Præsentation af en to-etagers, solitær bygning, hvis primære kendetagn er en eksteriør udsmykning udført af Carl Henning Pedersen. Bygningen er helt i stil med C.F. Møllers øvrige bebyggelser ved Herning Kunstmuseum.......Præsentation af en to-etagers, solitær bygning, hvis primære kendetagn er en eksteriør udsmykning udført af Carl Henning Pedersen. Bygningen er helt i stil med C.F. Møllers øvrige bebyggelser ved Herning Kunstmuseum....
Hansen, Louise Ejgod
Artiklen analyserer fire teatersamtaler om forestillingen Hvid Stolthed gennemført på Svalegangen, Aarhus og Team Teatret, Herning med særligt fokus på, hvilken betydning det har, om deltagerne oplever forestillingens temaer som relevante for dem selv....
Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja
for social and cultural innovation in themselves, we have examined how actors involved with them try to sell them as such. A crucial challenge for these actors turns out to be the interpretative flexibility of the innovation, since arguments designed to attract one kind of expected user might problematize......This article explores how virtual worlds are rhetorically constructed as obvious, innovative spaces for communication about architecture. It is argued that the marketization of an innovative use of new media platforms happens in early phases of the innovation processes, and the success of new media...... of the communication about the innovation. It is demonstrated that the creation of markets does not begin when innovations such as Virtual Worlds Architecture are settled, but is intertwined with early expectations about their promises and limitations. Rather than seeing virtual worlds as settled and secluded sites...
Short selling heeft een ietwat dubieuze reputatie. ‘Aandelen verkopen die je niet hebt’, dat wekt al de suggestie dat er iets niet in de haak is. Verschillende toezichthouders en regelgevers leggen snel verbanden tussen short selling en marktmisbruik. ‘Short is moord’ was zelfs de kop boven een
True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.
Full Text Available Personal selling is a major element in the marketing communication program of a business firm. This article describes in a theoretical way the scope and significance of personal selling in marketing, it outlines the stages of the selling process. Personal selling is the most effective marketing communication tool because it allows salespeople to adapt their presentation to each potential or current client. They use their knowledge of the customer’s buying process to choose effective sales strategies. An effective sales presentation is usually the most important element of a sales job. Most well-managed companies want their salespeople to go through the following sequence in making a presentation: locating and qualifying prospects, a pre-approach, the presentation itself, closing the sale and follow-up. Finding the best prospects may be the key step in this sequence, but the close may be the hardest part.
Markus K Brunnermeier; Martin Oehmke
Financial institutions may be vulnerable to predatory short selling. When the stock of a financial institution is shorted aggressively, leverage constraints imposed by short-term creditors can force the institution to liquidate long-term investments at fire sale prices. For financial institutions that are sufficiently close to their leverage constraints, predatory short selling equilibria co-exist with no-liquidation equilibria (the vulnerability region) or may even be the unique equilibrium ...
Saricam, Merve Hatun; Tekin, Burak; Unver, Olcay; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Ergun, Tulin
Gómez-López-Hernández syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the triad of rhombencephalosynapsis, parietal alopecia, and trigeminal anesthesia. We report a 16-year-old girl with bilateral parietotemporal alopecia in whom cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed rhombencephalosynapsis, suggesting a diagnosis of Gómez-López-Hernández syndrome. Neurologic examination and neuroimaging may be warranted in select patients with parietal alopecia to exclude this uncommon entity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...
Lankford, Dave; Comte, Don
Nineteen lesson plans on selling are presented in this performance-based curriculum unit for distributive education. This unit is self-contained and consists of the following components: introduction (provides overview of unit content and describes why mastery of the objectives is important); performance objectives; pre-assessment instrument…
Social marketers use the tools of selling to promote good nutrition, regular checkups, and other positive behavior. Instead of preaching, they try to understand and change the complex motivations that lie behind risky activities like smoking and unsafe sex. AIDS prevention is the vanguard of social marketing in the U.S., but the practice is likely to spread for a simple reason: it works.
Work for bringing down the first shaft of the Mont-Cenis coal mine in Herne Sodingen commenced on November 15 in 1871, and the mine was closed down on March 31 in 1978. The municipal utility Stadtwerke Herne AG exploit the mine gas from the decommissioned hard coal mine since November 1997. The mine gas fuels a modular cogeneration power plant driven by two conventional engine modules which have been adapted to the specific conditions arising from changing volume of mine gas available, and changing composition of the mine gas (methane and oxygen contents). The power is fed to the city mains, and the heat is fed into a local heat supply system for a newly developed area consisting of 250 residential units and a hospital. A simplified flowsheet explains the mine gas utilization. (orig./CB) [German] Am 15. November 1871 erfolgte der 1. Spatenstich zum Niederbringen des Schachtes 1 der Zeche Mont-Cenis in Herne Sodingen. Am 31.03.1978 wurde das Steinkohlenbergwerk Mont-Cenis stillgelegt. Seit November 1997 nutzen die Stadtwerke Herne AG das Grubengas der Zeche in einem Blockheizkraftwerk, das aus zwei konventionellen, aber an die spezifischen Anforderungen des Grubengasbetriebs angepassten Motormodulen besteht, zur Erzeugung von Strom und Waerme. Dise spezifischen Anforderungen sind insbesondere durch die schwankende Gasmenge und die ebenfalls schwankenden Methan- bzw. Sauerstoffkonzentrationen im Grubengas charakterisiert. Der erzeugte Strom wird in das Netz der Stadtwerke eingespeist. Die Waerme wird ueber ein Nahwaermenetz in einer Neubausiedlung mit 250 WE, einem Krankenhaus und einer Akademie genutzt. Ein vereinfachtes Blockschaltbild erlaeutert die Grubengasnutzung. (orig./GL)
deciding on the production levels for a product that has a very short selling season. The firm has a full period to produce and meet a lumpy demand which occurs at the end of the period. The product is no longer demanded after the end of the period. A constant production rate which minimizes average unit cost may increase holding costs. Varying the production rate at discrete points in time may increase production costs but may also decrease holding costs. In addition, allowing changes in the production rate enables the incorporation of forecast revisions into the production plan. Therefore, the best production plan depends on the flexibility of the production system and on the holding cost. In this paper, we formulate and solve a model of this production planning problem. Two models are developed to deal with two types of the average unit cost function. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the results of the model.
When you think of marketing, chances are your mind goes right to your customers--how can you persuade more people to buy whatever it is you sell? But there's another "market" that's equally important: your employees. Author Colin Mitchell argues that executives by and large ignore this critical internal audience when developing and executing branding campaigns. As a result, employees end up undermining the expectations set by the company's advertising--either because they don't understand what the ads have promised or because they don't believe in the brand and feel disengaged or, worse, hostile toward the company. Mitchell offers three principles for executing internal branding campaigns--techniques executives can use to make sure employees understand, embrace, and "live" the brand vision companies are selling to the public. First, he says, companies need to market to employees at times when the company is experiencing a fundamental challenge or change, times when employees are seeking direction and are relatively receptive to new initiatives. Second, companies must link their internal and external marketing campaigns; employees should hear the same messages that are being sent to the market-place. And third, internal branding campaigns should bring the brand alive for employees, creating an emotional connection to the company that transcends any one experience. Internal campaigns should introduce and explain the brand messages in new and attention-grabbing ways and then reinforce those messages by weaving them into the fabric of the company. It is a fact of business, writes Mitchell, that if employees do not care about or understand their company's brands, they will ultimately weaken their organizations. It's up to top executives, he says, to give them a reason to care.
Raquel M. Ortíz Rodríguez
Full Text Available En este escrito analizamos el bolero Lamento borincano (1929, canción escrita por Rafaél Hernández (1891-1965. En éste Hernández desmitifica la ilusión romántica de la nación, cuestiona el mito de la gran familia puertorriqueña y representa las desilusiones causadas por la política norteamericana en Puerto Rico. Al mismo tiempo, estudiamos como la canción llenó el espacio de himno nacional y fue usado por el Partido Popular Democrático (PPD, 1938- y su líder máximo, Luis Muñoz Marín (1898-1980, para rescatar y abrazar el imaginario del jíbaro en la década del cuarenta de la centuria pasada.
Alejandro Palma Castro
Full Text Available En este artículo se desarrolla un análisis del sujeto enunciativo en algunos poemas de Francisco Hernández para mostrar la importancia, pero también urgencia, de profundizar en los estudios de enunciación en el discurso poético. A partir de la poética de Hernández, particularmente sugerente en lo que respecta a la apropiación de personalidades o máscaras, propongo una metodología y tipología más adecuadas para extender las posibilidades de su interpretación y lectura desde los espacios que se perciben en el poema,a partir de la consideracióndel sujeto enunciativo, según algunos de los estudios críticos que existen a la fecha.
Carlos Enrique Silva Rios
Se reseña el libro Formulaciones de proyectos de tesis en ciencias sociales. Manual de supervivencia para estudiantes de pre- y posgrado, de Javier Bassi y Pablo Hernández. El punto de partida de los autores es una inconformidad con los manuales existentes. Para superar esa inconformidad, presentan como alternativa un texto que deja clara la necesidad de tener un posición epistemológica antes de comenzar a formular un proyecto de investigación. Luego, presentan una serie de requisitos, recome...
Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang; Chenhang Zeng
The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in advance, whil...
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza dos cuentos del escritor cubano Alfonso Hernández Catá (1885-1940, “Los chinos” (1924 y “El gato” (1933, cuyos personajes asiáticos son descritos como seres grotescos y monstruosos tal como y ocurre en el género gótico. Esta monstruosidad de los chinos, además, se presenta como una enfermedad contagiosa que amenaza con contagiar y desestabilizar los límites entre la vida y la muerte, la cordura y la locura, la familiaridad y la extrañeza, Occidente y Oriente. This article analyzes two short stories by Cuban writer Alfonso Hernández Catá (1885-1940: “Los chinos” (1924 and “El gato” (1933. In these texts, Asian characters are described as grotesque and monstrous beings like the ones found in the Gothic genre. Moreover, this monstrosity is depicted as a contagious disease that threatens to infect and destabilize the boundaries between life and death, sanity and insanity, the familiar and the unknown, the West and the East.
Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende analizar la reformulación del concepto de nacionalismo llevada adelante por el pensador marxista argentino Juan José Hernández Arregui. Para alcanzar este objetivo, el intelectual buscó diferenciarse de los planteos efectuados por el pensamiento hegemónico tanto de derecha como de izquierda, confrontando a su vez de manera directa con el liberalismo y la generación de escritores y artistas exponentes de esas ideas en la región. Desde sus primeros artículos periodísticos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta los últimos trabajos durante la década de 1970, Hernández Arregui pondrá especial énfasis en las particularidades de los países coloniales y semicoloniales del mundo y de Latinoamérica en particular. Para ello atribuirá gran importancia a aspectos soslayados por el marxismo ortodoxo, como las manifestaciones culturales y su interrelación siempre compleja y no mecánica con un ciclo económico determinado, construyendo en consecuencia un esquema epistemológico original cuya riqueza y validez es importante revisar desde la actualidad.
Shrestha, Sarina Selling Renewable Energy in Nepal Year 2012 Pages 74 This study has been conducted for the CONNECT Project of Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The main research question addressed in the thesis is whether Finnish companies should start a renewable energy business in Nepal. This process involved investigating the current renewable energy business and markets in Nepal. The main objective of this research is to support the growth and sp...
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the opticians’ perspective about selling and applying contact lenses (CL in the provincial centre of Mersin. Materials and Methods: Twenty opticians who work in the 4 main districts in the provincial centre of Mersin were included in the study. A questionnaire form which was prepared before was filled out by the participants. Results: Seventy-eight percent of the opticians were selling CL without prescription, whereas 25% also carried out its fitting. Seventyfive percent of the participants did not get any education about contact lenses, while 65% of them were feeling themselves disqualified about CLs. Furthermore, half of the participants did not have enough knowledge about the complications associated with CL usage and 75% of them wanted to receive information about CLs. Conclusion: As a result of the questionnaire, we found out that a significant part of the participants were both selling and fitting contact lenses without prescription. We believe that auditing the opticians is as important as educating the contact lens users. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 102-104
Kuusk, Priit, 1938-
D. Shostakovitshi 25. surma-aastapäevale pühendatud mälestusüritusest Inglismaal. Wexfordi ooperifestivalist Iirimaal. Saksa festivalist Tage Alter Musik Herne (9.-12. nov.). BBC SO uueks alaliseks kontserdipaigaks sai Barbican Hall Londonis, pidulikust avakontserdist
Hernández Rondán, Patricia
¿Por qué la estética de lo grotesco sigue vigente en el arte gráfico actual Mexicano? ¿A qué se debe la incondicional adhesión del maestro Víctor Hernández a las técnicas y procedimientos tradicionales de la gráfica frente a los nuevos medios, soportes y materiales desarrollados por la industria tecnológica? ¿Cómo ha logrado alcanzar la exquisitez y madurez técnica en la linografía y a su vez abrazarla como su medio de expresión más afín y acorde a su carácter y personalidad? A través de una ...
Carlos Enrique Silva Rios
Full Text Available Se reseña el libro Formulaciones de proyectos de tesis en ciencias sociales. Manual de supervivencia para estudiantes de pre- y posgrado, de Javier Bassi y Pablo Hernández. El punto de partida de los autores es una inconformidad con los manuales existentes. Para superar esa inconformidad, presentan como alternativa un texto que deja clara la necesidad de tener un posición epistemológica antes de comenzar a formular un proyecto de investigación. Luego, presentan una serie de requisitos, recomendaciones y ejemplos sobre cómo se realiza una tesis. Finalmente, ofrecen una guía sobre cómo redactar el producto final de la investigación.
Francisco Javier Díez de Revenga
Full Text Available La publicación de los sonetos incluidos en El rayo que no cesa puso de relieve que Miguel Hernández aprendió a construirlos en los clásicos de nuestro Siglo de Oro y, entre ellos, quizá más aún que en ningún otro, en Lope de Vega, al que por aquellos años seguía igualmente de forma muy fiel en sus dramas Los hijos de la piedra y El labrador de más aire. En El rayo que no cesa logró, sin embargo, una cierta independencia y originalidad al conseguir revitalizar un esquema clásico y al obtener de él resultados óptimos en todos y cada uno de los poemas que componen su libro publicado en 1936, tras las conmemoraciones del centenario de Lope en 1935.
Full Text Available The University of Debrecen, Department of Meteorology has carried out research into the climatic and social-economic conditions of the Hernád valley in the scope of a scientific project (OTKA K 75794 between 2009 and 2012. The aim is to find out the optimal area for wind and solar energy, as well as biomass utilization. Our purpose is to work out a model wherein the complex evaluation of natural and social-economic conditions and effects can eventually result in a sustainable and conflictfree land use. The results of the research will be useful in working out a regional improvement based on the use of renewable energy sources to help the local decision-making process.
Full Text Available Humberto Hernández, filólogo español y catedrático de la Universidad de La Laguna es el autor de Una palabra ganada - Notas lingüísticas, libra publicado en el año 2002 por Altasur Ediciones de La Laguna, Tenerife, en la colección Ensayo. El título del libro Una palabra ganada es un verso de Rilke y refleja bien el objetivo de la obra: el interés por los problemas normativos de la lengua. Con palabras de Manuel Seco, autor del prólogo, “nada lees ajeno a Humberto Hernández. Siempre tiene algo que decir de este milagro del lenguaje, aunque sea para mostrar los tristes harapos que con él nos hacemos los hablantes«.
Full Text Available A series of ethical and religious themes, motives and concerns are shown,which are recurrent in the less studied poetic work of Efrén Hernández. Standingout are the themes of interior life and spiritual experience , manifested inthe search for God and transcendence, in the spiritual journey and autoscopicregard of man, as well as in human love and in the question regarding good andevil. These traditional issues of lyric poetry are treated here in an unorthodoxmanner. Efrén Hernández uses inversion and irony to subvert the religious motives:the search is a longing for mystical rapture, yet not accomplished, an unfructuousdesire of union with transcendence. Likewise, human contradictionsderived from the oppositions of flesh and spirit, as well as reason and passion,which lead to a poetic of rejection and renouncement.
Formentín Ibáñez, Justo
Full Text Available With documents of Ibáñez Martin archives, the authors explain several political negotiations in order to obtain Franco's amnesty for the poet Miguel Hernández in 1940.Se aporta nueva documentación, procedente del archivo Ibáñez Martín, sobre las gestiones que se hicieron para que Franco indultara al poeta Miguel Hernández en 1940.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the effectiveness of the short selling ban, and questions it with critiques from comparative empirical data. Authors have argued that the ban on short selling hit trading volumes but did not necessarily reduce market volatility. Today market regulators are seeking to rebuild a short selling policy that allows covered short selling while reducing the risk of market abuse. The reinforced framework must include rules and regulations that increase market efficiency, enhance the visibility of short selling to regulators and to investors, improve regulators’ responsiveness to market failures and periods of extreme volatility, and enforce anti-abuse laws consistently and judiciously. Although most regulators have allowed their short sale bans to lapse and seem to be thinking constructively about the form of future regulation, the dust has not settled on the short sale debate. As the events of the year 2010 outline, short selling regulations tend to mirror the capital markets they oversee. The author questions if the capital market in Montenegro is ready to lift the short selling ban and to allow speculative trading again.
Science popularization is ÒtheÓ tool to bridge the gap between society at large and the world of science. Compared to formal science communication Ð science taught in schools Ð informal science communication, made by the TV, the press, Òscience centresÓ and visits to scientific laboratories, has an important advantage: it makes the public meet science in a direct, informal way and on its own terms. The public is given an opportunity to develop a personal relationship with science, according to the needs, interests and abilities of the individual. But selling science is a tough job. The object of the sale is not a consumer good, but rather ideas and concepts that are sometimes so complex and distant from common sense that translating them into a comprehensible language and creating interest in the public without betraying the scientific truth is almost impossible. In the research work conducted for the thesis the importance of adopting a marketing approach in science communication is presented. Any scien...
Tamara Milagros Rodríguez Cardoso
Full Text Available The research objective was to diagnose and identify pests, diseases and weeds in sugarcane cultivars at the Sugar Enterprise ‘Melanio Hernández’ in Sancti Spíritus in order to develop a pest management program that started from the identification of phytosanitary-related problems and the available resources in the agroecosystem. As primary pests, Diatraea saccharalis Fab., three species of rodents, the Yellowing Leaf Syndrome (YLS, Ustilago scitaminea H. Sydow and seven species of weeds, were identified. As secondary pests, the cuters species ( Leucania sp., L. unipuncta, L. inconspicua, L. cinericolis and the sugar cane rust(Puccinia melanocephala H.y P. Sydow., were identified. The levels of incidence of primary and secondary pests showed differences among the varieties and among the three agricultural cooperatives at the Enterprise. Seven species of natural enemy of borer (bioregulators Leucania spp and Mocis spp., primary or secondary crop pests, were observed to be associated to sugarcane. 16 plant species were determined to show repellent properties or phytopesticides in this sugar cane agroecosystem, but only Eucalyptus showed to have its push effect on borer. A system of pest management program for sugar cane was developed that included measures starting from the local resources identified in the agroecosystem.
Nini Johanna Sánchez Ávila
Full Text Available En 1996 aparece publicada la obra Donde ladrón no llega, del escritor paraguayo Luis Hernáez; este trabajo plantea una nueva lectura de la experiencia de las Reducciones Jesuitas en el Paraguay. Es, precisamente, esa forma de valoración en la recreación de la historia la que motiva este texto, ya que presenta una reconstrucción y una mirada crítica sobre un proyecto utópico adelantado en América. Tal propuesta es evaluada desde las voces de aquellos que –aún siendo protagonistas directos del evento social- no tuvieron una voz que se destacara en la delimitación de esta experiencia. Así, se abordará qué tipo de visión de la historia plantea el autor y cómo esta perspectiva se desarrolla en torno a una concepción específica de la propuesta de la utopía para América Latina.
Sheri Chinen Biesen
Full Text Available Film noir is known for its duplicity. Industry censors considered 1940s noir cinema provocative, salacious and ‘sordid.’ Hollywood studios walked a fine line between appearing to comply with Hays office Production Code censorship while simultaneously pushing the envelope of its moral constraints, then hyping and sensationalizing censorable sex, violence and hard-hitting themes to sell noir films to the public. In fact, studios capitalized on the racy explicit nature of noir pictures in publicity contradicting assurances of censorial compliance. For instance, censor Joseph Breen was “shocked” when MGM purchased James Cain’s The Postman Always Rings Twice. It was banned for a decade. Yet, ten years later as filmmakers adapted hardboiled fiction, Breen assured religious groups it would “not be offensive.” Yet, it was promoted as “torrid,” “too hot to handle” with Lana Turner in a bathing suit finding “Love at Laguna Beach” with hunky John Garfield who clamored, “You must be a she-devil,” suggesting far more sex, skin and “savage boldness” than is shown in the film. Film noir responded to Production Code censorship and other regulatory factors, including Office of War Information Bureau of Motion Pictures restrictions on Hollywood screen depictions of the domestic American home front (or overseas combat front, and Office of Censorship strictures such as a wartime ban on screen gangsters as ‘un-American’ for propaganda purposes in World War II-era noir films centering on criminals. These multiple censorship entities often collided. This regulatory climate catalyzed the development of film noir, a dark cycle of shadowy 1940s-50s crime films that boomed by World War II and evolved over the postwar era. I will investigate extensive primary archival research—including scripts, memos from industry censors, writers, directors, producers, and publicity records—to compare how film noir was censored and sold.
Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S
Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.
The purpose of the thesis was to provide recommendations for how the studied company could improve their Facebook marketing activities. The company was the Danish subsidiary of an multinational direct selling company of health and beauty products. The following research questions were devised: 1) What are the constraints and challenges for LR Denmark’s facebook marketing as a subsidiary of a Multinational Corporation and as a Direct Selling Company? 2) How can LR Denmark improve the...
Should we be allowed to sell blood, or kidneys? The standard answer is no. A broad consensus in international regulatory documents supports a ban on all forms of sale of organs and human body parts. This consensus has, however, been critiqued and prominent calls made for „ economic rewards to motivate blood donation“ and for regulated markets for human organs. Opposition to selling human organs is usually based on risks of harms for vendors and buyers, the potential for exploitation in an asy...
Manuela Aroca Mohedano
Full Text Available La nueva situación internacionai surgida tras el final de la II Guerra Mundial propició la recuperación de las instituciones republicanas españolas en el exilio. Juan Hernández Saravia, un militar profesional, azañista y republicano, será el ministro de la Defensa Nacional de la República Española. Entre posibilidades reales y utopías, a caballo entre la defensa a ultranza de la legalidad y la protección de los movimientos clandestinos antifranquistas, en medio de las disensiones de los militares exiliados dispersos en varios continentes, discurrirá la actuación de un Ministerio que tendrá como objetivo principal la recuperación del ejército para la futura restaurada República y que verá truncadas sus expectativas por la aparición en el panorama mundial de los primeros.A Minister in exile for tfie Republic Defence: Juan Hernández Saravia The new International situation arisen after the end of the Second World War led to the recovery of Spanish Republic Institutions in exile. Juan Hernández Saravia, an army officer, republican and adherent to Azaña, became the National Defence Minister of Spanish Republic. Among real possibilities and utopia, halfway between a vigorous legality defence and the protection of clandestino movements against Franco's dictatorship, the main objective of this Ministery was the army recovery for the futuro restoring Republic, but the early Cold War shattered these prospects.
Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.
Manuela Aroca Mohedano
La nueva situación internacionai surgida tras el final de la II Guerra Mundial propició la recuperación de las instituciones republicanas españolas en el exilio. Juan Hernández Saravia, un militar profesional, azañista y republicano, será el ministro de la Defensa Nacional de la República Española. Entre posibilidades reales y utopías, a caballo entre la defensa a ultranza de la legalidad y la protección de los movimientos clandestinos antifranquistas, en medio de las disensiones de los milit...
Pakkanen, Mikko; Lukkarinen, Jani
We show that a trader, who starts with no initial wealth and is not allowed to borrow money or short sell assets, is theoretically able to attain positive wealth by continuous trading, provided that she has perfect foresight of future asset prices, given by a continuous semimartingale. Such an ar......We show that a trader, who starts with no initial wealth and is not allowed to borrow money or short sell assets, is theoretically able to attain positive wealth by continuous trading, provided that she has perfect foresight of future asset prices, given by a continuous semimartingale...
Full Text Available One of the most remarkable recent developments in Colombian twentieth century history is the success of the indigenous political movement. This article argues that this success was due in part to the nation state’s willingness to support an ethnically based political movement. The article explores the gradual development of a discourse and political space that favoured the indigenous communities’ demand for land and cultural rights by focusing on one of the main architects of this discourse and political space: Gregorio Hernández de Alba, an ethnologist who became the director of the Division of Indigenous Affairs in the 1960s. Through the study of his life, this article delves into the different stages of the relationship between the Colombian state and the indigenous movement as well as mapping out the interaction between anthropologists and indigenous communities in southwestern Colombia. Through Hernández, the Colombian state legitimized the most important demands of the present day indigenous movement.Resumen: Gregorio Hernández de Alba (1904-1973: La legitimación de las políticas indígenas étnicas en ColombiaUno de los desarrollos recientes más notables en la historia colombiana del siglo veinte, es el éxito del movimiento político indígena. En este artículo se sostiene que este éxito se debió en parte a la voluntad del estado-nación para apoyar un movimiento político de bases étnicas. El artículo explora el desarrollo gradual de un discurso y de un espacio políticos que favorecía la demanda de tierra y de derechos culturales de las comunidades indígenas, concentrándose en uno de los principales arquitectos de este espacio y discurso político: Gregorio Hernández de Alba, un etnólogo que llegó a ser director de la División de Asuntos Indígenas en los años sesenta. Mediante un estudio de su vida, este artículo profundiza en las diferentes fases de la relaci
Mixed reports have shown that different variables account for differences in the psychological wellbeing of bank employees in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study examined the contributions of perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity on psychological wellbeing among ...
Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.
A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…
A librarian may be comfortable with the idea of using a blog, wiki, or other social application with students, but other stakeholders in his or her community may not be so sure. Any technology maverick looking to sell the use of Web-based applications will, at some point, have to make the case. This article presents some of the most common…
London: Routledge: Taylor and Francis. 2013 Reprint Edition,. 297 pages. ISBN: 0415721563. Corruption and post-conflict peacebuilding: Selling the peace? is a veritable gold mine. Its organisation is intelligent and coherent, and its range and coverage are appropriately encyclopaedic. This volume deals with the ...
Aurelio Nieto Codina
Full Text Available Eduardo Hernández-Pacheco desarrolló en la primera mitad del siglo XX una importante labor de investigación en relación con las llamadas ciencias de la Tierra, aunque básicamente y por formación fue geólogo, la Geografía tuvo un papel destacado entre su producción científica al lado de otras muchas disciplinas. El paisaje natural aparece como objeto de estudio en algunas de sus publicaciones, especialmente en Fisiografía del Solar Hispano (1956, una creación fundamental de la cultura científica española del siglo XX, aquí no solo se hace una regionalización del país en función del paisaje sino que se presenta además una teoría sobre el mismo. Hernández-Pacheco también fue pionero en la lucha por la protección de la naturaleza, colaborando en la creación de la figura de los Parques Naturales, y en el uso de la fotografía como herramienta fundamental de investigación.Eduardo Hernandez-Pacheco developed in the first half of the twentieth century an important research regarding in geoscience, although basically and in his first training was geologist, Geography played a leading role among his scientific beside many other disciplines. The natural landscape appears as an object of study in some of its publications, especially in Fisiografía del Solar Hispano (1956, a fundamental creation of the Spanish scientific culture of the twentieth century, here not only a regionalization of the country in terms of landscape is made but also creates a theory on it. Hernández-Pacheco was also a pioneer in the struggle for the protection of nature, working for the creation of the Natural Spanish Parks, and the use of photography as a research tool.
Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng
The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...
One of the main objectives of a farmer is to sell his final agricultural produce so as to maximize his profits. While he has several options, in terms of the markets where he can sell his produce, he is faced with a dilemma of identifying a market where he should sell his produce. There are several factors, like. the distance of the ...
Sánchez Jiménez, A.
This article catalogs and comments the books relating to Hernán Cortés and his conquest of Mexico and New Spain that are kept in the John Carter Brown Library rare book collections. In addition, this article provides information about the John Carter Brown Fellowship program, which may be of
Full Text Available Thomas, Hernán, Santos, Guillermo y Fressoli, Mariano (compiladores, Innovar en Argentina. Seis trayectorias empresariales basadas en estrategias intensivas en conocimiento, Carapachay, Lenguaje Claro Editora, 2013 (260 págs., ISBN 978-987-28747-3-5.
Kuusk, Priit, 1938-
Jaapani kunstide auhinna "Praemium Imperiale" laureaatidest. Lääne-Saksa Raadio festivalist "Herne", tänavu pealkirja all "Spiel auf, Europa!". C. Halffteri uudisooper "Don Quijote" tuleb maailmaesiettekandele Madridis 2000. a. veebruaris. Soome muusikute kontsertidest sügishooajal Baierimaal ja Münchenis
Aracil Varón, Beatriz
Texto esencial de la Crónica de Indias, las Cartas de relación de Hernán Cortés pueden considerarse uno de los máximos ejemplos del “discurso mitificador” de la empresa imperial en América y primer modelo literario de creación de la imagen heroica del conquistador español. El presente artículo señala algunos de los recursos que Cortés supo aprovechar de los cauces genéricos ofrecidos por la escritura de la época para la configuración de dicha imagen modélica, mostrando a continuación, a travé...
Laura Corona Martínez
Full Text Available Una de las singularidades de la escritura de Felisberto Hernández es su construcción original de un relato laxo, lábil, en cuanto a la estructura y organización narrativa que le da soporte. Resulta fácil identificar en sus cuentos cierta forma errática, digresiva, sin final concluyente, obra de un narrador entregado a las asociaciones más que al eje cognoscitivo, epistémico, de una historia (el arquetipo de esta descripción se encontraría rápidamente en el volumen Nadie encendía las lámparas,...
