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Sample records for herlin gary fry

  1. Comparison of physical workload in four Gari -frying working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All physical labour requires physical exertion which indicates the level of physical workload involved. This paper examines the energy expenditure in four working postures of gari-frying (garification) workers in southwestern Nigeria. The postures include sitting-beside (SB), sitting-in-front (SF), ...

  2. A Machine for Pulverizing and Sifting Gari Mash | Odigboh | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype machine for pulverizing and sifting gari mash, designed as a companion to the gari frying machine developed by the authors, was built and tested. Driven by an electric motor, the prototype accepts lump3 of dewatered gari mash cuts them up into small pieces by a cake breaker and delivers the pieces by a belt ...

  3. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  4. Tänu Gary Schwartzile / Helena Risthein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Risthein, Helena, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    New Yorgis sündinud ja õppinud, Hollandis elavast kunstiteadlasest, hollandi kunsti spetsialistist Gary Schwartzist, tema töödest. 17. ja 18. augustil külastasid Gary ja Loekie Schwartz Eesti Kunstimuuseumi filiaale. Gary Schwartzi rajatud Madalmaade kunsti hoidjate ja uurijate rahvusvahelisest ühingust CODART, mille konverentsidest ja õppereisidest on ka eesti kunstiteadlased osa võtnud. Ühingu häälekandjast CODART Courant

  5. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  6. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari is creamy-white, partially gelatinized roasted free flowing granular flour made from cassava roots. It is a major staple consumed in both urban and rural areas due to its convenience. Quality of Gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria was investigated. Gari samples were collected at random from different ...

  7. A MACHINE FOR PULVERIZING AND SIFTING GARI MASH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    O.75kw electric motor. Fig. 2.Photograph of prototype gari pulverizing/sifting machine. A Side view of the Prototype Gari mash Pulverize/sifting machine. 1. Vee-belt drives; 2. Head pulley; 3 belt conveyor; 4, cake breaker, 5. tail pulley; 6. lump or cake of' gari mash;7hopper; 8pulverizing roller; 9. Side gaurds; 10.brush 11.

  8. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  9. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P.; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried prod...

  10. Obituary: Gary Lars Grasdalen, 1945-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Stephen Eric

    2003-12-01

    With the passing of Gary Grasdalen on 20 April 2003 the astronomical community has lost one its most creative members. Born in Albert Lea, Minnesota on 7 October 1945 to the farming family of Lars G. and Lillie Grasdalen, Gary developed a strong childhood interest in science, and a particular fascination with astronomy. In 1964, he entered Harvard College intending to pursue those interests. During his freshman year, Gary enrolled in an undergraduate research seminar in which he first displayed the combination of keen insight and imagination in applying new techniques that was manifest throughout his professional career. In 1968, he published his first two papers---studies of the C12/C13 ratio in metal deficient stars, and of Fe I and Fe II transition probabilities---which summarized research carried out during his junior and senior years at Harvard. Grasdalen next entered the astronomy graduate program at the University of California, Berkeley. There he developed a strong interest in the early stages of stellar evolution and, in particular, the potential of S-1 image intensifiers and newly available near-infrared detectors to detect and analyze the stellar populations embedded within their parent molecular cloud complexes. Following award of his PhD in 1972, Grasdalen was appointed to the staff at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Early in his career at KPNO, Gary developed tools that enabled routine near-infrared mapping of nearby molecular cloud complexes, most notably the telescope control programs that enabled precise raster scanning of these regions. Those same programs were some of the many innovations in which Gary had a hand. These innovations enabled a generation of KPNO observers in the 1970s to fully exploit the power of the newly commissioned Mayall telescope as well as the smaller telescopes on Kitt Peak. In 1973, he published the first map of the central region of a molecular cloud, which revealed an extensive embedded, optically obscured

  11. Predicting Weight Change in Gari in Two Packaging Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An equation for predicting moisture loss or gain by gari grain packed in two types of materials was developed. From this, it may be possible to establish the storability of gari in these two packaging material. The equation took into account the permeabilities of the materials, which were determined experimentally. The validity ...

  12. Chemical Changes during the Fortification of Cassava Meal (Gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional enrichment of a cassava meal (gari) with African breadfruit seed residue was investigated. Grated cassava (70%) was fermented for 3 days with the incorporation of African breadfruit seed residue (30%) at different stages of the fermentation. The fortified and unfortified gari samples were subjected to ...

  13. Flood vulnerability: Impending danger in Sabon-Gari Minna, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the vulnerability of buildings to flooding and the danger posed at Sabo Gari area of Minna, Niger State. Sabon-Gari which is one of the 22 neighborhoods found in Minna is a highly populated area as people who cannot afford to stay in the low density areas (Government Reserve Area - G.R.A) move to ...

  14. predicting weight change in gari in two packaging materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIS

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... involved the microbial deterioration of gari stored in hessian and polythene bags, showed that the polythene bag gave a better result when gari was stored at moisture content of 11.2% wet basis. Mizrahi et al (1970) using dehydrated cabbage packed in two types of packaging materials predicted value.

  15. Gari agar as culture media for mycological studies | Okorondu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari agar was prepared by weighing 28 g of Gari, 14 g of agar powder and 8 g of Hibiscus rabdariffa powder to 1 L of sterile water. A conventional media, Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) was prepared as control according to manufacturer's procedure. Aliquot of appropriate dilutions of 1 g of agricultural soil was inoculated ...

  16. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried products obtained by the conventional method. PLM and PBM had lower fat content (p ≤ 0.05) compared to conventionally fried CLM and CBM. Lipid oxidation was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in conventional frying as compared to pressure frying. Irrespective of the type of chicken meat, conventionally fried meat required higher shear force as compared to pressure fried products. Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella and E. coli were not detected. The study indicates the usefulness and superiority of pressure frying in comparison to conventional deep fat frying.

  17. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  18. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation process for starter culture development. Vinodh A Edward, Moutairou Egounlety, Melanie Huch, Petrus J Van Zyl, Suren Singh, Naledzani D Nesengani, Vetja M Haakuria, Charles MAP Franz ...

  19. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  20. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  1. Elujärge parandab kindlam tulevik / Gary Titley

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Titley, Gary

    2003-01-01

    EL-i laienemine tähendab, et sadadele miljonitele eurooplastele endastmõistetavad hüved - stabiilsus, turvalisus, jõukus - muutuvad kättesaadavaks ka uute liikmesriikide kodanikele, ütleb Euroopa Parlamendi liige Gary Titley

  2. Gary Becker and the economics of trafficking in human beings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Muraszkiewic, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Gary Becker died on 3 May 2014. He was an economist, Noble prize winner and author. He was declared by Milton Friedman as the “the greatest social scientist who has lived and worked in the last half century”. His work focused on economics and sociology, and through the lenses of these disciplines he

  3. Humanities in the Aftermath: An Interview with Gary Olson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Todd

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Gary Olson on the changing contexts of the humanities in this modern world. He emphasizes that the humanities are absolutely essential when it comes to the very real-world problems. He explains that what he is saying not just applies to terrorism and economic crisis; the humanities equip everyone to deal…

  4. Dreams and Despair: The Early Years of the Great Depression in Gary, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Historian, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Based on official reports, newspapers, the memories of citizens, and historical studies, a description of Gary, Indiana during the Great Depression shows how many people in Gary were affected by the Depression. Gary began to grow rapidly beginning in 1906 with the organization of two steel companies. Black, European, and Mexican immigrants came to…

  5. John Dewey, William Wirt and the Gary Schools Plan: A Centennial Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    A century on from the height of John Dewey's educational writings and the reputation of the Gary Schools Plan as a model of progressive education, the paper reappraises two key matters: the relationship between John Dewey and William Wirt, the first superintendent of the Gary Schools in Gary Indiana, and the coherence between John Dewey's…

  6. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  7. Fri os fra det onde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Johs. Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj......Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  8. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  9. Characterization of crispness of French fries by fracture and acoustic measurements, effect of pre-frying and final frying times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Primo-Martin, C.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of pre-frying and final frying time on the crispness of French fries was evaluated by simultaneous analysis of the fracture and acoustic properties during instrumental simulation of human chewing. The analysis of the frequency distribution of the force and sound events corresponding to

  10. Illusioner om fri vilje. Neurovidenskabelige studier af fri vilje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg Kjerkegaard, Jonas; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2015-01-01

    En central antagelse for både filosofiske og folkepsykologiske begreber om fri vilje er, at bevidste processer, beslutninger og intentioner kan have effekt på ens handlinger. Eksperimenter udført af Benjamin Libet og andre er blevet hævdet at modbevise dette, hvorved fri vilje skulle være umulig...... at foretrække det ene frem for det andet. Eksperimenternes resultater er derfor uden betydning for spørgsmålet om fri vilje. Beslutningen om at deltage i eksperimenterne, og følge de eksperimentelle instrukser har betydning for deltagerne, og den fremlagte empiri viser, at deltagernes bevidste intentioner er...... kausalt effektive i forhold til de efterfølgende handlinger. Den "ubevidste" måde valgene træffes på i eksperimentalsituationen er en opfyldelse af de eksperimentelle instrukser. Eksperimenterne af Libet og efterfølgere viser sig alt i alt ikke at modbevise fri vilje. Analysen af eksperimenterne peger på...

  11. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  12. 75 FR 17754 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... CHIASSON ELEVATOR as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the lift boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR. The Certificate of Alternative Compliance permits the...

  13. Assessment of Gari Processing Technologies in Oja-Iya Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess gari processing technologies in Oja-Iya Area of Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and observation methods. Highest percentages of gari processors procure their raw materials from farmers and market places.

  14. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria | Adeoti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    household level (blue water use), while water pollution impacts during processing and consumption (at households) are neglected. Using the 2007 cassava production estimates for Nigeria as baseline, the water impact related to the consumption of gari either as snack or as “eba” (gari reconstituted with hot water to form a ...

  15. Particle size distribution of hydrocyanic acid in gari, a cassava-based product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduagwu, E N; Fafunso, M

    1980-12-01

    A reciprocal relationship was observed between the cyanide content of gari and particle size. Hydrocyanic acid (HCN) content was positively correlated (r = 0.62) with sugar content but the correlation with starch content was poor (r = 0.33). From both the nutritional and toxicological standpoints, it would appear that larger particles size in gari is beneficial.

  16. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  17. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  18. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    : students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen...... with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past....

  19. Development of frozen-fried yam slices: Optimization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frying conditions optimized with Box-Behnken experimental design were short pre-frying and frying conditions at high temperature characterized by prefrying temperature at 157-170°C during 5-9s and frying temperature at 181-188°C for 2min 15s-2min 30s; or long pre-frying and frying conditions at low temperature ...

  20. Kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide during the finish-frying of commercial french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jane K; Balagiannis, Dimitrios P; Higley, Jeremy; Smith, Gordon; Wedzicha, Bronislaw L; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-09-12

    Acrylamide is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine during the preparation of French fries. The commercial preparation of French fries is a multistage process involving the preparation of frozen, par-fried potato strips for distribution to catering outlets, where they are finish-fried. The initial blanching, treatment in glucose solution, and par-frying steps are crucial because they determine the levels of precursors present at the beginning of the finish-frying process. To minimize the quantities of acrylamide in cooked fries, it is important to understand the impact of each stage on the formation of acrylamide. Acrylamide, amino acids, sugars, moisture, fat, and color were monitored at time intervals during the frying of potato strips that had been dipped in various concentrations of glucose and fructose during a typical pretreatment. A mathematical model based on the fundamental chemical reaction pathways of the finish-frying was developed, incorporating moisture and temperature gradients in the fries. This showed the contribution of both glucose and fructose to the generation of acrylamide and accurately predicted the acrylamide content of the final fries.

  1. Börsilt ei tule kunagi lihtsalt raha / Gary Weissi ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weissi, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Intervjuu ajakirja Business Week vanemkorrespondendi ja raamatu "Born To Steal" autori Gary Weissiga aktsiapettustest ja organiseeritud kuritegevuse seostest börsidega. Autor teeb lühikokkuvõtte oma raamatust

  2. Penentuan Koordinat Titik pada Teknologi Garis dalam Grafika Komputer dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Line Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufadhol Mufadhol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grafika  Komputer atau  computer graphics  adalah  bagian  dari ilmu  komputer yang  berkaitan  dengan pembuatan  dan  manipulasi gambar  (visual  secara  digital.  Bentuk sederhana  dari grafika  komputer adalah grafika  komputer 2D yang  kemudian  berkembang  menjadi grafika  komputer 3D.  Pola  penggambaran  yang paling sederhana adalah dengan menggunakan titik pada teknologi garis. Algoritma Line Equation merupakan salah satu metode untuk menentukan lokasi koordinat titik pada teknologi garis dalam grafika komputer dengan cara menentukan nilai gradien garis serta garis yang berpotongan dengan sumbu Y, sehingga bisa mengetahui pixel yang akan menyala pada screen coordinate

  3. Multispectral imaging of wok fried vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how multispectral images can be used to assess color change over time in wok fried vegetables. We present results where feature selection was performed with sparse methods from the multispectral images to detect the color changes of wok fried carrots and celeriac stored at +5°C...

  4. Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,04,06,07: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003. Photos 02,03: From left to right: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory with Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Physicist in the ATLAS experiment, April 2003. Photos 02,09: Mrs Kerrye Nairn, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003

  5. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Shams Eldin, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  6. The warp and weft of Fries, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Flanigan, Katherine Janet

    1998-01-01

    Fries, Virginia exists because of the Fries Textile Mill. The closing of the mill calls into question the future of the community of Fries. The decline of the town can be tied to the closing of the mill. Conversely, the revitalization of the mill should help to reshape the town. Even as it stands empty, the mill continues to be a massive presence on the hillside overlooking the New River. It is possible to turn this symbol of the past into a hope for the future. Ab...

