioned in any of the reviews that accompanied the film’s premier, it strikes me that the timing is symptomatic: it is a topic that as Deleuze once said about difference was very much in the air. Produced only two years before the official national apology the Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd made to the Indigenous peoples of Australia on February 13, 2008, Jindabyne responds to a complex assemblage of cultural problematics that have been on the national political agenda ever since the release in 1995 of Bringing Them Home, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission’s report on its national inquiry into the so-called “Stolen Generation”.

  15. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie


    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  16. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo


    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  17. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, L.


    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  18. Asians: the New Metics of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissa Cheng


    Full Text Available The Asian immigration debate has become one of the most contentious topics of debate in Australia. Little about the debate is new and most of the arguments, both in favour and against, begin with demographic considerations, then move on to the economic consequences of immigration and the social and cultural ramifications. Delving deeper into the debate, one will realize that there is an underlying assumption of the economic theory of laissez-faire, which is the driving force of the debate. The new realities of global electronic commerce with laissez-faire economic theory have been transposed onto Australia's immigration policy. The government welcomes the "elite" of the knowledge workers because they are the real generators of wealth. However, the government is also aware that maximizing its benefit out of these immigrants, it must minimize the costs associated with them, such as maintenance cost of their sponsored parents. The analysis, while dispelling the myth of increasing immigration costs, confirmed the urgent need to shift the focus of societal pluralism from an economic one that is rooted in competition and self-interest individualism, to pluralism that is rooted in social organization. This is where society is seen as cooperative units rather than of competing units, that is Asians and non-Asians contributing to Australia as a cooperative group of people. The government promotion of division in society with its archaic politics to instill the 'metic' status for new immigrants may prove detrimental to its effort to attract elite wealth generator migrants.

  19. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner


    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  20. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software. (United States)

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco


    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  1. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  2. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  3. New Records of Atypical Coral Reef Habitat in the Kimberley, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Richards


    Full Text Available New surveys of the Kimberley Nearshore Bioregion are beginning to fill knowledge gaps about the region’s marine biodiversity and the national and international conservation significance of this little-known tropical reef system. Here we report the recent finding of two unique coral habitats documented at Adele Island and Long Reef during the Woodside 2009/2010 Collection Project surveys. Firstly, we report the finding of a subtidal zone of mixed corallith and rhodolith habitat which appears on current records, to be unprecedented in Australia. Secondly, we report the discovery of an atypical Organ Pipe Coral habitat zone and provide empirical evidence that this commercially valuable species reaches an unparalleled level of benthic cover. We provide additional details about the wider hard and soft coral assemblages associated with these unique habitats; discuss the potential biological causes and consequences of them, and make recommendations to benefit their conservation.

  4. Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition in Tropical North Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON, John E.


    Full Text Available Three feral pig populations inhabiting contrasting environments along the north easterncoast of Australia have been investigated with respect to population structure, individual condition andreproduction. The population on Prince of Wales Island contains a large proportion of juvenile andsub-adult pigs but lacks pigs in the higher age classes. Individuals also breed at an earlier age thananimals of the mainland populations. Pig populations on Cape York Peninsula show a largerproportion of older animals and feral pigs living in rainforest habitats show a low proportion ofanimals in very young and very old age classes. Pigs from the lowland rainforest population are inbetter condition than those of the other populations for most of the year, reflecting the availability offood all year round in this environment. Differences in the population structure of the threepopulations are discussed with respect to fecundity and several mortality factors such as predation anddiseases/parasites.

  5. Ultrawide-field fundus photography of the first reported case of gyrate atrophy from Australia. (United States)

    Moloney, Thomas P; O'Hagan, Stephen; Lee, Lawrence


    Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare chorioretinal dystrophy inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. We describe the first documented case of gyrate atrophy from Australia in a 56-year-old woman with a history of previous diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and worsening night vision in her right eye over several years. She was myopic and bilaterally pseudophakic, and fundus examination revealed pale optic discs and extensive peripheral chorioretinal atrophy exposing bare sclera bilaterally with only small islands of normal-appearing retina at each posterior pole. Visual field testing showed grossly constricted fields, blood testing showed hyperornithinemia, and further questioning revealed consanguinity between the patient's parents. We then used the patient's typical retinal findings of gyrate atrophy to demonstrate the potential use of ultrawide-field fundus photography and angiography in diagnosis and monitoring response in future treatment.

  6. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  7. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  8. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim


    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  9. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  10. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  11. Three Mile Island Accident Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  12. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.