Full Text Available The work tries to consider «Refranes o proverbios en romance» by Hernán Núñez, the Greek Commander, a peculiar work that appears in an important moment of the Spanish history and literature. It is also remarkable for being a posthumuous work because his author did not want to publish it in life or to leave it unknown. The study focus on the peculiarities of all type, from the purely linguistic ones to those which have to do with the literature, without forgetting the circunstances of the author and the relationships that this collection of proverbs has with other previous and later ones (Valles, Mal Lara, Correas, Spanish and foreigners. The work genesis, its originalilty and repercussion..., and the editions from the first to the last one (2001 are also studied. Hernán Núñez, Professor at Salamanca University, prestigious philologist at his time, publisher and translator of classical editions, decides to make a collection of proverbs at the end of his life, the most plentiful ever known. So that he does not mind using any procedure to get the proverbs: from buying them to his students to going to other compilations, hand-written or in progress. His relationship with the Erasmism and humanists of the age are shown in these pages which include clearly irreverent, anticlerical and scatological proverbs that shocked later writers.El trabajo pretende considerar la obra Refranes o proverbios en romance (1555 de Hernán Núñez, Comendador Griego, una obra curiosa que aparece en un momento crucial de la historia y de la literatura españolas. Se da la particularidad además de que es obra póstuma porque su autor no quiso que se publicara en vida, pero tampoco que quedara inédita. El estudio se centra en las peculiaridades de todo tipo, desde las puramente lingüísticas a las que tienen que ver con lo literario, sin dejar de considerar las circunstancias personales del autor y las relaciones que este refranero tiene con otros anteriores y
Navascués Palacio, Pedro
Hace algo más de treinta años publiqué un breve trabajo sobre el Libro de Arquitectura del arquitecto Hernán Ruiz el Jovenl , una de las figuras más sobresalientes del renacimiento español que trabajó en Sevilla pero con amplia repercusión en toda Andalucía. Si recordamos ahora que su nombre está unido al de la arquitectura de la Giralda, podrá medirse su verdadero alcance universal al haber hecho de esta torre hispano-musulmana una de las imágenes más poderosas, elegantes y ex...
Juan José Pulido González
Full Text Available The current report resumes the 1st De Frutos-Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress, held in San Juan de Alicante (Spain from the 27th to the 30th of June in 2013. Three plenary sessions in classroom, 12 oral communications, a round – table, 2 theoretical – practical workshops on tatami, and 3 randori sessions were developed. This congress was a new event where judo personalities at the international level as well as scientists from the whole Spanish geography interested in this field assisted. The event complied the aim to approach the science to judo professionals and vice versa. A total amount of 112 participants were in the congress.
I estimate the aggregate income elasticity of Wal-Mart's and Target's revenues using quarterly data for 1997-2006. I find that Wal-Mart's revenues increase during bad times, whereas Target's revenues decrease, consistent with Wal-Mart selling "inferior goods" in the technical sense of the term. An upper bound on the aggregate income elasticity of demand for Wal-Mart's wares is -0.5.
Gabriela Alejandra Caretta
Full Text Available Para muchos, inclusive para sus propios habitantes, decir Salta es hablar de un pasado colonial, identificado y constreñido al adjetivo de hispánico. Los museos históricos son constructores de memoria, la casa de Hernández, según la palabra canonizada de algún historiador, habría pertenecido al gobernador intendente de Salta Dn. Juan de Hernández y Enríquez. La historia que se había construido sobre la casa estaba muy vinculada a esa memoria de prosapia ibérica. Sin embargo los datos de investigaciones realizadas nos muestran en sus habitantesya desde su construcción en el siglo XVIII y hasta 1970- a un conjunto de hombres, mujeres y niños pertenecientes a diferentes sectores de la sociedad, en algunos casos mestizos y migrantes, dedicados a distintas actividades como las de pulpero, sombrerero o colchonero. Esto nos ha enfrentado a la difícil tarea de intentar deconstruir esa "memoria de lustre hispánico" sostenida por la historia oficial y proponer, a través de la investigación crítica y documentada de las historias de los propietarios y habitantes de esta casa colonial, una versión de los procesos históricos que incluya a los distintos actores y que de cuenta de un pasado, que al igual que nuestro presente, resulta multiétnico y multicultural.
Álvarez Peláez, Raquel
Full Text Available The most important source of knowledge and diffusion of the great American work from Hernández, was carried out starting from the selection and summary produced by the Napolitan physician Nardo Antonio Recchi. Starting from his manuscript they were published the Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus (Rome 1651, piece prepared by the Accademia dei Lincei, and the Four Books of Nature (Mexico, 1615, carried out by Brother Francisco Ximénez with the intention —intention that also had Recchi— of having a practical handbook of medicine utilizing the American products. This paper treats, essentially, of those works.
La fuente de conocimiento y difusión más importante de la gran obra americana de Hernández, se realizó a partir de la selección y compendio elaborado por el médico napolitano Nardo Antonio Recchi. A partir de su manuscrito se editaron el Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus (Roma 1651, obra preparada por la Accademia dei Lincei, y los Cuatro Libros de la naturaleza (México, 1615, realizado por Fray Francisco Ximénez con la intención —intención que también tenía Recchi— de tener un manual práctico de medicina utilizando los productos americanos. De estas obras trata, esencialmente, este trabajo.
Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt; Baumann, Holger; Biller-Andorno, Nikola
Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved. One prominent argument regarding this appeals to the notion of human dignity. It is argued that organ selling violates human dignity. This paper presents a systematic discussion of dignity-based arguments in the organ selling debate, and then develops a social account of dignity. It is argued that allowing the practice of organ selling inherently runs the risk of promoting the notion that some persons have less worth than others and that persons have a price, which is incompatible with dignity. The approach is defended against possible objections and it is shown that it can capture the notion that autonomy is linked to human dignity in important ways, while dignity at the same time can constrain the autonomous choices of persons with regards to certain practices.
Li, Hongyan Jenny
With the rapid development of E-commerce, advance selling has become a common practice in the retailing industry. In this paper, we look into a joint optimization problem of multiple and dynamic marketing decisions when advance selling is applied. It is assumed that a retailer sells a product...... with a short selling season. Thiscan be a perishable or deteriorating item. The retailer launches advance selling before the stock actually arrives at the market in order to extend the selling season. Thereby, the retailer increases the awareness of the potential consumers to the new product. The dual...... marketing efforts of advertising and price discounting are employed during the entire selling season. We first model and analyze the dynamic demand generating process based on an extension of Bass’ Model. The marketing decision problem is modeled as a deterministic Markov decision-making process. A dynamic...
Christian W. Kretzmann
Full Text Available Our study documents that the information content and the information processing of stock recommendations differ fundamentally between expansions and recessions. The initial market reaction to all recommendations is stronger in recessions, but “Buy” recommendations do not have long-term investment value. We find that in recessions sell side analysts are too optimistic about the stocks they recommend to buy, while investors initially overreact to these recommended stocks. In expansions, no such contradicting pattern exists. We also document that analysts favor “glamour” over “value” stocks irrespective of the state of the economy.
Full Text Available Direct selling, as a type of relationship marketing, facilitates the construction of a customized relation between the company and its clients and assures a long term collaboration between the two parts. For a direct selling company, direct marketing is a powerfull tool used to build strong relationships with the clients. There are more viewpoints regarding the relation between direct selling and direct marketing. The purpose of the research is to investigate the relation between direct selling through salesmen and/or catalogues and direct marketing. The objectives are: (1 to synthetize the approaches regarding the direct selling through salesmen and/or catalogues as a type of direct marketing; (2 to present and to argue the researcher’s own viewpoint. We consider that direct selling is a component of direct marketing.
Francisco Hernández est envoyé en Nouvelle Espagne en 1570, à la demande de Philippe II, pour une enquête scientifique sur les plantes médicinales indiennes. Son mandat initial est de cinq ans mais pour traiter de la médecine traditionnelle (plantes) indienne de toute l’Amérique (Caraïbes, Nouvelle Espagne, Pérou), voire de l’Asie (Philippines, Chine). De la médecine Hernández glisse à l’histoire naturelle en ajoutant les plantes non médicinales, les animaux et les minéraux. Et il parvient à ...
Roberto Luis Tortorella
Full Text Available Este artículo propone abordar las representaciones del intelectual de Jorge Abelardo Ramos y Juan José Hernández Arregui durante la década del '50 y discutir la relación de aquéllas con una modalidad específica de inserción en los campos intelectual y político de la época, caracterizada como de naturaleza "plenamente oposicional" y "antiintelectualista". Se postula que tal tesitura formó parte de un dispositivo para figurar una legitimación de su condición de hombres de ideas: mientras Ramos manifestó su voluntad de constituirse en agente privilegiado para la elaboración de una "teoría de lo nacional", Hernández Arregui se pensó a sí mismo como el intérprete de la "autoconciencia popular"
Herrero Romero, Sebastián
Full Text Available Felix Hernández’s (1889-1975 professional activities as an architect were largely devoted to archaeological investigations in the most outstanding buildings of Islamic culture. This article deals with his restoration interventions in the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba and the criteria that guided them. Always based on the rigor of his archaeological and documentary research, Hernández was the architect involved for the longest period of time in the conservation work on this building. For this reason, it is interesting to examine the evolution of his activities from the Republican period through the Franco regime and discover the influences on the criteria used in his work.La actividad profesional del arquitecto Félix Hernández (1889-1975 estuvo dedicada en buena parte a las investigaciones arqueológicas en los edificios más notables de la cultura islámica. Este artículo pretende mostrar las intervenciones que en materia de restauración llevó a cabo en la Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba y los criterios que las guiaron. Apoyado siempre en el rigor de sus investigaciones arqueológicas y documentales, Hernández ha sido el arquitecto que durante un mayor periodo de tiempo ha participado en las labores de conservación de este edificio. Por ese motivo, nos interesa conocer la evolución de su actividad desde la etapa republicana hasta el franquismo y cuáles fueron las influencias en los criterios seguidos en su labor.
Manuel Mollá Ruiz-Gómez
Full Text Available Eduardo Hernández-Pacheco, uno de los geólogos más notables del pasado siglo XX, tuvo un extraordinario interés por el concepto de paisaje, desarrollado en el artículo “El paisaje en general y las características del paisaje hispano”, publicado en 1934 en el Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza. Con una clara influencia de Alejandro de Humboldt, su visión del paisaje es naturalista. Esto no quiere decir que no aparezcan los seres humanos, con sus ganados, sus cultivos, sus monumentos del pasado, etc., siempre que conserven su carácter tradicional y su relación con el medio en el que se desarrollan. Junto a sus textos, sus fotografías de paisaje forman un legado fundamental para entender su concepción del paisaje y su peso en la historia del paisaje español del siglo XX. El presente artículo se plantea su estudio basado en una de sus obras fundamentales, Fisiografía del Solar Hispano, con especial énfasis en su visión del paisaje a través de la fotografía.
César Augusto Ayala Diago.
Full Text Available El artículo trata de reconstruir y analizar algunos instantes de la vida pública del psiquiatra y teólogo colombiano Hernán Vergara Delgado (muerto el 21 de julio de 1999, en particular aquéllos que lo marcaron y que pasaron a ser referentes obligatorios en su vida y obra: el "Movimiento Testimonio", entre 1949 y 1957; su posterior lucha contra la politica demográfica del presidente Carlos Lleras Restrepo; y, finalmente, su vinculación con la Anapo, en la década del sesenta. El artículo analiza el paso de Vergara por este movimiento politico, considerado por él como el único comprometido en el desmonte de las medidas anticonceptivas del Frente Nacional. El artículo demuestra que la influencia espiritual de Vergara en Rojas Pinilla fue decisiva para que el general no reclamara el triunfo electoral de 1970.
Full Text Available The direct selling industry suffers a high turnover rate of salespeople, resulting in high costs of training new salespeople. Further costs are incurred when broken relationships with customers cause them to switch from one product supplier to another. This study identifies twelve factors that drive the switching behaviour of direct sales customers and examines the extent to which these factors influence switching. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the validity of these factors. The factors were represented in a model that posits that an interpersonal relationship between a direct sales person and a customer moderates the relationship between switching behaviour and loyalty. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. The author then discusses the empirical findings and their managerial implications, providing further avenues for research.
Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.
Roehner, Bertrand M.
It is a common belief that the behavior of shareholders depends upon the direction of price fluctuations: if prices increase they buy, if prices decrease they sell. That belief, however, is more based on ``common sense'' than on facts. In this paper, we present evidence for a specific class of shareholders which shows that the actual behavior of shareholders can be markedly different. For instance, they may continue to buy despite a prolonged fall in prices or they may sell even though prices climb. A closer analysis shows that a substantial proportion of investors are more influenced by the ``general social climate'' than by actual price changes. The percentage of speculative investors who optimize their portfolio on a monthly basis can be estimated and turns out to be about 5 to 10%. The results presented in this paper can be of usefulness in order to test the assumptions or the results of market simulations and models.
The development of selling in the twentieth century parallel the growth of modern marketing. Sales management has become a more professionally and customer oriented endeavour in line with the philosophy of the marketing concept. The focus of selling in advanced economies has shifted to and increased emphasis on ...
... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve the...
Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.
Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...
Merlin, F. Mary
Direct selling is a multi-level marketing in which the sales force is compensated not only for the sales they make but also for the sales done through their recruit. This recruited sales force is referred to as the participants who can provide multiple levels of compensation.A person's job would be to recruit others to sell their product, and in return, receive a percentage of their sales. The next person's job then is to recruit people even more so below them, and receive a percentage of their sales. Other terms for Multi-level marketing include network marketing and referral marketing. Commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship through referrals marketing. Some people use direct selling as a synonym for MLM, although MLM is only one type of direct selling
Elizabeth L. Hochberg
Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende examinar las referencias y descripciones de la fotografía y también de la escultura en un cuento temprano del escritor mexicano Efrén Hernández, “El señor de palo” (1932. Exploraremos cómo los diversos momentos ecfrásticos de esta obra apuntan hacia las propias preocupaciones vanguardistas del escritor sobre la interrelación de las artes y las posibilidades (y limitaciones de distintos medios de representación artística. En el cuento por analizar, veremos cómo las aproximaciones verbales del narrador al arte visual funcionan como interpretaciones activas y hasta como actos de creación suplementarios e independientes a lo visto, en vez de ser copias o traducciones verbales sumisas al arte “original”. This article will examine both descriptions and references to photography and sculpture in an early short story by the Mexican writer Efrén Hernández, “El señor de palo” (1932, with the objective of exploring how the ekphrastic moments in this text shed light on the author’s own avant-garde concerns regarding interartistic relations and the possibilities (and limitations of different kinds of artistic representation. In our analysis of Hernández’s story, we will see how the narrator’s verbal approximations to the visual arts function as active interpretations and even as independent and supplementary creations, thereby challenging the notion of ekphrasis as a passive or faithful verbal copy of “original” art.
María Luisa Pérez Bernardo
Full Text Available Resumen: Emilia Pardo Bazán al escribir Hernán Cortés y sus hazañas, y al publicar toda una serie de artículos en la prensa periódica de la época sobre el conquistador español, quería revalorar la imagen que España había tenido a lo largo de la historia. En concreto, doña Emilia quería contrarrestar la historiografía que había surgido a partir del siglo XVII en Europa, aquella que había difundido la leyenda negra, aprovechándose de todos los medios a su alcance para desprestigiar el papel de España durante la conquista y colonización de América. En este ensayo, se analizará no sólo la novela Hernán Cortés y sus hazañas, sino también una serie de artículos que aparecieron en diversas revistas, en los que Emilia Pardo Bazán trataba este tema.Summary: When Emilia Pardo Bazán wrote Hernán Cortés and his heroic deeds, she wanted to re-evaluate the image that Spain had throughout history. In other words, Bazán wanted to counteract the historiography that had emerged after the 17th century in Europe: The historiography that had spread the black legend that wanted to discredit the role of Spain during the American conquest and colonization. In this essay, I will analyze not only Hernán Cortés and his heroic deeds, but also a series of articles by Bazán dealing with the conquistador that appeared in different magazines.
Iván Guerra, Aurelio
ResumenEn la historiografía del siglo XIX la conquista de México fue interpretada como un acontecimiento sacado de los libros de caballerías españoles del siglo XVI. Sin embargo, con el paso de los años, tanto la ausencia de referencias a los libros de caballerías como la ética guerrera de Hernán Cortés, que es opuesta a la del caballero andante, han propiciado interpretaciones alejadas del modelo de aventura caballeresca. El empleo de la fuerza desmedida y el fraude por parte de Cortés han h...
Gustavo Casas Andreu
Full Text Available Aunque se ha escrito abundantemente acerca del naturalista Francisco Hernández, quien viajó a la Nueva España en el siglo XVI, consideramos que no se ha dado el crédito suficiente a su obra como naturalista y su impacto en la zoología de México y del mundo. Después de reinterpretar su información referente a anfibios y reptiles, se ha actualizado y se han agregado 15 especies a las 71 indicadas por autores anteriores, se confirmaron tres y corrigieron tres nuevas especies de las listas previas.
García Bustos, Irene
En las páginas siguientes se exponen los trabajos realizados por la autora durante las prácticas curriculares del Máster Universitario en Conservación del Patrimonio Cultural de la UCM, llevadas a cabo en el Departamento de Conservación de la Biblioteca Histórica de la UCM bajo convenio específico con la Facultad de Bellas Artes. Los trabajos se centraron en la conservación y reinstalación de las placas fotográficas del Archivo Hernández-Pacheco, cuyas necesidades de conservación ya fueron...
Sitgés Maciá, Esther; Bonete López, Beatriz
La inversión de la pirámide poblacional va acompañada de una concienciación por parte del colectivo de mayores en el mantenimiento y mejora de su calidad de vida, preocupándose por aspectos cognitivos, sociales y emocionales, y enfatizando, cada vez más, su interés en la formación a lo largo de todo el ciclo vital. En el presente trabajo mostraremos los datos del estudio realizado con 74 alumnos sobre la satisfacción con el Programa Universitarios para Mayores de la Universidad Miguel Hernánd...
Sõrg, Mart, 1943-
Insaiderluse all mõistetakse avalikustamata siseteabe ärakasutamist väärtpaberitega kauplemisel. Eestis seostatakse insaiderluse mõistega eelkõige pangandus- ja muud finantssektorit ja selle töötajaid
have a statistically significant impact on the share of enterprises that sell online. This means that these two factors together have a crucial role in determining the ICT development level in European enterprises.
Manzoor, Ayesha; Manzoor, Kiran
Salesperson performance is essential to commercialise and sell a new product in the market. It is significant to investigate determinants that affect salesperson performance while selling new products. Theories of reasoned action and perceived behavioural control were examined, which in turn shed light on different factors including attitude, self-efficacy, subjective norms, product and customer knowledge. Using the quantitative approach and survey method, the study attempted to obtain a clea...
This paper aims to describe and analyse possible impacts on selling online by enterprises as the main variable under consideration in the study, in selected European countries using five selected independent variables that represent the information and communication technology (ICT) and the economic development level. Data for 31 European countries were analysed. The paper presents recent trends in European enterprises in using online selling as one of many Internet services. Three groups of ...
Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L
A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs.
In this paper I discuss how the sales persons, at a computer retailing company, understand themselves as successful in interaction with their customers. The discussion introduces earlier research about success and successful selling, which also reveals the notion as socially constructed. The purpose has been to reveal how the sales person socially constructs, interprets and enact successful practical selling as well as competition in their every day practice. The discussion about the sales pe...
Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta
The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.
Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta
The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944
... or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 206.102 Section 206.102 Mineral Resources... Federal Oil § 206.102 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm... seller under the arm's-length contract, less applicable allowances determined under §§ 206.110 or 206.111...
N Е Aimautova
Full Text Available The article helms the reader to the results of the sociological services market observation. A basic selling scheme is outlined with the components of interactions space as well as the set of "must-have" psychological skills and competencies essential for the seller highlighted as factors of high priority. The principal stages of the selling process are identified. The notion of "offeror" who meets the desires of the client purchasing sociological services is introduced. The prominent role of psychological selling techniques is emphasized in the guidelines to be abided by the sociologist in order to prevent potential misunderstandings and conflicts as well as to establish new contacts and keep old ties with the client after making a deal.
Elena Maceviciute; Birgitta Wallin; Kersti Nilsson
This paper addresses the issue of the understanding of the book-selling situation as Swedish booksellers see it. It pursues the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the perceptions of Swedish booksellers of the impact of e-books on their business? 2. What drivers are important for Swedish booksellers for adopting and developing e-book sales through their own sales channels? 3. What do they perceive as barriers to e-book selling through their own channels? The authors ha...
Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help
Full Text Available Hernán Pérez de Oliva elabora una historia de la conquista de México a partir de una fuente concreta: la “Segunda carta de relación” de Hernán Cortés. Al escribir su relato introduce ciertos cambios formales que dejan en evidencia una posición ideológica distinta a la expresada por su fuente. Dos de los recursos retóricos a los que acude para realizar estos cambios son la brevitas y la amplificatio. Por último, esta distinción ideológica nos deja ver, a su vez, el carácter humanista de Pérez de Oliva frente a los significativos acontecimientos de la conquista de la Nueva España. Hernán Pérez de Oliva wrote a history of conquest of Mexico using a specific source: the “Second Letter” of Hernán Cortés. In his text Pérez de Oliva introduced some formal changes that reveal his ideological opinions, a point of view very different from the position of his source. Two of the rhetorical ways to produce those changes are brevitas and amplificatio. That ideological difference shows us the Pérez de Oliva’s humanist perspective about the landmark event of the conquest of the Nueva España.
Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens
to their customers and develop structural bonds. The inherent complexities of business relationships pose a major challenge for selling as such relationships can be considered an extra task for sales executives to deal with – and an extra investment for firms that try to develop business with new customers...
While there is not much literature directly related how to identify the best place to sell a com- modity to maximize profits, we review some of the related academic literature. It should be noted that almost all the work in this area is related to hedging, which unfortunately is not an option for the marginalized Indian farmer.
Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F
This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.
J. Vink (Jaap); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractIn this paper the relationship between adaptive selling and organizational behavior is analysed. Specifically, it is discovered that adaptive behavior is a multifaceted concept which is not linearly related to the organizational characteristics in the way it was operationalized in a
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Selling costs. 1631.205-75 Section 1631.205-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... advertising costs’, and The Federal Employees Health Benefits Handbook for Personnel and Payroll Offices...
Husted, Susan; Pinto, Joann; Romero, Silvia
This paper reports the results of a survey of winners of the Elijah Watt Sells award. We ask them about the determinants of their success, which might be useful to other students preparing for the CPA exam. The winners graduated from different universities, not necessarily the ones ranked top, and almost all of them participated in a review…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help business marketers with offline channels to make decisions on whether to sell through Group-buying (GB websites and how to set online price with the coordination of maximum deal size on GB websites. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the deal structure of GB websites especially for the service fee and minimum deal size limit required by GB websites, advertising effect of selling on GB websites, and interaction between online and offline markets, an analytical model is built to derive optimal online price and maximum deal size for sellers selling through GB website. This paper aims to answer four research questions: (1 How to make a decision on maximum deal size with coordination of the deal price? (2 Will selling on GB websites always be better than staying with offline channel only? (3 What kind of products is more appropriate to sell on GB website? (4How could GB website operator induce sellers to offer deep discount in GB deals? Findings and Originality/value: This paper obtains optimal strategies for sellers selling on GB website and finds that: Even if a seller has sufficient capacity, he/she may still set a maximum deal size on the GB deal to take advantage of Advertisement with Limited Availability (ALA effect; Selling through GB website may not bring a higher profit than selling only through offline channel when a GB site only has a small consumer base and/or if there is a big overlap between the online and offline markets; Low margin products are more suitable for being sold online with ALA strategies (LP-ALA or HP-ALA than high margin ones; A GB site operator could set a small minimum deal size to induce deep discounts from the sellers selling through GB deals. Research limitations/implications: The present study assumed that the demand function is determinate and linear. It will be interesting to study how stochastic demand and a more general demand function affect the optimal
J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling
The paper examined the relevance of personal selling in selected Bottling Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions of selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on selected samples while weighted mean was used to determine the relevance of personal selling. The study revealed that personal selling accentuated relationship building, foster creative selling, and represented the company well to the cu...
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of the understanding of the book-selling situation as Swedish booksellers see it. It pursues the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the perceptions of Swedish booksellers of the impact of e-books on their business? 2. What drivers are important for Swedish booksellers for adopting and developing e-book sales through their own sales channels? 3. What do they perceive as barriers to e-book selling through their own channels? The authors have employed the analysis of the secondary statistical data and a survey of Swedish booksellers to answer their questions. The results of the investigation have shown that the Swedish booksellers do not feel their bookshops, or business in general, are threatened by e-books. The opinions on e-books do not differ between the few selling e-books and others who do not offer this product. The reasons for selling e-books are well-functioning routines and personal interest in the product. The reasons for not selling the books are the lack of demand and technical resources as well as contractual agreements with e-book publishers or vendors. So, technical resources for e-book sales, routines, and contracts with publishers are the main premises for this activity. The biggest barriers to e-book sales are: a the price as one can see not only in the answers of the booksellers, but also in the drop of sales obviously related to the rise of prices during 2014; b lack of demand from customers who do not enquire about e-books in bookshops. This leads to the belief that e-books will be sold mostly online either directly from publishers and authors or through online booksellers. However, an equal number of booksellers believe that physical bookshops will be selling printed books and e-books in the future. The future of e-books seems to be quite secure and non-threatening to printed books from the point of view of booksellers. The growth of e-book sales is quite slow and the respondents
Timalsina, Arun Kumar
Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…
Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling strategies. In…
Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem
textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).
Full Text Available This research based on providing five questions has tried to identify and prioritize the main and sub inhibitors of internet selling boosting in Iran. A mixed method research (QUAN has been used in this research. In the qualitative phase, individual in-depth interviews have been done with seven e-shop managers. In this phase, 45 detailed inhibitors have been detected. These 45 inhibitors have been categorized in nine sub categories and four main categories. In the quantitative phase a 51-items questionnaires has been designed including six demographical and 45 specialized questions. Findings of the quantitative phase reveal that the main obstacles include legal, cultural, infrastructural and managerial inhibitors. In addition, sub category inhibitors include legal, governmental, telecommunication, society, human resource, transportation, financial and customer related. Keywords: e-selling, Iran, Inhibitors, Mixed method.
Full Text Available Sicily has become a food and wine area of great interest. However, conflicts within the supply chains have caused the selling process to become long and complex to the disadvantage of farmers, thereby leading to an information asymmetry between producers and consumers.In order to meet the new needs of the agrifood sector, we developed a theoretical model of organized direct selling that goes beyond regional boundaries, which is an alternative model to farmers’ markets and that helps to promote the creation of a network among the operators of Sicilian agrifood supply chains. The aims of this study was to verify the potential of the proposed theoretical model based on a SWOT analysis, which was achieved by collecting data from interviews with the producers involved in the Sicilian agrifood supply chains, and with the main stakeholders involved.
Hudson, P.; Rivers, I.
This report provides a summary of key findings from a study commissioned by Yorkshire MESMAC exploring the experiences and needs of men and boys who are involved in selling sex in the Bradford district. This study consisted of three related projects outlined below. Project A: Survey of Agencies in the Bradford Area The first author conducted an interviewbased survey of 31 representatives from 21 local statutory and voluntary sector agencies exploring their perceptions of the issue of m...
Mauring, Tõnu, 1968-
Austri arhitekti Georg W. Reinbergi raamatust "Ecological Architecture - Design, Planning, Realization" (2008). Uuringust, mis võttis kokku aastatel 2003-2008 Viini ehitatud elamute valimi andmed ning millest järeldub, et suuremate hoonete puhul võib passiivmaja maksumus olla madalenergiamajadega ühesugune. Vajadusest ehitada Eestis valmis oma näited, leidmaks, kas tõhus energia kasutamine ja inimsõbralik hoone on või ei ole konfliktis selle rajamise hinnaga
Adoption levels and information sources of "brood and sell" poultry operators. MO Onu, MC Madukwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Agro-Science Vol. 3(1) 2002: 63-67. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/as.v3i1.1505 · AJOL African ...
Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda
Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los resultados de recientes investigaciones arqueológicas en el sitio Posclásico Tardío de Gonzalo Hernández, ubicado en la región Soconusco de Chiapas. Los datos proporcionan evidencia de la cronología y los tipos de actividades llevadas a cabo en el lugar. Aunque la ocupación predominante se dio en el Posclásico Tardío, se encontraron pruebas de que también el sitio fue habitado periódicamente desde el periodo Formativo Temprano hasta dicho Posclásico Tardío. Los artefactos encontrados consisten en materiales domésticos característicos de una pequeña comunidad rural. El hecho de que tiene sólo unos pequeños montículos bajos y pedacería de material doméstico indica que la mayoría de las casas eran construidas a nivel del suelo e ilustra por qué muchos sitios del Posclásico Tardío en el Soconusco han sido difíciles de encontrar, contribuyendo a un subregistro del número de sitios del Posclásico Tardío en la región.
Latkin, Carl A; Davey, Melissa A; Hua, Wei
Although much of the debate surrounding the distribution of sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDUs) has focused on needle exchange programs (NEPs), IDUs acquire their syringes from three major sources: NEPs, pharmacies, and secondary exchangers or needle sellers. The purpose of the present study is to examine types and frequencies of social interactions among drug injectors who sell needles, most of which come from NEPs, compared with individuals who do not sell needles. Specifically, we compared engagement in drug-related behaviors, roles in the drug economy, and social network membership. Data were collected as part of the SHIELD study, an HIV prevention intervention targeted at drug users and their social networks (n=910) from February 2001 through September 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this sample, 56 participants reported selling needles. Needle sellers had higher levels of engagement in drug-related social interactions, including using drugs with others, giving or receiving drugs from others, and buying drugs with other users. Participants who sold needles had a significantly higher number of roles in the drug economy. Also, they had more social network members who were injectors, with whom they talked about risky drug behaviors, gave needles to, and shared cookers and bleach with. Compared with nonselling injectors, needle sellers engage in HIV risk-related behaviors, such as injecting daily and sharing injection equipment, more frequently. The study's findings may be useful to determine whether secondary exchangers should be targeted for HIV prevention activities both to reduce their own risk and to diffuse risk reduction information throughout the drug using community.
Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cohen, Albert [MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.
Thakor, Vijeta; Leach, Matthew J; Gillham, David; Esterman, Adrian
Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to access information about health care, to self-diagnose, and to purchase medication. The use of the Internet to purchase herbal products is of particular interest because of the high level of consumer expenditure on herbal medicines, and the misperception by some consumers that herbal products are natural, and thus absent of any contraindications, drug interactions and adverse effects. It is possible that consumers may purchase herbal medicines via the Internet without consulting health professionals and therefore, use these medicines in an unsafe manner. To examine the quality of e-commerce websites that sell herbal products; specifically, websites where St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) can be purchased. Cross-sectional survey of 54 selected websites, including online pharmacies, online health food stores and manufacturers of herbal medicines. A modified version of the DISCERN instrument was used to assess the quality of websites. The majority of websites rated poorly with a concerning lack of information about the interaction between hypericum and warfarin, anti-depressants and oral contraceptives. Most sites also failed to provide sufficient information about the contraindications and adverse effects of hypericum treatment. The results of this study strongly support the need for improved consumer education about herbal medicine, as well as the application of more stringent standards to websites that sell medications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santhi, G.; Karthikeyan, K.