  7. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protein, amino acids and carbohydrate contents of soya-gari diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbadu, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Soya-gari diet, prepared by enrichment of gari (Manihot esculanta Cranz) with soya flour, methionine, lysine and salt mixture was irradiated with doses of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 Krad from a Co 60 γ irradiator. Gamma irradiation of the soya-gari diet with doses as high as 500 Krad had no significant effect on the amino acids, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin contents. (author)

  9. Manufactering of par-fried french-fries. Part 3: a blueprint to predict the maximum production yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research on the production yield of par-fried French-fries has been reported in the literature. This paper bridges the knowledge gap and outlines the development of a model to predict the maximum production yield of par-fried French-fries. This yield model can be used to calculate the

  10. Optimization of frying process in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglia, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of frying are fairly simple. Hot oil serves as a heat exchange medium in which heat is transferred to the food being fried. As a result, the heat converts water within the food to steam and melts the fat within the food. The steam and fat then migrate from the interior of the food through the exterior and into the oil. Conversely, some of the frying oil is absorbed into the food being fried. The chemistry occurring in the frying oil and in the food being fried includes a myriad of thermal and oxidative reactions involving lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and minor food constituents. Decomposition products by autoxidation above 100°C, polimerization without oxigen between 200-300°C and thermal oxidation at 200°C, can be produced in frying oil and their amounts are related to different chemical and physical parameters such as temperature, heating time, type of oil used and food being fried, oil turnover rate, management of the oil and finally type of equipment used. Different studies have remarked as the toxicity of these by-products, is due to their chemistry and concentration. Since the prime requirement in food quality is the safety of the products, attainable through preventive analysis of the risks and total control through all frying processes, in this work the critical points of particular importance are identify and showed: Oil composition, and in particular its antioxidant capacity. Proper fryer design. Food/oil ratio. Good manufactured practice. Beside the quality screening has to be direct towards the chemical quality evaluation by easy and rapid analysis of oil (colour, polar compounds, free fatty acids and antioxidant capacity and food fried (panel test and/or consumer test. Conclusion, to maintain high quality in the frying medium, choose efficient equipment, select a fat with desirable flavour and good antioxidant capacity, eliminate crackling as soon and often as possible, choose better components with minimal but

  11. On the possibility of nonfat frying using molten glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    Fried products impose a health concerns due to considerable amount of oil they contain. Production of snack foods with minimal oil content and good management of oil during frying to minimize the production of toxic compounds continue to be challenging aims. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of producing a fat-free food snack by replacing frying oil with a nonfat medium. Glucose was melted and its temperature was then brought to 185 °C and used to fry potato strips, to obtain a product referred here as glucose fries. The resulting product was compared with French fries prepared conventionally under conditions that resulted in similar final moisture content. The resulting products were also examined for crust formation, texture parameters, color development and glucose content. Stereo microscope images showed that similar crusts were formed in the glucose fries and French fries. Texture parameters were found to be similar for both products at 5 and 2 mm penetration depth. The maximum hardness at 2 mm penetration depth was also similar for both products, but different from cooked potato. The color development that characterized French fries was also observed in glucose fries. The glucose content in glucose fries was found to be twice the content of French fries, which is to be expected because glucose absorbed or adhered to the surface. In conclusion, glucose fries, with similar texture and color characteristics to that of French fries, can be prepared by using a nonfat frying medium. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past.

  13. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  14. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  15. Fries' goby, a European oddity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fries' Goby, Lesueurigobius friesii (Malm, 1874 is common on softer grounds of the more offshore eastern Atlantic continental shelf from Norway to Mauritania, and in the Mediterranean to the Sea of Marmora. The several species of the genus are unique among Lusitanian/Boreal gobiine gobies in coloration and caudal morphology as well as in the 'longitudinal' pattern of infraorbital free neuromast-organs and the lack of head lateral-line canals. A new classification of Old World longitudinal gobiines, based on these free neuromast patterns of both infraorbital and hyomandibular innervation, places Lesueurigobius as the Atlantic sister group to the other longitudinal gobiines, which are all Indo/West Pacific in distribution. The proposed cladogram, the first for the group, is based on synapomorphies in features of rostral mandibular line neuromast series f, the rows of the cheek, and vertebral number. Species of Lesueurigobius show an apparently apomorphic reduction in infraorbital row cp that is shared with three Indo-West Pacific genera (Silhouettea, Heteroplopomus and Platygobiopsis but, in Lesueurigobius , this is now believed to be plesiomorphic. Morphological character states were used to construct a cladogram which was discussed in relation to molecular findings that support Lesueurigobius as an outgroup to the Indo/West Pacific genera. The importance of the latter as tools for testing morphological phylogenies, rather than as conflicting classification, is strongly emphasised.

  16. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French Fries: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Luning, P.A.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and

  17. Effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar lipids components and their retention in French fries over deep-frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-12-15

    The effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar components and their retention in French fries and corresponding deep-fried oils were investigated in the present study, using oils with different fatty acids composition. Our analysis showed that the total polar compounds (TPCs) content in French fries was only slightly lower than that in deep-fried oils, indicating that there was no significant difference considering the amounts of TPCs in French fries and deep-fried oils. Our further analysis showed that different polar components in TPCs distributed differently in deep-fried oils and oils extracted from French fries. Specifically, the level of oligomeric and dimeric triacylglycerols was higher in French fries while oxidized triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols content was higher in deep-fried oils. The different retention of TPCs components in French fries may be explained by their interactions with carbohydrates, which are shown to enhance with the increase of hydrophobic property. Chemometric analysis showed that no correlation between the polar compounds level and saturated fatty acids profile was observed. Meanwhile, the polar compounds content was highly correlated with the formation of trans-C18:1, and a highly positive association between polar compounds and C18:2 content was also observed in palm oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design, fabrication and testing of a modernized local gari fryer | Onu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is hinged on a rectangular fireplace to facilitate easy tilting of the frying pan during product discharge. The parameters measured were the tilting angle of the frying pan, the throughput, the moisture content of dried product as well as the ash and crude fibre content. The results showed that the throughput capacity improved ...

  19. Deep frying: the role of water from food being fried and acrylamide formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of acrylamide during food frying is generally influenced by food type, thermal treatment and equipment. The acrylamide concentration is increased when frying oils containing a higher level of polar materials or silicone or larger amounts of diglycerides. This effect may be caused by moisture escaping from food that has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer. It was noticed that if the moisture in the frying operation was bound by special adsorbents, the acrylamide content could be reduced by more than 50%. The effects of several additives like citric acid on the formation of acrylamide during frying of chips were also investigated. The mechanism of acrylamide formation in fried foods is discussed to explain these findings.

  20. 75 FR 7467 - Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision, Soliciting Motions To.... Project No.: 13652-000. c. Date filed: January 11, 2010. d. Applicant: Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall. e... Policies Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 2705, 2708. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Gary E. Hall and Ms. Rita C. Hall, P...

  1. The Garies and Their Friends: The Black American Novel Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, R.

    Black authors have long been telling America about its slave past, although America has apparently not been listening. Frank Webb's novel, "The Garies and Their Friends," was published in the same decade as Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and yet it has never achieved the popularity of Stowe's work, although its characters are…

  2. components analysis and age at harvest effect on quality of gari from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Four elite cassava varieties in Ghana released under the local names Afisiafi, Tekbankye, Abasafitaa and Gblemoduade were planted in June and harvested the following year at 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 months after planting, and processed into gari. The effect that age at harvest had on selected.

  3. Medico-social problems of teenage hawkers in Sabon-Gari Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medico-social problems of teenage hawkers in Sabon-Gari Local Government Area, Kaduna, North-West Nigeria. ... Two hundred and seven (207) respondents were interviewed through interviewer-administered questionnaires and data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

  4. 75 FR 22770 - Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13652-000-Montana] Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 22, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  5. Impact of vacuum frying on quality of potato crisps and frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Beverly; Hradecky, Jaromir; Hurkova, Kamila; Forstova, Veronika; Vaclavik, Lukas; Hajslova, Jana

    2018-02-15

    This research was focused on a critical assessment of vacuum frying as a technology enabling minimization of acrylamide formation in potato crisps and reducing undesirable chemical changes that occur in frying oil at high temperatures. The potato slices were fried in rapeseed oil under vacuum at 125°C and atmospheric pressure at 165°C. The experiments were performed on two potato varieties, Saturna and Impala. Vacuum frying reduced the formation of acrylamide by 98% and also other Maillard reaction products, specifically alkylpyrazines. Concurrently a lower extent of oxidative changes was observed in the frying oil, while 3-MCPD esters decreased fairly quickly during conventional frying. Sensory characteristics of the vacuum and conventionally fried potato crisps were evaluated by a 23-member panel. The majority of panellists preferred the flavour of 'conventional crisps', while only a few of them appreciated potato-like fresh flavour of 'vacuum crisps' and classified this product as 'tasty'. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Geography and history of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton, I. D.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available How far back in time, frying with oil goes, it is difficult to tell. The rules for sacrifice in Leviticus, Chapter 2, the 3rd book in the Old Testament, which is commonly accepted to date from about 600 BC, distinguishes between bread baked in the oven and that cooked «on the griddle» or «in the pan». Roman authors also describe in the first century AD the frying of eggs. Writers in the Middle Ages, Cervantes and Chaucer both describe the cooking in oil. A number of common proverbs deal with frying in one's own grease in the 14th Century. Soyer describes the grid iron as a primitive utensil but with considerable possibilities in the use and variation of the cooking process. We need only to recall that splendid painting in the El Prado of the fried egg which Professor Varela used as a frontispiece for the first Frying of Food Conference in Madrid in 1986. Different types of oils can be used for the frying of food. Variations in the composition of vegetable oils can normally be traced back to climatic effects and the location of the growing plants. We can expect the height above sea level, the daylight hour length, the mean temperature and the genetic make up of the plant, all to have an effect. Cool conditions during seed maturation can increase the linoleic acid content In plants such as Guizotia Abyssinica to almost 85% of the oil. Similar results have been reported for peanuts grown at different latitudes in the United States.

  7. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third...

  8. . . . und . . . Fried . . . und . . .: The Poetry of Erich Fried and the Structure of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Alter

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at the poetry of Erich Fried in the context of tensions within contemporary cultural studies. Fried's contemporaneity is linked to his status on the margins of various cultures, media, and ideologies—thus making both his life and his works appear as exemplary paradigms for the postmodern condition, with its various theoretical celebrations of "exile," "border crossing," "transgression," "deterritorialization," and so forth. Yet, at the same time, seemingly in contrast with his labile identity is Fried's rigid Marxist political ideological core which surfaces in his political poetry. Focusing, in particular, on Fried's poems directed against the Vietnam War, this essay seeks to situate the tension beteen these two positions as a deep structure already in his work.

  9. Enzymatic transesterification of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, S.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (HU)), Email: hancsokj@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    The research of converting used frying oils to less harmful products with much higher value was forced by environmental, human biological and economical reasons. One possible pathway of the transformation is the enzymatic transesterification. Through the research work used frying oils (UFO) and sunflower oils (SO) from different origins were first properly pre-treated. Then the previously mentioned feeds and different mixtures of them were transesterified in the presence of Novozym 435 enzyme catalyst under different process conditions. Characteristics of the produced methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of EN 14214:2009 standard. We determined that the transesterification of used frying oils is not expediential in the presence of enzyme catalyst because the significant decreasing of catalyst activity. We have found proper UFO and SO mixtures and combination of process conditions (pressure: atmospheric, temperature: 54 +-1 deg C; methanol to triglyceride molar ratio: 4:1; reaction time: 16 hours) resulting in high (>90 %) yield of monoesters. We clearly established that the best results through the enzymatic transesterification were obtained with the improved sunflower oils containing the highest amount (>88 %) of oleic acid and the used frying oils originated from this source. (orig.)

  10. Development and assessment of frying characteristics, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completely randomized design was used to assess and compare frying characteristics, proximate and vitamin A contents between samples with bread types being the principal factor while Randomised complete Block design was used to assess sensory properties and consumer acceptability of the bread samples with ...

  11. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  12. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Stability and antioxidant activity of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) tocotrienols during frying and in fried tortilla chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annatto tocotrienols (AnT3), which contain ~90% delta-tocotrienol (delta-T3), were added to mid-oleic sunflower oil used for frying tortilla chips over three days. The objectives were to evaluate their stability during frying and activity as antioxidants in frying oil and in tortilla chips during st...

  14. Indeterministic metaphors: The popular science books of Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradon Tl

    2013-07-01

    In the popular accounts of the new physics (i.e. relativity and quantum mechanics) by Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav, the new physics is represented as fatally undermining the universal determinism associated with Newton and Laplace. This paper explores how different metaphors - anthropomorphic metaphors, metaphors of exploration and mapping, and metaphors of shadows - are used strategically by these writers to advance this characterisation of the new physics as indeterministic.

  15. The Question of Identity in Gary Shteyngart’s Little Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maior Enikő

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I want to deal with the question of identity and Gary Shteyngart’s last novel, Little Failure (2014. The novel is a memoir that deals with young Gary’s struggle as an individual of Russian Jewish origins trying to accommodate himself to the American way of life. America with its multicultural and multiethnic environment puts the immigrant Gary in a very sensitive position. He does not know how to deal with African Americans; shall he avoid them or rim away? Shall he befriend Asian colleagues or not? Are Jewish friends more valuable than others? These are the questions that Gary Shteyngart has to answer and find his own voice. The protagonist of the novel under discussion tries to find his identity which is in continuous change. He tries to figure out in a world filled with cultural, racial and urban conflicts his own identity from the perspective of a former immigrant and as a member of a minority group. The task of my paper is to show how the question of identity has changed and what solution Shteyngart’s novel can offer for the protagonist in the process of identity formation.