    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... from biogeography, community ecology and evolution to global change, this horizon scan may help to foster the formation of interdisciplinary research networks, enhancing joint efforts to better understand the past, present and future of island biotas....... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores....... Results: Questions were structured around four broad and partially overlapping island topics, including: (Macro)Ecology and Biogeography, (Macro)Evolution, Community Ecology, and Conservation and Management. These topics were then subdivided according to the following subject areas: global diversity...

  13. The Deep Ocean Sound Channel in Areas Around Australia, (United States)



  14. Sustained outbreak of measles in New South Wales, 2012: risks for measles elimination in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina Najjar


    Full Text Available Objective: On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. Methods: Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis. Results: Of the 168 cases identified, most occurred in south-western and western Sydney (92.9%, n = 156. Notable features of this outbreak were the disproportionately high number of cases in the 10–19-year-old age group (29.2%, n = 49, the overrepresentation among people of Pacific Islander descent (21.4%, n = 36 and acquisition in health-care facilities (21.4%, n = 36. There were no reported cases of encephalitis and no deaths. Discussion: This was the largest outbreak of measles in Australia since 1997. Its occurrence highlights the need to maintain vigilant surveillance systems for early detection and containment of measles cases and to maintain high population immunity to measles through routine childhood immunization. Vaccination campaigns targeting susceptible groups may also be necessary to sustain Australia’s measles elimination status.

  15. Unique Sequence of Events Triggers Manta Ray Feeding Frenzy in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarla J. Weeks


    Full Text Available Manta rays are classified as Vulnerable to Extinction on the IUCN Red List for Threatened Species. In Australia, a key aggregation site for reef manta rays is Lady Elliot Island (LEI on the Great Barrier Reef, ~7 km from the shelf edge. Here, we investigate the environmental processes that triggered the largest manta ray feeding aggregation yet observed in Australia, in early 2013. We use MODIS sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll-a concentration and photic depth data, together with in situ data, to show that anomalous river discharges led to high chlorophyll (anomalies: 10–15 mg∙m−3 and turbid (photic depth anomalies: −15 m river plumes extending out to LEI, and that these became entrained offshore around the periphery of an active cyclonic eddy. Eddy dynamics led to cold bottom intrusions along the shelf edge (6 °C temperature decrease, and at LEI (5 °C temperature decrease. Strongest SST gradients (>1 °C∙km−1 were at the convergent frontal zone between the shelf and eddy-influenced waters, directly overlying LEI. Here, the front intensified on the spring ebb tide to attract and shape the aggregation pattern of foraging manta rays. Future research could focus on mapping the probability and persistence of these ecologically significant frontal zones via remote sensing to aid the management and conservation of marine species.

  16. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko


    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  17. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of mushroom corals off eastern Australia: a baseline from the 1970s (United States)

    Hoeksema, Bert W.


    Based on a study of mushroom coral species of eastern Australia, a decrease in species richness can be discerned from north to south. Eastern Australia, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), is one of only few coral reef areas suitable for studies on large-scale latitudinal biodiversity patterns. Such patterns may help to recognize biogeographic boundaries and factors regulating biodiversity. Owing to the eastern Australian long coastline, such studies are a logistic challenge unless reliable distribution data are already available, as in museum collections. A large coral collection predominantly sampled from this area in the 1970s is present in the Museum of Tropical Queensland (MTQ). The scleractinian family Fungiidae (mushroom corals), representing about 10% of Indo-Pacific reef coral species, was selected as proxy. It was represented by 1289 specimens belonging to 34 species with latitudinal ranges between 09°09‧S and 31°28‧S. The fauna of the northernmost reefs in the Gulf of Papua and the Torres Strait, and north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), was represented by a maximum of 30 fungiids. From here a southward decline in species number was observed, down to Lord Howe Island with only one species. Together with previous records, the mushroom coral fauna of eastern Australia consists of 37 species, which is more diverse than hitherto known and similar to numbers found in the Coral Triangle. Future field surveys in the GBR should specifically target rarely known species, which are mainly small and found at depths >25 m. In the light of global climate change, they may also show whether previously recorded species are still present and whether their latitudinal ranges have shifted, using the 1970s records as a baseline.

  18. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  19. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang


    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  20. A new economy? ICT investment and Australia's economic boom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keane, Chris


    Date over the significance of factors such as economic liberalisation and financial deregulation in Australia's current period of economic growth - the role of information and communications technology (ICT...