In this article we introduce an economic order quantity model for perishable products like vegetables, fruits, milk, flowers, meat, etc.,with price-dependent demand, pre and post discounted selling price. Here we consider the demand is depending on selling price and deterioration rate is constant. Here we developed mathematical model to determine optimal discounton the unit selling price to maximize total profit. Numerical examples are given for illustrated.
Dayinta Ayuningtyas; Vera Diyanty
This study aims to explain the negative entrenchment effect arised from selling and purchasing related party transactions on business group conglomerates. This study is using 322 firm-year data of firms listed at Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2012-2013 period.This research provides evidence that the ownership by business conglomerates strengthened the negative entrenchment effect in both total of selling-purchasing related party transactions and selling-purchasing related party transactions whi...
Eva María Navarrete-Muñoz
Full Text Available Introduction: Young adulthood is an important stage to establish dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors that could be linked to the long-term development of chronic diseases in later life. The 3 years follow-up prospective cohort DiSA-UMH study was set up with the main objectives of determining the nutritional status, lifestyle behaviors and health status, assessing the possible changes during the follow-up, and estimating their influence on the occurrence and development of chronic diseases. Material and Methods: Baseline information of 1204 health science students from Universidad Miguel Hernández (UMH aged between 17 and 35 years was collected during the period from 2006 to 2012. All the participants completed a general questionnaire divided into separate sections that included a food frequency questionnaire, specific questions on physical activity, tobacco consumption, nutritional labelling use, weight, height, health status, and questions about the diagnosis of several diseases. In order to validate self-reported data, several reliability/validity investigations with different subsamples were specifically conducted. After baseline questionnaire, students were asked to obtain anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples. To evaluate our assessment of dietary intake, between three and nine 24-hour recalls administered by telephone were conducted over one year. Results: The first follow-up period of 3-years finished in 2015 and the second 3-year follow-up period is still ongoing. Although the retention rates during these assessment periods were 59.2% and 52.2% respectively, the losses of follow-up happened in a random way because of characteristics of participants and non-participants during follow-up were similar.
Wisker Zazli Lily; Poulis Athanasios
...). Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively...
... INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.61 Market agencies selling...
Värk, René, 1977-
Diplomaatilise esinduse ja selle personali füüsilise kaitse olemusest ja aspektidest, isikupuutumatusest ning liikumisvabadusest. Hinnang Eesti Moskva suursaatkonna juures 2007. aasta kevadel toimunule
James, John S
Suppose a major donor anywhere in the world could sponsor tens of thousands (or any number) of copies of a song, video, or any other digital "content"--letting tens of thousands of people in social networks just click to download free, with no registration ever, instantly paying the artists or a cause by the act of free downloading itself. And each sponsor can deliver a message to the thousands of anonymous end users who download from his or her contribution. We show how independent artists could market globally at no expense if people care about their work--offering an alternative to corporate monoculture. Or they could donate their digital art to an organization that sells it this way to raise funds.
Reid, Lynette; Herder, Matthew
In the speakers' bureau system, physicians are recruited and trained by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies to deliver information about products to other physicians, in exchange for a fee. Using publicly available disclosures, we assessed the thesis that speakers' bureau involvement is not a feature of academic medicine in Canada, by estimating the prevalence of participation in speakers' bureaus among Canadian faculty in one medical specialty, cardiology. We analyzed the relevant features of an actual contract made public by the physician addressee and applied the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) guidelines on physician-industry relations to participation in a speakers' bureau. We argue that speakers' bureau participation constitutes a form of peer selling that should be understood to contravene the prohibition on product endorsement in the CMA Code of Ethics. Academic medical institutions, in conjunction with regulatory colleges, should continue and strengthen their policies to address participation in speakers' bureaus.
Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.
Martínez Martínez, M.ª del Carmen
Full Text Available The chronicler Francisco López de Gómara shows on two lawsuits some aspects of his own relationship between Hernán Cortés and Hernán Cortés heir, Martín Cortés. These statements were made in 1549 when he had already been entrusted with the writing about the conqueror, as well as in 1551, little time before his Historia de las Indias y conquista de México was published. Gómara s link with Cortés in Spain are highly relevant to understand the sources of his writings and these statements give a very important information on some period of his life.
Las declaraciones del cronista Francisco López de Gómara en dos pleitos permiten esclarecer algunos aspectos de su relación con Hernán Cortés y su heredero Martín Cortés. Estos testimonios tuvieron lugar en 1549, cuando ya se ocupaba de escribir sobre el conquistador, y en 1551, poco antes de la publicación de la Historia de las Indias y conquista de México. Los vínculos que revela Gómara con el entorno de Cortés en España son claves para entender las fuentes de su obra e iluminan algunos años de su vida.
Joaquim Martí i Mestre
Full Text Available Resum: Hernández Casajuana va saber recollir en les seues obres literàries un interessant vocabulari popular, que en part enllaça amb la tradició lingüística dels dramaturgs valencians del segle XIX, i en part representa una innovació, des del moment que té en compte els canvis socials i de costums que es produeixen al segle XX, els quals tenen un reflex en el llenguatge. Aquest article se centra en aquesta parcel·la lèxica més innovadora d’Hernández Casajuana, tot i que considera també la producció d’altres autors contemporanis i anteriors. Així, proporciona novetats en relació amb els diccionaris històrics i etimològics, i dóna compte de la motivació i l’origen de determinats mots i accepcions, així com de diversos neologismes, en la seua etapa d’introducció en el català. Algunes d’aquestes innovacions lèxiques han desaparegut en la llengua actual, i altres han tingut continuïtat, però a principis del s. XX, quan encara no s’havien consolidat, presentaven a vegades formes diferents a les que han acabat triomfant.Paraules clau: història del lèxic, llengua literària dels segles XIX i XX, lèxic popular, neologismes, Hernández Casajuana.
En este trabajo analizamos la representación de la experiencia de conquista en las Cartas de relación de Hernán Cortés y la Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España de Bernal Díaz del Castillo. En ambas crónicas, a medida que los soldados avanzan (en el territorio y en el relato), la vivencia sensible se constituye en piedra de toque en la organización de la trama, definiendo identidades. Nos centramos entonces en ciertos enfrentamientos paradigmáticos (la Noche Triste, la caída ...
Luis Adrián Mora Rodríguez
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la figura de Hernán Cortés y sus Cartas de Relación desde la filosofía política y el pensamiento decolonial. Se pretende examinar cómo aparecen las nociones de «imperio» e «imperialismo» en el pensamiento de Cortés y cómo dichas nociones constituyen un primer esbozo de la política moderna en la época del «descubrimiento» y conquista de América.
Luis Adrián Mora Rodríguez
Este artículo analiza la figura de Hernán Cortés y sus Cartas de Relación desde la filosofía política y el pensamiento decolonial. Se pretende examinar cómo aparecen las nociones de «imperio» e «imperialismo» en el pensamiento de Cortés y cómo dichas nociones constituyen un primer esbozo de la política moderna en la época del «descubrimiento» y conquista de América.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation of...
Full Text Available In today’s marketing era, consumers seem to have known about marketed products and no longer need explanation from a salesperson. The interaction between company and target consumers can be marketed through new media such as email, Facebook, WA, Instagram, and other forms. Such situations need to be in-depth researched in terms of whether personal selling contribution is still needed in marketing communication activities. Considering the uniqueness and personal selling advantages turns out that personal selling is an important partner that can not be replaced by other forms of marketing communications even if there is exposure to new media to promote products. The specialty of personal selling lies in its ability to interact directly to improvise the sales process through person to person communication. Dalam era pemasaran masa kini nampaknya konsumen dianggap sudah mengetahui tentang produk yang dipasarkan dan tidak memerlukan lagi penjelasan dari seorang wiraniaga. Interaksi perusahaan dengan pembeli sasaran dapat dilakukan melalui media baru seperti email, facebook, WA, instagram dan bentuk lainnya. Situasi demikianlah yang memerlukan kajian mendalam dalam kaitannya bagaimana peran personal selling dalam kegiatan komunikasi pemasaran di era digital? Memperhatikan keunikan dan kelebihan personal selling ternyata personal selling merupakan mitra penting yang tidak dapat tergantikan oleh bentuk komunikasi pemasaran lainnya sekalipun ada terpaan media baru untuk mempromosikan produk. Keistimewaan personal selling terletak pada kemampuannya untuk berinteraksi secara langsung untuk mengimprovisasi proses penjualan melalui komunikasi person to person.
This study compared the profitability of brood-and-sell and brood-and-finish broiler enterprises in Abia State of Nigeria. Data collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules from 70 poultry farmers made up of 35 brood-and-sell and 35 brood-and-finish broiler farmers were analyzed using multiple ...
Parvinen, P.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H.; Kaptein, M.C.
E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that
Parvinen, Petri; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kaptein, M.C.
E-selling is an activity that is distinct from e-commerce, e-marketing and e-retailing. E-selling is conceptualized to be computer–human dialog characterized by the digital spatio-temporal locus, the psychology of online persuasion, and complex perceptions of value. This definition warrants that
Book review of: Sean Nixon: Hard Sell. Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969. (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2013 xv. 2012 pp., ISBN 978-0-7190-8537-6)......Book review of: Sean Nixon: Hard Sell. Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c. 1951–1969. (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2013 xv. 2012 pp., ISBN 978-0-7190-8537-6)...
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends.
Olivia Nieto Yusta
Full Text Available El Romanticismo constituye la principal fuente de inspiración del pintor, grabador, ilustrador y escenógrafo José Hernández. Motivos como la ruina, el paso del tiempo, la muerte, la melancolía, la noche o la angustia existencial conforman su imaginario artístico. Con motivo del estreno de Don Juan Tenorio en el año 2000, dirigido por Eduardo Vasco para la Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, José Hernández diseñó una escenografía que traslada el lenguaje de su pintura al teatro, en la puesta en escena del que se considera el drama romántico español por excelencia. Siguiendo la metodología de la semiótica teatral, que concibe el teatro como la unión de texto y espectáculo, las siguientes páginas hacen un recorrido por los telones pintados empleados en cada uno de los actos del drama, un recurso que se ha convertido en una constante en su obra escenográfica y que plasma a la perfección la unión de escenografía y texto dramático.
... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or a...
... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...
Guinovart, Maria C; Figueras, Albert; Llor, Carles
Selling antibiotics without prescription is common in many countries; beyond the administrative restrictions, this practice is a risk for patients and society. The aim of the study was to evaluate the information provided by the staff of the pharmacy to a simulated patient requesting an antibiotic. A prospective study was carried out in January 2013 - February 2014 in the Health Region of Tarragona, in which a mystery shopper visited 220 pharmacies requesting an antibiotic to be sold. The actress was not asked about allergies in 73.9% of cases and never was asked about possible pregnancy. Recommendation to see a doctor was observed in 36.1% of cases. When antibiotics were not sold, the explanation provided by the staff was reasoned only in 9.9% of the cases. It is necessary and urgent to improve the training of pharmacists in dispensing antibiotics but also strengthen basic health knowledge among the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
The paper discusses the many forms and representations of cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine, already mentioned in Caraka's Compendium (c. 200 CE). The medicine's compositions, applications, and meanings, change over time and from locality to locality. Cyavanaprāsh is, for example, a patriotic formula, a booster of the immune system, a modern geriatric drug, and one of the elements in canonical Ayurvedic treatments. In the beginning of the 19th century cyavanaprāsh was a patriotic formula for fortifying Indian bodies and the nascent Indian nation. Nowadays the medicine is a Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) and a money maker for Dabur India Ltd., the world largest Ayurvedic manufacturer. Instead of vitalising the nation its consumption now promises to make urban middle class consumers effectively modern. Branding and modern science must make Dabur Chyawanprash attractive in the eyes of these consumers. Ayurveda and cyavanaprāsh are also part of a global counter culture marked by neo-Orientalism and Ayurvedic medicines as facilitators of spirituality. The marketing of cyavanaprāsh by India's largest Ayurvedic manufacturer is used as a case study for discussing the proliferation of Ayurvedic brands and its critics. The imaging of Ayurvedic brands such as Dabur Chyawanprash threatens to obscure the fact that Ayurveda represents a unique way of looking upon health, disease and the human body. The proliferation of brands also makes Ayurvedic medicines more expensive and puts pressure on the natural environment as the main supplier of Ayurvedic ingredients.
O. S. Ivanova
Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of the pricing policy determination in the company, selling information resource at the market. The problem of the optimal price determination for an information resource is solved depending on the time for the case when the seller-company has no competitors in the market, the market is saturated, and buyers are not able to further spread of the resource. Conditions for the optimal choice of information resource price have been obtained; the maximum possible income of the company has been calculated for linear demand function, and conditions, determining the duration and volume of sales, providing the maximum of average income of the company, have been obtained as well. The problem of optimal price choice is solved by macrosystem approach that has made it possible to reduce it to the isoperimetric kind. It is shown that the optimal price dependence on time for a linear demand function should provide a linearly increasing rate of sales. Conditions have been derived under which the sales proceedings for an information resource are positive, relationship is determined between volume of sales and timeline at which the average income during the sales reaches its maximum. The results are given in dimensionless form, thereby reducing the number of independent parameters. These results are usable for the pricing analysis of software and other information products.
Rumstay, Kenneth S.
For well over a century the iconic image of the astronomical telescope has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical consumer goods. One of the most famous of early examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk’s Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. But such usage was not limited to periodicals. Advertising trade cards had become popular at the end of the 17th century in Europe, notably in Paris and London. In a time prior to the introduction of formal systems of street address numbering, they served as both advertisement and map, directing consumers to the merchants' stores. In many cases, attention was drawn to the product by picturing it as a heavenly body to be observed telescopically! In the 20th century trade cards gave way to the modern business card, and manufacturers began to increasingly rely on magazine and newspaper (and radio and television) advertising. But the telescope remains an evocative image! In modern advertising we see it used to sell an incredible variety of consumer goods: candy, coffee, cigarettes, whiskey, foodstuffs, clothing; the list is endless! Examples of these, along with earlier Victorian-era usages, are presented. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to investigate Romanian direct sellers’ perceptions on customers’ loyalty. The research objectives are: (1 to identify the direct sellers’ perceptions on the concept of loyalty; (2 to identify the main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients; (3 to frame the portrait of a loyal customer. As a research method, we used qualitative research based on depth interviews. It is an exploratory and instrumental research, the results being used for building a questionnaire for a future survey. The investigated population is represented by direct selling women, with ages beteeen 19 and 30 years. For direct sellers, loyalty is an attitude and also a behavior, it means buying from the same company, from the same seller and preferring the products of the company. The main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients are: promotional actions, personalization the relation with the client and offering stimulants. The loyal customer is the one who buys companies’ products every month or at least quarterly, spends a monthly amount of 100 Ron on these products, works with the same seller, pays on time for the order, doesn’t look only after promotions, loves the products, recommends the company to others, doesn’t return the order, wants to buy more products from the company and trusts its products.
Pihl, Ole Verner
Selling or telling? : A theory of ruin value Abstract: To what extent can tourism be described as an agent of peace? Can war and conflict be reconciled through tourism? Why is the children's memorial in Hiroshima so important and why is the Holocaust memorial in Berlin a reconciliating...... will explore four tracks of this doomsday vision: in fiction, facts and in the world of tourism. 1. The architect who, as Faust, sold his soul for immortality and the consequences thereof. 2. The artist who creates a personal vision of our fear and anxiety. 3. A comparative analysis of a group of mainstream...... into why the ruin and the memorial are fundamental parts of our cultural heritage, and why the image of the apocalypse in tourism and the new game and film media are important and brings us closer together. Keywords: Post apocalypse, art and hell, death cults...
Paula Deporte Andrade
Full Text Available In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society of consumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealing with contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of consumption. An erotized childhood, always wanting more and never feeling satisfied, focused in acquiring and showing off. This is the childhood that is coming to school with new interests, preferences and behavior, deserving our entire attention. Key-words: contemporary childhood, childhood and consumption, consumer society, advertising, magazines.
Pashkov, Vitalii; Hrekov, Yevhen; Hrekova, Maryna
Some countries have already tried and tested mechanisms of regulating distance sales as form of distribution of medicines that have been used more or less effectively for a fairly long time. Herewith, so far, the approach of the competent authorities of some countries including Ukraine can be called prevailing in quantitative terms under which the official prohibition on distance sales of medicines is set. The aim of this study is a detailed examination of the nature of the prohibition of the medicines distance selling in Ukraine, namely the an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of this form of distribution of medicines and identification of appropriate ways for gradual repeal of the prohibition in terms of regulatory reform in Ukraine in the sphere of circulation of medicines due to the process of adaptation of statutory regulation in this area to the EU legislation. This study is based on Ukrainian regulation acts, Council Directives 97/7/EC, 2000/31/EC, 2001/83/EC, scientific works and opinions of progressiveminded people in this sphere. Such methods as dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive have been used in the article. Reception of the described experience of regulation in EU will allow a further review of the principles of regulation in Ukraine in the sphere of medicines with a shift in the main emphasis in the direction of ensuring adequate consumer rights in this area and preventing the risks of patients' and public health.
Alberto Hernández Saenz
Full Text Available
“La mayor fantasía es la propia vida”
Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875
El Siglo XIX será de grandes transformaciones, generadas por el rompimiento – iniciado ya en el XVIII- de los países hispanoamericanos con la tradición de España. Un primer momento fue el estallido del grito de independencia en los Cabildos de América. Era una época durante la cual surgieron talentos americanos en todos los campos de las humanidades y de la ciencia.
La investigación sobre ese período histórico constituye un filón que apenas empieza a ser explotado entre nosotros y que indudablemente permitirá el conocimiento de valiosas figuras colombianas, entre ellas algunos representantes de la medicina.
Por tal razón, como un homenaje a médicos ilustres que nos precedieron y también a la región de Antioquia, que significa hoy un importante semillero de investigación en la ciencia médica – investigación cuyos resultados trascienden ya los linderos nacionales -, se presentan estas pinceladas. Ellas aspiran a contribuir eficazmente a la investigación del XIX, circunstancia ésta que apasiona por cuanto es el encuentro con quienes pusieron los cimientos sólidos y fuertes para el pensamiento y obra de la Colombia de hoy.
El médico Sinforiano Hemández Carvajal manifestó durante su vida una personalidad multifacética, la cual se conjugaba armónicamente con una significativa vocación de entrega y servicio a sus semejantes.
Primordialmente ejerció su profesión de médico, pero al mismo tiempo se desempeñó en la política. Humanista, investigador y botánico, por su iniciativa se organizó el Archivo Nacional.
Según afirma G. Arango Mejía en su obra “Genealogías de Antioquia y Caldas” 2, nació el doctor Sinforiano en el hogar formado por José Hernández Jiménez y Nicolasa Carvajal y Posada, e122 de agosto de 1806, hoy hace 185 años, en
Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.
preference, one might expect "free markets" to value art in proportion to its aesthetic appeal, at least to some extent. To assess the role of value, a further test of preference was performed on a separate set of paintings recently sold at auction. Results showed that the selling price of these works showed no correlation with preference, while basic statistics were significantly correlated with preference. We conclude that selling price, which could be seen as a proxy for a painting's "value," is not predictive of preference, while shared preferences may to some extent be predictable based on image statistics. We also suggest that contextual and semantic factors play an important role in preference given that image content appears to lead to greater divergence between similarity and preference ratings for representational works, and especially for artwork that prominently depicts faces. The present paper paves the way for a more complete understanding of the relationship between shared human preferences and image statistical regularities, and it outlines the basic geometry of perceptual spaces for artwork.
Sotsiaalse kapitali mõistest ning lähenemisviisidest selle defineerimiseks. Sotsiaalse kapitali mõõtmisest Suurbritannias ja Soomes. Senisest Eesti kogemusest sotsiaalset kapitali puudutavate statistiliste andmete kogumisel. Tabel: Sotsiaalset kapitali iseloomustavad näitajad.
G. A.P. Drotsky
Full Text Available The application of information and communication technology (ICT has become a reality in selling in the South African pharmaceutical industry. Low awareness levels exist in the pharmaceutical industry about how the effective use of ICT can contribute to client services and productivity. The effectiveness of ICT in selling depends on the way it is managed and implemented by management and accepted by the salespeople and clients, on how effectively it is applied, and on the influence, it has on the salesperson. A descriptive research design was used to determine whether the introduction of ICT into the selling process has influenced the professional sales representatives' activities in a positive way. The results of this study clearly indicate that pharmaceutical sales representatives, both those appointed before the introduction of ICT and those appointed there after, are not positive about the introduction of ICT into the selling process.
Full Text Available This study aims to explain the negative entrenchment effect arised from selling and purchasing related party transactions on business group conglomerates. This study is using 322 firm-year data of firms listed at Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2012-2013 period.This research provides evidence that the ownership by business conglomerates strengthened the negative entrenchment effect in both total of selling-purchasing related party transactions and selling-purchasing related party transactions which come from operating activities. Thus, from the result, it can be presumed that there might be a possibility of agency conflict arised from selling-purchasing related party transactions when a firm is part of business conglomerates.
... Flow and Direction Sell the Sizzle Starting Strongly Making Your Point Finishing in Style Bridging with Transitions Tried and Proven Organizational Patterns Use a Persuasive Structure to Add Cohere...
Jonsson, Linda; Svedin, Carl-Göran; Hydén, Margareta
.... This study aimed to examine what role the Internet and the use of smartphones play in young women selling sex online, focusing on the method of contact and the characteristics of the communication...
Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun
The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.
Novita Eva Natalya
Full Text Available Appearing many types of bank proves that business of banking is growing up rapidly and and competing to compile society’s found. Therefore, each bank does the best promotion in order to get the attention and trust from society. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk is using personal selling in promoting Program Super Untung in 2014, this research focuses on monitoring the process of implementation personal selling in Program Super Untung done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk.This research aims to monitor the implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk to promote Program Super Untung by using personal selling process method from Churchill,. Method applied in this research is descriptive qualitative with design of study case and technic of collecting data done by interviewing and compiling documents from the company related with the research. The result of this research discussed about implementation of personal selling done by PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero,Tbk in 2014. The steps of personal selling are prospecting for customer, opening the relationship, qualifiying the prospect, presenting the sales message, closing the sales, until servicing the account. This research concludes that personal selling has view steps, every steps have relationship and will influence the other steps. Every steps have substantial points that can influence the success of personal selling, i.e. good communication between seller and candidate of customer. Muncul banyak jenis bank membuktikan bahwa bisnis perbankan berkembang pesat dan dan bersaing untuk menyusun masyarakat yang ditemukan. Oleh karena itu, setiap bank melakukan promosi terbaik agar mendapat perhatian dan kepercayaan dari masyarakat. PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero, Tbk menggunakan penjualan pribadi dalam mempromosikan Program Super Untung pada tahun 2014, penelitian ini berfokus pada pemantauan proses implementasi personal selling di Program Super Untung
Wisker Zazli Lily; Poulis Athanasios
In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB). Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Results were in keeping with the mod...
This research there were some formulation of the problem among others: (1) is there any influence partially or simultaneous personal selling and the sales volume of SM MLM product in Karanganyar? (2) between personal selling and sales promotion where does that have an effect on increased sales volumes SM MLM product in Karanganyar? The company will finance the cost of promotions in accordance with the budget determined by the company. Measurements of the variables in this study using a Likert...
Salman Popattia, Amber; Winch, Sarah; La Caze, Adam
The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
RESEÑA de : Álvarez Jiménez, David; Sanz Serrano, Rosa & Hernández de la Fuente, David (eds. El espejismo del bárbaro. Ciudadanos y extranjeros al final de la Antigüedad. Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I, 2013.
Alejandro Cadenas González
Full Text Available RESEÑA de : Álvarez Jiménez, David; Sanz Serrano, Rosa & Hernández de la Fuente, David (eds. El espejismo del bárbaro. Ciudadanos y extranjeros al final de la Antigüedad. Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I, 2013.
Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija
Full Text Available Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the energy saving and various abuses. Imagine the enormous amount of electricity that hundreds of printers and scanners would spend and how much energy tens of them would spend, moreover just think about how much these devices would be used in offices, where nobody is looking, for personal interests. American business, as the most creative one and the strongest was bothered by only one thing . This was the misuse of secret corporation information. These abuses occurred when the data had to be printed and transferred to corporate subsidiaries around the world. During the transfer the data could also be lost or damaged (intentionally or unintentionally and then the corporation would suffer losses (the data were transferred via floppy discs, or they were printed in hard copies. The solution for these problems came from the US military that had invented the internet earlier and after having consumed it for its own needs, decided to put it up for American businesses. The internet has developed its own services such as : www, ftp, e-mail, and buying and selling though internet (e-commerce. Nowadays, information exchanges with corporate branches are not made roughly, but electronically in real time. Additionally, this made it possible for a new category of web designers to be created and they created a powerful web-site through which some businesses created virtual shops and they started earning more money than they used to, in their physical stores. This American
Full Text Available In this essay we analyze the representation of the conquest in Cartas de Relación by Hernán Cortés and in Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España by Bernal Díaz del Castillo. In both chronicles, the experience of the New World to be conquered organizes the plot and contributes to define identities. We analyze, in particular, some transcendent events in the conquest of México, such as the so called "Noche Triste" and the siege of Tenochitlan, in which multiple and complex images and metaphors are used to represent experience, along with several discursive traditions.
A história das leituras de Martín Fierro, de José Hernández, é a própria história da literatura argentina, em eterna tensão entre civilização e barbárie. A abordagem borgiana do poema não poderia deixar de ser também polêmica. Seus contos hernandianos e gauchescos são vistos tanto como traições ao gênero gauchesco e ataques ao Martín Fierro, quanto comohomenagens a essa tradição literária nacionalista. De qualquer modo, todos concordam que Borges corrige e reescreve o Martín Fierro. O ponto c...
Bernal Borrego, Encarnación
Full Text Available This paper analyses the essay “Cartas a Clemencia, sobre la Higiene del bello secso (sic” by Ramón Hernández Poggio, a work which corroborates the fact that nineteenth century women became the object of scientific or pseudo-scientific publications, and more specifically they became the medical practitioners’ object of study as well as of intervention. Physicians, who as guarantors of medical expertise tried to maintain the bourgeois established order, did not hesitate to use a sanitary control mechanism banning attendance to the theatre, or any musical events, reading, parties and a multitude of activities that keep women apart from their household and their real “mission”, of being mothers and wives.El presente trabajo analiza la obra “Cartas a Clemencia, sobre la higiene del bello secso (sic”de Ramón Hernández Poggio, donde se corrobora cómo la mujer en el siglo XIX se convierte en eje central de las publicaciones científicas o pseudo-científicas y, en concreto, en objeto tanto de estudio como de intervención por parte del médico, que como garante de unos conocimientos técnicos intenta mantener el orden burgués establecido, no dudando en utilizar la higiene como mecanismo de control, proscribiendo teatro, música, lecturas, banquetes y un sinfín de actividades que apartan a la mujer del ámbito del hogar y de su verdadera “misión”, de madre y esposa.
Alberto Albornoz Plata
Full Text Available
Hemos oído una linda página de la historia de la medicina de Colombia, gracias a la asiduidad e inteligencia del Académico Alberto Hernández Sáenz, al describirnos la biografía de su bisabuelo, el doctor Sinforiano Hernández Carvajal, personaje de tantas cualidades, con una vida llena de actividades científicas, políticas, humanitarias, que reflejan su gran personalidad y perseverancia.
Desde su nacimiento en Rionegro a comienzos del siglo pasado, población amable y tranquila, con menos de mil habitantes donde todo era paz y encanto de la naturaleza, conocemos, su amor a la vida sencilla, su atracción hacia la botánica, su auto aprendizaje para pescar y nadar, su familia que es su verdadera escuela infantil llena de ternura. Luego su traslado a San Bartolomé, sus estudios secundarios y ahí mismo su estudio de la medicina en la cátedra de su profesor José Félix Merizalde, famoso médico de esa época. También es sobresaliente su contacto con la política que siempre lo atrajo, su destierro a Jamaica por dos años, su encuentro allí con Francisco Carrasquilla Posada, padre de otro médico prestigioso Juan de Dios Carrasquilla y de un distinguido ciudadano español, don Pedro Sáenz López y Mínguez que posteriormente tendría mucho que ver con la familia Hernández.
Después de Jamaica regresa nuevamente a Rionegro y finalmente a Medellín donde ejerce con éxito su profesión médica y continúa su estudio por la botánica y… la política!: es Gobernador de Antioquia, Personero y Tesorero, trabaja en favor de la candidatura presidencial de José Hilario López a quien ayuda en su campaña de forma eficaz; luego vive la cara opuesta a la política, es decir, su decepción por esas actividades y se establece en Bogotá, cuando ya tiene 56 años de edad. Aquí continúa otra vez con su interés por la botánica y en este momento enfoca su predilección por el anís, la albahaca y el tilo. Su hijo Juan Francisco
Kristiana, S. P. D.
Corporate chain store is one type of retail industries companies that are developing growing rapidly in Indonesia. The competition between retail companies is very tight, so retailer companies should evaluate its performance continuously in order to survive. The selling price of products is one of the essential attributes and gets attention of many consumers where it’s used to evaluate the performance of the industry. This research aimed to determine optimal selling price of product with considering cost factors, namely purchase price of the product from supplier, holding costs, and transportation costs. Fuzzy logic approach is used in data processing with MATLAB software. Fuzzy logic is selected to solve the problem because this method can consider complexities factors. The result is a model of determination of the optimal selling price by considering three cost factors as inputs in the model. Calculating MAPE and model prediction ability for some products are used as validation and verification where the average value is 0.0525 for MAPE and 94.75% for prediction ability. The conclusion is this model can predict the selling price of up to 94.75%, so it can be used as tools for the corporate chain store in particular to determine the optimal selling price for its products.
Full Text Available To address the problems of low selling efficiency, poor sanitation conditions, labor-intensive requirement, and quick rice cooling speed in manual rice selling in cafeterias, especially in colleges and secondary schools, this paper presented an Advanced RISC Machines (ARM microprocessor-based rice-selling machine for cafeterias. The machines consisted of a funnel-shaped rice bin, a thermal insulation box, and a conveying and scattering mechanism. Moreover, this machine exerts fuzzy control over stepper motor rpm, and the motor drives the conveyor belt with a scraper to scatter rice, deliver it, and keep it warm. Apart from an external 4*4 keyboard, a point of sale (POS machine, an ARM process and a pressure sensor, the machine is also equipped with card swiping and weighting mechanisms to achieve functions of card swiping payment and precise measurement, respectively. In addition, detection of the right amount of rice and the alarm function are achieved using an ultrasonic sensor and a beeper, respectively. The presence of the rice container on the rice outlet is detected by an optoelectronic switch. Results show that this rice-selling machine achieves precise measurement, quick card swiping, fast rice selling, stable operation, and good rice heat preservation. Therefore, the mechanical design enables the machine to achieve its goals.