  16. Color changes kinetics during deep fat frying of carrot slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2018-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer phenomena take place during frying cause physicochemical changes, which affect the colour and surface of the fried products. The effect of frying temperature on the colour changes and heat transfer during deep fat frying of carrot has been investigated. The colour scale parameters redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), and color change intensity (ΔE) were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of oil temperature. L* value of fried carrot decreased during frying. The redness of fried carrot decreased during the early stages of frying, while it increased afterwards (become more red). A first-order kinetic equation was used for each one of the three colour parameters, in which the rate constant is a function of oil temperatures. The results showed that oil temperature has a significant effect on the colour parameters. Different kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data and the results revealed that the quadratic model was the most suitable to describe the color change intensity (ΔE) (R > 0.96). Center temperature of carrot slice increased with increase in oil temperature and time during frying.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, José A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community.

  18. Effect of Harvest Period on the Proximate Composition and Functional and Sensory Properties of Gari Produced from Local and Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Laya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition and functional and sensory characteristics of gari obtained from five cassava varieties (EN, AD, TMS92/0326, TMS96/1414, and IRAD4115. These cassavas were harvested during the dry season 12 months after planting (12MAP and in the rainy season (15MAP. Results showed that the characteristics of gari varied significantly (p<0.05 with the variety and the harvest period. Gari from EN cassava harvested at 12MAP had the highest total carbohydrates (78.07% dry weight, starch (61%, and proteins content, while gari from TMS 96/1414 variety (12MAP had high amino acids (10.25 mg/g and phenolic compounds (9.31 mg/g content. The gari from IRAD4115 had the highest value of ash content (20.62 mg/g at 12MAP. The soluble sugar content was high in the gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP while free cyanide reduced significantly in gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP. The water absorption capacity, swelling power, and bulk density were significantly (p<0.05 high in the gari from EN cassava variety at 12MAP. Compared to commercial gari (3.30, gari from EN local cassava had the best overall acceptability (4.35 followed by those obtained from TMS92/0326 and TMS92/1414 varieties, respectively.

  19. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  20. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  1. The drying of sewage sludge by immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to dry sewage sludge using a fry-drying process. The frying experiments were carried out in commercial fryers modified by adding thermocouples to the setup. During frying, typical drying curves were obtained and it was verified that, in relation to the parameters: oil temperature, oil type and shape of the sample, the shape factor the most effect on the drying rate, at least within the range chosen for the variables studied. Oil uptake and calorific value were also analyzed. The calorific value of the samples increased with frying time, reaching values around 24MJ/kg after 600s of frying (comparable to biocombustibles such as wood and sugarcane bagasse. The process of immersion frying showed great potential for drying materials, especially sewage sludge, obtaining a product with a high energy content, thereby increasing its value as a combustible.

  2. Measurement of Deterioration of Frying Oil Using Electrical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    羽倉, 義雄; 佐々木, 芳浩; 鈴木, 寛一

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the electrical properties of frying oil (relative dielectric constant and conductance) and its deterioration indicators (acid value, amounts of polymerized triacylglycerols and chromaticity) were examined, focusing on the changes in electrical properties that accompany deterioration. The samples of frying oil used in this experiment were collected from fried food processing sites (school, hospital and factory feeding centers) and were collected at closi...

  3. Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, A; Salta, F N; Kalogeropoulos, N; Mylona, A; Ntalla, I; Andrikopoulos, N K

    2007-10-01

    Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated (1.25 g/kg olive leaves). All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

  4. LES CERFS-VOLANTS OU LA MÉMOIRE HISTORIQUE DE ROMAIN GARY

    OpenAIRE

    Barkate , Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Dédié à la mémoire, le dernier roman de Romain Gary rend un vibrant hommage à la Résistance et doit être lu comme un testament destiné à perpétuer le souvenir de ceux qui ont contribué à surmonter la honte des années d’occupation. La galerie de portraits de résistants vante la folie sacrée et le roman met en scène un triangle amoureux en miroir de la situation politique de 1939-1945.

  5. Engendering Change in the UDA: Gary Mitchell’s Loyal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wesley Hutchinson

    2005-01-01

    Gary Mitchell’s most recently published play, Loyal Women, continues his systematic exploration of the Ulster loyalist mindset, focusing this time on the role of women within the UDA. Whereas on the face of it, the play moves forward through what are presented as a series of sharp, irreconcilable oppositions —UDA/IRA, women/men, domestic/public, inside/outside— it emerges in the end that the fundamental organising principle behind the play, and by extension behind the paramilitary society it ...

  6. Sex, divoce and “machismo”: about Gary Becker, nobel prize of economy 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Baca, Jorge

    1992-01-01

    Gary Becker ha dedicado su vida a extender el campo de aplicación de la teoría económica a todas las actividades del ser humano. En su Tratado sobre la Familia, Becker estudia los problemas de la discriminación sexual, la poligamia y la monogamia, la elección de parejas, la demanda de hijos y el divorcio, desde el punto de vista de la inversión en capital humano. Este es posiblemente el trabajo que lo ha llevado a merecer el Premio Nobel de Economía y del cual se ofrece aquí un breve comentar...

  7. Deterioration of natural antioxidant species of vegetable edible oils during the domestic deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Dedoussis, George V Z; Falirea, Ageliki; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Hatzinikola, Haristoula S

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, virgin olive oil, sunflower oil and a vegetable shortening were used as cooking oils for the deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes, for eight successive sessions, under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical and physicochemical parameters (acidic value, peroxide value, total polar artefacts, total phenol content and triglyceride fatty acyl moiety composition) were assayed during frying operations in order to evaluate the status of the frying oils, which were found within expected ranges similar to those previously reported. The oil fatty acids were effectively protected from oxidation by the natural antioxidants. The frying oil absorption by the potatoes was quantitated within 6.1-12.8%, depending on the oil type and the frying process. The retention of alpha- and (beta + gamma)-tocopherols during the eight fryings ranged from 85-90% (first frying) to 15-40% (eighth frying), except for the (beta + gamma)-tocopherols of sunflower oil, which almost disappeared after the sixth frying. The deterioration during the successive frying of several phenolic species present in virgin olive oil is reported for the first time. The retention of total phenolics ranged from 70-80% (first frying) to 20-30% (eighth frying). Tannic acid, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid dialdeydic form showed remarkable resistance in all frying sessions in both frying methods, while hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid were the faster eliminated. The deterioration of the other phenolic species account for 40-50% and 20-30% for deep-frying and pan-frying, respectively, after three to four frying sessions, which are the most usual in the household kitchen. Deep-frying resulted in better recoveries of all the parameters examined. The correlation of the deterioration rate of the phenolic compounds and tocopherols during frying is discussed and the nutritional aspects of the natural antioxidant intake, through the oil absorbed by the potatoes, are

  8. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF DEEP-FAT FRYING ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diopamadr

    volatile fraction remains in the frying medium and is absorbed by the fried food ... weight of the oil sample (2.5 g) was dissolved in a mixture consisting of glacial acetic ... For peanut oil B, values of PV observed for all the 10 samples showed an ...

  10. Le sauvetage des juifs au Chambon-sur-Lignon à travers Les Cerfs-volants de Romain Gary

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneau, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    Dans Les Cerfs-volants (1980) Romain Gary relate la jeunesse résistante de Ludo à Cléry, un village normand inventé par l'auteur. Au sein de cette fiction, Gary, lui‑même ancien résistant aux racines juives, cite à plusieurs reprises le nom du Chambon‑sur‑Lignon, village connu pour avoir sauvé des réfugiés juifs durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. L'hommage de Gary adopte ainsi le ton de la pudeur. Surtout, la mémoire du village se déploie à travers le personnage d'Ambroise Fleury, dont certai...

  11. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water...... at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...

  12. From Norman Mailer to Matthew Barney. The post human myth of Gary Gilmore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Agamennoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gary Gilmore, a murderer who was condamned to death in the USA in 1976, gained international notoriety thanks to his decision to accept and encourage his death sentence, refusing every kind of juridical appeal, surprisingly turning his own execution into a public and intentional suicide. For its power to make American institutions wonder about ethical and political problems, like the legitimacy of death penalty or the relationship between individual freedom and public law, this case inspired in 1979 The Executioner's Song, a non-fiction novel by Norman Mailer. about twenty years later Gilmore became a character of The Cremaster Cycle, one of the most important works by the american video-artist Matthew Barney, who based the plot of his Cremaster 2 (the second episode of this five-movie saga on Mailer's novel. The comparison between Cremaster 2 and its literary model will provide an example of the transformation of a story between different artistic languages, but also between different historical and cultural backgrounds: in the post human era the story of Gary Gilmore has lost most of its political and ethical meanings becoming a symbol of the struggle between human willingness and biological destiny.

  13. Bathypelagic percid fry, a strongly predominating fry community in a deep European reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajdlová, Zuzana; Jůza, Tomáš; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Seďa, Jaromír; Čech, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 787, č. 1 (2017), s. 341-352 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : echosounder * fry trawling * Gymnocephalus cernua * Perca fluviatilis * Sander lucioperca * shoals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  14. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  15. How to Find the Fries Structures for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał K. Cyrański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient algorithm leading to the Fries canonical structure is presented for benzenoid hydrocarbons. This is a purely topological approach, which is based on adjacency matrices and the Hadamard procedure of matrix multiplication. The idea is presented for naphthalene, as an example. The Fries canonical-structures are also derived for anthracene, coronene, triphenylene, phenanthrene, benz[a]pyrene, and one large benzenoid system. The Fries concept can be convenient for obtaining Clar structures with the maximum number of sextets, which in turn effectively represent π-electron (delocalization in benzenoid hydrocarbons.

  16. Stir-Frying of Chinese Cabbage and Pakchoi Retains Health-Promoting Glucosinolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Oliviero, Teresa; Heising, Jenneke K.; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Stir-frying is a cooking method, originating from Asia, in which food is fried in small amount of very hot oil. Nowadays in many other parts of the world stir-frying is a very popular method to prepare vegetables, because it is fast and fried vegetables are tasty. However, the retention of

  17. Kajian Dampak Perubahan Garis Pantai Terhadap Penggunaan Lahan Berdasarkan Analisa Penginderaan Jauh Satelit Di Kecamatan Paiton, Kabupaten Probolinggo Jawa Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Prameswari, Siti Rahmi; D. S, Agus Anugroho; Rifai, Azis

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak Perubahan garis pantai terhadap Perubahan lahan pesisir di Kecamatan Paiton dalam jangka waktu 16 tahun dengan menggunakan analisa penginderaan jauh satelit. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif yakni metode penelitian ilmiah yang sistematis terhadap bagian-bagian dan fenomena serta hubungan-hubungannya yang berkaitan dengan fenomena alam sedangkan metode pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode Purposive Sampling Method yaitu ...

  18. Impact of pre-drying and frying time on physical properties and sensorial acceptability of fried potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Giorman; Cruz-Tirado, J P; Delgado, Kevin; Guzman, Yorvin; Castro, Franco; Rojas, Meliza Lindsay; Linares, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    In this work the effects of pre-drying and frying time on colour, oil, texture and sensorial acceptability (overall liking) of potato chips were evaluated. Potato chips were pre-dried for 0, 10, 20 and 30 min at 60 °C and fried in soybean oil at 190 °C for 60, 70 and 80 s. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) increased or decreased depending on the pre-drying and frying time. Hardness increased as the pre-drying and frying time increased. On the other hand, the water initially removed by pre-drying decrease the gradient of mass transfer (water-oil). The oil content reduced to (about 21%) in pre-dried samples when compared to control sample. Finally, sensorial evaluation showed that samples without pre-drying and/or fried for very short or very long times had low acceptance levels. The pre-drying and frying times influenced the colour, texture, water and oil content, and resulted into fried potato chips with better acceptance scores.

  19. Engendering Change in the UDA: Gary Mitchell’s Loyal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Hutchinson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Gary Mitchell’s most recently published play, Loyal Women, continues his systematic exploration of the Ulster loyalist mindset, focusing this time on the role of women within the UDA. Whereas on the face of it, the play moves forward through what are presented as a series of sharp, irreconcilable oppositions —UDA/IRA, women/men, domestic/public, inside/outside— it emerges in the end that the fundamental organising principle behind the play, and by extension behind the paramilitary society it represents, is rather that of refraction, or more precisely, replication. As a result, any potential for evolution, individual or collective, is quickly subsumed into an apparently inescapable logic of duplication and repetition. In a profoundly pessimistic reading of post-Agreement Northern Irish society, Mitchell focuses on the embedded nature of a culture of violence and in the process presents an intimate, first-hand reading of the tensions within contemporary loyalist paramilitarism.

  20. Pola asuh oleh ibu pada balita dengan berat badan di Bawah Garis Merah (BGM di Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novida D Airinda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Widely known as Asian rice producer in the past, Indonesia is still struggling with the issue of malnutrition until recent times. Growth and development of toddler are not maximal because their nutrition are not properly fulfilled since their early age. This research tries to explain mother's parenting pattern for toddler under the red line (bawah garis merah/BGM. The research was conducted in Kenjeran, District of Bulak, Surabaya, by interviewing and observing five informants. Data were analyzed by interview and observation, later to be interpreted. The research found that mother's knowledge about parenting and child's health are still influenced by belief that do not solve problem properly. Giving solid food to baby is a common thing and believed to resulted better than giving breast milk before their minimum age. This action is not medically recommended because baby has a minimum age to be able to digest solid food as complementer to breast milk.