  1. How profitable is methamphetamine dealing in Australia? (United States)

    Gong, Wendy; Ritter, Alison; Bright, David; Doran, Chris


    The illicit drug trade is the largest in value among global illicit commodities, at some $320 billion US dollars, according to the UN World Drug Report. Endeavours to control such a large illicit market would be enhanced by improved understanding of the economics of the trade. However, due to its illicit nature many aspects of the illicit drug market are largely unknown. This study explored one economic aspect of illicit drug dealing, profitability, with the aim of developing a better picture of the financial gains from illicit drug dealing. Data were obtained from judges sentencing remarks, key informants from law enforcement, and other published reports which detail the prices paid for methamphetamine in Australia. The financial margins attained from non-crystal methamphetamine dealing in Australia were calculated by examining the best fit for the relationship between prices and quantities: in this case a power law. If it is assumed that a single deal is divided ("cut") between 4 times and 20 times before selling to the next customer, the mark-ups can range from 24% to 59%. The mark-ups appear low compared with those found in US research, but similar to those found in UK research. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyse profitability of methamphetamine dealing in Australia. The findings of this study will help in understanding the motivations and decisions of drug dealers, and potentially assist drug law enforcement agencies to design better strategies to dismantle supply chain linkages which generate excessive profits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia. (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E


    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  3. Options for managing the sustainable use of green turtles: Perceptions of Hammond Islanders in Torres Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Jillian


    Full Text Available One of the largest populations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas in the world spends at least part of its life cycle in the remote Torres Strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea. This population is subjected to traditional harvests from geographically dispersed communities including along the northern and eastern coasts of Australia, Indonesia and south-western Pacific nations. In Torres Strait, green turtle hunting is classed as a traditional fishery and is guaranteed by Australian legislation (Native Title Act 1993 and the Torres Strait Treaty between Australia and Papua New Guinea that aims to protect the traditional lifestyle of the region′s indigenous peoples. To investigate the Islanders′ thoughts and aspirations regarding marine turtle management, we interviewed hunters and Islander Elders from the Hammond Island community in the Kaurareg nation of Kaiwalagal. Although not the Traditional Owners of the Kaiwalagal sea country in which they live and hunt, Hammond Islanders wish to be involved in the management of resources on which they depend, including marine turtles. They considered community-based processes to be important, especially the application of (1 cultural norms to the development of tools to achieve compliance and enforcement within the community, and (2 consensus-based decision-making amongst hunters and elders within the community, with regard to the use of more formal rules. However, the need for co-operation with other communities and stakeholders across scales was also recognised, particularly with regard to enforcement. Our results suggest that co-management is likely to be a more appropriate approach for managing green turtles in Torres Strait than either community-based management or government-driven management.

  4. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  5. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu


    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  6. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia


    Abbas Valadkhani


    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  7. Advice to speak English in Australia


    Martín, Mario Daniel


    Abstract This article addresses the issue of advice given to immigrant parents to speak English only with their children in Australia, as reflected in the Spanish-speaking community. The article shows that something that appears to be down to chance, i.e. whether this advice is given or not, has a social explanation. This social explanation is based on understanding several social variables such as the ethnic identity of the adviser and the year in which the advice was given, as we...

  8. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 6: Italian. (United States)

    Di Biase, Bruno; And Others

    The status of the Italian language in Australia, particularly in the educational system at all levels, in Australian society in general, and in trade, technology, and tourism is discussed in this report. It begins with a description of the teaching of Italian in elementary, secondary, higher, adult/continuing, and teacher education. Trends are…

  9. Millipedes from Australia, 1: Antichiropodini from South Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.


    Descriptions of two new species: Antichiropus mammillifer n.sp., the first species of the genus recorded from outside Western Australia, related to A. minimus Attems and A. sulcatus Attems, and Tridactylogonus obscurus n.g., n.sp., a small species, taxonomically rather isolated, and perhaps related

  10. The genetic diversity,relationships,and potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale,Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo&Gullan(Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Kerriidae),a pest in Florida,the Bahamas,Cuba and Christmas Island (United States)

    The lobate lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Kerriidae) is a polyphagous pest of woody plants in Florida (U.S.A), the Bahamas, Cuba, and Christmas Island (Australia). Its recent appearance as a pest in these places indicates that this scale is introduced; however, its native rang...

  11. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.


    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  12. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.