Priya Mannava; Scott Geibel; Nzioki King'ola; Marleen Temmerman; Stanley Luchters
Objective: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was us...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful refusal to sell or rent or... Discriminatory Housing Practices § 100.60 Unlawful refusal to sell or rent or to negotiate for the sale or rental. (a) It shall be unlawful for a person to refuse to sell or rent a dwelling to a person who has made a...
Representation of selling and salespeople within academic, network marketing practitioner and media discourses In this study, my purpose is to explore conflicting representations of selling and especially network marketing (NM). My first objective is to identify the fundamental features of sales discourses within academic and practitioner communities. The second objective is to understand in what ways the combination and contestation of these discourses produce ambiguous images of selling and...
Djatna, Taufik; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Hairiyah, Nina; Marimin
The requirement for smooth information such as buying and selling is essential for commodity warehouse receipt system such as dried seaweed and their stakeholders to transact for an operational transaction. Transactions of buying or selling a commodity warehouse receipt system are a risky process due to the fluctuations in dynamic commodity prices. An integrated system to determine the condition of the real time was needed to make a decision-making transaction by the owner or prospective buyer. The primary motivation of this study is to propose computational methods to trace market tendency for either buying or selling processes. The empirical results reveal that feature selection gain ratio and k-NN outperforms other forecasting models, implying that the proposed approach is a promising alternative to the stock market tendency of warehouse receipt document exploration with accurate level rate is 95.03%.
Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.
Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999
León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.
Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914
León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feletto, Eleonora; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Fry, Rae; Sutton, Clare; Bagus, Lachlan; Egger, Sam
There is evidence that wide distribution of cigarettes contributes to smoking, and multiple commentators have called for a review of tobacco retailing. This study analyses retailers who stop selling cigarettes, why they do so, and discusses the implications for tobacco control. An audit of tobacco retailers in the Australian state of NSW was used to identify retailers who had stopped selling tobacco, and they were then compared with current retailers to determine how many, and what types of outlets stop selling tobacco. Attempts were made to contact and interview all former tobacco retailers identified in three audited regions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 ex-tobacco retailers, or 31% of the subset of ex-tobacco retailers. Low-volume outlet types were over-represented as a proportion of retailers exiting the market, and some had resumed selling within 18 months of the audit. Low profits were often cited as a contributor to stopping; however, in all but one case, the decision to stop selling was also influenced by a significant change in business circumstances-either legislative or other business changes. Few retailers stop selling tobacco while continuing in the same business, and those who stop disproportionately represent retailer types with low sales volume. The results suggest that legislative changes provide a window where retailers could be prompted to exit the market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
This work describes the design of a decision support system for detection of fraudulent behavior of selling stolen goods in online auctions. In this system, each seller is associated with a type of certification, namely “proper seller,” “suspect seller,” and “selling stolen goods.” The certification level is determined on the basis of a seller’s behaviors and especially on the basis of contextual information whose origin is outside online auctions portals. In this paper, we focus on represent...
Wisker Zazli Lily
Full Text Available In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB. Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM. Results were in keeping with the model. Three domains of EI were not found to impact sales performance directly but through ASB. Theoretical implications and managerial ramifications were also discussed.
森本, 正則; 守本, 信一; 宮本, 信彦; 立木, 陽子; 大黒, 撤平; 樋口, 喜三; 駒井, 功一郎
[Synopsis] The granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder was evaluated the efficacy by application for rice production in the paddy field experiment. The fertilizer was formulated oyster sell powder and silicate using granulator during spray a lignin solution as binder to ingredient powder. Finally, the granular fertilizer contents 1～2％ water, 40％ CaO, 3％ SiO_2 and the particle size is 1～2 mm. The experimental setting was along with conventional rice production in Nara Pref....
... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Negotiated Sales § 102-38.125 May we sell personal... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we sell personal...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... openly, at the highest available bid, and in such a manner as to best promote the interest of each...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information. 205.104 Section 205.104 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... registrant is interested; and (3) If registrant is interested only in such product or products produced or...
Ilmus esmakordselt: Kurrik, J. Kolm suurt lugu : Eesti ja Saksa rahva-eposed "Kalevipoeg" ja "Nibelungid" : Nende sisu ja võrdlemine. Eesti kunst-epos "Lembitu" : Selle tuum ja tähendus. Tartu, 1886. (Eesti Kirjameeste Seltsi Toimetused ; 75)
Kamakura, W.A.; Wedel, M.; de Rosa, F.; Mazzon, J.A.
An important aspect of the new orientation on customer relationship marketing is the use of customer transaction databases for the cross-selling of new services and products. In this study, we propose a mixed data factor analyzer that combines information from a survey with data from the customer
Paas, L.; Kuijlen, A.A.A.
In previously published papers it was shown that consumers often acquire financial products in the same order. Knowledge on such acquisition patterns is useful for marketing purposes. This study aims to define optimal utilisation of the acquisition pattern approach for cross-sell purposes. The
This dissertation is made up of legal and empirical research into the direct selling industry’s advocacy in the European Union. In the context of the European pluralistic democracy or, somewhat pejoratively, the Brussels “lobbyocracy”, the thesis intends to increase lobbying transparency by mapping
Totten, Jeff W.
The original SOCO Scale was reduced to 10 items by Thomas, Soutar, and Ryan (2001). The author conducted a pretest and a posttest in his Personal Selling class during the Fall 2009 semester. Significant differences by gender, student sales experience and family member in the sales field were identified. The author once again pretested the…
Verhallen, Theo M.m.; Greve, Harriette; Frambach, Ruud Th
Notes that the literature on personal selling and advising on services stresses the importance of analysing the actual client-adviser interaction process. Explores this process of interaction in a mortgage setting by observing 42 conversations between advisers and 26 clients. The exact content and
Tsai, Ming-Hong; Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve; Hu, Hsiu-Hua
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how salespeople's renqing orientation and self-esteem jointly affect their selling behavior. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey of salespeople from 17 pharmaceutical and consumer-goods companies in Taiwan (n = 216). FINDINGS: Salespeople's renqing orientation (i.e., their propensity to adhere to the accepted norm of reciprocity) compensates the negative effect of self-esteem on their selling behaviors, such as adaptive selling and hard work. IMPLICATIONS: Our study results underscore the critical role of the character trait of renqing orientation in a culture emphasizing a norm of reciprocity. Therefore, it would be useful to consider a strategy of recruiting salespeople with either a high self-esteem or a combination of high renqing orientation and low self-esteem. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The existing literature of industrial/organizational psychology and marketing primarily relies on constructs that are derived from Western cultural contexts. However, the present paper extended these literatures by investigating the possible joint effects of self-esteem with a trait originated from the Chinese culture on salespeople's selling behaviors.
To illustrate the relevance of critical communication history and theory to media ethics, this paper examines a crucial episode in the history of public relations: the American electrical industry's cooperative advertising and public relations efforts in the 1920s to sell the "electrical idea" to consumers. The paper first enumerates…
Salasya, B.D.S.; Burger, C.P.J.
Kale is a major source of cash for many households in Kenya. A study of households in Kiambu district revealed that kale made the highest contribution to household income among the crops. The farmers of Kiambu sell their kale either in Nairobi, at farm gate, or at the local market and fetch
In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces. Such a scenario arises in several practical applications. In particular, we consider a contract manufacturer who procures ...
Krafchick, Jennifer L.; Schindler Zimmerman, Toni; Haddock, Shelley A.; Banning, James H.
To determine how gender in parenting was addressed, a content analysis was conducted on the six best-selling self-help books (1997-2002) that provide general parenting advice. A feminist perspective was used to code gendered meaning units in the six books. Findings were that 82% of the implicit gender messages across all books were stereotypical,…
Kaestle, Christine E
Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p selling of sex, and feeling part of school was associated with lower buying of sex even after controlling for demographics and risk factors (p selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.
... the drudgery in the industry. The different religions and cultures should encourage women to engage in all the aspects of the industry, hence, increasing their income-earning abilities. Keywords: Gender analysis, butchery, meat selling industry. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol 3(1) 2005: 51-58 ...
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy
The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…
Gumirakiza, J. Dominique
This article presents a perspective on the behavior of the local food grower during the market-related decision-making process. The relevant behavior is manifested during the planning, growing, and harvesting and selling phases of the agricultural business cycle. The local food grower faces a set of market alternatives from which, if applying a…
Järve, Linda, 1946-
Anton Makarenkost ja tema kasvatussüsteemist. Tutvustatakse tema raamatuid "Pedagoogiline poeem", mille ilmumisest möödus hiljuti 80 aastat, samuti selle järge "Lipud tornidel" ning sama teemat käsitlevat Frida Vigdorova teost "Tee ellu"
The present article provides an overview of the best-selling apps for the age range of 0-8 years old under various categories, including ‘Kids’, ‘Books’, ‘Educational games’, ‘Family games’ and ‘Word games’ in the two major application stores (Google Play and iTunes App Store) in four economically
This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, retailers can not sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to anyone younger 18. Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products. Date Released: 7/8/2010.
Studies in British war propaganda during the Second World have focussed mainly on the efforts made at “selling the war at home.” In many of these studies war propaganda in the colonies is seen simply as extensions of the discourses produced in the metroples of Europe. Imperial propaganda was essentially the ...
Describes two projects undertaken with the author's high school English classes in which students chose writing they wished to share with their own community, and then published it, in one case selling their class anthology to selected businesses around town. Describes the increase in enthusiasm for writing and care and professionalism caused by…
Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander
Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an offer to sell? 102-38.155 Section 102-38.155 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in the offer to sell? 102-38.160 Section 102-38.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may we sell personal property? 102-38.75 Section 102-38.75 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY...
Palermo, M.T.; Bogaerts, Stefan
Sexual behavior is a complex phenomenon. While appetitive and linked to reproduction, it also has a strong hedonic component to it. Like other human behaviors, it is dimensional and, although it may fall along a continuum of normality, it may also deviate in a variety of directions. Selling and
Anttila, Jaakko; Rytkönen, Tatu; Kankaanpää, Rami; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu
In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products. This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test. Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (psweet products, candies and soft drinks had decreased (psweet products had not changed (p=0.665). Schools tended to improve their exposure and policy status (psweet products among adolescents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…
Delpechitre, Duleep; Baker, David S.
Cross-cultural selling has become an important factor in sales education. In the current competitive business graduate market, students who enter the workforce in frontline customer service positions are expected to perform sales at a higher level. Students that have acquired an education in sales during their undergraduate program have been found…
Simple percentages and frequency tables were used in analyzing the data. Results from this study show that poor storage facilities, poor marketing strategy, problem of income and culture of the people account for the bulk-selling of yams in the study area. The study recommends that there is need for the provision of modern ...
La Economía Política y las Motivaciones de Participación Socio-Política de Jóvenes Chilenos: Una Interpretación de los Hallazgos de Martínez, Silva y Hernández (2010 Political Economy and Youth Motivations of Socio-Political Participation: An Interpretation of the Findings From Martínez, Silva and Hernández (2010
Full Text Available El artículo de Martínez, Silva y Hernández (en este número argumenta que los jóvenes chilenos se han distanciado de la participación sociopolítica convencional, porque perciben una falta de validación de las personas en el sistema sociopolítico actual, debido a la vulneración de derechos, inequidad social y falta de voz y poder de los ciudadanos. Esto choca con sus valores de fraternidad y desarrollo justo y digno de las personas. En este ensayo se examina si ese sentir tiene fundamentos reales en la estructura y lógica del modelo político-económico que ellos critican. Se aborda el tema desde el marco analítico de la economía política, que parte del supuesto de que las estructuras económicas y políticas determinan sujetos sociales, sus intereses y su poder relativo. Se encontró una asociación directa entre la lógica del modelo político-económico y los sentimientos de exclusión que expresaron los entrevistados.The article by Martínez, Silva, and Hernández (in this issue argues that Chilean youth have disengaged from participation in conventional socio-political institutions because they believe that the sociopolitical system does not validate the persons, violates their rights, is highly inequitable, and excludes them from having a real voice in public decision-making. This perception clashes with their values of fraternity and a just and dignified development for everyone. This essay examines if these beliefs have a real basis in the structure and logic of the economic and political model they criticize. This issue is analyzed from a political economy perspective, built on the assumption that economic and political structures determine social subjects, their interests, and their relative power. A direct association was found between the logic of Chile's political-economic model and the feelings of exclusion that the interviewees expressed.
Relecturas de Boccaccio: narrativa de los Siglos de Oro, cine y teatro. Actas del Congreso Internacional Complutense (28-30 de abril de 2009), María Hernández Esteban, Marcial Carrascosa Ortega y Mita Valvassori (eds.) [Reseña de libro
Blanco Valdés, Carmen F.
Reseña del libro: Relecturas de Boccaccio: narrativa de los Siglos de Oro, cine y teatro. Actas del Congreso Internacional Complutense (28-30 de abril de 2009), María Hernández Esteban, Marcial Carrascosa Ortega y Mita Valvassori (eds.), Cuadernos de Filología Italiana, Madrid, Publicaciones de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, núm. extraordinario, 2010, 250 pp.
Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the airport mobile marketing and what elements have had a positive or negative influence in cross-selling via an airport app. Design/methodology: For this analysis, a survey was conducted to users that use the Schiphol Amsterdam Airport app. A total of 103 questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings: This study found that security/control factor supplied by the mobile marketing tool to passengers at the airport, it has been demonstrated that it favours an increase in cross-selling. in addition, if an airport is perceived to have a good brand image, it will have a positive effect in cross-selling. Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. Smelling multiple products and services to the same client before, during, and post consumption is a marketing technique that intends to (1 satisfy a client’s need and (2 increase a company’s profit by using cross-selling and other complementary services. Airline companies are experts in carrying out this activity, and airports have found that mobile applications are the perfect tool to increase their commercial profits. Offering complementary products and services is a very lucrative business, and a mobile device or smartphone are -- and will become -- the ideal medium to meet users’ demands as well as to improve the passenger experience. Keywords: mobile marketing, cross-selling, information, security-control, image-perception, satisfaction, WOM
Testeerimisvabaduse mõiste ja areng, selle piiramine, testeerimisvabaduse piiramisest Eesti alal (Eesti talurahvaseadus, Balti Eraseadus, tsiviilseadustiku eelnõu kavad, nõukogude õigus, Eesti kehtiv õigus ja selle reformikava)
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 340 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs were estimated to have occurred worldwide in 1995. Previous studies have shown that the presence of other concomitant STIs increases the likelihood of HIV transmission. The first national study of STIs conducted in Pakistan in 2004 revealed a high burden of STIs among women selling sex. The HIV epidemic in Pakistan has thus far followed the "Asian epidemic model". Earlier studies among women selling sex have shown a low prevalence of HIV coupled with a low level of knowledge about AIDS. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and STIs, and assess knowledge and risk behaviours related to HIV/STI, among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A total of 730 participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. The participants were women selling sex in three areas (referred to as "A", "B", and "C" of Lahore. A structured questionnaire addressing demographic information, sexual life history, sexual contacts, and knowledge and practices related to HIV/STI prevention was administered by face-to-face interview. Biological samples were obtained from all participants and tested for HIV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Pearson's chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to test associations between potential risk factors and specified diagnosed infections. Results The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.7%, T pallidum 4.5%, N gonorrhoeae 7.5%, C trachomatis 7.7% and T vaginalis 5.1%. The participants had been selling sex for a median period of seven years and had a median of three clients per day. Sixty five percent of the participants reported that they "Always use condom". The median fee per sexual contact was Rs. 250 (3 Euro. Compared to Areas A and C, women selling sex in Area B had a significantly higher risk of chlamydial
... management expenses my agency paid under this part if I elect to sell my former residence in the United... property management expenses my agency paid under this part if I elect to sell my former residence in the... property management expenses paid by your agency if you elect to sell your former residence in the United...
Stempsey, W E
This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant.
Full Text Available In this paper I compare strategies to sell Sakha music in different countries over a ten-year period with a particular emphasis on 2005–2007. due the fact that local income from performing and selling albums is not sufficient for living the artists from the republic of Sakha are trying to perform as much abroad as possible. When touring abroad, the music and performances have changed over time depending on the region. Sakha artists attempt to respond to the expectations of the audience and modify their program accordingly. In a period from the late 1990s to 2007, the same artists have switched from pop to rock to folk music, using different languages and different costumes, performing as Asian or European artists. comparing these strategies, one can see how Sakha musicians use cultural stereotypes of foreign audiences for economic purposes.
Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M
Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abhayawansa, Subhash; Aleksanyan, Mark; Bahtsevangolou, John
This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital information (ICI) in sell-side analysts’ fundamental analysis and valuation of companies. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, it penetrates the black box of analysts’ valuation decision-making by identifying and conceptualising the mechanisms and rationales by which ICI is integrated within their valuation decision processes. We find that capital market participants are not ambivalent to ICI, and ICI is used: (1) to form analysts...
Full Text Available This review presents a comprehensive overview on selected synthetic routes towards commercial drug compounds as published in both journal and patent literature. Owing to the vast number of potential structures, we have concentrated only on those drugs containing five-membered heterocycles and focused principally on the assembly of the heterocyclic core. In order to target the most representative chemical entities the examples discussed have been selected from the top 200 best selling drugs of recent years.
Stoecklhuber, Andreas; Lueders, Roland (eds.)
The annual book on photovoltaics is a further information and operation agent for the fascinating area of photovoltaics. This book contains the following contributions: (a) The photovoltaics market and its boundary conditions; (b) Regulations; (c) Planning and design; (d) Assembly and installation; (e) Service and monitoring; (f) Operation and safety; (g) Law and insurance; (h) Consultancy and selling; (i) Dictionary of the most important terms from the photovoltaics; (j) Exhibitions and advanced training.
Dandago, Kabiru Isa; Zaidi, Zulaikha Rabitah; Amir, Aliana Shazma Amir Binti
This study aims to examine the impact of overhead cost apportionment on selling price determination in the Malaysian automobile manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study looks at the treatment of overhead costs apportionment from the perspective of the profit making effort of automobile manufacturing firms. The methodology used is interview with staff of one automobile manufacturing company in Malaysia taken as a case study: that is Naza Automotive Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. The findings o...
Building on the logic of issue selling, my dissertation explores the micro-processes of shareholder social activism through which shareholders interact with targeted firms and also addresses which micro-processes could affect the effectiveness and the success of shareholder social activism. To do this, my dissertation develops a theory with respect to the approaches of linguistically framing the contents of and of presenting shareholder social activism. Based on a qualitative (descriptive) an...
Bansal, Sonia; Bhatia, Dr. B S
In modern competitive times every industry juggles to expand their income potentials, the Indian banking industry is also on the same ladder of growth and diversification. The declining net interest margins have forced the Indian Banks to look forward for alternative sources of income. And the key to diversification is to offer array of different products to existing customers. Cross selling plays a pivotal role for success in the financial and banking services market. Banks are shifting from...
Yan Ling; Steven W Floyd; David C Baldridge
In multinational organizations, local market responsiveness is critical to the development of effective strategies. This responsiveness is expected to occur in part as the result of upward influence from local subsidiary managers, who represent the local culture and shift relevant priorities accordingly. Issue-selling – defined as directing top management's attention to particular issues and helping them understand such issues – is one important way in which subsidiary managers pursue upward ...
There is fenomenal gap that amount of Indosats outlets have increase 41,76% in year 2007 until 2008, but Net Profit Margin have decrease 18,66 % in year 2008. Also there is research gap that competitive advantage have influence on performance sales, other research result selling-in performance have influense on competitive advantage. The purpose of this research is to test the influences of outlet quality services, differentiation, company reputation, outlet quality relationship, environmen...
Düsseldofi koolkonnast (1819-1918), selle rahvusvahelisest levikust, Eestist pärit baltisaksa kunstnike Karl Eduard von Gebhardti (1838-1925), Eugéne Gustav Dückeri (1841-1916) ja Alexander Heinrich Gregor von Bochmanni (1850-1930) juhtivast osast ning nende erinevatest maadest, ka eestlastest õpilastest. Ka valitsevatest maalizhanritest ja tolleaegsetest rühmitustest Saksamaal - natsareenlastest ja ühendusest Malkasten
Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew
One way that guns get into the wrong hands is via gun sales without a background check. While the large majority of Americans support laws requiring universal background checks, no prior study has assessed whether Americans think it is acceptable behaviour to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check, whether or not there is a law against it. We sponsored a nationally representative survey of over 3900 American adults, oversampling gun owners, using an online panel provided by the survey firm Growth for Knowledge. Over 72% of American adults agree or strongly agree with the statement that 'whether it is legal or not, it is NOT acceptable to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check' and 11% disagree or strongly disagree. Subgroups less likely to agree are young adults, men, conservatives, those with less than a high school education and gun owners. Reducing the number of guns sold without a background check could help reduce the flow of guns to felons. Changes in normative attitudes and behaviours, as well as changes in law, could help accomplish this goal. Most Americans, including gun owners, believe selling a gun to a stranger without a background check is not acceptable behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Selling, general and administration costs are the main components in the Income Statement. A large number of permanent staff in sales and marketing department will make the company dominated by the fixed costs. This fact could lead to sticky cost behavior. In addition, role of the manager can also cause the cost stickiness. When the company’s revenue decreases, manager may delay to decrease the cost or not even decrease cost at all. The objective of the study is to determine whether cost stickiness of selling, general and administrative in the Indonesian listed companies. This study applied log-linear data panel regression with 3605 firm years that is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI from 1993 – 2013. This study finds that selling, general, and administrative costs are sticky only for the manufacturing companies. Furthermore, the results show that adjustment of sales, general, and administrative costs delayed by the manager when revenue decreases, yet the cost stickiness will be reduced in the next period.
Mir Hossain SOHEL
Full Text Available Bangladesh is lower middle income oriented country (LMIC in South Asia where sachet product has become more popular than other scaling products. SPIN selling is an approach of consultative selling or presenting an offer to the potential clients considering their pain-points using a powerful questioning process. This study attempts to find out the reasons of gaining popularity of sachet product in Bangladesh. SPIN Selling concept is the age-old concept used in this respect. A sample size of 120 was collected from the salespeople of 15 different companies that are co-integrated sachet product in their product line. A self-administered questionnaire is applied for data collection and This study reveals hat the existence of the applicability of SPIN concept in a moderate format in Bangladesh. The findings of the study postulate that in Bangladesh, sachet product is introduced as follower product and it will be helpful for the marketing executives, R&D officers or decision makers of concerned firms in re-considering their strategic thinking aiming to gain sustainable competitive advantage in the product market of Bangladesh for sachet product.
This study looks at market exclusivity time for the top selling originator drugs in Canada. Total sales for drugs without competition were also calculated. A list of the top selling originator drugs by dollar sales from 2009 to 2015 inclusive, except for 2010, was compiled along with their annual sales. Health Canada databases were used to extract the following information: generic name, date of Notice of Compliance (NOC, date of marketing authorization), whether the product was a small molecule drug or a biologic, and date of NOC for a generic or biosimilar. Market exclusivity time was calculated in days for drugs. A total of 121 drugs were identified. There were 96 small molecule drugs (63 with a generic competitor and 33 with no generic competitor) and 25 biologics (none with a biosimilar competitor). The 63 drugs with a competitor had a mean market exclusivity time of 4478 days (12.3 years) (95% CI 4159-4798). The 58 drugs without competition had total annual sales of Can$8.59 billion and were on the market for a median of 5357 days (14.7 years) (interquartile range 3291-6679) as of January 31, 2017. Top selling originator drugs in Canada have a considerably longer period of market exclusivity than the 8 to 10 years that the research-based pharmaceutical industry claims. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This work describes the design of a decision support system for detection of fraudulent behavior of selling stolen goods in online auctions. In this system, each seller is associated with a type of certification, namely “proper seller,” “suspect seller,” and “selling stolen goods.” The certification level is determined on the basis of a seller’s behaviors and especially on the basis of contextual information whose origin is outside online auctions portals. In this paper, we focus on representing knowledge about sellers in online auctions, the influence of additional information available from other Internet source, and reasoning on bidders’ trustworthiness under uncertainties using Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. To demonstrate the practicability of our approach, we performed a case study using real auction data from Czech auction portal Aukro. The analysis results show that our approach can be used to detect selling stolen goods. By applying Dempster-Shafer theory to combine multiple sources of evidence for the detection of this fraudulent behavior, the proposed approach can reduce the number of false positive results in comparison to approaches using a single source of evidence.
Full Text Available Governments and developers around the globe are exploiting the benefits of island spatiality to sell urban sustainability. Many new-build smart cities, eco-cities, and sustainable cities (‘smart eco-cities’ are constructed on small islands or otherwise bounded from surrounding urban space. Island spatiality presents benefits for selling smart eco-cities as role models of sustainable innovation: ease of creating value, ease of measuring sustainability, and ease of communicating success. These benefits, however, are all largely illusory, contributing primarily to the appearance of sustainability for the sake of economic profit. The great innovation of island smart-cities is frequently an innovation in the selling of sustainability. By monetising the environment through ecosystem services, incentivising largely symbolic ‘green’ projects and architecture, drawing attention away from unsustainable practices elsewhere, and exacerbating social inequality, island smart eco-cities may be making the world less sustainable. They may also be unreproducible by design and lead to a global devaluing of genuinely sustainable but non-iconic urban development. Island smart eco-cities increasingly serve as secessionary enclaves for a global elite, privileging corporate over public interests and spearheading an invidious argument of sustainable development by deregulation.
Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley
To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior...
Full Text Available Organizing and managing channels of distribution is an important marketing task. Due to the emergence of electronic commerce on the Internet, e-channel distribution systems have been adopted by many manufacturers. However, academic and anecdotal evidence both point to the pressures arising from this new e-channel manufacturing environment. Question marks therefore remain on how the addition of this e-channel affects the traditional marketing strategies of leasing and selling. We set up several two-period dual-channel models in which a manufacturer sells a durable product through both a manufacturer-owned e-channel and an independent reseller (leaser who adopts selling (leasing to consumers. Our main results indicate that, direct selling cost aside, product durability plays an important role in shaping the strategies of all members. With either marketing strategy, the additional expansion of an e-channel territory may secure Pareto gains, in which all members benefit.
Rizan, Mohammad; Anjarestu, Yogha
Generally, the purpose of this research are: 1) To know the description of product quality, personal selling and customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 2) To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 3) To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 4) To know the influence of quality product and personal selling simultaneously towards customer satisfaction...
Dian Nailiyah, Fani Firmansyah
Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling...
Fani Firmansyah, Dian Nailiyah
Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling...
In the wake of World War II, UNESCO promoted a new approach to the writing of world history in an attempt to support UN peacekeeping through "mental engineering" in the service of peace. The first task was to launch an authoritative world history without particular geographical orientations...
Full Text Available Generally, the purpose of this research are: 1 To know the description of product quality, personal selling and customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 2 To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 3 To know the influence of quality product towards customer satisfaction on client of Info Bekasi Magazine. 4 To know the influence of quality product and personal selling simultaneously towards customer satisfaction on client Info Bekasi Magazine. The method implemented in this research are descriptive explanatory and causal. This research is taken 100 client of Info Bekasi Magazine after their interact with personal selling used field pricing system while data was collected by using questionnaire and processed using SPSS 20. The result shows that partially quality product has a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. Then, partially personal selling also has a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. Simultaneously, quality product and personal selling have a positive and significant impact toward customer satisfaction. The empirical findings indicate that to create and improve the customer satisfaction, Info Bekasi Magazine need to consider quality product and personal selling because those factors shown to affect the level of job loyalty.
Webb, Emily M; Vella, Maya; Straus, Christopher M; Phelps, Andrew; Naeger, David M
There are little data as to whether appropriate, cost effective, and safe ordering of imaging examinations are adequately taught in US medical school curricula. We sought to determine the proportion of noninterpretive content (such as appropriate ordering) versus interpretive content (such as reading a chest x-ray) in the top-selling medical student radiology textbooks. We performed an online search to identify a ranked list of the six top-selling general radiology textbooks for medical students. Each textbook was reviewed including content in the text, tables, images, figures, appendices, practice questions, question explanations, and glossaries. Individual pages of text and individual images were semiquantitatively scored on a six-level scale as to the percentage of material that was interpretive versus noninterpretive. The predominant imaging modality addressed in each was also recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. All six books had more interpretive content. On average, 1.4 pages of text focused on interpretation for every one page focused on noninterpretive content. Seventeen images/figures were dedicated to interpretive skills for every one focused on noninterpretive skills. In all books, the largest proportion of text and image content was dedicated to plain films (51.2%), with computed tomography (CT) a distant second (16%). The content on radiographs (3.1:1) and CT (1.6:1) was more interpretive than not. The current six top-selling medical student radiology textbooks contain a preponderance of material teaching image interpretation compared to material teaching noninterpretive skills, such as appropriate imaging examination selection, rational utilization, and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The hospitality Industry is comprised of individual hotels in which each one of them differs in the way that they position their products and services with the intention of catering for the advancing present day consumer needs. It is hence important for hospitality businesses to possess a unique selling proposition. The objective of this study is to determine the importance of the 4 P’s of marketing mix in consumer purchasing decision. The 4 P’s concept is a tool used in modern marketing ...