  1. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Bulb Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Maity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%. The lightness in terms of hunter L* value decreased significantly (P<0.05 during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  2. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tanushree; Bawa, A S; Raju, P S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter L (*) value decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  3. PENENTUAN GARIS BATAS LAUT ANTARA INDONESIA DAN MALAYSIA DI PULAU SENTUT BERDASARKAN UNCLOS 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’arif

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia sebagai Negara kepulauan ( Archipelagic State terbesar di dunia dengan luas wilayah 5.193.252 km² dimana dua pertiga dari keseluruhan wilayah Indonesia merupakan lautan yang diperkirakan seluas 3.288.683 km² . Jumlah 17.504 pulau-pulau yang tersebar di seluruh perairan Indonesia, ditambah dengan panjang garis pantai terpanjang kedua di dunia setelah kanada yaitu lebih kurang 81.791 km. ¹Selain Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif Indonesia (ZEEI yang menduduki urutan pertama di kawasan Asia seluas 1.577.300 mil. Dengan luas wilayah perairan yang dimiliki Indonesia tentunya ini tidak terlepas dari permasalahan dengan Negara tetangga. Permasalahan yang sangat krusial dan hingga sekarang belum mendapatkan penyelesaian yang tegas berkaitan dengan batas laut dengan beberapa Negara diantaranya adalah penyelesaian sengketa batas wilayah antara Indonesia dengan Malaysia di Pulau Sentut. Penelitian hukum yang dilakukan merupakan penelitian yuridis normatif. penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menganalisis teori-teori hukum internasional yang berkaitan dengan pengaturan subjek hukum internasional dan kedaulatan suatu negara. Data yang telah terkumpul dikategorisasi sesuai dengan tujuan penulisan hukum ini kemudian dianalisa dengan metode deduktif dan disajikan dalam uraian yang bersifat deskriptif analitis. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan teori, dan pendekatan perundangundangan. Kesimpulan yang dapat diberikan untuk saat ini adalah tidak adanya perhatian dari Pemerintah Pusat dan Pemerintah Daerah terhadap kondisi keberadaan Pulau sentut yang dinyatakan sebagai garis pangkal pengukuran batas laut antara Indonesia dan Malaysia berupa langkah nyata yaitu rekonstruksi dan pemeliharaan Titik Referensi dan Titik Dasar, pengawasan oleh Pemerintah Pusat dan Pemerintah Daerah, serta rekonstruksi pelindung pantai.

  4. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Oktoriyana; Ujang Sumarwan; Hartoyo Hartoyo

    2014-01-01

    This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected...

  5. Active Cooling of Oil after Deep-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yasaki, Naoko; Doi, Rena; Hasegawa, Etsuko

    2017-10-01

    Oil used for deep-frying is often left to stand after cooking. A major concern is oxidation during standing that might be avoidable, especially in the case of oil used repeatedly for commercial deep-frying as this involves large volumes that are difficult to cool in a conventional fryer. This paper describes a method to minimize oil oxidation. French fries were deep-fried and the oil temperature decreased in a manner typical for a commercial deep-fryer. The concentration of polar compounds generated from thermally oxidized oil remarkably increased at temperature higher than 100°C but little oxidation occurred below 60°C. Heating the oil showed that the peroxide and polar compound content did not increase when the oil was actively cooled using a running water-cooled Graham-type condenser system to cool the oil from 180°C to room temperature within 30 min. When French fries were fried and the oil was then immediately cooled using the condenser, the polar compound content during cooling did not increase. Our results demonstrate that active cooling of heated oil is simple and quite effective for inhibiting oxidation.

  6. Nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil can be used as a deep fat frying medium to reduce trans-fatty acid content in french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Darla R; Thompson, Leslie D; Shriver, Brent J; Wu, Chih-Kang; Hoover, Linda C

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile, in particular trans-fatty acids, of french fries fried in nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as compared with french fries fried in partially hydrogenated canola oil and french fries fried in partially hydrogenated soybean oil. Cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated canola oil, and partially hydrogenated soybean oil were subjected to a temperature of 177 degrees C for 8 hours per day, and six batches of french fries were fried per day for 5 consecutive days. French fries were weighed before frying, cooked for 5 minutes, allowed to drain, and reweighed. Oil was not replenished and was filtered once per day. Both the oil and the french fries were evaluated to determine fatty acid profiles, trans-fatty acids, and crude fat. A randomized block design with split plot was used to analyze the data collected. Least-squares difference was used as the means separation test. No significant differences were found between fries prepared in the three oil types for crude fat. Fatty acid profiles for the french fries remained stable. The french fries prepared in cottonseed oil were significantly lower in trans-fatty acids. The combined total of the trans-fatty acid content and saturated fatty acid content were lower in french fries prepared in cottonseed oil. Because deep fat frying remains a popular cooking technique, health professionals should educate the public and the food service industry on the benefits of using nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as an alternative to the commonly used hydrogenated oils.

  7. Fat deterioration in deep fat frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, L.; Robert, P.; Izaurieta, M.; Romero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to know the deterioration of fats employed in deep frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector in Santiago (Chile), before the recent Chilean legislation became official. 96 % of the samples corresponded to polyunsaturated vegetable oils, 76 % had more than 2 % linolenic acid and 23 % of total samples contained more than 25 % of polar compounds. To predict the percentage of polar compounds, equations were developed: for soybean oil and m...

  8. Bio-Detergent oil derivative used frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Jesús Torres Ortega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the global trend towards sustainable development for environmental friendly products such as biosurfactants shows an excellent performance. Anionic surface active agents can be produced from renewable natural raw materials such as vegetable oils mainly derived from palm oil. Methyl ester sulfonate is an active component of highly biodegradable detergents, one advantage compared with detergents derived from petrochemicals which generate a high pollutant load. This paper proposes the study of sulfonation with sulfur trioxide of esters derived from waste cooking oil which main component is palm oil. The falling film reactor allows determining the conditions of the process at pilot scale. The experimentation allowed an enhancement of empirical equations in the equipment implemented for this purpose and to determine some physicochemical properties. The comparison obtained for this same process with petrochemicals compounds indicates that the model could be applied to any film sulfonation but adjusting the parameters and specific conditions, such as the physicochemical properties of the compounds used, since the sulfonation process described in this work is one of the more complicated cases. The technological development presented here seeks to contribute with the industrial needs to promote green chemical industry for the production of biosurfactant from waste frying oil.

  9. Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, María Rosario; Estévez, Mario; Morcuende, David; Cava, Ramón

    2004-12-15

    The effect of the type of frying culinary fat (olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, and pig lard) on volatile compounds isolated from fried pork loin chops (m. Longissimus dorsi) was measured by SPME-GC-MS. Frying modified the fatty acid composition of lipids from pork loin chops, which tended to be similar to that of the culinary fat used to fry. Volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of fatty acids increased, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and hydrocarbons. Besides, each culinary fat used modified the volatile profiles in fried meat differently. Sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops presented the highest aldehyde aliphatic content, probably due to their highest content of polyunsaturated acids. Hexanal, the most abundant aldehyde in fried samples, presented the most elevated content in sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops. In addition, these samples presented more heterocyclic compounds from the Maillard reaction than other fried samples. Volatiles detected in olive oil-fried pork loin chops were mainly lipid-derived compounds such as pentan-1-ol, hexanal, hept-2-enal, nonanal, decanal, benzaldehyde, and nonan-2-one. Butter-fried pork loins were abundant in ketones with a high number of carbons (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, undecan-2-one, tridecanone, and heptadecan-2-one). Pig lard-fried pork loin chops presented some Strecker aldehydes isolated in only these samples, such as 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal, and a sulfur compound (dimethyl disulfide) related to Strecker aldehydes.

  10. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kostinek, M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified...

  11. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various components of the diet, fat receives very dose attention because of its relationship to several chronic degenerative diseases (CDD. Currently most of the available information on these relationships is derived from epidemiologic or experimental studies in which lipid intake is calculated using food composition tables. In most of these tables the quoted lipid content is that of raw food, whereas most foods are usually consumed only after being subjected to several culinary processes. Often there is no indication of the type of fat used in food processing in general or in frying in particular. But as it known, in the course of these processes the lipid content undergoes important qualitative and quantitative changes and not keeping them in mind may be the underlying cause of the difficulties an the confounding results in studies trying to establish the relationship between lipid intake an health. In the Mediterranean diet, about 50% of total dietary fat is derived not from the food itself but from the cooking fat, of which only a small fraction is eaten raw (as dressings and the greatest proportion is used in thermal culinary processes, mainly deep-frying. The scientific study of the process whereby fat penetrates into fried foods has shown the benefits of this cooking method. If the process is correctly carried out, the amount of fat ingested with fried foodstuffs is not greater than when other procedures involving fat are used (for example, sautening, stewing or canning in oil. Very schematically deep-frying is a technique that replaces a fraction of the water content of food by cooking fat. Consecuently, the fat composition of the fried lean foods will be the same as that cooking fat. The process is more complex with fatty foods, and there are not great changes in the total quantity of fat in the fried food before and after frying. However, there are notable quality changes and these depend on the concentration gradients

  12. Acting Law | Law Acting: A Conversation with Dr Felix Nobis and Professor Gary Watt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Alexander Mulcahy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr Felix Nobis is a senior lecturer with the Centre for Theatre and Performance at Monash University. He has worked as a professional actor for many years. He previously played an assistant to the Crown Prosecutor in the Australian television series, Janus, which was set in Melbourne, Victoria and based on the true story of a criminal family allegedly responsible for police shootings. He also played an advisor to a medical defence firm in the Australian television series MDA. He is a writer and professional storyteller. He has toured his one-person adaptation of Beowulf (2004 and one-person show Once Upon a Barstool (2006 internationally and has written on these experiences. His most recent work Boy Out of the Country (2016 is written in an Australian verse style and has just completed a tour of regional Victoria. Professor Gary Watt is an academic in the School of Law at the University of Warwick where his teaching includes advocacy and mooting. He also regularly leads rhetoric workshops at the Royal Shakespeare Company. He is the author of Dress, Law and Naked Truth (2013 and, most recently, Shakespeare’s Acts of Will: Law, Testament and Properties of Performance (2016, which explores rhetoric in law and theatre. He also co-wrote A Strange Eventful History, which he performed with Australian choral ensemble, The Song Company, to mark the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death.

  13. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effect of Type of Food on the Trans Fatty Acids Formation and Characteristic of Oil during Frying Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Esmail, A.E.; Shams El Din, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physical and chemical changes which take place in blended oil (sunflower oil: soy bean oil 75: 25 w/w), therefore frying different types of food, such as fresh foods (potatoes, falafel, fish, meat and chicken) and semi-fried Foods (chicken bites koki (nuggets), shish pan koki and farm frites potato) during frying process for 20, 40 and 60 minutes at (180±5 degree C), also studying the effect of different types of food on the oil uptake and formation of trans fatty acids in oils during frying process. The obtained results as follows: the color (red unit), viscosity, acidity and peroxide value of investigated oils were increased during frying all foods (fresh and semi-fried foods), but the increase was more pronounced in case of frying semi-fried foods, while the refractive index of frying oil of semi-fried foods was decreased compared with control oil and frying oils of fresh food. The results indicated that a considerable range of oil uptake quantities during frying as a result of variation type of foods, among all food, finger potato extensive absorption of the frying oil during frying process compared with the other fresh foods, as a results the semi-fried foods will contain a higher percent of oil included the oil of its formation, that during its frying, it was absorbed a few amount of oil. These results indicated that, the percentage of formation trans fatty acid (eliadic acid) in frying oils after 20 and 60 minutes during frying semi-fried foods was more that than frying fresh foods. Also, the results observed that, the percentage of eliadic acid in frying oil of fresh potato was lower than the other frying oils of fresh food, additionally the quality of frying oil of fresh potato finger was the best compared to frying oil of the other food material

  15. Fries rearrangement of naphthyl benzoates; Ansoku kosan naphthyl no fries ten`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, J.; Haraguchi, Y.; Iwaki, T.; Yamana, Sasaki, H. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-10

    When 1-naphthyl benzoate (1{alpha}) was boiled with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in chlorobenzene, 2-benzoyl-l-naphthol(2) and 4-benzoyl-l-naphthol(3) were obtained as the rearrangement products. A product 1-benzoyl-2-naphthol (4) was given from 2-naphthyl benzoate (1{beta}) under the same reaction conditions. It seems that 2 and 3 are formed via intramolecular pathway from 1{alpha}. Other ester 1{beta} may proceed via both inter- and intramolecular pathways to give 4. Retro-Fries rearrangement of 2 and 3 to 1{alpha} took place in the presence of AlCl3 in boiling chlorobenzene. The compound 4 `however` was almost recovered the reaction of 4 with AlCl3 in chlorobenzene at refluxed temperature. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips...... on average 76% and 68% of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50degreesC for 70 min surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mum/kg) even when they were fried at 190degreesC. Potato immersion in citric acid solutions of 10 and 20 g/l reduced...