    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  13. Islands and the offshoring possibilities and strategies of contemporary states: insights on/for the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available Islands have transitioned from being conceived as prototypes of idealised polities to being deliberately engineered as offshore enclaves where the rules of the parent state need not fully apply. With their manageable size, separation and distance from the mainland, small islands are rendered as convenient laboratories for entrepreneurial political engineering, and equally handy sites for research on the same. Island migration policies manifest this contemporary flexibility and creative governance of states. As we approach the 500th anniversary of Thomas More’s Utopia (1516, this paper explores these ideas in relation to the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank. Using an island studies approach, it discusses the problematique of island spaces caught in this dynamic but which cannot be ‘offshore’ because, as unitary island states (Cyprus and Malta and unlike larger states with small outlying and peripheral island components (Italy and Australia, they must somehow be ‘both inside and outside’. The paper goes on to critique such facile binarisms, arguing for a more nuanced appreciation of islands as well as a recognition that what may be, at face value, an expression of a state’s authority is as much a manifestation of its limitations.

  14. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands. (United States)

    Millien, Virginie


    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic.

  15. Pattern of mercury accumulation in different tissues of migratory and resident birds: Western reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) in Hara International Wetland-Persian Gulf. (United States)

    Majidi, Yousef; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud


    The Hara Mangrove Forest of the Persian Gulf is undergoing increasing pollution from industrial, municipal, and petroleum sources; however, little research in ecotoxicology has been carried out in this ecosystem. In the present study, mercury distribution and accumulation were investigated in muscle, liver, kidney, and feather of the resident Western reef heron (n = 15) and the migratory Siberian gull (n = 15). We also evaluated the relation between Hg concentrations, sex, and age (juvenile vs. adult). Results showed that the highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the feather (35 ± 0.14-3.0 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1) dw) and at 3.7-, 1.6-, and 1.3-fold in muscle, kidney, and liver, respectively. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of migratory birds were two times higher than in resident birds; geographical differences and feeding habits were used to explain these variations. We found a weak relationship between Hg concentrations in feathers and internal tissues (r ≤ 0.50); conversely, liver presented strong positive correlations with other soft tissues, especially kidney (p > 0.05; r = 0.82). Results showed that sex and age have no significant effects on T-Hg accumulation in these birds (p > 0.05; r mercury pollution in this region.

  16. Styles of neotectonic fault reactivation within a formerly extended continental margin, North West Shelf, Australia (United States)

    Whitney, Beau B.; Hengesh, James V.; Gillam, Dan


    We have investigated the locations and patterns of neotectonic deformation in the Carnarvon basin along the Mesozoic rifted margin of Western Australia to evaluate the characteristics of post-Neogene tectonic reactivation. Geological, geophysical, geotechnical, and bathymetric data demonstrate that preferentially oriented rift-era structures have been reactivated under the current neotectonic stress regime. The most recent pulse of neotectonic reactivation initiated during the Plio-Pleistocene (4.0 to 1.8 million years ago) and is ongoing. Reactivated structures in the region demonstrate a variety of styles of deformation consistent with dextral-transpression. Structural styles include both positive and negative flower structures, restraining and releasing bends, and hourglass structures. Barrow Island lies within a broad kinematic restraining bend that appears to warp the MIS 5e marine terrace on the island. Fold reconstructions of Neogene strata on the Cape Range and Barrow anticlines yield uplift rates consistent with uplift rates determined from folded late Pleistocene units in the Cape region. Although tectonic rates are low compared to interplate settings, evidence for active tectonic deformation precludes this part of the Australian plate from being classified as a Stable Continental Region.

  17. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia. (United States)

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K


    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  18. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wilcox


    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  19. Determinants of Business Exits in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li


    Full Text Available The annually increasing firm exits have significant financial, legal and social impacts on productivity, employment and economic growth in Australia. However, evidence of the impacts of firm exits is sparse. This paper undertakes a first-ever study that empirically investigates the determinants and their impacts on firm churn. This paper is innovative to the literature in four aspects: (1 Local Region Areas (LGAs data, rarely available in other countries, has been used for the analysis; (2 using LGAs as the basic analytical unit is able to eliminate the heterogeneity problems encountered by other studies which are based on national and cross-national data; (3 panel data modelling techniques identify robust evidence; (4 systematic statistical tests guarantees the robustness of the results. The dataset, provided by Australia Bureau of Statistics, include 3462 observations of 577 Local Government Areas (LGAs during 2004-2009. The research identifies variables positively and negatively affecting the exits and finds that size matters in determining business exits. The last section concludes with a discussion of limitations and future research directions.

  20. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin


    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.