Weigand, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita; Vien, Duong Minh; Kruse, Jens; Guong, Vo Thi; Amelung, Wulf
Increasing urbanization and industrialization leads to increasing demands for construction material, especially in low income countries. For this purpose topsoil is sometimes removed and used as construction material. Topsoil Selling is practiced around the world from America, Europe and Africa to Asia. In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam farmers physically remove the upper 10-40 cm of their paddy fields and sell it to contractors (= Topsoil Selling, TSS). The excavated material is used for road construction or brick production and therefore the most fertile part of the paddy soil is irrecoverably lost. The temporal effects of topsoil removal on soil quality are not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that after soil removal, soil quality and yield potential are significantly lower compared to the original topsoil. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two chronosequences in two different provinces of the Mekong Delta. The provinces are Sóc Trăng (Control, 1, 2, 3, 8 years after TSS) and Trà Vinh (Control, 3, 5, 8 years after TSS). The sampling areas differ in texture and cultivation practice: clayey-loamy vs. sandy-loamy and double vs. triple rice cropping. For each year of the chronosequence, 4 field sites were investigated. We sampled the Ap, Bg1, and Bg2 horizon up to 40 cm depth as composite samples from 6 to 8 cores per field. Soil organic carbon (Corg) stocks at TSS sites were up to 20 t/ha lower than at Control sites (Control: 50 t/ha) in Sóc Trăng and up to 15 t/ha lower in Tra Vinh (Control: 30 t/ha). Especially the Bg horizons revealed a continuous decline in Corg with time after soil removal. Analysis of available nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu) determined by the Mehlich3-Method are still ongoing. Preliminary results, however, suggest that there is not sustainable loss of these elements after selling, but that initial risk of losses are reverted under prolonged management. Phosphorus fractionation according to the Hedley method indicate
Fani Firmansyah, Dian Nailiyah
Full Text Available Recently, many sharia financial institutes stand, either banks general or banks people of islamic finance. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City as a new sharia financial institute is demanded to be able to compete to other financial institute, so that the marketting strategy is needed fully. Personal selling is one of marketting method of producttion in order to be able to be pervaded by market. PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City markets payment product of murabahah by using the personal selling, can stand even more develope. This research it conducted to know how the application of personal selling in marketing murabahah payment product in PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City. The kind of this research is method qualitative approach descriptive, the researcher describes how processes or steps personal selling conducted PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City, the technique of data collecttion uses the observation, interview and documentation. Method data analysis that researcher use is method data analysis descriptive. The research result shows that proses or step personal selling which is held in PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City is Prospecting Approach, Preapproach, Approach, Presentation, Handling Objection, Closing and follow up. Handling Objection which is held PT BPRS Mitra Harmoni Malang City is sales person continue closing sale without asked reservation prospective customers and do not dig the hidden reservation then use the reservation as an opportunity to provide more information and change the mind be a reason to buy.
Remy, Lysa S; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Pechansky, Flavio
This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder. Mean age was 22.92 (SD 2.77), 60% were male, 45% reported 12 or more years of education, 50% did not have a primary partner, 50% were living alone, and all had friends who also used ecstasy. Three main themes emerged: (1) "easy" transition from ecstasy user to seller; (2) desire to achieve popularity and fame; and (3) need to sell ecstasy to maintain the high cost of EDM club scene participation. This is one of the first studies of ecstasy sellers in Brazil. The results demonstrate the ease with which the participants transition from ecstasy user to seller. Given the potential health and social dangers associated with ecstasy use, public health campaigns to prevent ecstasy use and policy initiatives to limit the ecstasy supply are warranted.
Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth
Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.
Full Text Available This paper is about designing and implementing data warehousing and data mining, along with their roles in supporting decision-making related to sales product analysis in cross-selling concept of PT XYZ. The database the company used is not supporting data analysis and decision-making. Therefore, it made a data warehousing design that could be used to keep data in a huge amount and could give report and answer from user’s questions in ad hoc. The method is used to design and implement data warehousing and data mining which consists of literature study, company problem analysis, and data warehousing design, and testing result. The writing results are a data warehousing design and data mining and also the implementation of cross-selling concept to analysis the sales, purchases, and customers’ cancellation data. The data could be showed and analyzed from some point of views that could help managers to analyse and acknowledge more information.
Johnson Shen, Megan; Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S
We describe the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012 to August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a "high end product;" and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, "high end product" for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and "safer" alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff's USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Our results provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits.
Shen, Megan Johnson; Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S.
Objectives The present study described the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012-August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Results Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a “high end product;” and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Conclusions Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, “high end product” for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and “safer” alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff’s USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Results of this study provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits. PMID:28452697
Full Text Available This paper highlights the way in which a distribution system can be made operational in FMCG, starting from the interaction between three components of the system: selling, delivery and trade marketing. On this basis, I have categorized the improvement opportunities of each component, using the appropriate key performance indicators (KPIs of the system objectives. The optimal configuration of instruments and successful interaction of these components, improve the distribution system contribution to company performance. A specific system, defined for solving marketing problems, must be designed according to this purpose, and in this regard, all the significant elements and relationships must be subordinate to the objective by which it will achieve the desired solution. Business objectives achievement can be measured as effectiveness - the degree to which objectives were achieved, or as efficiency - the degree to which objectives have been achieved in the available resources. For evaluating the effectiveness with which an operative marketing system turns its sources into necessary results to solve a problem, it requires certain criteria to measure performance. These three elements: selling, delivery and trade marketing, are a trident of distribution which can lead to an optimal approach of market opportunities.
Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I
Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR
This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern.
Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.
This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191
Meditaciones contables sobre algunos enigmas del tratado de Fra Luca Pacioli a la luz de la traducción de Esteban Hernández Esteve = Meditations of a book keeper: The riddles of Fra Luca Pacioli’s treatise in the light of Esteban Hernandez Esteve’s translation
Juan Lanero Fernández
Full Text Available Resumen Los autores que sucedieron en el tiempo a Fra Luca Pacioli se ocuparon de corregir sus deficiencias y a veces hasta sus contradicciones. Ese proceso corrector deja constancia de algo que, en ocasiones, la ortodoxia pacioliana quiere pasar por alto: el franciscano italiano fue un recopilador; perfeccionó unas partes, dejando intactas otras, lo que necesariamente conllevaba inexactitudes e inconsistencias. Los enigmas paciolianos se han ido resolviendo a lo largo de los siglos. En unas ocasiones, a través de sus seguidores, que fueron mejorando los textos gracias a la práctica mercantil y al perfeccionamiento de la imprenta; en otras, encontramos al grupo de transcriptores y traductores modernos. En el presente estudio prestamos atención a las traducciones de Antinori y Hernández Esteve a fin de ver cómo dos obras recientes han dado soluciones a los enigmas planteados en el tratado pacioliano. La traducción del Profesor Antinori es de un valor inmenso. Lo proponemos como texto primicial a la hora de abordar cualquier estudio del original. La traducción de Hernández Esteve, a su vez, parafraseando el título de la obra de Pacioli, tiene proporción y proporcionalidad. Se trata de una traducción prologada por una presentación detallada de la vida y de la obra de Fra Luca Pacioli, que remata una Bibliografía que no tiene parangón en ninguna de las traducciones presentadas hasta la fecha. Muchas de las notas que acompañan a la versión de Hernández Esteve son una reflexión traductológica sobre el original. No en vano, numerosos enigmas que se presentan en Pacioli se desvelan a través de la traducción de Hernández Esteve y del monumental estudio historiográfico que la envuelve. Abstract Those authors who succeeded Fra Luca Paciolidealt with his deficiencies and sometimes contradictions. This correcting process leaves proof of something which, on occasions, the paciolian orthodoxy prefers to ignore: the Italian Friar was a
Meditaciones contables sobre algunos enigmas del tratado de Fra Luca Pacioli a la luz de la traducción de Esteban Hernández Esteve = Meditations of a book keeper: The riddles of Fra Luca Pacioli’s treatise in the light of Esteban Hernandez Esteve’s
Juan Lanero Fernández
Full Text Available Los autores que sucedieron en el tiempo a Fra Luca Pacioli se ocuparon de corregir sus deficiencias y a veces hasta sus contradicciones. Ese proceso corrector deja constancia de algo que, en ocasiones, la ortodoxia pacioliana quiere pasar por alto: el franciscano italiano fue un recopilador; perfeccionó unas partes, dejando intactas otras, lo que necesariamente conllevaba inexactitudes e inconsistencias. Los enigmas paciolianos se han ido resolviendo a lo largo de los siglos. En unas ocasiones, a través de sus seguidores, que fueron mejorando los textos gracias a la práctica mercantil y al perfeccionamiento de la imprenta; en otras, encontramos al grupo de transcriptores y traductores modernos. En el presente estudio prestamos atención a las traducciones de Antinori y Hernández Esteve a fin de ver cómo dos obras recientes han dado soluciones a los enigmas planteados en el tratado pacioliano.La traducción del Profesor Antinori es de un valor inmenso. Lo proponemos como texto primicial a la hora de abordar cualquier estudio del original. La traducción de Hernández Esteve, a su vez, parafraseando el título de la obra de Pacioli, tiene proporción y proporcionalidad. Se trata de una traducción prologada por una presentación detallada de la vida y de la obra de Fra Luca Pacioli, que remata una Bibliografía que no tiene parangón en ninguna de las traducciones presentadas hasta la fecha. Muchas de las notas que acompañan a la versión de Hernández Esteve son una reflexión traductológica sobre el original. No en vano, numerosos enigmas que se presentan en Pacioli se desvelan a través de la traducción de Hernández Esteve y del monumental estudio historiográfico que la envuelve.Those authors who succeeded Fra Luca Paciolidealt with his deficiencies and sometimes contradictions. This correcting process leaves proof of something which, on occasions, the paciolian orthodoxy prefers to ignore: the Italian Friar was a compiler; he
Full Text Available Brands and products compete with each other to gain market share. The right marketing communication and promotion strategy is one way to win the competition. The main characteristic of this personal selling strategy is the direct interaction between the salesperson and the potential customers, present and instantly know about the advantages and characteristics of products marketed to potential customers. One of the companies that implement this strategy as the main promotional activity is PT. International Melilea Indonesia as a distributor of Melilea organic products. The business and marketing systems run by agents and Melilea's downlines are Multi Level Marketing (MLM so that meeting with customers is an obligation in personal sales activities. This study was conducted to find out how the implementation of personal selling activities undertaken by agent and Melilea Distributor in Bekasi branch. This research uses qualitative approach with descriptive type. The method used is a case study to conduct in-depth interviews to informants. Implementation of personal selling activities of PT. Melilea Indonesia International in this case Melilea agent and downline at Bekasi branch is done through five stages: prospecting, approaching, service, interactive media, and consumer care. Merk dan produk saling bersaing satu sama lain untuk mendapatkan pangsa pasar. Strategi komunikasi dan promosi pemasaran yang tepat sebagai salah satu cara untuk memenangkan persaingan. Ciri utama dari strategi penjualan personal ini adalah interaksi langsung antara wiraniaga dengan calon konsumen, hadir dan langsung mengetahui tentang kelebihan dan karakteristik produk yang dipasarkan ke calon konsumen. Salah satu perusahaan yang menerapkan strategi ini sebagai kegiatan promosi utama adalah PT. International Melilea Indonesia sebagai distributor produk organik Melilea. Sistem bisnis dan pemasaran yang dijalankan oleh agen dan downline Melilea adalah Multi Level Marketing
Mirian Cátia Vieira Basílio
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a disponibilidade e o acesso à bebida alcoólica num bairro da cidade de Vitória/ES. Os dados foram obtidos através de pesquisa de campo na região selecionada utilizando a observação simples e a entrevista através da aplicação de questionários numa amostra de 10% dos estabelecimentos encontrados. Os pontos de venda funcionam 7 dias por semana; 68,8% vendem a credito e a um preço médio de R$ 0,41 (a dose de cachaça. 93,8% dos entrevistados não solicitam documento de identidade ao cliente antes de lhe vender bebidas. A relação entre número de moradias e número de pontos de venda foi de 3:1. A alta concentração de estabelecimentos que vendem bebidas alcoólicas no bairro aponta para a necessidade de pensar o entorno (regiões vizinhas da mesma. Estas regiões envolvem áreas marginalizadas onde ocorre tráfico de drogas, fazendo da região estudada uma área importante para o comércio, pela facilidade de acesso aos outros bairros adjacentes da cidade.The objective of this study is to analyse the availability and access to alcoholic beverages in a neighbour-hood in the city of Vitória/ES. Data was obtained by means of field research using simple observation method and the application of questionnaires in a sample of 10% of the establishments encountered in the region. These establishments are open seven days a week; 68,8% of these markets sell on credit and at a medium price of R$ 0,41 (one dose of "cachaça". 93,8% of the sellers who were interviewed doesn't check the identity cards of their clients before selling them the alcoholic beverages. The relation between the number of houses and establishments was 3:1. The high concentration of establishments which sell alcoholic beverages in the neighbourhood brings up the necessity to think about the neighbouring regions. These regions include marginalized areas where there is drug trafficking, making the studied region an important commercial
Full Text Available Knjiga The Buying Brain: Secrets for Selling to the Subconscious Mind objavljena je 2010. godine, a izdavač je John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. Djelo sadrži 231 stranicu podijeljenu u 18 poglavlja poredanih tako da čitatelja postupno uvode u područje neuromarketinga. Autor započinje predstavljajući trenutačnu problematiku u istraživanju tržišta i otkrivanju želja potrošača, nastavlja opisom neuromarketinških tehnologija, strukturom i osnovnim funkcijama mozga. Slijede savjeti o učinkovitom upravljanju markom, dizajniranju proizvoda te organiziranju prodajnog prostora, potkrijepljeni autorovim saznanjima iz provedenih istraživanja.
Isaac Cruz Estrada
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to propose a relationship marketing process in a coffee selling company in Baja California as a case study. First, relationship marketing is conceptualized and its contribution to the creation of value in organizations is analyzed; moreover, empirical studies from various authors, who point out the influence of this process on customer satisfaction, are included. 149 surveys were conducted in order to obtain the correlation between the guarantee to offer a product or service and value generation by delivering tangible and intangible elements for customer satisfaction. This proposal belongs to the company where the research was carried out; it can be adapted to organizations which offer a service and are in the situation studied.
Tesco Corporation, a Calgary-based oil field equipment supply company, was recently awarded the 1997 Canada Export Award. The award was for top performance in selling, leasing and maintaining (all in one package) a top drive unit. The unit rotates drills up from rig floors to the top of the pipe strings that drive the drill bits into the earth. There are currently some 130 Tesco machines in action despite heavy competition from industry giant Varco and others. Tesco is also developing new product lines for the rapidly developing `underbalanced drilling` market, and is testing a new concept for simultaneous drilling and casing of wells. If this concept works out as expected, Tesco will have the market all to itself, at least until competitors catch up.
This article examines the 1965 first edition of Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson's Ett barn blir till (A Child Is Born) by placing the book back in the historical context in which it was produced, marketed, and reviewed. In particular it shows how medicine and the media in Sweden were intertwined in the process of incorporating Nilsson's photographs of aborted embryos and fetuses into a best-selling book on the origin and development of human life. Nilsson's work is related to other books in the same genre as well as the popular picture magazines of the time, in order to highlight how it aspired to offer something new. It is argued that a number of commercial and other interests were involved and that an immense effort went into not only making and promoting the book but also trying to control the meaning of the images.
Cohen, C B
Reproductive medicine, a sector of a health care system increasingly captured by the demands of the marketplace, is enmeshed in a drive to sell certain human bits and pieces, such as gametes, cells, fetal eggs, and fetal ovaries, for reproductive purposes. The ethical objection raised by Kant and Radin to the sale of human organs - that this is incompatible with human dignity and worth - also applies to these sales. Moreover, such sales nullify the reproductive paradigm, irretrievably replacing it with a manufacturing paradigm. This represents a change in kind, not just of degree, in the way that we view our capacity to generate children and destroys our concept of reproduction as an essentially human activity. In the face of a struggle to retain those common ethical values at the foundation of reproductive medicine, this form of commodification of the human body should be viewed as ethically unacceptable.
de Beaufort, Inez; Vandamme, Sofie
Many products to lose weight are presented on the market. The products are advertised with two 'arguments': the health-argument: obesity and overweight are dangerous for your health, and the beauty argument: obesity and overweight make you ugly. The authors raise ethical questions with regard to the promises made and discuss the following arguments: the exploitation of vulnerable persons who are told they are unhealthy and ugly, the stigmatization of obese people as lazy and without willpower, and the harm some treatments may cause. They argue that raising the health argument should be analyzed very critically as obese people are vulnerable and susceptible to all kind of promises. With regard to the beauty argument, they argue that 'selling dreams' is perhaps less problematic as people are not as susceptible and vulnerable with regard to promises on beauty and therefore less likely to be seduced by such promises. People should be empowered to be very critical of (advertisements for) slimming products.
Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.
da Vinha Luis
Full Text Available The Carter Administration came to Office seeking to continue a policy of détente. However, the Administration’s policy vis-à-vis the Soviets became more assertive throughout the Presidency, culminating in the Carter Doctrine. The current paper applies a conceptual framework for “issue selling” to argue that a more assertive foreign policy was being promoted by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and his NSC staff since the early days of the Carter Presidency. By applying an assortment of issue selling strategies, Zbigniew Brzezinski and the NSC staff were able to exploit the communicative interactions amongst the political leadership to continuously promote a more forceful US policy towards the Soviets. By being able to interpret and define the problem representation facing the Administration, the APNSA was able initiate and continuously promote a wholesale policy transformation leading to the development of the Carter Doctrine.
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby. Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.
Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín
More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.
Desak Putu Eka Nilakusmawati
Full Text Available Decrease in family income represent an impact of economic pressures, as an effect of economic crisis. Other side, the existing problems that extension of the job opportunity in the urban area with existence of development in the various sector do not absorb entire labour force which is progressively growing larger its amount.Economic problem force woman of lower economic class to involved take part in earning for increase family income by working beyond domestic sectors. Involvement of woman in labor market trigered by family’s economic problems, besides existence of the job opportunity factor. Alternative effort being carried out is by selling canang.Increasing of urban community activities in Denpasar City makes them have no time to make banten or canang. To find an easier way to overcome this situation, many people tend to buy canang/banten which is ready to use, also more practical and spent less time than the time spent when they make by themselves . This phenomenon gives a chance to canang sellers to get income additional. In the difficult condition of the economics problem, many woman have to take part to overcome economic problems which they face. One of the alternative is involved into labour market, and involve in trade is one of the choice. Because of the existence of opportunity as explained above, many women overcome their economic problems and try to give contribution to their family income by selling the canang.Phenomenon more and more canang sellers which are spread alongside the road side in Denpasar City shown that the informal sector have a great role to maintaining and also improving household economics. The effort as the canang seller can represent an alternative of effort in informal sector to overcome economics problem in the household level. Roles of woman as a subject of this informal sector, have a big contribution in maintaining household economics.
Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M
Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M
Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.
Aaron S Kesselheim
Full Text Available The Orphan Drug Act encourages drug development for rare conditions. However, some orphan drugs become top sellers for unclear reasons. We sought to evaluate the extent and cost of approved and unapproved uses of orphan drugs with the highest unit sales.We assessed prescription patterns for four top-selling orphan drugs: lidocaine patch (Lidoderm approved for post-herpetic neuralgia, modafinil (Provigil approved for narcolepsy, cinacalcet (Sensipar approved for hypercalcemia of parathyroid carcinoma, and imatinib (Gleevec approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We pooled patient-specific diagnosis and prescription data from two large US state pharmaceutical benefit programs for the elderly. We analyzed the number of new and total patients using each drug and patterns of reimbursement for approved and unapproved uses. For lidocaine patch, we subcategorized approved prescriptions into two subtypes of unapproved uses: neuropathic pain, for which some evidence of efficacy exists, and non-neuropathic pain.We found that prescriptions for lidocaine patch, modafinil, and cinacalcet associated with non-orphan diagnoses rose at substantially higher rates (average monthly increases in number of patients of 14.6, 1.45, and 1.58 than prescriptions associated with their orphan diagnoses (3.12, 0.24, and 0.03, respectively (p75%. Increases in lidocaine patch use for non-neuropathic pain far exceeded neuropathic pain (10.2 vs. 3.6 patients, p<0.001.In our sample, three of four top-selling orphan drugs were used more commonly for non-orphan indications. These orphan drugs treated common clinical symptoms (pain and fatigue or laboratory abnormalities. We should continue to monitor orphan drug use after approval to identify products that come to be widely used for non-FDA approved indications, particularly those without adequate evidence of efficacy.
... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style of...
Tahte olemus ja selle käsitlus lepinguteooria arengus, tahet käsitlevad lepinguteooriad, tahteavaldus, tahteavalduse siduvus ja ulatus, tahte mittevastavus tahteavaldusele ja selle tagajärjed.Vt. ka Õigusinstituudi toimetised (1999) nr. 2, lk. 8-9
Siimets-Gross, Hesi, 1976-
Tartu Ülikooli õppeainest "Rooma õiguse ajalugu" ja selle õppejõududest (Jüri Uluots, Ernst Ein, Leo Leesment) ning õppeainest "Rooma õiguse süsteem" ja selle õppejõududest (Karl Wilhelm von Seeler, David Johann Friedrich Grimm ja Ernst Ein)
... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in vending...
Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.
This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they
Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.
This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they
Upselling takes place when a safety-net hospital increases its profits by selling discounted drugs to privately insured patients at full price. Senator Charles Grassley is on the case to increase transparency and to curtail the misuse of 340B purchases.
M. Schreier (Martin); C. Fuchs (Christoph); D.W. Dahl (Darren)
textabstractThe authors study consumer perceptions of firms that sell products designed by users. In contrast with the traditional design mode, in which professional designers employed by firms handle the design task, common design by users involves the firm's user community in creating new product
... appoint a Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the... Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ... Debenture, SBA may cause each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions that include, but...
... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and the Trustee. (iv) Perform such other functions...
... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... Participating Securities. (iii) Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and the Trustee. (iv...
Profiles the top-selling IOLS (integrated online library systems) software for libraries based on sales figures reported in the 1996 "Library Journal" annual survey of the library automation marketplace. Highlights include microcomputer-based systems and minicomputer-based systems, system components, MARC formats, and market sectors.…
Mwangi, A.M.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwadime, R.K.; Staveren, van W.A.; Foeken, D.W.
This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580
Squires, James; Wilder, David A.; Fixsen, Amanda; Hess, Erica; Rost, Kristen; Curran, Ryan; Zonneveld, Kimberly
An intervention consisting of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was evaluated to increase customer greeting and up-selling in a restaurant. A combination multiple baseline and reversal design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic…
... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Offer to Sell § 102-38.165 Are the terms and conditions... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are the terms and...
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…
... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...
Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S
Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at
Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S
To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times
María Isabel Reverón Peña
Full Text Available El presente artículo propone mostrar cómo Hernán Hoyos en la novela de sexo-ficciónAventuras de un impotente cuestiona la “modernidad” de la clase burguesa de Cali durante la década de los setenta del siglo XX; modernidad que toma como modelo referentes extranjeros, en particular, norteamericanos. Asimismo, el texto contextualiza la obra de Hoyos y presenta una reflexión en torno a la categoría “sexo-ficción” creada por el autor para referirse a sus obras, tan poco abordadas en los círculos académicos.
Full Text Available Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary. Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention. Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later.
Muttaqin, B. I. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.
In open pit mining activities, determination of the cut-off grade becomes crucial for the company since the cut-off grade affects how much profit will be earned for the mining company. In this study, we developed a cut-off grade determination mode for the open pit mining industry considering the cost of mining, waste removal (rehabilitation) cost, processing cost, fixed cost, and selling stage cost. The main goal of this study is to develop a model of cut-off grade determination to get the maximum total profit. Secondly, this study is also developed to observe the model of sensitivity based on changes in the cost components. The optimization results show that the models can help mining company managers to determine the optimal cut-off grade and also estimate how much profit that can be earned by the mining company. To illustrate the application of the models, a numerical example and a set of sensitivity analysis are presented. From the results of sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the changes in the sales price greatly affects the optimal cut-off value and the total profit.
Sohio has agreed to sell Vertical Bar3: 2 trillion cu ft of its Prudhoe Bay gas to Northern Natural Gas Co. for delivery at a rate of 170 million cu ft/day when the proposed Alaska Highway gas pipeline is completed. With the exception of approx. 4 trillion cu ft of Sohio's reserves committed to Columbia Gas System Inc., the agreement accounts for the sale of all the 26.5-27 trillion cu ft of Prudhoe Bay reserves. The contract, which is subject to approval of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, allows Alaska to take its one-eighth royalty share of the gas in kind or cash. Columbia Gas is the only firm planning to purchase Prudhoe Bay gas that is not participating as an equity owner in the pipeline project. According to a Columbia spokesman, it is still uncertain whether the proposed gas pipeline will be built; and the fact that Columbia has not yet signed a final agreement with Sohio does not indicate any decreasing interest in Prudhoe Bay gas.
Zhang, Ting; Li, Honggang
Credit trading, or leverage trading, which includes buying on margin and selling short, plays an important role in financial markets, where agents tend to increase their leverages for increased profits. This paper presents an agent-based asset market model to study the effect of the permissive leverage level on traders’ wealth and overall market indicators. In this model, heterogeneous agents can assume fundamental value-converging expectations or trend-persistence expectations, and their effective demands of assets depend both on demand willingness and wealth constraints, where leverage can relieve the wealth constraints to some extent. The asset market price is determined by a market maker, who watches the market excess demand, and is influenced by noise factors. By simulations, we examine market results for different leverage ratios. At the individual level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences agents’ wealth accumulation. At the market level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences changes in the asset price, volatility, and trading volume. Qualitatively, our model provides some meaningful results supported by empirical facts. More importantly, we find a continuous phase transition as we increase the leverage threshold, which may provide a further prospective of credit trading.
Full Text Available Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82 viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280, replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.
Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary
More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.
Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; Haslam, Nick
Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.
Mary Catherine O’Reilly-Gindhart
Full Text Available Since the Apostolic Exhortation of Amoris Laetitia in May 2016 and Apostolic Letter Misericordia et Misera in November 2016, Pope Francis has stirred a new discussion on mercy and the role of mercy in certain matters of sexual ethics including divorced, remarried, and cohabiting couples. During the same year, moral theologian Joseph A. Selling published a revolutionary book which provides a new vision of virtues and examines how people consider and arrive at ethical judgements. This article examines Pope Francis’s understanding of mercy using Selling’s method of the “virtuous trapezium” as a way to actively illustrate Pope Francis’s new approach to matters concerning Catholic sexuality. In matters of human sexuality, the Catholic moral tradition has focused for years on an act-centered morality, but Selling’s method instead considers the goals of ethical living before making an ethical judgment. This article contributes to the current discussion in theological ethics concerning Pope Francis’s recent pronouncements on mercy and Catholic sexual ethics, as well as brings into conversation Selling’s new method and approach to understanding virtue.
Hampanda, Karen M
Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa have one of the highest HIV seroprevelance rates of any population. Effective safe sex interventions are urgently needed to stop the transmission of HIV during commercial sex. Despite widespread education, counselling, and condom distribution interventions among FSWs, unprotected sexual intercourse remains a large behavioural challenge. Research on this topic has been limited primarily to establishing the frequency of high risk sexual behaviour without a comprehensive analysis of the social environment creating these factors, especially gender inequality. Through qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions with FSWs, this article contextualizes the selling of sex in one large urban city of Kenya. The results of this study indicate that FSWs will never be able to enforce safe sex among male clients in such settings without structural interventions that address gendered socioeconomic power imbalances. Policy implications based on these findings include re-evaluating laws against the selling of sex and prioritizing female education and economic opportunities.
Full Text Available Authors show the results about the effectiveness verification of prevention measures adopted in raw milk directly selling at “E. Avanzi” Centre of Pisa University. The good hygienic practices applied during production, storage and selling phases demonstrated to guarantee, in raw milk, conditions complying to hygienic criteria provided for the current regulation in Tuscany. The effectiveness verification about risk communication, carried out interviewing a sample of buyers, shows as, beside a predominant attitude towards attention to potential hygienic risks, overstay areas of reduced awareness about food risk and the ways to manage prevention. Authors hope for, in this context, such as in other similar productions, the approach yet launched towards continuous improvement of good hygienic practices adopted by businesses, could be extended to risk communication, with the aim to promote conscious and responsable choices of consumer.
Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley
To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.
Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R
To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior.Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya.Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse.From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education.We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.
森本, 正則; 守本, 信一; 宮本, 信彦; 立木, 陽子; 長谷川, 正; 増田, 昇義; 樋口, 喜三; 駒井, 功一郎
[Synopsis] The granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder was evaluated the efficacy by application for rice production in the paddy field experiment again. The fertilizer was made by same procedure along with previously reported. The experimental setting was along with conventional rice production in Nara Pref. Japan. The rice plant growth applied by the fertilizer application was slightly better than control plant growth. The 10% 37.5 kg/10a application in transplanting fie...
Mwangi, Alice Mboganie; den Hartog, Adel P; Mwadime, Robert K N; van Staveren, Wija A; Foeken, Dick W J
This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580 vendors in three selected locations. Data included product names, ingredients, methods of preparation, and the sex of the vendor. A little more than half of the vendors (53%) sold food of only one group; 44% sold cereals. Overall, 36% of vendors, mostly men, sold only carbohydrate products. The percentage of vendors selling foods of more than one group was higher in the working area (53%) than in the slum area (43%, p street vendors sell foods of only one group, women vendors are capable of supplying a sufficient variety of food groups that consumers can afford. It appears that consumer purchasing power dictates the food groups provided by vendors, especially cereal-based-foods. A policy on micronutrient fortification of cereal flours and fats used in popular street food preparation needs to be considered. This could be coupled with consumer and vendor education programs focusing on the importance of healthful diets.
Wilhelmy, Annika; Kleinmann, Martin; Melchers, Klaus G; Götz, Martin
risks and chances in selling and smooth-talking toward applicants.
Kesselheim, Aaron S; Myers, Jessica A; Solomon, Daniel H; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Levin, Raisa; Avorn, Jerry
The Orphan Drug Act encourages drug development for rare conditions. However, some orphan drugs become top sellers for unclear reasons. We sought to evaluate the extent and cost of approved and unapproved uses of orphan drugs with the highest unit sales. We assessed prescription patterns for four top-selling orphan drugs: lidocaine patch (Lidoderm) approved for post-herpetic neuralgia, modafinil (Provigil) approved for narcolepsy, cinacalcet (Sensipar) approved for hypercalcemia of parathyroid carcinoma, and imatinib (Gleevec) approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We pooled patient-specific diagnosis and prescription data from two large US state pharmaceutical benefit programs for the elderly. We analyzed the number of new and total patients using each drug and patterns of reimbursement for approved and unapproved uses. For lidocaine patch, we subcategorized approved prescriptions into two subtypes of unapproved uses: neuropathic pain, for which some evidence of efficacy exists, and non-neuropathic pain. We found that prescriptions for lidocaine patch, modafinil, and cinacalcet associated with non-orphan diagnoses rose at substantially higher rates (average monthly increases in number of patients of 14.6, 1.45, and 1.58) than prescriptions associated with their orphan diagnoses (3.12, 0.24, and 0.03, respectively (p75%). Increases in lidocaine patch use for non-neuropathic pain far exceeded neuropathic pain (10.2 vs. 3.6 patients, porphan drugs were used more commonly for non-orphan indications. These orphan drugs treated common clinical symptoms (pain and fatigue) or laboratory abnormalities. We should continue to monitor orphan drug use after approval to identify products that come to be widely used for non-FDA approved indications, particularly those without adequate evidence of efficacy.