  17. Fried-Yennie gauge in dimensionally regularized QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Fried-Yennie gauge in QED is a covariant gauge with agreeable infrared properties. That is, the mass-shell renormalization scheme can be implemented without introducing artificial infrared divergences, and terms having spuriously low orders in α disappear in certain bound-state calculations. The photon propagator in the Fried-Yennie gauge has the form D β μν (k)=(-1/k 2 )[g μν +βk μ kν/k 2 ], where β is the gauge parameter. In this work, I show that the Fried-Yennie gauge parameter is β=2/(1-2ε) when dimensional regularization (with n=4-2ε dimensions of spacetime) is used to regulate the theory

  18. President Meri näitas USA-le vabaduse ilu / Daniel Fried ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Daniel Fried USA välispoliitika ühest eesmärgist - demokraatia levitamisest maailmas, demokraatia olukorrast Venemaal ning USA ja Venemaa vahelistest suhetest. Lisa: Daniel Fried

  19. BASIC BIOMECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECOND PHASE (TSUKURI OF JUDO THROWING TECHNIQUE OSOTO GARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Rexhepi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of a total of 11 judoists - one was the Tori (thrower, and the other ten were uke (those who were thrown during the performance of throwing technique, was analyzed the second phase of throwing (tsukuri judo technique osoto gari. Tori is an active athlete superior quality (master, body mass = 72 kg, and all the other, who were thrown (uke differ from each other as the weight and height of the body concerned. The average of their body weight was 73.8 kg, which means that it is almost even with body mass of tori. For data collection was used a three-dimensional motion analysis system APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System. Tsukuri is the phase where occur most actions of reaping leg. The second phase (tsukuri begins when tori detach his right foot and lasts until the beginning of reaping opponent's leg, on which was concentrated its weight (uke's weight. The parameters that describe the effect of the reaping leg in the second phase of technique osoto gari are crucial for the successful execution of this leg technique. For the analysis of the second phase of the throw were selected 14 variables that describe the position of the body and certain body parts of both athletes, velocity parameters of tori's reaping leg and the duration of this phase (time. The role of the tori's standing leg is to maintain a stable position during this phase, while the other leg quickly and in full force acts reaping. The smallest angle of the knee joint of standing leg during the second phase was 130.84 °. Before the moment of reaping, or detachment of uke`s feet from the mat, standing leg has a tendency to extension in the knee joint, which impacts positively on raising the tori's body center of mass. Height tori's body center of mass at the beginning phase was 87.79 cm. As a result of tori's action by pulling onto uke, but little to his left side, the uke`s center of mass at the end of this phase is moved laterally to 6.10 cm. The results show quite

  20. The value-adding CFO: an interview with Disney's Gary Wilson. Interview by Geraldine E. Willigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G

    1990-01-01

    Financing a company is more complex than ever-and more important to its economic success. The demands on a CFO are tremendous. Optimizing capital costs requires an unprecedented level of technical sophistication. Yet the best CFOs today are not mere technicians. They are also strategists and innovators. Gary Wilson exemplifies the new CFO. In his 5 years as executive vice president and CFO of the Walt Disney Company and his 12 years at Marriott Corporation, he has shown how the finance function can add value-not just account for it. How does a CFO create value for shareholders? "Just like all the great marketing and operating executives," Wilson says, "by being creative." To Wilson, being creative means rethinking assumptions and finding clever ways to achieve financial and strategic goals. Some of Wilson's innovative deal making-like the off-balance-sheet financing he used at Marriott-is well known. At Marriott, he discovered the power of separating the ownership of an asset from its control. Marriott's strength was in operations, yet the company had a great deal of money tied up in real estate. Growth would require even more investment in real estate. Wilson's solution was to sell the hotels-in effect, removing them and the debt used to finance them from the balance sheet-and contract to operate them. In this interview, Wilson gives his view of the role of finance in today's corporation and explains the thinking behind some of the successful deals he has engineered-including Disney's Silver Screen movie-making partnerships and Euro Disneyland.

  1. Daniel Fried peab Euroopa vastust Gruusia sõjale tugevaks / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Eestit külastanud USA asevälisminister Daniel Fried leidis, et Euroopa reaktsioon Gruusias toimunule oli tugev ja efektiivne. Daniel Fried kohtus president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja välisminister Urmas Paetiga. Vt. samas: Daniel Fried: CV

  2. Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences ...

  3. Balti riikide vabadus ei ohusta Venemaad / Daniel Fried

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: The Baltic Times, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 15. Ameerika Ühendriikide asevälisminister Euroopa ja Euraasia asjus Daniel Fried Balti riikide tunnustamisest, vabadusest ja suveräänsusest. Venemaa huvides on olla ümbritsetud rahulikest ja jõukatest demokraatiatest, ähvardustele ja sanktsioonidele ei tohi jätta ruumi

  4. Comparison of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils in continuous frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantzaris, T. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Some work carried out by the Turbitak Marmara Research Centre and the Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, in collaboration with the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, involved large scale laboratory frying trials of two monounsaturated oils (olive oil and palm olein and two polyunsaturated oils (sunflower and soyabean on potato chips (French fries. The oils were tested in parallel in separate 6-litre fryers on five consecutive days of eight hours and 14 batches of 150g potatoes each. At the end of each day the fryers were cleared of any sediment and topped up with fresh oil (about 250g. The performance of the oils was assessed by 11 physical and chemical tests viz. colour, smoke-point, foam height, free fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, anisidine value, totox, polymer content and polar compounds. The monounsaturated oils scored higher in most tests and were clearly superior but in some tests such as colour and FFA the polyunsaturated oils scored higher. Single, simple tests as practised in many commercial establishments can be misleading and multiple tests need careful interpretation. The shelf-life of the chips was not assessed as this food is normally eaten within a short time of preparation. But the tests indicate that fried products intended for longer storage and wide distribution, will have a better shelf-life if fried in monounsaturated oils.

  5. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  6. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    values for the three temperatures tested). Acrylamide formation decreased dramatically as the frying temperature decreased from 190 to 150 degrees C for all the pre-treatments tested. Color represented by the parameters L* and a* showed high correlations (r(2) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French...

  7. Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    of similar to 40 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iii) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution...... strips before frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed a reduction of acrylamide formation of 33%, 21% and 27% at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Potato strips blanched at 50 degrees C for 80 min had the lowest acrylamide content when...... compared against strips blanched at different conditions and fried at the same temperature (135, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip...

  8. Assessment of total polar materials in Frying fats from Czech restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mlcek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-frying is commonly used as convenient technique for the preparation of foods. The frying oils and fats are absorbed by fried food and become a part of diet. The content of total polar materials was determined in frying oils and fats in 46 restaurants from South Moravia and the Olomouc regions. Twenty-eight samples were found with total polar materials with limit of rejection over 24%. The highest total polar materials values were observed in cooking fat; the lowest one was in vegetable shortening oil. This conclusion corresponds with frying temperatures, which were highest in cooking fat.

  9. The formation of potentially harmful compounds in churros, a Spanish fried-dough pastry, as influenced by deep frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F J; Arribas-Lorenzo, G

    2008-07-15

    Colour, moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide (AA) were investigated in traditional Spanish churros. Samples were deep-fried in sunflower oil at lab-scale temperatures of 180, 190 and 200°C and for frying times of 2, 3, 5 and 7min. Fresh made churros were also obtained from local producers. HMF ranged from 1.2±0.02 to 221.4±2.02mg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 74.3±47.5mg/kg was recorded in commercial samples. AA ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 90±0.6μg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 46±24.5μg/kg was measured in commercial samples. Temperatures between 185 and 200°C are commonly used to obtain churros with an acceptable palatability and a crispy surface. However, HMF and AA levels increased nearly two-fold from 190 to 200°C at the same frying times, indicating that a more precise control of frying temperatures is required to minimize their formation. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shore, Gary. Drácula: A história nunca contada. EUA, 2014, 92 min.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Calixto Moreira Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A resenha versa acerca dos aspectos relevantes ao contexto social e linguístico da adaptação fílmica realizada por Gary Shore, em 2014, da obra Drácula, publicada por Bram Stoker em 1897. Utilizando-se dos pressupostos da fidelidade literária, da Disneyization e do papel do signo peirceano, a resenha busca expor os elementos que contornam o processo da adaptação cinematográfica e como se completam no público-alvo.

  11. Feasibility of Continuous Frying System to Improve the Quality Indices of Palm Olein for the Production of Extruded Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Ahmad, Karimah

    2015-01-01

    Comparative frying studies on the processing of extruded product were conducted under intermittent and continuous frying conditions using two separate frying systems, i.e batch and pilot scale continuous fryers, respectively. Thermal resistance of palm olein were assessed for a total of 5 days of frying operation at 155°C - the unconventional frying temperature gave the product moisture content of 3% after intermittent and continuous frying for 2.5 min and 2 min, respectively. The formation of free fatty acid in palm olein in the case of intermittent frying was more than 2-fold higher compared to its counterpart (0.66%). Smoke point inversely evolved with oil acidity: the value dropped progressively from 215 to 177°C and from 219 to 188°C when extruded product was intermittently and continuously fried, respectively. In the light of induction period, repeated frying exhibited a gradual decrease in the value after 5 days of frying (12.2 h). Interestingly, continuous frying gave somewhat similar induction period, as demonstrated by fresh palm olein, across frying time. Frying at lower temperature, to some extent, provides opportunity for palm olein to retain 74% of its initial vitamin E during continuous frying. This benefit, however, is somehow denied when extruded product was processed under intermittent frying conditions--only 27% of vitamin E was remained at the end of frying session. Regardless of frying protocols, transient in polar compounds was minimal and hence comparable. The colour in the case of continuous frying appeared to be darker due to higher degree of oil utilisation for frying. The data obtained will provide useful information for food processors on how palm olein behaves when frying is undertaken under different frying protocols.

  12. Frying performance of two virgin oils from Cornicabra olives with different ripeness indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero-David, R.; Mena, C.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J.; Pérez-Jiménez, M.A.; Holgado, F.; Bastida, S.; Velasco, J.

    2017-01-01

    The frying performance of two virgin olive oils (VOO) from Cornicabra olives of different ripeness indices, 2.08 for VOO1 and 4.13 for VOO2, was evaluated. Thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic alterations were determined throughout 40 frying operations with potatoes. The initial oils showed similar fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability indices as determined by Rancimat, but VOO1 presented higher amounts of total polyphenols and tocopherols. The oils showed high and similar frying performance. No significant differences in the levels of polar compounds (PC) were found between the two oils during frying. Therefore, the frying stability of Cornicabra VOOs appears to be unconnected with olive fruit ripeness. The limit of degradation at 25% PC as established in different countries was calculated to occur at 55 frying operations in the two oils. As oil toxicity is related to the levels of compounds formed, the use of Cornicabra VOOs for frying is highly recommended. [es

  13. Formation of trans fatty acids during the frying of chicken fillet in corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Yang, Ying; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong; Chen, Feng; Luo, Pengju George

    2014-05-01

    To assess effects of heated edible oils on intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs); the formation of TFAs in cooking conditions was investigated by a frying system model, in which chicken fillet was fried in a commercial corn oil at 170 °C, for 12 frying cycles. The main TFAs detected in chicken fillet were trans C18:2 fatty acids (FAs) and trans C18:3 FAs, which exhibited no significant differences among the frying cycles. Besides, the content of trans C18:1 FAs were very low in all samples on different frying cycles. The intake of TFAs was estimated to be 0.06 g/100 g when chicken fillet fried in this process was consumed. These results suggest that an ordinary frying process upon a commercial corn oil has little impact on the daily TFAs intake.

  14. Obituary: Robert E. Fried, 1930-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannery, Edward J.; Szkody, Paula

    2004-12-01

    Professionals and friends knew him as Captain Bob; he was the captain of his airplane, Birdie, and of his observatory, Braeside. He was a man of many talents, and he incorporated those talents into his two main passions in life: flying planes and doing astronomical research. Bob was born on December 14, 1930 in St. Paul, Minnesota to parents Dr. Louis and Emily Fried. His interest in astronomy began after he moved to Atlanta in the late 1950's as a pilot for Delta Airlines. It was there he joined the Atlanta Astronomy Club in 1960 and went on to become its President and also the President of the Astronomical League. Wanting a larger and better telescope than the usual department store variety, he took the advice of Patrick Moore, who suggested he build one himself. So he did. He obtained a military blank for a 16-inch Cassegrain and ground and polished the optics while the heavy parts were machined in the Delta Airlines shops after hours. His observatory protruded from the roof of his home and featured a modified silo dome, while the observer's controls were reminiscent of an airplane cockpit. When it became obvious that the Atlanta climate offered little support for serious Astronomy, Bob moved his family and observatory to a higher, clearer site in the Rockies. There he built a new dome on Flagstaff Mountain near Boulder. Subsequent to meeting and conspiring with fellow enthusiast Edward Mannery, who became his lifelong collaborator, Bob upgraded his system for digital photometry and began to obtain magnitudes to a few percent accuracy. After grumbling about the windy and cloudy weather of the Rockies, Bob tried a site near Lowell Observatory and then finally settled on the best home for Braeside in 1976, a short walk through the pines from the US Naval Observatory. He ultimately created a building he dubbed "The Monastery" after Mt. Wilson, that housed a bedroom, darkroom, electronics shop, machine shop, library and telescope control console and upgraded his

  15. Desarrollo embrionario y larval temprano de Gari solida (Gray, 1828 (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Contreras

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo temprano del culengue (Gari solida (Gray, 1828 hasta el estado inicial de larva velígera, a partir de dos desoves efectuados en el verano de 2009. El desove se indujo a 80 ejemplares maduros, entre 50-60 mm de longitud valvar, mediante desecación a temperatura ambiente por aproximadamente media hora y posterior choque térmico (12-14°C y 23-25°C. Los reproductores fueron previamente acondicionados durante 90 días a 14°C en promedio, alimentados con Isochrysis aff galbana (T-Iso, Chaetoceros calcitrans y Tetraselmis suecica en proporción 1:1:1, a una concentración de 300.000 cel mL-1. Los ovocitos se fertilizaron en proporción de 10:1 espermatozoide/ovocito y se incubaron en estanques de 50 L, a 15 ± 0,8°C, sin aireación, con agua de mar filtrada a 1 μm e irradiada con luz ultravioleta. Se efectuaron observaciones y mediciones de los estados de embriogénesis y larva velígera tipo D, registrándose el tiempo de duración de cada fase. La embriogénesis se completó entre 23-24 h post- fecundación (pf y el estado de larva velígera tipo D se alcanzó en 36-37 h pf, midiendo 78 ± 4,7 μm de longitud. Una cubierta gelatinosa rodea al ovocito y se mantiene hasta que se desarrolla completamente la larva D libre nadadora, en 50-52 h pf. Este trabajo constituye un primer reporte sobre el desarrollo temprano de G. solida. Para profundizar en este conocimiento sería deseable incluir técnicas de microscopía electrónica en futuros estudios.

  16. Influence of the frying process on the real fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available As shown in the former presentation, one fact about repeated frying is that there comes a moment, when the oil used is no longer suitable for frying, that is discarded. The amount may be quite large depending, among other factors, on the composition of the oil itself and on that of the foodstuffs fried. This can be of practical significance for the total lipid intake, since the unsuitable oil is no longer ingested. It is difficult to know the amount of oil discarded for this reason and there is no scientific information in the literature on this subject. In this paper we try to know the quantitative and qualitative importance of the oil proceeding of repeated frying (RF which normally is discarded in relation to the total fat intake (Fl in Madrid, as well at domestic level (96 families as in catering (hospitals, restaurants and schools. For this purpose discarded oils proceeding of the frying of food were collected in the usual quantity, variety and conditions (only olive and sunflower oils were used, both in the households and in the institutions. In the oils, raw and discarded, we also determined their composition in fatty acids. Our results show that at domestic level, although the dispersion is big, the average values of the discarded oil are the 19.3 ± 18.4% of the inventoried oil. However, in the institutional frying, in which, of course, industrial fryer are utilised, the proportion of discarded oil was much bigger, some time doubling the quantity discarded at domestic level. Curiously, the discarded oils proceeding either from the households or from catering do not show significative differences regarding their composition in fatty acids with respect to raw oil. The reason is that the oils are discarded due to subjective reasons, although they probably might be utilised again. At this moment, we are trying to confirm this last statement. In conclusion, if you do not take into consideration this percentage of losses, when utilising the

  17. Perfil da sociedade natalense frente aos resíduos sólidos urbanos sob o olhar do gari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Soares Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar uma análise crítica referente a postura da sociedade da cidade do Natal/RN diante dos resíduos sólidos urbanos por meio do olhar do gari. As pesquisas se baseiam no estudo da percepção de garis que trabalham em quatro locais distintos, sendo estes: O Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte - IFRN Campus Natal Central, o Parque das Dunas, o centro comercial do Alecrim e a praia de Ponta Negra, onde foram entrevistados individualmente tendo por base uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Através das análises das respostas obtidas percebeu-se que a população natalense seja ela infantil, jovem ou adulta necessita que uma educação ambiental seja trabalhada a fim de que o quadro relacionado aos resíduos mude, melhorando, portanto, a qualidade do meio ambiente e da vida das pessoas.

  18. Mutagenicity of pan residues and gravy from fried meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvik, E; Nilsson, L; Fredholm, L; Levin, O; Nord, C E; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-02-01

    Lean pork meat was fried with or without the addition of frying-fat at 200 or 250 degrees C. The pan residues were collected by washing the hot pan with boiling water. When producing thickened gravy the water was substituted by a mixture of water and flour, milk and flour or cream and flour. The basic extracts were tested for mutagenicity in Ames' Salmonella test on strain TA98 with the addition of S9 mix. High amounts of mutagenicity were found in all samples. The amounts of mutagenicity in the pan residues were at a comparable level of the amounts found in the meat crusts. Thickening of the gravy caused only small changes in the mutagenicity.

  19. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    forms of stress have shown to be reproducible. Bath challenge is more appropriate for vaccine testing, since natural transmission of infection is imitated and is also more suitable due to the small size of the fry. A bath-model using H2O2 as a stressor is currently being tested on 1.4g rainbow trout fry...... in four experimental groups: 1) no H2O2/no bath infection, 2) H2O2/no bath infection, 3) no H2O2/ bath infection and 4) H2O2/ bath infection. Mortality will be evaluated over approximately 25 days. The project is currently in its preliminary phase and presently focused on development of a model...

  20. Production of bio diesel from chicken frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, E.T.; Fadhil, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different bio diesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better bio diesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v). The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  1. Survival of resistant starch during the processing of atmospheric and vacuum fried instant noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela VERNAZA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective was to develop instant noodles (IN made by atmospheric and vacuum frying processes, with addition of 10% of three different sources of resistant starch: resistant starch type 2 (RS2, resistant starch type 3 (RS3 and green banana flour (GBF aiming the increasing of the fibre content. The IN obtained by atmospheric frying lost water faster and absorbed more fat. However, for both frying treatments, the RS3 noodles absorbed the least amount of oil. The greatest loss of RS occurred during the cooking stage. RS2 and GBF noodles presented a loss of RS of around 30% during steam cooking, while the RS3 approximately 18%. The frying process decreased RS content of noodles, however, during both frying process, the samples with the highest RS content at all frying times were noodles containing RS3. When comparing products obtained after 90 and 120 s of atmospheric and vacuum frying, respectively, it was observed that, although the frying time in vacuum process was longer, higher RS values were obtained for the three different formulations. The vacuum frying process has advantages due to the lower fat absorption (3% less, lighter colour and a reduced conversion of RS to digestible starch, compared to atmospheric frying.

  2. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  3. Comparative study of frying to other cooking techniques influence on the nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bognár, A.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Frying is one of the oldest methods of food preparation. It improves the sensory quality of food by formation of aroma compounds, attractive colour, crust and texture. Undesirable changes involved are loss of nutritive quality e.g. due to degradation of heat - susceptible vitamins. The influence of common frying methods (frying in an oven, in a pan deep frying on cooking time and nutritive value of vegetables, potatoes, meat, poultry and fish is described and compared to other cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stewing. Frying of vegetables, potatoes and breaded meat, poultry and fish, no matter whether in a pan or by deep - frying, is associated with fat uptake (2 - 14 g per 100 g of raw food while non - breaded high fat food of animal origin loses fat during frying (2 - 30%. Data suggest that the fat quantity absorbed during frying increases up to a saturation limit which depends on the kind of food and on the amount of panade. Deep - fried meat, poultry and fish usually absorb less fat than meat, poultry and fish fried in a pan. The kind of fat had no essential influence on fat uptake. After frying of vegetable food and of breaded meat, poultry and fish, the content of protein, carbohydrates and minerals was nearly fully retained while boiling and steaming reduced the mineral content by 25-50%. In the majority of cases frying including deep frying also retained the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C better than boiling, steaming and stewing.

  4. Fri os fra dårlig ledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita

    på arbejdspladserne. Fri os fra dårlig ledelse går i dybden med sammenhængen mellem stress, manglende trivsel og dårlig ledelse set ud fra et medarbejderperspektiv. Bogen giver svar på, hvad dårlig ledelse er, og hvordan fænomenet påvirker den enkelte medarbejder såvel som det generelle miljø på...

  5. Fried frailty phenotype assessment components as applied to geriatric inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Bieniek, Joanna; Wilczy?ski, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Joanna Bieniek, Krzysztof Wilczynski, Jan Szewieczek Department of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Management of geriatric patients would be simplified if a universally accepted definition of frailty for clinical use was defined. Among definitions of frailty, Fried frailty phenotype criteria constitute a common reference frame for many geriatric studies. However, this reference frame has been tested primarily in ...

  6. Performance of Different Natural Antioxidant Compounds in Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Aydenız

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the natural green tea extract, purified lycopene, purified resveratrol and purified γ-oryzanol were added into peanut oil and their antioxidant performances were evaluated during frying. Moreover, the sensory properties of fried dough were evaluated to determine the consumption feasibility. All natural antioxidants led to significant increase in the stability of the oil samples. The ranges of measurements in the treatment groups were as follows: free acidity 0.1–2.9 g of oleic acid per 100 g of oil, conjugated dienes 0.01–0.40 g per 100 g of oil, total polar material 8.8–73.8 g per 100 g of oil, total phenolics 0.1–4.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of oil, and antioxidant capacity 0.5–11.0 mM of Trolox equivalents per 100 g of oil. The fatty acid and sterol compositions indicated that antioxidant supplementation could slow the oxidative degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and reduce trans-acid formation. Frying oil enriched with purified γ-oryzanol had higher sterol levels than the other enriched oil samples. The obtained quality of oil protection was in descending order: purified γ-oryzanol, green tea extract and purified lycopene.

  7. Campylobacter in chicken livers and their destruction by pan frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, R; Hudson, J A; Graham, C

    2006-12-01

    To enumerate Campylobacter spp. on the external surface and internal portions of chicken livers, and to assess the cooking required to inactivate naturally present cells. Of 30 livers tested all yielded Campylobacter spp. on their surfaces and 90% were found to contain the organism in internal tissue. Four (13%) livers contained >10(4) MPN campylobacters, and an additional seven (23%) contained >10(3) MPN campylobacters per liver. The internal temperature of pan-fried livers under the conditions used reached a maximum of 70-80 degrees C, and maintaining this temperature for 2-3 min was necessary to inactivate naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. All isolates identified were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Chicken livers represent a potential source of human campylobacteriosis as they contained >10(4) MPN per liver in 13% of the samples tested. Pan-frying can produce an acceptable product that is safe to eat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THIS STUDY: The data provided can be used in exposure assessments of Campylobacter in poultry products in terms of both quantitative data and assessing pan-frying and its ability to destroy campylobacters.

  8. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  9. Fried frailty phenotype assessment components as applied to geriatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Bieniek, Krzysztof Wilczynski, Jan Szewieczek Department of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Management of geriatric patients would be simplified if a universally accepted definition of frailty for clinical use was defined. Among definitions of frailty, Fried frailty phenotype criteria constitute a common reference frame for many geriatric studies. However, this reference frame has been tested primarily in elderly patients presenting with relatively good health status. Objective: The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness and limitations of Fried frailty phenotype criteria in geriatric inpatients, characterized by comorbidity and functional impairments, and to estimate the frailty phenotype prevalence in this group. Patients and methods: Five hundred consecutive patients of the university hospital subacute geriatric ward, aged 79.0±8.4 years (67% women and 33% men, participated in this cross-sectional study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and Fried frailty phenotype component evaluation were performed in all patients. Results: Multimorbidity (6.0±2.8 diseases characterized our study group, with a wide range of clinical conditions and functional states (Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living 72.2±28.2 and Mini-Mental State Examination 23.6±7.1 scores. All five Fried frailty components were assessed in 65% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] =60.8–69.2 (diagnostic group. One or more components were not feasible to be assessed in 35% of the remaining patients (nondiagnostic group because of lack of past patient’s body mass control and/or cognitive or physical impairment. Patients from the nondiagnostic group, as compared to patients from the diagnostic group, presented with more advanced age, higher prevalence of dementia, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Mini

  10. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI WARALABA FRIED CHICKEN DI BANJARMASIN BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI KONSUMEN (Studi Pada KFC Duta Mall, Texas Fried Chicken Duta Mall,AW Duta Mall Dan California Fried Chicken Rs Ulin Banjarmasin)

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatini Ade Mayvita; Ikhwan Faisal

    2016-01-01

    During  the  last  14  years,  the  growth  rate  of  fried  chicken  franchise  with  the concept of fast food restaurants in Banjarmasin is 12% per year. It is characterized by large number of outlets/stores of fried chicken franchise in Banjarmasin city as many as 10 outlets. Most of the existing outlets are in Duta Mall Banjarmasin.  This study aims to identify and analyze the competitive position of fried-chicken fast-food franchise restaurants based on the consumers’ perceptions (St...

  11. The German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY): a nationwide registry for patients undergoing invasive therapy for severe aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, A; Hamm, C; Figulla, H R; Cremer, J; Kuck, K H; Lange, R; Zahn, R; Sack, S; Schuler, G C; Walther, T; Beyersdorf, F; Böhm, M; Heusch, G; Funkat, A K; Meinertz, T; Neumann, T; Papoutsis, K; Schneider, S; Welz, A; Mohr, F W

    2012-07-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of severe aortic valve defects correlates with the increase of life expectancy. For decades, surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR), under the use of extracorporeal circulation, has been the gold standard for treatment of severe aortic valve diseases. In Germany ~12,000 patients receive isolated aortic valve surgery per year. For some time, percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has been used as a palliative therapeutic option for very few patients. Currently, alternatives for the established surgical procedures such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have become available, but there are only limited data from randomized studies or low-volume registries concerning long-time outcome. In Germany, the implementation of this new technology into hospital care increased rapidly in the past few years. Therefore, the German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY) was founded in July 2010 including all available therapeutic options and providing data from a large quantity of patients.Methods The GARY is assembled as a complete survey for all invasive therapies in patients with relevant aortic valve diseases. It evaluates the new therapeutic options and compares them to surgical AVR. The model for data acquisition is based on three data sources: source I, the mandatory German database for external performance measurement; source II, a specific registry dataset; and source III, a follow-up data sheet (generated by phone interview). Various procedures will be compared concerning observed complications, mortality, and quality of life up to 5 years after the initial procedure. Furthermore, the registry will enable a compilation of evidence-based indication criteria and, in addition, also a comparison of all approved operative procedures, such as Ross or David procedures, and the use of different mechanical or biological aortic valve prostheses.Results Since the launch of data acquisition in July 2010, almost all institutions performing

  12. Calculation of the electron magnetic moment in Fried-Yennie-gauge QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The two-loop contribution to the electron magnetic moment is calculated in the Fried-Yennie gauge. This is the first treatment of the magnetic moment beyond one-loop order in a gauge other than the Feynman gauge. The Fried-Yennie gauge is infrared safe, and the calculation is done without introducing an infrared cutoff or photon mass. The Fried-Yennie-gauge result agrees with the Feynman-gauge result, as expected

  13. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  14. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF COTTONSEED AND GROUNDNUT OIL USED FOR FRYING BHAJIAS AND ITS SENSORY QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep fried snacks, which evolved as snacks between meals include bhajia, samosa, etc are very popular in India and commercially exploited on a wide scale.Cottonseed and Groundnut oil frequently used in Gujarat for cooking purpose studied for its intermittent frying stability. Indian fried snack popularly known as ‘Bhajia’ fried for 5 min at an interval of 1 h; 5 times a day for 5 consecutive days and studied for its various sensory attributes using 9-point hedonic scale. Standard AOCS and AOAC methods were used to determine the quality of oil. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of both oils increased significantly p<0.001 during the 25 h of intermittent frying. Iodine value of cottonseed oil did not decrease throughout the intermittent frying period. Polar components increased 257.5% in cottonseed oil (CSO and 142.9% in groundnut oil (GNO.The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content increased significantly with the increase in frying hours.No significant change was seen in linoleic/palmitic acid ratio of both the oils during bhajias frying. The sensory qualities of bhajia fried at different intervals did not change significantly for various attributes namely flavor, taste, crispness, greasiness, odor, color, appearance and overall acceptability.

  15. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    then dried at 85°C for 10 min and immediately partially fried at 175°C for 1min. Finally, frozen par-fried potatoes were fried at 175°C for 3min to obtain French fries. Pre-drying of raw or blanched potato strips did not generate acrylamide formation as expected. Partial frying of pre-dried control potato...... strips generated 370μg/kg of acrylamide and the final frying determined French fries with 2075μg/kg of acrylamide. When control potato strips were treated with a 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min, the acrylamide formation in French fries was reduced by 30%. When blanched potato strips...... were treated in the same way, the produced French fries have 60% less acrylamide content than blanched strips without the enzyme treatment. Soaking of blanched potato strips (75°C, 10min) in an 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min is an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation after...