Tähelepanekuid eesti 1930. aastate kultuurielust ja selle uurimisest interdistsiplinaarse kultuuriloo seminari põhjal : [teemal "1930. aastate kultuurielust Eestis" 13. jaanuaril 2003 Eesti Muusikaakadeemias] / Anu Kõlar
Kõlar, Anu, 1961-
Ka Sirje Oleski ettekandest teemal "Soome ja Eesti 1930. aastatel: omavahelised suhted ja mis on selle taga" ning Ele Süvalepa ettekandest "Poleemika "Arbujate" üle 1930. aastate kirjandussituatsiooni iseloomustajana"
Orizio, Grazia; Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto
Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found
Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.
Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.
Grebe, Tim; Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta; Kröger, Sabine
We study experimentally the effect of bargaining power in two sequential mechanisms that offer the possibility to trade at a fixed price before an auction. In the “Buy-It-Now” format, the seller has the bargaining power and offers a price prior to the auction; whereas in the “Sell-It-Now” format, it is the buyer. Both formats are extensively used in online and offline markets. Despite very different strategic implications for buyers and sellers, results from our experiment suggest...
E-commerce happens everywhere from developed countries to developing ones, and is becoming an essential part of business nowadays. This Bachelor’s thesis is about developing an e-commerce website in English in the Wordpress platform to sell digital images under royalty-free license. This website serves a personal business purpose and all images on sale are fully legal and they are taken personally by the owner of the website. There are two theoretical parts inside the thesis. The first...
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A
Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings suggest that MSM in Jamaica who sell sex experience intensified
This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves.
Sri Budi Purwaningsih
Full Text Available The extension of credit contain a risk that must be covered by the bank, because the credit is given now and pay later. To minimize the risk of loans, the bank will ask the debtor to provide collateral as a source of repayment of the debt if the debtor default or breach of the contract. According to Article 1131 Civil Code (KUH Perdata, all assets of a debtor, either moving or fixed objects, both existing and new will exist in the future, a guarantee for all debts of the engagement. This means that by itself or in order to pass laws providing collateral by a debtor to any creditor for all debtor's property. Sales with Privately Made Deed over the object in the hak tanggungan banking practices may be more effective and efficient both in terms of time and costs for the settlement of non-performing loans. But in practice, occurs some offense prescribed procedure leading to doubts about the legality aspect of sales with privately made deed over the object under hak tanggungan based on the authorization to sell in banking practice. How To Cite: Purwaningsih, S. (2014. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice. Rechtsidee, 1(2, 191-204. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i2.100
Daniel S Morris
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. METHODS: Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. RESULTS: Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.
Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A
The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.
Gisele Carina Pistore
Full Text Available This study analyzes the contributions of cost accounting in the sale price formation in a pneumatic suspension industry. They present as main guiding authors of this study, Crepaldi (2009 and Martins (2003. This study is characterized as an exploratory research with a qualitative and quantitative approach, using the methodological approach of case study. Still, it uses the interview technique with experts in the field, with the director and an employee of the company. Data analysis is based on documentary research and content analysis. We present further calculations of labor cost, selling price formation and demonstration of profitability, based on information obtained in the company, to answer the research problem and propose the intervention proposal. This study aims to present a proposal for improvements in forming selling price, seeking to improve performance, reduce costs, save income developing new controls, in order to make it more competitive company studied. The proposed intervention is that the company create new cost centers, use costing methods, assessment criteria and form your price based on the markup taking into account the market price.
Full Text Available This study investigates the generic structure and promotional elements of the online fiction blurbs accompanying the 95 best-selling books from Amazon United Kingdom and Okuoku Turkey (1999-2011, a company that sells books online that are written in Turkish or translated into Turkish, and adds to the growing number of investigations into this genre (Kathpalia, 1997; Bhatia, 2004; Cacchiani, 2007; Gea-Valor, 2007; Gesuato, 2007; Basturkmen, 2009. Based on the findings, a two-level schematic structure (moves and steps is proposed for the blurbs following Swales (1990. The findings suggest that Amazon UK book blurbs have a six-move schematic structure: complimenting the author, book description, justifying the book by establishing a niche, book promotion, author’s background and author’s website/blog being the second, fourth and fifth obligatory moves. However, Okuoku book blurbs feature a five-move schematic structure with complimenting the author, book description, involving the reader in the text, book promotion and author’s background, the second and fourth being obligatory. Analysis of promotional elements in the corpora reveals that online fiction book blurbs employ the art of advertising through the use of favorable expressions (Bhatia, 2005 and innovative uses of rhetorical strategies to persuade the reader to read the book.
Delgado Larios, Almudena
Full Text Available Not available.
En el presente trabajo se analiza el relato de dos periodistas valencianos, José Segarra y Joaquín Juliá, que volvieron a hacer la ruta seguida por Hernán Cortés durante la conquista de México. El viaje y el diario del mismo cuentan con el apoyo de las autoridades mexicanas y españolas puesto que se considera esta hazaña un homenaje de la colonia española y de España a México con motivo de la celebración del Centenario de la Independencia. El estudio se articula siguiendo tres niveles: el de la hazaña personal al ser una ruta accidentada y al poner a prueba la resistencia física de los viajeros; el de la propaganda oficial porfiriana al describir los periodistas los adelantos económicos experimentados por México durante el gobierno de Don Porfirio; y el del mito y visión propagandística del pasado conquistador y colonial —el nivel más interesante, evidentemente— puesto que se aboga por una reconciliación entre españoles y mexicanos y se define la mexicanidad como mestizaje.
Full Text Available This paper draws on transactions cost analysis, price and auction theory, and competition authority findings in order to answer some questions on the structure and trading patterns of the South African forestry industry. Does a forestry firm linked contractually to supply an adjacent sawmill customer, form part of a bilateral monopoly? For competition policy what are the relevant markets each party sells into or buys from? Can either firm opportunistically hold-up the other in price revisions? Or, where contracts have no effective terminal date, can one party hold out against offers of contract buyout? If one party is a state agency are there rights of eminent domain? If the state agency is due to be privatised can the method of sale, for example a simultaneous ascending auction, resolve some of the dilemmas?
Viviane M. Quirke
Full Text Available Today, tamoxifen is one of the world's best-selling hormonal breast cancer drugs. However, it was not always so. Compound ICI 46,474 (as it was first known was synthesized in 1962 within a project to develop a contraceptive pill in the pharmaceutical laboratories of ICI (now part of AstraZeneca. Although designed to act as an anti-estrogen, the compound stimulated, rather than suppressed ovulation in women. This, and the fact that it could not be patented in the USA, its largest potential market, meant that ICI nearly stopped the project. It was saved partly because the team's leader, Arthur Walpole, threatened to resign, and pressed on with another project: to develop tamoxifen as a treatment for breast cancer. Even then, its market appeared small, because at first it was mainly used as a palliative treatment for advanced breast cancer. An important turning point in tamoxifen's journey from orphan drug to best-selling medicine occurred in the 1980s, when clinical trials showed that it was also useful as an adjuvant to surgery and chemotherapy in the early stages of the disease. Later, trials demonstrated that it could prevent its occurrence or re-occurrence in women at high risk of breast cancer. Thus, it became the first preventive for any cancer, helping to establish the broader principles of chemoprevention, and extending the market for tamoxifen and similar drugs further still. Using tamoxifen as a case study, this paper discusses the limits of the rational approach to drug design, the role of human actors, and the series of feedback loops between bench and bedside that underpins pharmaceutical innovation. The paper also highlights the complex evaluation and management of risk that are involved in all therapies, but more especially perhaps in life-threatening and emotion-laden diseases like cancer.
Meyer, H; Hudson, T; Cain, J E; Carr, S L; Zacharias, D
Charity begins at home, yet across the country hometown not-for-profit hospitals are forming joint partnerships with investor-owned systems. In some of these cases no foundation is created to continue the hospital's good deeds. In this special report, Hospitals & Health Networks looks at the issues and asks, "Do these joint ventures need more public scrutiny?"
... Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS..., or displaying art and craft work for sale? The Indian Arts and Crafts Act is a truth-in-marketing law...
... to a purchaser for direct use? If you sell geothermal resources produced from Class I, II, or III leases at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use, then the royalty on the geothermal resource is the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal...
... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When should I offer property I am exchanging or selling under the exchange/sale authority to other Federal agencies or State...
Lull, R.B.; Bushman, B.J.
It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally
Hernán Vera Lamperein y su participación en el movimiento de renovacion gradual de la educación secundária en Chile - Hernan Vera Lamperein and his participation in the movement of gradual renewal of secondary education in Chile
Jaime Caiceo Escudero, Chile
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivos fundamentais destacar os principais traços biográficos de Hernán Vera Lamperein, Prêmio em Educação 2001, e descrever sua participação em uma das principais reformas educacionais que tomaram impulso no Chile entre 1945 e 1953, como parte do Movimento de Renovação Gradual da Educação Secundária. A metodologia utilizada é própria das pesquisas históricas: recorreu-se à fontes primárias e secundárias, foram feitas entrevistas com o personagem, bem como com pessoas que o conheceram, foram analisadas suas publicações e revisada a documentação dos lugares onde desempenhou seu trabalho profissional.Palavras-chave: reforma educacional, pedagogia de Dewey, prêmios nacionais em educação.HERNAN VERA LAMPEREIN AND HIS PARTICIPATION IN THE MOVEMENT OF GRADUAL RENEWAL OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN CHILEAbstractThis work has as main objectives: to indicate the key biographical characteristics of Hernan Vera Lamperein, National Education Award 2001, and to describe their participation in one of the most important education reforms that took place between 1945 and1953 inChile as part of the Movement of gradual renewal of secondary education in Chile. The methodology used is typical of historical studies; It has been based on primary and secondary sources; interviews were given by the protagonist himself and by people who meet him, at the same time, bibliographical revision was made in order to analyze his works and professional life.Key-words: educational reform, Dewey´s pedagogy, national awards in education.HERNÁN VERA LAMPEREIN Y SU PARTICIPACIÓN EN EL MOVIMIENTO DE RENOVACION GRADUAL DE LA EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA EN CHILE ResumenEste trabajo tiene como objetivos fundamentales: señalar los principales rasgos biográficos de Hernán Vera Lamperein, Premio Nacional de Educación 2001, y describir su participación en una de las principales reformas educacionales que se impulsaron entre 1945 y 1953 en
Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George
We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.
Full Text Available Plant samples of Endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn Sell&West (1975 the taxa were collected in 2013 from the Spil Mountain in Manisa, one of the natural spreading areas. A thick cover was observed on the leaves of the taxon rosette on the base. In the anatomical investigations, the radial transmission in the stem takes up a great deal of space in the bundles compared to the floem elements of the xylem elements. The body covers the epidermis cells of a thick capillary layer with dense fur, and the transmission bundles are generally arranged in a large, small bundle. The leaves are in the bifacial leaf type and accordingly the separation of palisade parenchyma and sponge parenchyma is clearly observed. The abaxial percentage is longer and more intense, and there are stoma cells that are arranged at regular intervals with cover and secretion feathers on both sides. Abdominal abdominal stomata is the upper case. The number of chromosomes was determined as 2x = 2n = 18 in karyological studies performed by Takson and chromosome measurements were made.
Asoke Kumar Bhunia
Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to develop two inventory models for deteriorating items with variable demand dependent on the selling price and frequency of advertisement of items. In the first model, shortages are not allowed whereas in the second, these are allowed and partially backlogged with a variable rate dependent on the duration of waiting time up to the arrival of next lot. In both models, the deterioration rate follows three-parameter Weibull distribution and the transportation cost is considered explicitly for replenishing the order quantity. This cost is dependent on the lot-size as well as the distance from the source to the destination. The corresponding models have been formulated and solved. Two numerical examples have been considered to illustrate the results and the significant features of the results are discussed. Finally, based on these examples, the effects of different parameters on the initial stock level, shortage level (in case of second model only, cycle length along with the optimal profit have been studied by sensitivity analyses taking one parameter at a time keeping the other parameters as same.
Baudischova, L; Straznicka, J; Pokladnikova, J; Jahodar, L
Background The purchase of dietary supplements (DS) via the Internet is increasing worldwide as well as in the Czech Republic. Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of information on DS available on the Internet. Setting Czech websites related to dietary supplements. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving the analysis of information placed on the websites related to the 100 top-selling DS in the Czech Republic in 2014, according to IMS Health data. Main outcome measure The following criteria were evaluated: contact for the manufacturer, recommended dosage, information on active substances as well as overall composition, permitted health claims, % of the daily reference intake value (DRIV) for vitamins and minerals, link for online counseling, pregnancy/breastfeeding, allergy information, contraindications, adverse reactions, and supplement-drug interactions (some criteria were evaluated from both points of view). Results A total of 199 web domains and 850 websites were evaluated. From the regulatory point of view, all the criteria were fulfilled by 11.3% of websites. Almost 9% of the websites reported information referring to the treatment, cure, or prevention of a disease. From the clinical point of view, all the criteria were only met by one website. Conclusions The quality of information related to DS available on the Internet in the Czech Republic is quite low. The consumers should consult a specialist when using DS purchased online.
Full Text Available Existing bioethanol operations rely on starch-based substrates, which have been criticized for their need to displace food crops in order to be produced. As an alternative to these first generation biofuels, the use of agricultural residues is being considered to create more environmentally-benign second generation, or cellulosic biofuels. Recalcitrance of these substrates to fermentation requires extensive pre-treatment processes, which often consume more energy than can be extracted from the ethanol that they produce, so one of the priorities in developing cellulosic ethanol is an effective and efficient pre-treatment method. This study examines the use of superheated steam (SS as a process medium by which wheat straw lignocellulosic material is pre-treated. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, it was found that 47% of the total glucose could be liberated from the substrate, and the optimal conditions for pre-treatment were 15 min in hot water (193 kPa, 119˚C followed by 2 min in SS. Furthermore, a preliminary relative economic analysis showed that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP was comparable to that obtained from steam explosion, a similar process, while energy consumption was 22% less. The conclusion of the study is that SS treatment stands to be a competitive pre-treatment technology to steam explosion.
Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert
International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience...... and intentions of EU firms with regard to patent licensing and/or selling to China in this new era. Firms from 12 European countries in various industries were surveyed by an online questionnaire. We found that (1) large and small EU firms are very different with regard to the number of non...... the primary concern despite the recently adaption of the new Patent Law in China; (4) EU firms are most interested in selling obsolete technologies and licensing state-of-art technologies to China....
Nkonki Lungiswa L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been shown that peer support to mothers at home helps to increase exclusive breastfeeding, little is known about the experiences of peer supporters themselves and what is required of them to fulfil their day-to-day tasks. Therefore, a community-based randomised control trial using trained "lay" women to support exclusive infant feeding at home was implemented in three different sites across South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of peer supporters who promote exclusive infant feeding. Methods Three focus group discussions were held, in a language of their choice, with peer supporters. These meetings focused on how the peer educators utilised their time in the process of delivering the intervention. Data from the discussions were transcribed, with both verbatim and translated transcripts being used in the analysis. Results Unlike the services provided by mainstream health care, peer supporters had to market their services. They had to negotiate entry into the mother's home and then her life. Furthermore, they had to demonstrate competence and come across as professional and trustworthy. An HIV-positive mother's fear of being stigmatised posed an added burden - subsequent disclosure of her positive status would lead to an increased workload and emotional distress. Peer supporters spent most of their time in the field and had to learn the skill of self-management. Their support-base was enhanced when supervision focused on their working conditions as well as the delivery of their tasks. Despite this, they faced other insurmountable issues, such as mothers being compelled to offer their infants mixed feeding simultaneously due to normative practices and working in the fields postpartum. Conclusion Designers of peer support interventions should consider the skills required for delivering health messages and the skills required for selling a service. Supportive supervision should be
Käsper, Marge, 1973-
G. F. Parrot' nimest. G. F. Parrot' päritolu sotsiaalkogukondlikust rollist ja selle retoorikast. Aleksander I kasvatusest ja valgustuse retoorikast. Keiser Aleksander I-le sügavat mõju avaldanud kõnest
This thesis explores the value of cultural and archaeological heritage through a focus on multinational corporations (MNCs) across industries and their involvement with cultural heritage. Research to date has focused mainly on industries where MNCs have a direct impact on cultural or archaeological
Girod, Gerald R.; Harmon, Gerald R.
Maintains school-aged children would prefer not to study social studies. Presents several strategies to help encourage positive attitudes. Strategies include persuasion, reinforcement, enthusiasm, personalized contact. Stresses that negative attitudes must be changed in order for social studies to achieve its fundamental citizenship goals. (BR)
Health care is more than local, of course: It's personal. Recognizing the connections between doctors and patients as a potent form of brand loyalty, health systems are looking for ways to leverage those bonds--and encourage new ones--with special marketing campaigns.
Discusses six essential elements in the design of an advertisement: sales pitch, major headline, minor headline, company statistics, artwork or photograph, and white space. Offers five exercises for the classroom or staff. (SR)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. Methods A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009 using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Results Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27: 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Conclusions Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain
Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Alonso-Coello, Pablo
The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information. HRT can be bought online from Spain
Kishimoto, Keiko; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Fukushima, Noriko
In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril). There were 6.1% (11/181) domestically prescribed drugs, 69.1% (125/181) domestic OTC drugs, 23.8% (43/181) foreign-made prescribed drugs, and 1.1% (2/181) foreign-made OTC drugs. The seller could display the product for sale without confirming whether it is prohibited. We alerted the service providers of this illicit selling at flea markets at three different instances. The pharmaceutical product displays were deleted by the service providers at a rate of 55.1% (27/49) for Mercari and 51.2% (44/86) for Rakuma. The average number of drugs that were displayed for sale by each seller was 1.4 and the average number of total products that were displayed for sale by each seller was 100. The seller could have unintentionally displayed the pharmaceutical products for sale, without the knowledge that it is illegal. The service providers of flea market applications should create mechanisms to alert the sellers that displaying pharmaceutical products for sale is an illicit act and regulate these violations.
Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta
A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/01681605 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, 3 to 5 packages of 7 differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6ºC, 7 to 9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product ...
Anyone can publish a book and become an ""author,"" but if you want to become a successful author with a profitable publishing career, you need a clear, step-by-step guide to help you develop book ideas that sell. In The Author Training Manual, expert editor and book coach Nina Amir reveals the exact process successful authors have used to create business plans and proposals for their books and teaches you how to view your ideas through the eyes of acquisitions editors and literary agents. Whether you write fiction or nonfiction, plan to traditionally publish or self-publish, The Author Tra
Parra Molina, Verónica
Objetivo: Evaluar los cambios dimensionales de los tejidos blandos y duros en alvéolos tratados con la técnica de selle alveolar con injerto gingival libre, ocho semanas después de realizada la exodoncia Materiales y métodos: A cuatro individuos se les realizó exodoncia atraumática de diente premolar superior o inferior con mal pronóstico, al ser un diente no rehabilitable. Durante el momento quirúrgico luego de la extracción, se tomó un injerto gingival libre y se posicionó en la entrada ...
Inácio Alaiola Nogueira Dos Santos Júnior
Full Text Available Responsible for maintaining active the actual cinematographic production, the politics of incentive to cinema do not guarantee an equal state of recourse capture for all the movies produced in the country as well as provoke discussion which relate production quality to volume capture, in which has taken to the creation of the common sense that says that movies which present elevated recourse fund must present best-selling results. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the relation between the recourse volume captured from the mechanisms of public incentive and the selling volume on the Brazilian box offices. Due to that, descriptive research was made, with documentary character and quantitative approach. The data used in this study is related to information towards fundraising and income about the box office of 666 brazilian movies released between 1995 and 2012, while the statistical analysis used was the 'Spearman correlation' coefficient. The results showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variablesanalyzed, revealing a trend of movies with high fundraising are the ones that register the highest grossing box office. Data analysis also revealed that there is a concentration of both incentive funds (61% as income at the box office (75% in films with volume greater uptake of R $ 3 million.
Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.
McDaniel Patricia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
In California, some 40,000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to shop at the store. Most
Campidoglio, C. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy). Osservatorio Energia
This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies. [Italian] L'articolo analizza i possibili benefici della vendita tramita asta dell'energia CIP 6. In particolare, l'asta ridurrebbe la scarsita' d'offerta e quindi i pressi sul mercato libero, aumenterebbe la concorrenza nel mercato dei contratti per differenza, fornirebbe un prezzo chiaro a cui indicizzare il prezzo dell'energia in tariffa, estendendo i benefici dell'asta sul mercato vincolato ed evitando la reintroduzione di sussidi incrociati.
Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R
Relative effects of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls on selling price at auction was evaluated during 2008. The presence and severity of 23 BQA-related traits were determined during sales in Idaho, California, and Utah. Overall, 18,949 unique lots consisting of 23,479 animals were assessed during 125 dairy sales and 79 beef sales. Mean sale price ± SD (per 45.5 kg) for market beef cows, beef bulls, dairy cows, and dairy bulls was $45.15 ± 9.42, $56.30 ± 9.21, $42.23 ± 12.26, and $55.10 ± 9.07, respectively. When combined, all recorded traits explained 36% of the variation in selling price in beef cows, 35% in beef bulls, 61% in dairy cows, and 56% in dairy bulls. Premiums and discounts were determined in comparison with a "par" or "base" animal. Compared with a base BCS 5 beef cow (on a 9-point beef scale), BCS 1 to 4 cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas premiums (P < 0.05) were estimated for BCS 6 to 8. Compared with a base BCS 3.0 dairy cow (on a 5-point dairy scale), more body condition resulted in a premium (P ≤ 0.001), whereas a less-than-desirable BCS of 2.0 or 2.5 was discounted (P < 0.0001). Emaciated or near-emaciated cows (beef BCS 1 or 2; dairy BCS 1.0 or 1.5) were discounted (P < 0.0001). Compared with base cows weighing 545 to 635 kg, lighter BW beef cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier beef cows received (P < 0.05) a premium. Compared with a base dairy cow weighing 636 to 727 kg, lighter BW cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier cows (727 to 909 kg) received a premium (P < 0.01). Beef and dairy cows with any evidence of lameness were discounted (P < 0.0001). Presence of ocular neoplasia in the precancerous stage discounted (P = 0.05) beef cows and discounted (P < 0.01) dairy cows, whereas at the cancerous stage, it discounted (P < 0.0001) all cows. Hide color influenced (P < 0.0001) selling price in beef cattle but had no effect (P = 0.17) in dairy cows. Animals
Full Text Available Citizens protest development when they consider it undesirable. One type of development commonly perceived as undesirable by single-family home owners is proximate multifamily housing, often considered a cause of property devaluation. This study assesses multifamily housing, by typology, and its monetary association with proximate single-family housing prices. The research design is a cross-sectional study using multivariate regression. The unit of analysis is the detached single-family dwelling. The study population is a sample taken from all arms-length owner-occupied, primary residence, detached single-family property transactions recorded in Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida, USA, during 2008. The key findings show no statistically significant negative associations between multifamily housing and single-family property selling prices in the sample; in fact, the two were positively correlated. These findings address single-family homeowner concerns about proximate multifamily housing and should bolster the political feasibility of Smart Growth policy, which recommends denser urban infill.
George William Twigg
Full Text Available Particularly drawing on the theory of Jacques Attali and Horkheimer and Adorno, this article considers popular music in Pynchon’s novels as more than simply a ‘soundtrack’ to the plot. Much attention has been paid to Pynchon’s original songs, but not to the manner of their dissemination; therefore, this article examines the role of the popular musician in the production of consumer culture, focusing on McClintic Sphere ('V.', The Paranoids ('Lot 49', and Billy Barf and the Vomitones ('Vineland'. Pynchon depicts a modern ‘culture industry’ in which recording artists, voluntarily or not, ape their forbears, but in which the idea that live performance is liberating whereas recording is constraining, is problematized. The article explores Sphere’s struggles to become successful in the face of live audiences that constantly compare him to Charlie Parker rather than assessing his music on its own merits, and the twin inspirational and coercive ‘moulding’ forces he experiences during the recording process that represents the only chance for musicians to disseminate their music widely and find a properly appreciative public. Similarly, the disjunction between the Paranoids’ deviant lyrics and behaviour, and their thoroughly generic sub-Beatles musical texture, which adheres to the tropes of recorded music (one song ‘fades out’ even when played live! is discussed; they too are caught in an excluded middle between transgression and conformity, as are the Vomitones, who in one live performance suppress their rebellious ‘punk’ aesthetic when they gain employment performing Italian ballads at a Mafia wedding. Ultimately this article argues that popular music is equally moulded by live audiences and by recording bosses and that its absorption into networks of capital is inevitable, so musicians, given the chance, may as well ‘sell out’, and hope to balance commercial success with at least a modicum of creative control.
Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J
It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert
The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.
Full Text Available Michael Sells, American scholar of Quran,about the Ascension (Mi,raj of the prophet (PBUH focuses on three issues: First, the Mi,raj term is not used in the Quran and the ascension of the explanation is not enough. second, Mohammad is no different from the miracle of the Quran is the miracle of God,he is not anything else, Quran states. Third, Ascension of the prophet (PBUH has been in sleep and dream.According to him, the discussion about the layers of the subject is based mainly on the evidence of Quran.In this case, only limited information can be found in the Asra chapter (sooreh of the Quran.In addition, he has tried to make the Ascension event from Jewish traditions and the effects Bvdaysm.actually the orientalist`s goal is to prove the absence of ascension of the prophet(PBUH. In contrast, Anne-marie Shamil stayes that prophet`s ascension derived from the first verse of Asra sura and believes that two processes(horizontal and verticalfor prophet happened.and unlike Michael,he knows mi,raj from the God miracles.Anne-Marie because her sufficient the Sunni sources is doubt with belief in the physical and spiritual ascension,in some of her votes,such as; visible or not visible in the ascension of God by the prophet.Despite the fundamental criticism that some elements of the theory of two Orientalists arrived,positive points are observed in their ideas.in this article we have tried to express the views of the Orientalists, then to review their ideas considered
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and
Giacalone, Davide; Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Steen, Ida
the identification task were also significantly more likely to prefer the high quality sample. This tentatively suggests that better sensory expertise is correlated with a preference for higher quality, though future studies are needed to confirm the correctedness of this interpretation. Originality/value This work...
Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.
Gentile, Douglas A
Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological "tricks" are used to influence us, with the goal being to get us to change our behaviors but to think that it was our idea all along. These tricks include using emotional appeals and persuasion techniques that rely on biases in human problem solving. This power can be used for social marketing, the use of these techniques to promote social well-being, rather than simply for commercial purposes. Understanding how advertising works therefore allows us to use this power to effect positive changes in society.
Twenty years ago, a U.S. Senate aide walked into a bank in Maine and saw a sign that read "Take out a student loan today, get a toaster." The aide, concerned that students would be tempted to take out loans they did not need, drafted legislation barring lenders from offering "inducements" to borrow. That language was added to the Higher Education…
Sell, Indrek, 1983-
Haavataelik, haavanääts, põdramokad, kübarnarmikud, narmikud, kroonliudik, roostetorik, roosa pess, lillatümak, kuusetaelik, poropoorik, tammetaelik, leht-kobartorik, maksak, tammenahkis, tumepruun taelik, volt-tardnahkis, lõhetümak, limatünnik, roostepruun taelik, sarapuu-ebakorgik, lakkvaabik (läikvaabik), haava-tuletaelik (haava-ebatuletael), õrn narmnahkis (õrnnarmik), korallnarmik (harunev korallnarmik), männi-vahakorgik (männikorgik), juurepruunik, narmastaelik, kährikseen (kährik)
Presenting empirical material from the making of the exhibition “This is Not Fiction” at the Milk Wall Gallery in the autumn 2007, I will in this paper introduce some of the themes and characteristics that are central to the notion of art and to the ethnographic study of it.
Ess, Margus, 1969-
Katsete eesmärgiks oli võrrelda Eestis enamlevinud suviteraviljade sorte omavahel, hinnata nende haiguskindlust ning vaadata, millist mõju avaldavad saagile fungitsiidid. Pikemalt katsetest ja katsetulemustest loe www.sordiaretus.ee ja www.kevili.ee
Hensen, Bernadette; Hargreaves, James R; Chiyaka, Tarisai; Chabata, Sungai; Mushati, Phillis; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde; Busza, Joanna; Cowan, Frances
"Determined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe" (DREAMS) is a package of biomedical, social and economic interventions offered to adolescent girls and young women aged 10-24 years with the aim of reducing HIV incidence. In four of the six DREAMS districts in Zimbabwe, DREAMS includes an offer of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (DREAMS+PrEP), alongside interventions to support demand and adherence, to women aged 18-24 who are at highest risk of HIV infection, including young women who sell sex (YWSS). This evaluation study addresses the question: does the delivery of DREAMS+PrEP through various providers reduce HIV incidence among YWSS Zimbabwe? We describe our approach to designing a rigorous study to assess whether DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. The study design needed to account for the fact that: 1) DREAMS+PrEP was non-randomly allocated; 2) there is no sampling frame for the target population for the evaluation; 3) there are a small number of DREAMS districts (N = 6), and 4) DREAMS+PrEP is being implemented by various providers. The study will use a cohort analysis approach to compare HIV incidence among YWSS in two DREAMS+PrEP districts to HIV incidence among YWSS in non-DREAMS comparison sites. YWSS will be referred to services and recruited into the cohort through a network-based (respondent-driven) recruitment strategy, and followed-up 12- and 24-months after enrolment. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire and offered HIV testing. Additional complications of this study include identifying comparable populations of YWSS in the DREAMS+PrEP and non-DREAMS comparison sites, and retention of YWSS over the 24-month period. The primary outcome is HIV incidence among YWSS HIV-negative at study enrolment measured by repeat, rapid HIV testing over 24-months. Inference will be based on plausibility that DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. A process evaluation will be conducted to understand intervention implementation, and
and mechanical refining. The new process shows improved overall ethanol yields compared to traditional dilute acid pretreatment. The experimental results from this work support the techno-economic analysis and calculation of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP detailed in our companion paper.
Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, K Johanna
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, three to five packages of seven differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6 degrees C, 7-9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product was checked and pH measured. Bacteria were cultured on MRS and Tomato Juice Agar (TJA), Rogosa SL agar (SLA), Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Streptomycin Thallium Acetate Agar (STAA) for the enumeration of LAB, lactobacilli, total bacterial count and Brochothrix thermosphacta, respectively. The average CFU/g of the 32 packages was 2.3 x 10(8) on PCA. The highest bacterial average, 3.1 x 10(8), was recovered on TJA, the corresponding CFU/g averages on MRS and SLA being 2.3 x 10(8) and 1.3 x 10(8), respectively. Despite the high LAB numbers detected, radical spoilage changes such as unpleasant odor, slime production and formation of gas were not seen. B. thermosphacta did not form a significant part of the bacterial population since none of the levels exceeded the spoilage threshold level of 10(5) CFU/g reported in previous studies for this organism. In order to characterize the dominating LAB population, as many as 85, 85 and 88 colonies from MRS, TJA and SLA, respectively, were randomly picked and cultured pure. LAB were identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rDNA HindIiI RFLP (ribotyping) database. Fifty-six of the 170 isolates picked from the non-selective LAB media (MRS and TJA) were identified as L. gasicomitatum, followed by Carnobacterium divergens (41 isolates), Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus (31 isolates) and L. curvatus subsp. curvatus (20 isolates) species. SLA proved not to be completely selective for lactobacilli because the growth of Leuconostoc spp. was not
Mary Jane P. Spink
Full Text Available Este artigo visa entender como a linguagem dos riscos, nas suas diferentes tradições (risco-perigo, risco-probabilidade e risco-aventura, é utilizada para vender produtos em anúncios veiculados em revistas vendidas em bancas. Com esse objetivo, tomamos os anúncios como gêneros de discurso que fazem circular materialidades (artefatos cotidianos passíveis de comercialização (na forma de bens simbólicos e que são necessariamente endereçados a públicos específicos. Foi definida uma amostra de 101 revistas com base nas categorias utilizadas pelo Anuário de Mídia - Revistas. A análise levou em consideração as palavras empregadas nos anúncios, a categoria de produtos e a temática da revista. Conclui-se que, embora os riscos vendam produtos, trata-se mais do controle de riscos potenciais do que de apologia do risco. Mesmo quando os produtos são associados ao risco-aventura, vendem-se, de fato, emoções associadas à experiência do risco que são sustentadas por uma diversidade de estratégias de segurança.The aim of this research was to understand how the discursive traditions (risk as danger; risk as probability and risk as adventure of the language of risk are used in magazine advertisements. Advertisements were defined as genres of discourse that put into circulation materiality (quotidian artifacts that can be commercialized (as symbolic goods and are necessarily addressed to a specific public. A sample of 101 magazines was defined using the categories of the Anuário de Mídia - Revistas. The analysis took into account the words used in the advertisements, the category of goods been advertised and the type of magazine in which they appeared. Although risk does sell products, the focus tends to be on risk control rather than on an apology of risk. Even when products are associated to risk as adventure, what is being sold is the sensation of risk counterbalanced by a diversity of safety strategies.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs aged 10–17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory “rehabilitation” in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10–17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. Discussion: As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10–17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10–17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to
Marisa Vorraber Costa
Full Text Available Na atual sociedade, também identificada como “sociedade de consumidores” (BAUMAN,2008, todas as pessoas, independentemente de condições econômicas, gênero, idade e grupo social, são convocadas a fazer parte das redes de consumo. Neste artigo nos voltamos para a infância e abordamos uma das faces de sua inserção na sociedade de consumidores, procurando mostrar como as crianças vem sendo usadas para vender. Como referencial teórico adotamos, entre outros, os escritos de Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor e Robert Bocock que tratam das versões contemporâneas do consumo e as problematizam. A partir da análise da publicidade em revistas semanais de grande circulação, discutimos o quanto é produtivo para o mercado econômico a aliança entre infância e consumo, e argumentamos que esse uso das crianças na publicidade contribui para uma nova concepção de infância: a infância do consumo. Uma infância erotizada, preocupada em adquirir, em mostrar-se, uma infância insaciável e sempre em movimento. É essa infância que está chegando à escola com novos interesses, preferências e condutas, tornando-se merecedora de toda a nossa atenção.Abstract In the present society, also identified as a "consumer society" (Bauman, 2008, people, irrespective of gender, age, social and financial conditions, are all called for consumption. In this article we turn to the childhood and approached one of the faces of their insertion into the society ofconsumers, trying to show how children are used to sell. As a frame of theoretical reference we adopt, among others, the writings of Zygmunt Bauman, Juliet Schor and Robert Bocock, dealingwith contemporary versions of consumption. Analyzing weekly magazines of large circulation, we discuss how productive it is for the economic market the alliance between childhood and consumption and we argue that this use of children in publicity contributes for a new conception of childhood: the childhood of
There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10-17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory "rehabilitation" in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10-17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10-17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10-17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent KPs in institutions, they are
La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.
Suhtumisest koolijuhtidele trahvimisõiguse andmise ideesse vestlevad Rakvere Põhikooli direktor Lea Pilme, Uhtna Põhikooli direktor Ly Kivistik, Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumi direktor Raili Sirgmets ja Rakvere Gümnaasiumi direktor Aivar Part
Checa Olmos, Francisco
Full Text Available In the second half of 19th century Spain, discourse on social stability and female subordination —also referred to as «domesticity»— found its place in the theater through the representation of such themes as honor, female adultery, virtue and death. At the same time, theatrical discourse reinforced the current ideology and morality —even psychological and legislative discourse— and sanctioned behavioral models that sought to undermine the prevailing bourgeois social order. As a methodological example, we refer to the work entitled El nudo gordiano, by Eugenio Sellés y Ángel, one of a generation of playwrights born around the decade of the 1840s. The ending proposed by this author, namely, the death of the adulterous wife, occupied the center of all the possible immediate reactions, including responses from spectators, critics and analysts, authors and jurists, etc. For this reason we also discuss the critical reception of this work, taking note of its social and literary repercussions.El artículo muestra cómo en la España de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX el discurso de la estabilidad social y de la sumisión femenina —también llamado de la «domesticidad»— se asienta en el teatro a través de la representación de temas como el honor, el adulterio femenino, la honra y la muerte. Al mismo tiempo, el discurso teatral retroalimenta idénticos discursos ideológicos y morales —incluso psicológicos y legislativos— y sanciona los modelos de conducta que pretenden disolver el orden social burgués imperante. Como ejemplo metodológico se toma la obra El nudo gordiano, de Eugenio Sellés y Ángel, autor perteneciente a una generación de dramaturgos nacidos en torno a la década de 1840. El final propuesto por el autor, la muerte de la esposa adúltera, se situó en el centro de todas las reacciones inmediatas posibles, suscitadas entre espectadores, críticos y analistas, gacetilleros y especialistas, literatos y juristas
How competitive gas air-conditioning is being offered to domestic users by means of attractive energy selling services?; Une climatisation au gaz concurrentielle pour le marche residentiel via des services de vente d'energie attractifs
Jane, R.; Raventos, M. [Gas Natural, SDG, S.A. (Spain); Naval, J.; Martinez, J.A. [Gas Serviconfort S.A. (Spain)
With the object of responding to the progressive increase in the demand for air-conditioning in the domestic sector with the presentation of gas as a competitive alternative to the electric systems currently available, and in order to avoid not only the loss of this specific market but also of the heating and hot water markets in the new-build residential sector, a new individualized energy selling service has been developed. This new option incorporates the advantages of the individualized and centralized systems of air-conditioning thanks to the utilisation of the medium-size gas air-conditioning systems currently available and to the geNie system as an instrument for totally individualizing the service and offering truly innovative features that will be attractive to the consumer. This new line of activity, implemented by the Serviconfort, a subsidiary company off the Gas Natural Group, has proven its viability both in technological and in service-definition terms in a series of demonstrations with more than 800 clients, which have served to indicate the considerable interest of the new-build residential sector in Spain and the expectations for the potential market over the next few years. (authors)
Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff
Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…
Kuo Huang; Naren Chitty
Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new av...
Pevkur, Hanno, 1977-
Korrakaitseseaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Sakala 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 21. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Koit 24. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 24. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Oma Saar 26. aprill 2007, lk. 5 ; Valgamaalane 26. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. mai 2007, lk. 19
Boone, J.; Shapiro, J.
For many goods (such as experience goods or addictive goods), consumers' preferences may change over time.In this paper, we examine a monopolist's optimal pricing schedule when current consumption can affect a consumer's valuation in the future and valuations are unobservable.We assume that
Boone, J.; Shapiro, J.
For many goods (such as experience goods or addictive goods), consumers' preferences may change over time. In this paper, we examine a monopolist's optimal pricing schedule when current consumption can affect a consumer's valuation in the future and valuations are unobservable. We assume that consumers are anonymous, i.e. the monopolist can't observe a consumer's past consumption history. For myopic consumers, the optimal consumption schedule is distorted upwards, involving substantial discou...
Artikkel tutvustab keelesuhtluse viisakuse kultuuriomaseid mõisteid ja nende seoseid asjakohasusega ning keskendub ametlikule viisakusele ja vestluskäitumisele. Küsimustiku abil läbi viidud taju-uuringust, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda tekstide vastuvõtu erinevaid külgi, et saada teada, mida ja miks peetakse eesti kultuuriruumis viisakaks ja asjakohaseks
Tartu tänavune parim meessportlane on karate maailmameister Marko Luhamaa, tema treener Jüri Post pälvis aasta treeneri tiitli. Parimaks naissportlaseks tunnistati laskeorienteerumise maailmameister Eveli Saue
Meredith, M. Marjorie
While the trampoline reached its peak of popularity in the 1950s and 1960s, the frequency of accidental injuries prompted physical education departments to discontinue its use in student athletic activities. Safety guidelines are provided for reinstating the trampoline in recreational programs. (JN)
The introduction of the thesis is devoted to the introduction of the subject and its general description. Concepts such as mass media, TV broadcasting, gender, or stereotype are explained, together with the analysis of Goffman's study - Gender advertisements. The methodical part describes general goals and subjects of the research and also the method that is used. The practical part focuses on the research of the perception of gender stereotypes in advertising by the public, the knowledge of ...
Euroopa Komisjon palus Leedu majandusministeeriumilt selgitust Lääne-Leedu elektrivõrgufirma Vakaru Skirstomieji Tinklai erastamise kohta. Peaminister Kirkilas kaitseb otsust ühendada kolm energiakompaniid üheks
The EDH team. Left to right: Derek Mathieson, Rotislav Titov, Per Gunnar Jonsson, Ivica Dobrovicova, James Purvis. Missing from the photo is Jurgen De Jonghe. In a 1 MCHF deal announced this week, the British company Transacsys bought the rights to CERN's Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system, which has revolutionised the Laboratory's administrative procedures over the last decade. Under the deal, CERN and Transacsys will collaborate on developing EDH over the coming 12 months. CERN will provide manpower and expertise and will retain the rights to use EDH, which will also be available freely to other particle physics laboratories. This development is an excellent example of the active technology transfer policy CERN is currently pursuing. The negotiations were carried out through a fruitful collaboration between AS and ETT Divisions, following the recommendations of the Technology Advisory Board, and with the help of SPL Division. EDH was born in 1991 when John Ferguson and Achille Petrilli of AS Divisi...
Bergeni Kunstiülikooli visuaalse kommunikatsiooni õppejõud Michael Hardt viis jaanuaris Eesti Kunstiakadeemias läbi koolituse "SelfMarketing", mille eesmärgiks oli õpetada tudengitele oma ideede müümist
Seong Choul Hong
Full Text Available The lives of celebrities are often spotlighted in the media because of their newsworthiness; however, many celebrities argue that their right to privacy is often infringed upon. Concerns about celebrity privacy are not limited to the celebrities themselves and often expand to their children. As a result of their popularity, public interest has pushed paparazzi and journalists to pursue trivial and private details about the lives of both celebrities and their children. This paper investigates conflicting areas where the right to privacy and the right to know collide when dealing with the children of celebrities. In general, the courts have been unsympathetic to celebrity privacy claims, noting their newsworthiness and self-promoted characteristic. Unless the press violates news-gathering ethics or torts, the courts will often rule in favor of the media. However, the story becomes quite different when related to an infringement on the privacy of celebrities’ children. This paper argues that all children have a right to protect their privacy regardless of their parents’ social status. Children of celebrities should not be exempt to principles of privacy just because their parents are a celebrity. Furthermore, they should not be exposed by the media without the voluntary consent of their legal patrons. That is, the right of the media to publish and the newsworthiness of children of celebrities must be restrictedly acknowledged.
Sydney ümbrusesse jäävatest looduslikest vaatamisväärsustest: Royal National Park, Grand Pacific Drive, Sinimäed, Jenola koopad; austraalia köögist, majutuse ning transpordi alaseid nõuandeid jne
CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).
CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).
Worden, Gregory Edward
Concern about global warming, energy independence, and threats to oil supply have increased attention on wind and other forms of renewable energy. Yet after more than twenty years, the wind industry remains dependent on government interventions. This research examined the potential of renewable energy credits (RECs) to help wind energy become profitable. Messages used to promote wind and solar energy RECs were compared with those for sustainable building materials. Findings confirm a still immature approach to marketing and sales. None of those interviewed either recognized the value of or had taken action to ensure customer retention nor recognized the role socially conscious and active consumers might play in promoting and helping develop the industry. Recommended actions include continuing research on effective marketing strategies and development of a coordinated industry message.
Ferrero, David J.
Schools have traditionally had the goal of helping students grow in three areas: personal, economic, and civic. In recent years, however, the economic realm has taken precedence, with careers and credentials becoming a focus of education policy. In this article, Ferrero bewails the lack of support for the more personal and civic aims of education…
Rauk, Triinu, 1988-
Haldustegevuse vormidest. Haldusaktist, haldusakti andmisest keeldumise regulatiivsest olemusest ja tuvastava haldusakti regulatiivsest olemusest. Artikkel põhineb autori 2013. a. Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas kaitstud magistritööl "Haldusakti, toimingu ja menetlustoimingu eristamise kriteeriumid ja vaidlustamine halduskohtus"
The architect, as a trained, experienced professional, must galvanize others, persuading them of the ultimate importance of reducing energy consumption. The interview process, the actual contract, and writing of the program are phases during which the architect can begin to engender in the client a high priority valuation of energy. (Author/MLF)
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore emotional intelligence in association with effective sales performance. The participants involved in this study were sellers in a home furniture company and completed a new tool measuring emotional intelligence at the beginning of their employment with the company. After four months, their volume of sales was calculated and compared with other results. Briefly, evidence from this study indicates that emotional intelligence skills are relevant in association with job performance, particularly relationship management and self-management. The final results support the main hypothesis. Subsequent implications for sales organizations and researchers are discussed.
Murutar, Kati, 1967-
Unt, Lii. Nemad on võitjad. Tln.: Kupar, 1995. Smeljanski,Mihkel; Vlassov, Jüri. Kuldne Trio; Eesti Üliõpilaste Selts : Para-Estonia : Eesti reisijuht. Trt.: EÜSi kirjastus, 1995; Mutt, Mihkel. Inglismaa päevik. Tln.: Kupar, 1995
Full Text Available This essay is based upon a survey of reproductions in auction catalogues – from their first appearance in the early eighteenth century until their more consistent use in the second decade of the twentieth century. Examining the role of these illustrations sheds light on how auctions functioned; it was not just the works of art that were traded, but knowledge about those works of art became currency to be exchanged. In contrast to the high end engravings and photographs of luxury illustrated art books, reproductions in auction catalogues – publications produced as ephemeral marketing tools – were of noticeably lower quality. This study of the status of reproductions, therefore, investigates the evolving understanding of art knowledge, both aesthetic and economic, and the interdependence of the market and connoisseurship.
Bumblauskas, Daniel P.; Carberry, Adam R.; Sly, David P.
Sales engineering or technical sales programs bridge engineering and business to educate engineering students in sales specific to their discipline. Students develop business awareness through such programs, providing the sales workforce with technically knowledgeable salespeople. The following study analyzed cohorts of students enrolled in a…
Full Text Available ÖzetAmaç: Cinsel yönelimleri sebebiyle eşcinsel bireyler; toplum tarafından dışlanmakta, yaftalanmakta ve ayrımcılığa uğramaktadırlar. Toplumda eşcinsel bireylere karşı geliştirilen önyargı ve ayrımcılığın; eşcinsel bireylerde duygu-durum ve anksiyete bozukluklarını, alkol-madde kötüye kullanımını ve intihar riskini artırdığı öne sürülmektedir. Bu sebeplerden dolayı eşcinsel bireylerin sorunları bir halk sağlığı sorunudur. Bu çalışmanın amacı; gey ve biseksüel erkeklerin içselleştirilmiş homofobi düzeylerini ve ruh sağlığına etkilerini saptamaktır. Yöntem: Tanımlayıcı tipteki bu çalışmaya; Lambdaistanbul Derneğinin yardımı ile kartopu yöntemi ile ulaşılan, 210 eşcinsel/biseksüel erkek dahil edildi. Veriler İstanbul ili Beyoğlu İlçesinde, 21 Nisan - 24 Haziran 2012 tarihleri arasında, bireylere gözlem altında anket uygulanarak elde edildi. Anket; sosyodemografik özellikler, madde kullanımı, cinsel yönelimleri ile ilgili yaşadıkları sorunlar ve intihar davranışlarını kapsamaktaydı. İçselleştirilmiş Homofobi Ölçeği, Beck Depresyon Ölçeği (BDÖ ve Genel Sağlık Anketi-12 (GSA-12 uygulandı. Bulgular: Katılımcıların %21.9’unda içselleştirilmiş homofobi vardı. Ailesi homofobik olan, eşcinselliği günah kabul eden, her gün alkol kullanan bireyler kendi cinsel yönelimlerine karşı homofobik bulundu. Logistik regresyon analizinde; 25 yaş üzerinde içselleştirilmiş homofobi olma olasılığı azalırken, gey bireylerin içselleştirilmiş homofobi yönünden biseksüel bireylerden daha riskli olduğu, eğitimle içselleştirilmiş homofobi riskinin azaldığı görüldü. Sonuç: Eşcinsel erkeklerin yaklaşık beşte birinde içselleştirilmiş homofobi vardır. Toplumsal homofobinin azaltılmasına yönelik halk sağlığı çalışmalarının, eşcinsel bireylerin içselleştirilmiş homofobilerinin azaltılmasına ve buna ba
PENDIDIKAN GIZI INFORMAL KEPADA PENJAJA MAKANAN UNTUK PENINGKATAN KEAMANAN PANGAN JAJANAN ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR (INFORMAL NUTRITION EDUCATION TO FOOD VENDORS FOR IMPROVING SAFETY OF STREET-FOODS SELLING AT PRIMARY SCHOOL
Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Street foods have an important role in contributing school children energy and nutriens need. Nationally, there is a serious problem on the safety of street food near schoool, therefore an effort is needed to overcome the problem. The objective of this study was to develop a simple model to solve the safety problem of street food near school. The study was conducted in two steps. The first step was done in 10 primary schools to determine the problem and to define the method of problem solving. One school with the worst food safety problem was selected as area of research. The second step was to implement the defined method into the selected primary school. Descriptive and inferensia analysis were applied in this study. Based on street food safety risk evaluation, the defined methods are nutrition extension and assistance to street food vendors in primary school SDN "D". Food vendors at SDN “D” were mostly (88.9% male, with age between 18-40 years old. Their education background was elementary school (44.7% and classified as poor (55.6%. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of most food vendors after nutrition extention and assistance are better than before. Pearson correlation test showed a positive significant correlation between knowledge and food safety attitudes (p <0.05. Meanwhile, there is no significant correlation between nutrition knowledge and attitude (p> 0.05, nutrition and food safety knowledge, with food safety practice (p> 0.05, and nutrition and food safety attitude with food safety practices (p> 0.05. Overall, the nutrition and food safety extension and assistance have been effective in improving knowledge, attitudes and practices of the food vendor but it needed more extensive and periodical assistance to sustain the impatct. Keywords: food safety, street-food selling at primary school, nutrition extension ABSTRAK Makanan jajanan memberikan kontribusi yang penting bagi pemenuhan kebutuhan zat gizi bagi anak
McMahon, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; Brimblecombe, Julie
Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top-selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community stores. After a 23-week baseline period, 11 control stores received the regular-salt bread (400 mg Na/100 g) and 15 intervention stores received the reduced-salt version (300 mg Na/100 g) for 12-weeks. Sales data were collected to examine difference between groups in change from baseline to follow-up (effect size) in sales (primary outcome) or sodium density, analysed using a mixed model. There was no significant effect on market share (-0.31%; 95% CI -0.68, 0.07; p = 0.11) or weekly dollars ($58; -149, 266; p = 0.58). Sodium density of all purchases was not significantly reduced (-8 mg Na/MJ; -18, 2; p = 0.14), but 25% reduction across all bread could significantly reduce sodium (-12; -23, -1; p = 0.03). We found 25% salt reduction in a top-selling bread did not affect sales in remote Indigenous community stores. If achieved across all breads, estimated salt intake in remote Indigenous Australian communities would be reduced by approximately 15% of the magnitude needed to achieve population salt targets, which could lead to significant health gains at the population-level.
Rosson M, Sebastian
Professor Alessandri died in 1980. We started our residency in Internal Medicine about 30 years later. Considering the profound changes our society has witnessed, including medical practice, I would like to approach the meaning of his work for our generation. It is not the Father's figure nor his Aura what inspires us today. Neither is his personality nor his shape. His universality comes from his transcendent image as a teacher. Today's teachers live rough times, their social status has changed, their professional requirements have grown exponentially, they have to adapt to social phenomena like the Internet and multiculturalism. Being a teacher nowadays demands to be a multifaceted expert. Things have changed since Professor Alessandri made rounds with his patients. But a deeper look allows us to understand that everything returns to where it started: professional deontology of the teacher, never fading but transcendent. We know that Doctor Alessandri had the natural gift to keep faithful to that code with consistency and perseverance. He excelled with integrity in every aspect including professional betterment, constructive work for his institution, collegiality, a warm relationship with students and a model of social values. Beyond virtues and personal defects he will keep on being the mould in which present teachers should be formed, engraved in their souls and in the subconscious of students that seek to learn.
Jaime Erazo López
Tales preceptos cumplió con creces nuestro querido amigo, dedicado como el que más, a hacer bien su trabajo, con responsabilidad incancelable, con la misma constancia y la misma inteligencia de siempre. Con este enorme bagaje intelectual y moral, fue para nosotros, los miembros del Capítulo de Nariño de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, un altísimo honor ser sus compañeros, habiéndolo elegido Presidente en alguna ocasión, que desempeñó por corto tiempo, por razones de su precaria salud. En él, entre las ideas de la mente y los movimientos de la conciencia, había una fuerte asociación, es decir del criterio filosófico y del moral, del pensamiento y de la ética; en él, estas no eran fórmulas que se escriben simplemente para anunciarlas como acontece de ordinario. El Dr. Vladimiro fue un hombre de conciencia, austero, de una agresiva e implacable pureza. Siempre agradecido, siempre sonriente, siempre alegre, sobre todo cuando nos deleitaba con sus famosos cuentos...
Title: Selection for criteria game libero of specialization in volleyball. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to build a battery of tests that will identify important physical abilities and skills for the game libero. It is also our aim to test players, to compare with each individual test results and determine whether some linked together. Methods: In our study we used the observations to obtain data that we have always just recorded. In assessing the skills of volleyball, we used the cre...
Full Text Available Despite of his desire for inscribing himself into a Modern (Romantic poetic tradition, Luis Hernandez’ poetry reveals an inner tension as a result of fragmentation of postmodern subject. This essay studies the use of parody in Luis Hernandez’ poetry as a discursive strategy that plays a double dissemination: on the one hand, parody demystifies the standard conventions of his time about poetry and poetic language as a belle art and about the notion of author as the ultimate redoubt of signification. On the other hand, in Hernandez’ poetry, parody opens the field of meaning ISSN 0254-9239256 Lexis Vol. XXXIII (2 2009just for including intertextual and cultural features that dissolve, in poetic praxis, the division between high and mass culture.
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; McLaughlin, Cindy
High-performing individuals and groups are often not adequately recognized for their contributions. The antidote to being overlooked or underestimated is self-promotion-the act of generating personal visibility in service of your work and career. In this guidebook, we discuss how you can benefit from self-promotion and maintain your integrity and authenticity. We help you reframe common beliefs that get in the way of effective self-promotion, and we provide numerous strategies and activities that can become part of your repertoire.
Wander, Nathaniel; Malone, Ruth E
Medical and health science schools occupy a prestigious place in U.S. society. When they express a position on tobacco use--either by action or silence--that expression is consequential. Recognizing this, the tobacco industry has worked to sustain and exploit relationships with academic health sciences institutions. Corporate contributions to medical research are more visible, but institutional investments in tobacco stocks are also crucial to these relationships. The American Medical Association divested (sold) its tobacco holdings in 1986, urging others to do the same. Yet, as late as 2004, at least five of the leading dozen medical schools have not divested, and those that have seem reluctant to publicize their actions. The authors use internal tobacco industry documents and secondary source material to describe and analyze Philip Morris's response to two cases of threatened academic divestment. In each case, the world's largest tobacco company succeeded in minimizing the impact of divestment activities--in the first, by muting the consequences of a divestment, and in the second, by convincing university decisionmakers to recommend against tobacco stock divestment. In addition to arguing that tobacco divestment would lead to other pressures or be ineffective, the company exploited university concerns about losing corporate research funding as a key element of its antidivestment strategy. If academic medical centers regard protection of the public's health as a primary mission, divestment from tobacco holdings is essential; profiting from tobacco either through investments or research funding undermines this mission. Silent divestment squanders opportunities for ethical leadership and public dialogue.
Wang, Xuan Lorna
This study explores the link between corporate reputation and revenue management practice in the hospitality and tourism industries. It seeks answers to two key questions: first, whether or not there is a link between corporate reputation and revenue management, and second, how revenue management practice may affect corporate reputation, and vice versa. More specifically, it examines whether the negative effects of sales-driven RevM practice has had on customers, such as unfair perception, re...
Full Text Available Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top‐selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community stores. After a 23‐week baseline period, 11 control stores received the regular‐salt bread (400 mg Na/100 g and 15 intervention stores received the reduced‐salt version (300 mg Na/100 g for 12‐weeks. Sales data were collected to examine difference between groups in change from baseline to follow‐up (effect size in sales (primary outcome or sodium density, analysed using a mixed model. There was no significant effect on market share (−0.31%; 95% CI −0.68, 0.07; p = 0.11 or weekly dollars ($58; −149, 266; p = 0.58. Sodium density of all purchases was not significantly reduced (−8 mg Na/MJ; −18, 2; p = 0.14, but 25% reduction across all bread could significantly reduce sodium (−12; −23, −1; p = 0.03. We found 25% salt reduction in a top‐selling bread did not affect sales in remote Indigenous community stores. If achieved across all breads, estimated salt intake in remote Indigenous Australian communities would be reduced by approximately 15% of the magnitude needed to achieve population salt targets, which could lead to significant health gains at the population‐level.
Heredia-Rojas, JA · Hernandez, L.B. · Hernández, LB · Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz · Hernández-González, Sandra I. Hernández-Hernández, A.B. · Hernández-Hernández, AB · Hernández-Portilla, L.B. · Hernández-Terán, Fernando · Herrera-Arellano, A · Herrera-López, Brígida · Herrera-Martínez, Mayra · Herrera-Menchaca ...
The Commission Game is an experiment-based experiential learning activity designed to elicit students' sincere ethical decision making in an ambiguous sales context. The activity includes multiple relevant stakeholders as well as tangible, shared risk/reward elements. The activity's design encourages students to contemplate their own personal code…
Apr 17, 2014 ... Religious identity came in time with a new generation who knew nothing but the PB (and its catechism) and with little regard of its catholic past (Duffy 2005:593). Whatever winds of change blew into England from the. Reformation on the continent, these met with the continual struggle to establish church and ...
Eesti päritolu kunstnikust Margus Laanetist (s. 16. juulil 1965 Väike-Maarjas), kes peab oma kodumaaks Hondurast, elab peamiselt Guatemalas, korraldab näitusi ka teistes Ladina-Ameerika maades. Tema üheksast isiknäitusest (1989-2000), retseptsioonist. Mehhiko kunstiteadlase Karen Reiman Cordero, argentiina kunstiteadlase Laura Malosetti-Costa ja M. Laaneti kommentaarid.
5. Nukitsa konkursi võitjad: Lastekirjanikud: I koht - Ira Lember ("Musta Kaarna küüsis"); II koht - Edgar Valter ("Pintselsabad"); III koht - Artur Jurin ("Kõiges on süüdi Kotu"). Raamatukunstnikud: I koht - Edgar Valter (pildid oma raamatule "Pintselsabad"); II koht - Edgar Valter (pildid oma raamatule "Metsa pühapäev"); III koht - Raivo Tihanov (pildid Arno Kaseniidu raamatule "Päikesekell")
Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija
Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the ener...
Paide Vallitornis avatud kunstinäitusest 'Noppeid jooksava aastasaja kunstist Järvamaal', kus eksponeeritkse 25 Järvamaal elava või sealt pärit kunstniku töid; esindatud on August Roosileht, Rein Raamat, Helve ja Ants Viidalepp, Aksel Eist, Priit Pajos, Eero Ijavoinen, Silvia Hiob, Ülle Kuldkepp, Rein Lauks, Aime Jürjo, Resa Tiitsmaa, Viktor Tashlõkov, Gert Hatshukov, Kärt Putk
Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.
Warden, Dan; Palsma, Abigail Stokes
If a school district has more than $10 million in tax-exempt debt, inclusive of all outstanding bonds, certificates of participation, and other public debt issues with durations of more than nine months, it must comply with the contractual requirements entered into under Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rules. District administrators and…
Sexualities research is increasingly gaining prominence within, and outside, of academia. This paper will use queer understandings to explore the contingent (re)formation of quantitative data, particularly those that seek to gain insights into Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans populations and lifestyles. I use queer critiques to explore the creation and normalising impulses of quantitative sexualities research and argue that research that addresses 'deviant'/other/(homo)sexualities brings cate...
Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. aug. lk. 10. Mitmed uuringud näitavad, et jõukuse kasv on seotud õnnetunde kasvuga vaid suhteliselt madala sissetulekuga inimeste hulgas. Autor arutleb, miks nii paljud pingutavad, et saada rohkem raha - rahateenimine annab tegevust, mis tundub väärtuslik
Aastatel 1864-1866 valmis Pärnus Saksa tütarlaste koolimaja. 1930. aastal otsustas Pärnu linnavalitsus avada hoone Hommiku tänava poolses osas linnaapteegi. Taasiseseisvuse perioodil jäid ideed rajada ruumidesse kas apteek-muuseum või turismiinfopunkt jäi realiseerimata.Ruumid kuulusid linnavalitsusele, mööbel AS Pharmac'ile. 2011. aastal rajati ruumidesse kohvik-puhvet A.P.T.E.K.