  16. Milkfish (Chanos chanos Fry Concession System in Bolinao, Pangasinan: Implications to Coastal Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and socioeconomic implications of the concession system on milkfish (Chanos chanos Forssk. fry in Bolinao, Pangasinan were evaluated from 1996 to 1999. Monitoring of landed catch from 1996 to 1998 showed that the seasonal trend and annual volume of catch varied widely during the three-year period. The fry season in 1996 and 1997 lasted seven months, starting from the second week of April to the second week of October. However, during the 1998 season, fry were available for eight months starting in the second week of March and ending in November. The peak period also varied considerably during the three-year period. In 1996, peak abundance of fry was observed in the last week of July while in 1997 and 1998, the peak was during the second week of May. The volume of total catch for the entire season also varied widely, from as low as ~400,000 fry (1997 to as high as 2,400,000 fry (1996. The concessionaire “postor” has the sole right to buy all fry caught within the municipal waters. Thus, s/he dictates the buying price. Moreover, the existing concession system has no mechanism to regulate harvest of milkfish fry gathering. This arrangement allows the concessionaire to enjoy huge economic benefits while the fry gatherers only get a minimal share in the income. To promote sustainable and equitable harvest of milkfish fry, a new access arrangement through a permit system was proposed by the fry gatherers. The proposed permit system will promote a sustainable harvest of milkfish fry through the implementation of a closed period during the fry season. Compared to the present concession system, the permit system is believed to be more equitable because of the abolition of the 1/3 cut levied by the concessionaire on the landed catch. The permit system also facilitates a mechanism that provides for transparency on the selling/buying price. More importantly, fry gatherers will have the opportunity to sell to buyers offering a relatively

  17. Various extraction methods influence the adhesive properties of DDGS .... pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) and lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri A. Gary (S. Watson) in the fabrication of lignocellulosic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic composite (LC) panels were fabricated using an adhesive matrix prepared from three different agricultural by-products: dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake (PPC) or lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri A. Gary (S. Watson) press cake (L...

  18. A nova poética da natureza de Gary Snyder: budismo e ecocrítica na sua obra

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Nuno Filipe da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Esta dissertação introduz a obra do poeta Gary Snyder (1930-) à Academia Portuguesa para afirmar o seu lugar próprio na história da poesia dos Estados Unidos da América. Encontra-se dividida em três capítulos que determinam os três territórios do mapa do pensamento sincrético do autor. No primeiro capítulo, trata-se o diálogo da obra com os modos de representação da Natureza na literatura dos Estados Unidos, discutindo-se o lugar particular que nesta vem ocupar. Em rutura com a matriz lite...

  19. Utopia economica. Uno studio genealogico del neoliberalismo di Gary Becker in relazione al pensiero di Jeremy Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Buono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’Autrice si propone di tracciare la genealogia della posizione neoliberale, partendo soprattutto dai testi di Gary Becker. Il pensiero economico neoliberale è posto in relazione con la rivoluzione scientifica e l’operazione di matematizzazione della natura che da essa scaturisce. Questo percorso porterà poi a Jeremy Bentham, il cui sistema è spesso visto come antesignano degli studiosi neoliberali. Secondo la tesi sostenuta dall’Autrice, il neoliberalismo presenta il proprio sguardo come una neutra e scientifica descrizione del reale, sennonché in tale mossa si annida pur sempre una tendenza normativa. È così che gli economisti neoliberali elaborano un sistema che è altresì prescrittivo, proponendo un modello che si pone sul piano politico; modello il quale viene qui designato con il nome di «utopia economica».

  20. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Materi Garis dan Sudut Menggunakan Macromedia Flash dan Moodle Kelas VII Sekolah Menengah Pertama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti Akhmadan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yang bertujuan untuk (1 menghasilkan bahan ajar matematika yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan software Macromedia Flash dan Moodle yang valid dan praktis untuk mengajarkan materi garis dan sudut kepada siswa kelas VII SMP; (2 mengetahui efek potensialnya terhadap hasil belajar. Metode penelitian terdiri dari 3 tahap yaitu (1 self evaluation, meliputi tahap analisis dan desain bahan ajar; (2 prototyping, meliputi tahap evaluasi dan revisi; (3 field test. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan walk through dan dokumentasi nilai akhir siswa diperoleh dari nilai tugas dan nilai tes yaitu sebesar 79,56 nilai tersebut dikategorikan memiliki hasil belajar yang baik. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 bahan ajar yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan software Macromedia Flash dan Moodle dalam penelitian ini dikategorikan valid dan praktis; (2 dari rata-rata nilai akhir siswa sebesar 79,56 dengan kategori baik disimpulkan bahwa bahan ajar yang dikembangkan memiliki efek potensial terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Kata Kunci: development research, Macromedia Flash, Moodle, garis, sudut This study is categorized as developmental research that aims at (1 producing a valid and practical teaching material in Mathematics subject which was developed by utilizing Macromedia Flash and Moodle and learnt by seventh graders of class VII of Junior High School; (2 examining its potential effect to learning outcome. The research method contains three phases which are: (1 self evaluation, that includes analyzing and designing material processes; (2 prototyping, includes evaluating and revising processes; (3 field test. Data collection was undertaken by walk through and documentation of students achievement obtained through task and posttest which was scored 79.56 and was categorized as good outcome as well. The conclusion drawn based on this study were (1 teaching material developed by utilizing Macromedia Flash and Moodle

  1. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  2. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancera,b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. Methods We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate specific antigen level). Results Compared with French fries (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.11–1.69), fried chicken (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62), fried fish (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.05–1.66), and doughnuts (OR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.11–1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 0.89–1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.04–1.92 for fried fish). Conclusion Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. PMID:23335051

  4. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L; Stanford, Janet L

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate-specific antigen level). Compared with French fries (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.69), fried chicken (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62), fried fish (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.66), and doughnuts (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 for fried fish). Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modelling water evaporation during frying with an evaporation dependent heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.; Somsen, D.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a cylindrical crust-core frying model was developed including an evaporation rate dependent heat transfer coefficient. For this, we applied a Nusselt relation for cylindrical bodies and view the release of vapour bubbles during the frying process as a reversed fluidised bed. The

  6. Identification and olfactometry of French fries flavour extracted at mouth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, M.A.; Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify odour active compounds from French fries at mouth conditions. Volatile compounds were released from French fries by purge-and-trap, trapped on Tenax TA, and identified with GC–MS. GC–olfactometry was used to determine odour active compounds with a

  7. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  8. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  9. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  10. Assessment of Quality and Safety of Street-vended Fried West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the quality and safety of street-vended fried West African ilisha (Ilisha africana) from major markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total number of 100 fried fish samples obtained from ten major markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria were analysed in the laboratory for: proximate ...

  11. Impact of control behaviour on unacceptable variation in acrylamide in French fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Jinap, S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have identified high concentrations of acrylamide in French fries and they emphasised that there is much uncertainty about actual concentrations in French fries upon consumption. The aim of this study was to get insight in technological as well as people related factors that

  12. Degree-days as a tool for use in producing tilapia fry for sex inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonal sex inversion of newly hatched tilapia fry continues to be an important method to produce monosex male tilapia fingerlings. Large numbers of tilapia fry suitable for sex inversion can be produced by periodic complete harvest of earthen reproduction ponds. Traditionally, harvest interval was...

  13. The role of zooplankton in the feeding ecology of fish fry from some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyclopoid cope pods were the dominant food item of fry < 20 mm S.L., with the ... seas estuarine systems where the diet of fry has been intensively studied (e.g. ..... consumers in oceanic waters but in estuaries benthic herbivores and detritivores ... rine systems is via the zooplankton food chain (Blaber 1979;. Wooldridge ...

  14. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  15. Crust morphology and crispness development during deep-fat frying of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Somsen, D.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Crust formation is an important factor in determining the crispness of French fries. This study aimed at unravelling detailed structural and textural properties of the crust in relation to crispness during frying as a function of the process temperature and time. X-ray tomography showed a larger

  16. Reliability of ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of lipid oxidation at frying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of a method using ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of oil oxidation at a frying temperature was examined. During heating and frying at 180 °C, changes of soybean oil signals in the ^1^H NMR spectrum including olefinic (5.16-5.30 ppm), bisallylic (2.70-2.88 ppm), and allylic (1.94-2.1...

  17. Polarimetric LIDAR with FRI sampling for target characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathna, Erandi; Creusere, Charles D.; Voelz, David; Castorena, Juan

    2017-09-01

    Polarimetric LIDAR is a significant tool for current remote sensing applications. In addition, measurement of the full waveform of the LIDAR echo provides improved ranging and target discrimination, although, data storage volume in this approach can be problematic. In the work presented here, we investigated the practical issues related to the implementation of a full waveform LIDAR system to identify polarization characteristics of multiple targets within the footprint of the illumination beam. This work was carried out on a laboratory LIDAR testbed that features a flexible arrangement of targets and the ability to change the target polarization characteristics. Targets with different retardance characteristics were illuminated with a linearly polarized laser beam and the return pulse intensities were analyzed by rotating a linear analyzer polarizer in front of a high-speed detector. Additionally, we explored the applicability and the limitations of applying a sparse sampling approach based on Finite Rate of Innovations (FRI) to compress and recover the characteristic parameters of the pulses reflected from the targets. The pulse parameter values extracted by the FRI analysis were accurate and we successfully distinguished the polarimetric characteristics and the range of multiple targets at different depths within the same beam footprint. We also demonstrated the recovery of an unknown target retardance value from the echoes by applying a Mueller matrix system model.

  18. Aerosol Production from Charbroiled and Wet-Fried Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory focused on the chemical and optical characterization of aerosols produced during the dry-frying of different meat samples. This method yielded a complex ensemble of particles composed of water and long-chain fatty acids with the latter dominated by oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids. The present study examines how wet-frying and charbroiling cooking methods affect the physical and chemical properties of their derived aerosols. Samples of ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork were subject to both cooking methods in the laboratory, with their respective aerosols swept into a laminar flow cell where they were optically analyzed in the mid-infrared and collected through a gas chromatography probe for chemical characterization. This presentation will compare and contrast the nature of the aerosols generated in each cooking method, particularly those produced during charbroiling which exposes the samples, and their drippings, to significantly higher temperatures. Characterization of such cooking-related aerosols is important because of the potential impact of these particles on air quality, particularly in urban areas.

  19. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN FRY COUNTER DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL AIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Oktoriyana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected from 152 respondents who were fish farmers located in Sukabumi Regency, West Java Province. This research found that external and internal factors influenced positively perceived attributes faktors. The external and perceived attributes factors also influenced positively attention factor. The external factor had negative influence but internal and attention factors had positive influence on consumer’s interest. Perceived attributes and interest factors influenced positively desire factor. Managerial implications is elaborated in the discussion.

  1. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  2. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying

  3. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of Life After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Prospective Data From GARY (German Aortic Valve Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rüdiger; Beckmann, Andreas; Neumann, Till; Krane, Markus; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Landwehr, Sandra; Kötting, Joachim; Welz, Armin; Zahn, Ralf; Cremer, Jochen; Figulla, Hans R; Schuler, Gerhard; Holzhey, David M; Funkat, Anne-Kathrin; Heusch, Gerd; Sack, Stefan; Pasic, Miralem; Meinertz, Thomas; Walther, Thomas; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Böhm, Michael; Möllmann, Helge; Hamm, Christian W; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2016-12-26

    This study sought to analyze health-related quality-of-life (HrQoL) outcomes of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) based on data from GARY (German Aortic Valve Registry). Typically, patients currently referred for and treated by TAVR are elderly with a concomitant variable spectrum of multiple comorbidities, disabilities, and limited life expectancy. Beyond mortality and morbidity, the assessment of HrQoL is of paramount importance not only to guide patient-centered clinical decision-making but also to judge this new treatment modality in this high-risk patient population. In 2011, 3,875 patients undergoing TAVR were included in the GARY registry. HrQoL was prospectively measured using the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire self-complete version on paper at baseline and 1 year. Complete follow-up EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire evaluation was available for 2,288 patients (transvascular transcatheter aortic valve replacement [TAVR-TV]: n = 1,626 and transapical TAVR [TAVR-TA]: n = 662). In-hospital mortality was 5.9% (n = 229) and the 1-year mortality was 23% (n = 893). The baseline visual analog scale score for general health status was 52.6% for TAVR-TV and 55.8% for TAVR-TA and, in parallel to an improvement in New York Heart Association functional class, improved to 59.6% and 58.5% at 1 year, respectively (p regression analysis several pre- and post-operative factors were predictive for less pronounced HrQoL benefits. TAVR treatment led to improvements in HrQoL, especially in terms of mobility and usual activities. The magnitude of improvements was higher in the TAVR-TV group as compared to the TAVR-TA group. However, there was a sizable group of patients who did not derive any HrQoL benefits. Several independent pre- and post-operative factors were identified being predictive for less pronounced HrQoL benefits. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PENERAPAN PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE INVESTIGASI KELOMPOK UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA SISWA PADA MATERI PERSAMAAN GARIS LURUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Khoridatul Huda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK. Subjek penelitian, yaitu siswa kelas VIII-E SMP N 4 Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan langkah-langkah pembelajaran kooperatif tipe investigasi kelompok yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa kelas VIII SMP N 4 Malang materi persamaan garis lurus. Langkah pembelajaran kooperatif tipe investigasi kelompok yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa kelas VIII-E SMP N 4 Malang materi persamaan garis lurus meliputi: siswa berkelompok sesuai dengan kesamaan minat pada suatu topic bahasan, diskusi kelompok dengan pemberian tambahan nilai bagi kelompok yang paling aktif, presentasi hasil diskusi oleh dua wakil kelompok yang ditunjuk oleh kelompok lain, dan diskusi kelas dengan guru hanya sebagai pendamping. Pembelajaran kooperatif tipe investigasi kelompok ini dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa yang meliputi aspek kemampuan menjalin kerja sama, kemampuan menuliskan permasalahan dalam bentuk yang mudah dipahami, dan kemampuan menggunakan pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang dimiliki. Meningkatnya kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa tersebut dapat diketahui dari peningkatan nilai tes siswa, yaitu sebesar 69,44% dari jumlah siswa dan peningkatan keaktifan siswa pada aspek: bekerja sama memecahkan masalah, memberikan pendapat apabila ada teman sekelompok yang belum mengerti, menyelesaikan perbedaan pendapat, dan berkomunikasi dengan teman dan guru selama proses pembelajaran di kelas.   This research is a classroom research. Subject of this research is students VIII-E of SMP N 4 Malang. This research supposes to describe the steps of cooperative learning type group investigation that can increase the student’s ability of problem solving of mathematics at class VIII-E of SMP N 4 Malang on the material linear equation. The steps obtained in this research include: students sit with their group