Data inside enterprises is exploding. Routinely key decision makers state, "one of the most valuable assets of our organization is actionable information." Paradoxically, it is often challenging to gather the necessary metrics to build a business case to justify a Linked Data initiative for improved data quality in the face of the well-documented shortcomings of traditional enterprise approaches to data management. Internet standards have matured considerably in the last decade. The number of linked data sets is growing daily and already exceeds well in excess of ten thousand data sets, over 400 of which are published via the US Government at gov as of April 2010. Many of these linked data sets are high quality. Best practices for linking data within the enterprise are increasingly being published in articles, blogs and technical books. One of the pioneering linked enterprise data projects was undertaken by a Fortune 500 company in the early 2000 timeframe. The lessons learned about how to navigate the management and organizational dynamics are relevant today. This chapter outlines the successful strategies for a linked enterprise data initiative, including a consistent metadata management strategy across lines of business, definition and documentation of data ownership and the value of cross-functional teams in the definition, development and deployment of the project.
Sanders, Teela; Hardy, Kate
Robust academic research on the topic of students involved in the sex industry is in its infancy, yet the relationship appears consistent and permanent. This paper draws on findings from the largest study into the stripping industry in the United Kingdom to explore the relationships between students, sex work and consumption. To make sense of the…
Näitusest "Kadriorg 290. Loss ja tema lugu" Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis. Täienduseks näitusel eksponeeritule katkend lossivalitseja J. von Gerneti (ametis 1831-1846) mälestustest, mis aitab aimu saada Kadrioru uue õitsengu algusest 19. sajandi II veerandil. Ka keiser Nikolai I ja keisrinna Aleksandra Fjodorovna visiidist Tallinna 1833. aastal
Töö- ja ametilähetutuste üldpõhimõtetest ning lähetusi reguleerivate määruste muudatusest Vabariigi Valitsuse 2005. a 7. juuli määrusega nr 155. Lisatud tabel: tulu- ja sotsiaalmaksuvabalt makstav päevaraha ja kulude hüvitamine
Liibanoni päritolu, Pariisis elaval Mouna Ayoub'il, kes kulutab aastas kõrgmoele 16 miljonit krooni, on kavas avada oma muuseum. M. Ayoub ostab rõivaid Valentinolt, Diori, Givenchy ja Chaneli moemajadest, Gaultier' ja Versace kauplustest, kübaraid Philip Treacy'lt ja mujalt
Arrak, Andres, 1958-2017
Autori arvates on Eestis liberaalne turumajandus ära rikutud kauboikapitalismiga, mis on inimesi võõrandanud vabaturu ideedest. Näiteid riikide valitsuste rollist ja USA edust. Vastukaja Urmas Varblase artiklile 8. veebr. Postimehes
With the advent of the experience economy the unique experiential value of cultural heritage products comes to the forefront of cultural tourism development and is the main value proposition for emerging destinations, including South Africa. As South Africa's democracy divedends had paid out by 1998, South African ...
Rumstay, Kenneth S.
The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.
Leathers, Dale G.
Discusses the importance of impression management, an individual's conscious attempt to exercise control over selected communicative behaviors and cues for purposes of making a desired impression. Provides a comprehensive conceptualization of the impression-management process, and demonstrates how this process can facilitate effective training of…
R. A. Aryanti W. Puspokusumo
Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses about strategy of China mobile phone manufacturer. Based on the interview with the manufacturer’s representative, we tried to comprehend the strategy behind the China mobile phone raid in Indonesia. As people know that mobile phone industry keeps on growing day by day, especially by the invention of the Android operating system, an open source OS with integrated capability. By having a free licensed OS, mobile phone manufacturer can focus mainly on their hardware development. Mobile phone industry is getting crowded by the appearance of new players from China. As the result of the interview shown, in short, the manufacturers are growing because of their innovations and ideas to create a new product with competitive price, usage of right media for promotion, and persistence in penetrating the Indonesian market. It is also through this paper that we hoped to invite young entrepreneur to join the manufacturing industry, as it is a fast growing industry that will surely be developed by the fresh ideas of the young generation of Indonesia.
Jan 25, 2011 ... Researchers have found that people in different cultures prefer different types of insurance. In South Africa, for example, the desire and pressure to provide loved ones with a dignified funeral has prompted people to pool their resources to cover funeral costs. In India, buyers are more likely to opt for ...
Moerland - Dahrendorf, Anke
Since “Champagne” is a protected designation of origin (PDO) under EU law, it is not self-evident whether a product that is not Champagne but which contains Champagne can use the protected term in its trade name.
Kennedy, M M
Physician executives are vying for top positions in health care organizations. With so many qualified candidates in the marketplace, how can you differentiate yourself as a strong contender? Recruiters search through hundreds of résumés, not the ten or 20 that many hospital and HMO CEOs have seen. Recruiters--the people who actually find specific candidates--were interviewed to find out what they are looking for. Here are the top items on their checklists: Articulated focus, documented results, competitive intelligence, professional growth, good references, appearance and social skills, responsive and timely, and technical skills.
Full Text Available In order to be competitive in the current competitive environment is essential for a company to consider the necessity to enter the online market and into the digital business environment. Entering on electronics market is not an easy decision to make. Th
conceptions of peace, and in the case studies, the particular social and political structures of the countries under study. Moreover, these differences merely underline that both context and perspective matter when examining complex social phenomena like corruption, and that care needs to be taken in any effort to apply.
Werner Güth; Matteo Ploner; Ivan Soraperra
Experimental studies of the WTP-WTA gap avoid social trading by implementing an incentive compatible mechanism for each individual trader. We compare a traditional random price mechanism and a novel elicitation mechanism preserving social trading, without sacrificing mutual incentive compatibility. Furthermore, we focus on risky goods - binary monetary lotteries - for which asymmetries in evaluations are more robust with respect to experimental procedures. For both elicitation mechanisms, the...
Mitri, Michel; Cole, Carey
Most systems development projects incorporate some sort of life cycle approach in their development. Whether the development methodology involves a traditional life cycle, prototyping, rapid application development, or some other approach, the first step usually involves a system investigation, which includes problem identification, feasibility…
Kumar, V; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Reinartz, Werner
Despite an abundance of data, most companies do a poor job of predicting the behavior of their customers. In fact, the authors' research suggests that even companies that take the greatest trouble over their predictions about whether a particular customer will buy a particular product are correct only around 55% of the time--a result that hardly justifies the costs of having a CRM system in the first place. Businesses usually conclude from studies like this that it's impossible to use the past to predict the future, so they revert to the timeworn marketing practice of inundating their customers with offers. But as the authors explain, the reason for the poor predictions is not any basic limitation of CRM systems or the predictive power of past behavior, but rather of the mathematical methods that companies use to interpret the data. The authors have developed a new way of predicting customer behavior, based on the work of the Nobel Prize-winning economist Daniel McFadden, that delivers vastly improved results. Indeed, the methodology increases the odds of successfully predicting a specific purchase by a specific customer at a specific time to about 85%, a number that will have a major impact on any company's marketing ROI. What's more, using this methodology, companies can increase revenues while reducing their frequency of customer contact-evidence that overcommunication with customers may actually damage a company's sales.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work was to assess weight loss claims of slimming products available in Switzerland. Method: Between May 2008 and February 2013, 31 advertisements for 13 slimming products were analyzed. Results: Total daily weight loss claims ranged between 300 g and 1 kg. 84% of the advertisements included the photograph of a woman, 61% showed a picture of a person before and after using the product, and 51% claimed that the product had improved marital relationships. The terms ‘natural', ‘miracle/extraordinary' and ‘scientific' were present in 92%, 77% and 31% of the advertisements, respectively. Cost for one package of the product ranged between CHF 49.00 and 59.00 (USD 52.00 and 63.00, and no correlation was found between cost and weight loss claims. No differences were found for weight loss claims according to presence or absence of a picture or of the terms ‘natural', ‘miracle/extraordinary', and ‘scientific'. Assuming that 5.3% of readers bought the product, yearly revenues would range between CHF 12.5 and 33.8 million (USD 13.4 and 36.2 million. Conclusions: In Switzerland, advertisements for slimming products use positive and reassuring terms to attract consumers, which are lured by unreachable, false promises of rapid and easy weight loss.
Full Text Available The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas attempted to actually place them in the tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation in different tours. The article concludes with some thoughts on my own research experience on such a polemic field of investigation.
The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas attempted to actually place them in the tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation ...
Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L
This paper presents evidence that when an analyst makes an out-of-consensus forecast of a company's quarterly earnings that turns out to be incorrect, she escalates her commitment to maintaining an out-of-consensus view on the company. Relative to an analyst who was close to the consensus, the out-of-consensus analyst adjusts her forecasts for the current fiscal year's earnings less in the direction of the quarterly earnings surprise. On average, this type of updating behavior reduces forecasting accuracy, so it does not seem to reflect superior private information. Further empirical results suggest that analysts do not have financial incentives to stand by extreme stock calls in the face of contradictory evidence. Managerial and financial market implications are discussed.
Kollom, Raigo, 1936-
Hinnatud ratsahobuste A Big Boy ja A Pikachu de Muze'i Eestisse ostmise loost Belgia hobusekasvataja Joris de Brabanderi kasvandusest ning A Big Boy põlvnemisest ja saavutusest kuni müügini Athina Onassis-Mirandale 2009. aastal
Droz, Nadège; Marques-Vidal, Pedro
The aim of this work was to assess weight loss claims of slimming products available in Switzerland. Between May 2008 and February 2013, 31 advertisements for 13 slimming products were analyzed. Total daily weight loss claims ranged between 300 g and 1 kg. 84% of the advertisements included the photograph of a woman, 61% showed a picture of a person before and after using the product, and 51% claimed that the product had improved marital relationships. The terms 'natural', 'miracle/extraordinary' and 'scientific' were present in 92%, 77% and 31% of the advertisements, respectively. Cost for one package of the product ranged between CHF 49.00 and 59.00 (USD 52.00 and 63.00), and no correlation was found between cost and weight loss claims. No differences were found for weight loss claims according to presence or absence of a picture or of the terms 'natural', 'miracle/extraordinary', and 'scientific'. Assuming that 5.3% of readers bought the product, yearly revenues would range between CHF 12.5 and 33.8 million (USD 13.4 and 36.2 million). In Switzerland, advertisements for slimming products use positive and reassuring terms to attract consumers, which are lured by unreachable, false promises of rapid and easy weight loss. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Industriens omkostninger i forbindelse med CO2 reduktion varierer stærkt under henholdsvis afgift og tilladelsesmarked. Analysen giver ny indsigt i dette vigtige omkostningsforhold. Resultatet er, at afgiftsløsningen - uden tilbageførsel - vil koste industrien 9 gange så meget som et tilladelsesm...
JONES, CORINNE A.; TURKSTRA, LYN S.
Objective To examine storytelling performance behaviours in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and relate these behaviours to perceived charisma and desirability as a conversation partner. Design and methods Seven adult males with traumatic brain injury (TBI) told their accident narratives to a male confederate. Ten male undergraduate students rated 1-minute video clips from the beginning of each narrative using the Charismatic Leadership Communication Scale (CLCS). Raters also indicated whether or not they would like to engage in conversation with each participant. Results Of the performative behaviours analysed, gestures alone significantly influenced CLCS ratings and reported likelihood of engaging in future conversation with the participant. Post-hoc analysis revealed that speech rate was significantly correlated with all of the preceding measures. There was a significant correlation between self- and other-ratings of charisma. Conclusions The findings suggest that aspects of non-verbal performance, namely gesture use and speech rate, influence how charismatic an individual is perceived to be and how likely someone is to engage in conversation with that person. Variability in these performance behaviours may contribute to the variation in social outcomes seen in the TBI population. PMID:21714624
Advertising has been one of the most important marketing variables for both practices and academic literature, and it has been generally known to raise the firm's market share (Ataman, van Heerde, and Mela 2010). However, under the contemporary market environment, advertising's impact may be more complicated. For example, in advance…
Richard G. Innes
Full Text Available A new white paper from Ace Parsi and Linda Darling-Hammond, “Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning,” has a discussion on Page 7 about supposed success of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS used in that state from 1992 to 1998. This discussion paper explains the numerous problems with that description. The Kentucky-related comments in the Parsi/Darling-Hammond paper claim a basis in a technical report titled “Commonwealth Accountability and Testing System: 2007–08 Technical report, Version 1.2” created by Measured Progress in 2009. Unfortunately, the Kentucky Department of Education recently redesigned its web site and this technical report is no longer online. However, if the report actually does show the information attributed to it by Parsi and Darling-Hammond, that information is incorrect. Of course, as a closeout epitaph of yet another failure, Kentucky’s now failed Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, which succeeded the failed KIRIS system, the 2007-08 technical report may not have received an appropriate level of attention to detail. The comments below are referenced to reports issued during or shortly after the events occurred and are known to this long-time Kentucky resident to present an accurate picture.
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AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.
David N. Larsen; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner
A multiple-variable screening technique, AID, was used to explain the forest-product-sales behavior of private woodland owners. Results provide a basis for policy-related inferences and suggest an optimal strategy for encouraging sales of forest products.
AJRH Managing Editor
Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa have one of the highest HIV seroprevelance rates of any population. Effective safe sex interventions are urgently needed to stop the transmission of HIV during commercial sex. Despite widespread education, counselling, and condom distribution interventions among FSWs ...
Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan
Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an ‘instrumentational complexity value’ to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. ‘New wave’ or ‘disco’ quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like ‘folk rock’ remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in. PMID:25551631
Sell, Raivo, 1975-
Artikkel annab ülevaate robotiehitamise koostööprojektist Rootsi Kuningliku Tehnikaülikooliga, mida on edukalt praktiseeritud alates 2002. aastast. Kajastatud on projekti eripärad ja tulemused ning kokkuvõte tudengite arvamustest mehhatroonikaprojekti kohta
Full Text Available This essay argues that the Victorian sentimental impulse was motivated by the sharing of emotion and the dynamics of communal and interactive feeling. Integral to the popularity of sentiment was its recognition factor by means of established tropes and conventions. Arguably, the same familiarity that made narrative art accessible also made advertising successful and many of the same motifs ran from exhibition watercolours to book illustration to posters. Works of sentiment operated as emotional souvenirs so that material proof of feeling could be easily digested, displayed and revisited. The essay looks closer at the investment of emotion in ephemeral images, such as music-sheet covers, and the ways in which forms of feeling were standardised and reproduced in keeping with a new art-buying public and the possibilities of wider image dissemination. Focusing upon issues raised during the curation of a current exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum ( 'A Show of Emotion: Victorian Sentiment in Prints and Drawings', 7 Dec 2006 – 10 Sep 2007 this essay explores the ways in which the sentimental pervaded nineteenth-century visual culture and how, in the cut-throat commercial world of image production, sentiment became manifest and identifiable if only as a notional phenomenon.
Nguyen, Ly Kieu Le
Abstract Until recently, the Arctic including the Arctic Ocean was only mentioned in the context of global warming. However, global warming has led to a thawing of ice that unveiled great findings of natural resources. The Arctic is now in the middle of a rapid environmental, geopolitical and economic transformation. The planting of the Russian flag by Russian researchers in 2007 on the bottom of the Artic Ocean triggered an overwhelming attention from other actors and states outside the regi...
Käosaar, Vaike, 1948-
Kodavere murrakust. Sisaldab Heino Õunapi ja Ella Viirmaa murdetekste. Ilmunud on Kodavere murdes kogumikud: Õlemä elon : lugusid Kodavere murrakus. - Ranna [Jõgevamaa] : Sääritsa Küla Seltsing, 2006 ; Põlvess põlve. - [Kodavere (Jõgevamaa)] : E. Treial, 2007
Wenger, L D; Malone, R E; George, A; Bero, L A
To assess the content of two cigar "lifestyle" magazines, Cigar Aficionado and Smoke. Content analysis of cigar focused articles. Cigar focused articles (n = 353) from Cigar Aficionado and Smoke magazines. Primary focus; mention of health effects, environmental tobacco smoke, or scientific research; quotation and description of individuals; characteristics such as sex, age, ethnicity, smoking status, affiliation, and stance towards cigars; and overall image of cigars. Cigar business-focused articles were the largest category (40%, n = 143), followed by articles about cigar events (12%, n = 42). Notable were articles featuring cigar benefits to raise money for health charities. Celebrities were featured in 34% (n = 121) of articles and 96% (n = 271) favoured cigar use. Only four (1%) articles featured health effects of cigars as a primary focus. Cigar Aficionado and Smoke broke new ground in tobacco marketing by combining promotion of product, lifestyle, and industry in the same vehicle and linking the medium directly to product related events that extended its reach. The creation and marketing of new tobacco use sites challenges the increasing "isolation" of smokers, and positions cigar use as a socially welcome relief from restrictions. Public health advocates should anticipate and challenge other new tobacco marketing vehicles as communications technologies advance and public spaces for smoking shrink.
Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõunikuks saanud ärimees Oleg Harlamov tekitab probleeme, kuna omab aktsiaid suhtekorraldusfirmas, mis konsulteerib raudtee-ettevõtet Spacecom. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaare sõnul võib riik müüa oma Esonian Airways'i aktsiad.
At present there is a surplus of imported steam coal in Europe but it is predicted that, in spite of this, imports will rise. The paper describes the possibility of establishing a privately-run but government-chartered US Coal Exchange to handle steam coal sales to Europe. Advantages would include adherence to quality standards, establishing a stable market, and allowing small coal operators onto the market. Disadvantages centre mainly on the fact that European customers adhere to established sources for political and economic reasons, and that smaller producers would not in fact increase their share of the market. It is also felt that an Exchange would encourage spot sales in preference to an established market, which could strategically weaken the position of the US. The need for long-term international trading contracts is described.
Advocates teachers' working with students "toward a better understanding of media's personal and social effects, and toward freedom from media addiction"; a paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (Atlanta, November 27, 1970). (Author/RD)
Leps, Ando, 1935-
Autori väitel püütakse kunagi komparteisse kuulunuid kujutada praegu deemonitena ning ei meenutata sõnagagi president Arnold Rüütli tasakaalustavat rolli ning tarka poliitikat nn laulva revolutsiooni ja riigi taastamise ajal. Autor tuletab meelde keerulist olukorda 1980. aastate lõpul ning talle näib, et mõned jõud soovivad kuulutada end vabaduse ainsateks taastajateks, käituda võitjatena ning mõista "kohut" oma tollaste partnerite üle
Two clusters have been identified. Cluster one is the male 'ethical consumers' group influenced by retailers' image and social responsibilities activities. This group was ... This alarmed the Fairtrade Labelling Organisation (FLO) to review its policy of allowing the large retailers (LRs) to use own brand. The findings of the ...
Full Text Available Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.
Masterson, Kathryn; Wolverton, Brad
Connie Kravas, the vice president for university advancement at the University of Washington, has brought in 64 new fund raisers since 2002--close to doubling its staff--to help raise money for a $2-billion-plus campaign. Many college development offices have experienced similar rapid growth in recent years, with many adding fund raisers at a…
Loog, Alvar, 1975-
Vastulause raamatu "20. sajandi mõttevoolud" (Tallinn ; Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli kirjastus, 2009) arvustusele: Saar Johannes. 20. sajandi mõttevoolud : kogu talveks lugemist ja magamist. Eesti Päevaleht, 2009, 25. sept., lk. 12-13
Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.
As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.
Jones, Corinne A; Turkstra, Lyn S
To examine storytelling performance behaviours in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and relate these behaviours to perceived charisma and desirability as a conversation partner. Seven adult males with traumatic brain injury (TBI) told their accident narratives to a male confederate. Ten male undergraduate students rated 1-minute video clips from the beginning of each narrative using the Charismatic Leadership Communication Scale (CLCS). Raters also indicated whether or not they would like to engage in conversation with each participant. Of the performative behaviours analysed, gestures alone significantly influenced CLCS ratings and reported likelihood of engaging in future conversation with the participant. Post-hoc analysis revealed that speech rate was significantly correlated with all of the preceding measures. There was a significant correlation between self- and other-ratings of charisma. The findings suggest that aspects of non-verbal performance, namely gesture use and speech rate, influence how charismatic an individual is perceived to be and how likely someone is to engage in conversation with that person. Variability in these performance behaviours may contribute to the variation in social outcomes seen in the TBI population.
Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.
This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…
A vending machine stocked with your most commonly used drugs can be a relatively inexpensive investment in patient and staff satisfaction. Rice Memorial Hospital in Willmar, MN, has installed such a machine, which includes several safeguards: * It has several internal cameras, serving as backup systems to ensure the proper drug is being dispensed to the proper patient. * The machine cannot be accessed by anyone unless they have received a magnetic swipe card from the prescribing physician. * The code is only given to a physician authorized to enter the web portal of the prescription vendor.
Guilluy-sulikashvili, N.; Jean-marcel, Bloch
The goal of this article is to demonstrate that the system of direct sales, when viewed in an economic context, is an effective distribution channel that generates jobs and facilitates upward mobility in Russia. When compared to classic distribution systems, including large-scale distribution, small commerce and industrial enterprises, the system of direct sales relies more heavily on the human component. The system has proven to be very effective in Russia, where it has contributed to the de...
Kalmo, Hent, 1979-
Arvustus: Weber, Max. Poliitika kui elukutse ja kutsumus ; Teadus kui elukutse ja kutsumus / tõlkijad: Jaan Isotamm, Henn Käärik, Kaia Sisask. Tallinn : TLU Press, 2010. (Bibliotheca controversiarum)
Meijkamp, R.; Van Kasteren, J.
The product, or hardware if you will, still lies at the heart of the production and consumption chain, resulting in a significant environmental impact. Basing design on applied value instead of the product itself can offer substantial ecological advantages. Ir. Rens Meijkamp tested the eco-efficient
Full Text Available Personal selling is common in ethics related studies. It can be said that the mostimportant reason for this, is the pressure of achieving the targets or fulfilling quotas, whichcause sales representatives to behave unethically.The purpose of this research is to define ethical attitudes of medical salesrepresentatives and analyze the differences among them in terms of their demographicfeatures in their ethical attitudes. According to the findings; there is no significantdifference among gender, age, work experince and income level. On the other hand, thereare significant differences in the origin of the companies in terms of general ethicalattitudes, sales pressure, sales quotas and the beliefs regarding whether the ethicalproblems will be resolved.Etik konulu araştırmalar içinde kişisel satış yaygındır. Bunun temel nedeninin,hedeflere ulaşma veya kotaları doldurma baskısının, satış temsilcilerini etik olmayandavranışlarda bulunmaya zorlaması olduğu söylenebilmektedir.Bu çalışmanın amacı, tıbbi satış temsilcilerinin kişisel satış süreçlerindeki etiktutumlarını belirlemek ve satış temsilcilerinin demografik özellikleri arasında etik tutumlaraçısından farklılıkları incelemektir. Bulgulara göre; cinsiyet, yaş, iş deneyimi ve gelirdüzeyi grupları arasınd, anlamlı bir fark yoktur. Diğer yandan firmaların menşeine göregenel etik tutumlar, satış baskısı, satış kotaları ve etik sorunların çözüleceğine dair inançaçısından anlamlı farklılıklar vardır.
Karen Poe Lang
pequeña familia de clase media en San José de Costa Rica. A pesar de las diferencias entre ambas películas el duelo aparece como una experiencia de carácter siniestro debido a la ausencia de un tejido social que posibilite la existencia de ritos de pasaje que permitan apaciguar el dolor.
Laura Corona Martínez
Full Text Available Mis cuentos no tienen estructuras lógicas. A pesar de la vigilancia constante y rigurosa de la conciencia, ésta también me es desconocida. En un momento dado pienso que en un rincón de mí nacerá una planta. La empiezo a acechar creyendo que en ese rincón se ha producido algo raro, pero que podría tener porvenir artístico. […] Sin embargo, debo esperar un tiempo ignorado : no sé cómo hacer germinar la planta, ni cómo favorecer, ni cuidar su crecimiento ; sólo presiento o deseo que tenga hojas ...
Juan José Guerra
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the novels La descomposición (2007, by Hernan Ronsino, and Bajo este sol tremendo (2009, by Carlos Busqued , as texts in which the real is configured through the allegory of ruin (Benjamin 2012 [ 1928 ] as suggestive images of social and subjective processes of deterioration. In both novels, these images allegorize a world in a state of decomposition and in which the past survives in the present as remnants of the real (Garramuño 2009. Both texts open onto the overlapping time frames, but whereas in the case of La descomposición the past constantly emerges as a way to influence and to question the present, in Bajo este sol tremendo the understanding of the past seems sealed and all that the text enables is a rapt contemplation of the remnants of the real.
Full Text Available La atención a la diversidad es un reto que enfrenta el sistema educativo costarricense y las transformaciones que conlleva empujan desde sus bases poco a poco los cambios requeridos. El reconocimiento de la diversidad estudiantil en el ámbito escolar es un hecho ineludible, porque cada estudiante coexiste en distintas realidades, estructuras familiares, contextos sociales y culturales donde las diferencias y semejanzas juegan un papel determinante en la convivencia humana. Los servicios de apoyo están inmersos en esta realidad. La población estudiantil que presenta necesidades educativas derivadas de una discapacidad o de una condición especial, demanda cada vez más diversificar los espacios de intervención pedagógica empleando estrategias innovadoras y adaptadas a sus características y necesidades. Asimismo, que les permita un aprendizaje significativo y un desarrollo integral.
Begoña Sáez Martínez
Full Text Available La poesía siempre ha estado presente en la enseñanza de español para extranjeros. Unas veces como pretexto para enseñar lengua, otras como texto literario en sí mismo, muchas otras para ilustrar aspectos culturales. El problema es saber cómo poder integrarla en nuestros cursos mediante tareas motivadoras para los estudiantes. Una manera atractiva de incitar a los alumnos es formar parte de un proyecto global y real presentado como concurso.
Begoña Sáez Martínez
Full Text Available La poesía siempre ha estado presente en la enseñanza de español para extranjeros. Unas veces como pretexto para enseñar lengua, otras como texto literario en sí mismo, muchas otras para ilustrar aspectos culturales. El problema es saber cómo poder integrarla en nuestros cursos mediante tareas motivadoras para los estudiantes. Una manera atractiva de incitar a los alumnos es formar parte de un proyecto global y real presentado como concurso.
Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes Regulación, utilización y prácticas de venta minorista de los pesticidas en Trinidad y Tobago, Indias Occidentales: situación actual y cambios necesarios
Lexley M. Pinto Pereira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. RESULTS: Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21 of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac from World Health Organization (WHO Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38 of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent
A building complex with a microclimate envelope and a photovoltaic power plant on the roof. The energy management concept of the Mont-Cenis academy at Herne-Sodingen; Mikroklimahuelle mit Solarkraftwerk. Energiekonzept fuer die Fortbildungsakademie Mont-Cenis in Herne-Sodingen
Mueller, H.F.O.; Pasquay, T. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Klimagerechte Architektur
The article explains in depth the specific aspects of a civil engineering project of the Land North Rhine-Westfalia, which is an outstanding example of solar architecture and solar systems engineering. The new academy buildings are arranged within a glass envelope maintaining a microclimate. The roof of the envelope carries the largest photovoltaic power plant of the world ever installed on a building, with a peak output of 1 MW. The building complex exhibits a large variety of innovative engineering examples, as well as examples of energy efficiency optimization and energy conservation potentials. The computerized simulation work of the planning phase is also explained. (orig./CB) [German] Auf der ehemaligen Zeche Mont-Cenis wurde kuerzlich die neue Fortbildungsakademie des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen eingeweiht. Zentraler Bestandteil des Komplexes ist eine glaeserne Mikroklimahuelle, in die verschiedene Gebaeude eingestellt sind. Auf dem Hallendach befindet sich das weltweit groesste dachintegrierte Solarkraftwerk mit einer Spitzenleistung von 1 MW. Um Energiebedarf und Energieproduktion des in mehrfacher Hinsicht innovativen Gebaeudes zu optimieren, wurde der Entwurfs- und Planungsprozess von Beginn an durch umfangreiche Simulationsrechnungen begleitet. (orig.)
...) In some cases the seller may apply timely for a price increase or benefit allowed under the oil sales... value the oil using the NYMEX price, adjusted for applicable location and quality differentials under... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I...
Full Text Available This study examines the way in which going to the conquest of Nueva Granada influenced a group of relations from Cordoba. The study focuses the attention on Pedro Fernandez de Valenzuela and Hernan Venegas. Looking at them we can learn the way family networks worked in preparation for the conquest, in its development and in the relations between those who returned and those who stayed in the Indias.
Santiago Hernández, Manuel E. de
Full Text Available Breve reseña sobre la historia de la Biblioteca de la Universidad Autónoma de Puebla "José María Lafragua" que tiene su origen a finales del S. XVI en la del Colegio del Espíritu Santo de la Compañía de Jesús y, tras muchos avatares, es inaugurada en 1885 como la biblioteca del Colegio del Estado de Puebla con libros que fueron de las órdenes religiosas locales, 2300 volúmenes que legó D. José María Lafragua y otros documentos históricos. El antiguo Colegio es hoy la Universidad Autónoma de Puebla y su Biblioteca Histórica custodia unos 90.000 volúmenes de los cuales más del 65 % corresponden al fondo antiguo y a otro fondo -igualmente importante- de impresos del siglo xix, una colección hemerográfica de la misma época y fondos documentales de diversa extensión e importancia, amén de otros muchos objetos patrimonialesBrief overview on the history of the Library of the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla "José María Lafragua". This University has its origins in late S. XVI at the College of the Holy Spirit of the Society of Jesus and, after many vicissitudes, was opened in 1885 as the library of the College of the State of Puebla. This library gathers books from some local religious orders and 2.300 volumes belonging to the personal collection of D. José María Lafragua and other historical documents. Nowadays, the ancient School is the Autonomous University of Puebla and its Historical Library contains about 90,000 volumes of which over 65% are Rare Books, very important printed books and a collection of newspaper from S. XIX, archival documents and many other heritage objects.
Resultado del trabajo iniciado por el correspondiente grupo de investigación, Enfermedad y muerte en América y Andalucía (Siglos XVI-XX) recoje materiales procedentes de varios cursos, mesas redondas y simposios sobre el particular. Esta reflexión busca ofrecer una “visión diferenciada” de una materia de estudio histórico de singular constancia en la historia de la humanidad, insistiendo en la dualidad de los fenómenos considerados: a la vez hechos experimentados a diario y situaciones excepc...
El entorno en el que se produce el texto de Cortés se contextualiza en este artículo. También destaca las motivaciones ideológicas que guían el proceso de titulación, la circulación y la censura de Cartas de Relación en todo. The environment in which Cortes' text is produced is contextualized in this article. It also highlights the ideological motivations that guide the process of titling, circulation and censorship of Cartas de Relación throughout.