  6. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI WARALABA FRIED CHICKEN DI BANJARMASIN BERDASARKAN PERSEPSI KONSUMEN (Studi Pada KFC Duta Mall, Texas Fried Chicken Duta Mall,AW Duta Mall Dan California Fried Chicken Rs Ulin Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatini Ade Mayvita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During  the  last  14  years,  the  growth  rate  of  fried  chicken  franchise  with  the concept of fast food restaurants in Banjarmasin is 12% per year. It is characterized by large number of outlets/stores of fried chicken franchise in Banjarmasin city as many as 10 outlets. Most of the existing outlets are in Duta Mall Banjarmasin.  This study aims to identify and analyze the competitive position of fried-chicken fast-food franchise restaurants based on the consumers’ perceptions (Study on KFC,  Texas  Fried  Chicken, AW  Duta  Mall  and  CFC  RS  Ulin  Banjarmasin. Perceptions formulated are based on the assessment of marketing mix, which consists of services, physical condition, Product, promotion, personal traits, Price, means of support, distribution and location. 100 respondents are taken as samples in this study, i.e. respondents who have eaten in the fourth Fried Chicken fast food franchise using the technique of non proportional stratified random sampling. Meanwhile, the technique of data analysis uses Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS. The findings from the analysis using Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS show inequality  positions  of  Fried  Chicken  franchise  restaurants,  Kentucky  Fried Chicken,  Texas  Chicken,  AW  and  California  Fried  Chicken,  based  on  their consumers’  perceptions:  1.  KFC  is  a  fried  chicken  franchise  restaurant  that has superiority over the ease in getting information for organizing parties, the rooms’ capacities, the frequency of advertisements, employee skills, appropriate Products with Prices. In addition, KFC also has special superiority over different/ unique fried chicken taste and more outlets than other fried chicken franchise restaurants; 2. Texas Fried chicken has superiority over the speed of Customer service,  cleanliness  of  the  room,  the  Product  pakaging  which  is  favorable  to consumers,  direct  gifts,

  7. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.

  8. Analysis of used frying fats for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Used frying fats and oils with highly variable and uncontrolled quality are used for the production of biodiesel . The objective of this study was to define the analytical methods useful to obtaining information on the quality of the used frying oils as raw material for biodiesels as well as for the characterization of the biodiesels obtained from them. Twentyfour used frying oils from restaurants and domestic fryers were analyzed before and after transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. From a detailed analysis of the samples by means of a combination of adsorption and size exclusion chromatography, the quantitative importance of polymeric compounds was deduced both from the direct analysis of the oils and from their FAME. Excellent linear correlation between polar compounds and polar FAME (R=0.9768 was found. The possibilities of interferences from polar fatty acid in the standard method to determine the ester content are defined. Finally, determination of non-polar FAME by silica column is proposed as a good alternative to the gas chromatography method.Los aceites y grasas de fritura, que se caracterizan por tener una calidad muy variable, se utilizan como material prima para la producción de biodiesel. El objetivo de este estudio es definir la utilidad de los métodos analíticos desarrollados para los aceites y grasas de fritura para caracterizar el biodiesel obtenido. Veinticuatro aceites de fritura procedentes del sector de restauración y de fritura doméstica fueron analizados antes y después de su transesterificación a ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. A partir de un análisis detallado mediante cromatografías de adsorción y exclusión, se deduce la importancia cuantitativa de los compuestos de polimerización tanto en el análisis directo de los aceites como en el análisis de los ésteres metílicos. Se encontró una excelente correlación lineal entre los compuestos polares y los ésteres metílicos polares

  9. Moteriškumas ir nutylėto žodžio retorika Romaino Gary romane „Aitvarai“

    OpenAIRE

    Skrupskelytė, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Romaino Gary romanuose, pokalbiuose ir eseistinės formos kūriniuose gausu pastabų apie moteriškumą (pr. féminité) ir moteriškas vertybes (pr. valeurs féminines), rašytojo dar vadinamų moterišku kalbėjimu, la voix féminine. Tačiau šias sąvokas Gary supranta savotiškai – kaip tam tikrą neigiamą ryšį su žmogų supančia bei jį valdančia aplinka ir žmogaus sukurtomis ar jo toleruojamomis jėgos struktūromis. Jėgai rašytojas priešpriešina moteriškumo ir silpnumo (pr. faiblesse) būsenas, j...

  10. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-02-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10 min or 85 °C for 5 min and frying was effected at 160 °C for 2 min or 180 °C for 1 min. These treatments resulted in significant differences in the quality of the fries across the cultivars. The blanching treatments had a greater impact on the French fry quality than the frying treatments. LTLT blanching resulted in lower oil (12-13% fresh mass basis [fmb]), and higher protein (3.5-4.3% fmb) and mineral content in the French fries processed from Innovator, compared to HTST blanching. This was accompanied by a crispier crust, which required a greater puncture force (1.2-2.1 N) for penetration. Blanching with the LTLT treatment before HTST frying resulted in French fries that were the most acceptable to consumers and these were from Fianna, Innovator and Mondial. The current study demonstrates that the effect of French fry processing conditions is cultivar-dependent.

  11. An insight into the Northern Irish Troubles in France: Teaching English as a Foreign Language through Gary Mitchell's Loyal Women (2003) along the Common European Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Privas-Bréauté, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    The pedagogical qualities of drama have recently been put to the fore especially when it comes to learning a foreign language. If we read the Common European Framework for language learning carefully, we realize that we may choose a play to facilitate language acquisition, notably at university level, when the bases are supposedly already acquired, when the knowledge of the target language needs to be strengthened. We have chosen to demonstrate that a contemporary play like Gary Mitchell's Lo...

  12. Evaluation of the influence of different heat-treatment methods on fatty acids content particulary trans isomers in french fries

    OpenAIRE

    Mojska, H.; Malecka, K.; Gielecinska, I.; Sitek, A.; Pawlicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment methods on trans fatty acids content in French fries. French fries were heat-treated by using a deep fryer, a frying pan, an oven and a microwave. The fatty acids content was analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography using MS detector (GC/MS). The highest increase in fat was determined in French fries prepared in deep fryer in comparison to raw French fries, whereas the lowest by using oven and micro...

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Midco II, Gary, IN. (First remedial action), (amendment), April 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 7-acre Midco II site is an abandoned chemical waste storage and disposal facility in Gary, Indiana. Land use in the surrounding area is predominantly industrial. The underlying aquifer, which is used primarily for non-drinking purposes, is highly susceptible to contamination from surface sources. From 1976 to 1978, the site was used for treatment, storage, and disposal of chemical and bulk liquid wastes. The ROD amends a 1989 ROD that addressed the remaining contaminated soil, pit wastes, and ground water by treatment of an estimated 35,000 cubic yards of soil wastes. The amended remedy reduces the estimated amount of soil to be treated, as a result of new information on arsenic data and amended soil CALs, further defines the site cover requirements, and further defines the requirements for deep well injection of contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the subsurface soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs, including methylene chloride, benzene, toluene, TCE, and xylenes; other organics, including PCBs, phenols, and PAHs; and metals, including chromium, and lead. The amended remedial action for the ROD is included

  14. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  15. Effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazoğlu, T Koray; Savran, Derya; Gökmen, Vural

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips was investigated in this study. Baking and frying experiments were conducted at 170, 180, and 190 degrees C using potato slices with a thickness of 1.4 mm. Raw potatoes were analyzed for reducing sugars and asparagine. Surface and internal temperatures of potato slices were monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Fried and baked chips were analyzed for acrylamide content using an LC-MS method. The results showed that acrylamide level of potato chips prepared by frying increased with frying temperature (19.6 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 39 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 95 ng/g at 190 degrees C). In baking, however, the highest acrylamide level was observed in potato chips prepared at 170 degrees C (47.8 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 19.3 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 29.7 ng/g at 190 degrees C). The results showed that baking at 170 degrees C more than doubled the acrylamide amount that formed upon frying at the same temperature, whereas at 180 and 190 degrees C, the acrylamide levels of chips prepared by baking were lower than their fried counterparts.

  16. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks.

  17. Fat deterioration in deep fat frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to know the deterioration of fats employed in deep frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector in Santiago (Chile, before the recent Chilean legislation became official. 96 % of the samples corresponded to polyunsaturated vegetable oils, 76 % had more than 2 % linolenic acid and 23 % of total samples contained more than 25 % of polar compounds. To predict the percentage of polar compounds, equations were developed: for soybean oil and mix soybean oil-canola the equation included viscosity or conjugated dienoic acids, while for sunflower oil viscosity and free fatty acids were considered. Sunflower oil, presented a different pattern of the altered groups that comprise the fraction of polar compounds, as compared with soybean and mix soybean-canola oils, these latter two showing significantly higher thermoxidative degradation. Among the diagnostic tests assayed, Oxifrit is recommended as a quick test for practical deterioration control.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer el deterioro de la materia grasa empleada en el proceso de fritura de patatas tipo «french fries» en el sector de restaurantes y pequeños establecimientos en Santiago (Chile antes de que la reciente legislación chilena fuera oficial. El 96 % de las muestras correspondió a aceites vegetales poliinsaturados, el 76 % contenían más de un 2 % de ácido linolénico y el 23 % del total de las muestras presentó más del 25 % de compuestos polares. Para predecir el porcentaje de compuestos polares, se desarrollaron ecuaciones que para el aceite de soja y mezcla soja-canola, incluyeron la viscosidad o los dienos conjugados, mientras que para el aceite de girasol se consideró la viscosidad y los ácidos grasos libres. El aceite de girasol mostró una distribución diferente de las especies alteradas que conforman la fracción de compuestos polares, en comparación al aceite de soja y mezcla soja

  18. New vision technology for multidimensional quality monitoring of continuous frying of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Søren Blond; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2010-01-01

    . The vision technology can also detect even slight increases in the agglutination of the fried minced meat during the process. This agglutination is undesirable, but very difficult to measure on-line. The results indicate that multi-spectral vision technology may partially or totally Substitute visual......The potential of using multi-spectral vision technology for quality control in a continuous frying process was investigated. canonical discriminant analysis of the multi-spectral images of samples of fried minced meat and diced turkey Could clearly visualise the effect of different heat treatments...

  19. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  20. High salinity tolerance in eggs and fry of a brackish Esox lucius population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.T.; Hansen, B.W.; Vismann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on the biology and physiology of pike, Esox lucius L., populations inhabiting saline environments is scarce. An experimental setup was used to examine egg development and fry behaviour and growth under varying salinity levels in a brackish-water pike population from the western Baltic Sea....... Eggs and fry developed at 8.5 psu, which is higher than hitherto reported for other populations. Fry exhibited stress behaviour and reduced growth when subjected to salinities above 13 psu. This indicates that early life stages of E. lucius tolerate ambient salinity conditions equivalent to the natural...

  1. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  2. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies (LGRSS) at the...

  3. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies...

  4. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  5. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  6. Effect of deep-fat frying on sensory and textural attributes of pellet snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of several frying parameters on the quality of indirect expanded snacks were studied. Pellets, in two colors of yellow and green, were deep-fat fried at 150, 170, and 190 °C for 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 min; then, subjected to uniaxial compression test and sensory analysis. The results showed that hardness, fracture force and apparent modulus of elasticity reduced with increase in frying time and temperature due to puffing samples and decrease in crust thickness. In contrast, higher frying temperature improved the crispness of samples. Panelists preferred the flavor, color, and total acceptance of yellow samples to the green ones. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and sensory properties.

  7. Reproductive health problems and health seeking behavior of female sex workers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O Omokanye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to

  8. Single-loop renormalizations and properties of radiative corrections in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.; Eides, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Single-loop radiative corrections are studied in the Fried-Yennie gauge. It is shown that in this gauge the usual subtraction procedure on the mass shell does not require introduction of an infrared photon mass. The behavior of the diagrams containing radiative corrections near the mass shell is investigated, and it is shown that in the Fried-Yennie gauge this behavior is softer than in any other gauge and softer than the behavior of the corresponding graphs without radiative corrections

  9. Losses in -carotene and vitamin C due to frying of plantain ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slices of plantain (unripe and ripe) of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thickness were fried at 130 ± 5, 150 ± 5 and 170 ± 5°C for 1 to 10 min in refined palm oil. The results obtained showed that -carotene and vitamin C contents decreased significantly with the elevation of the temperature and duration of frying (p<0.05). The decrease is ...

  10. Evidence of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry movement between fresh water and a brackish environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, I; Rohtla, M; Saks, L; Svirgsden, R; Kesler, M; Matetski, L; Vetemaa, M

    2017-08-01

    This study reports descent of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry from their natal streams to brackish waters of the Baltic Sea and their use of this environment as an alternative rearing habitat before ascending back to freshwater streams. To the authors' knowledge, residency in a brackish environment has not previously been demonstrated in S. salar fry. Recruitment success and evolutionary significance of this alternative life-history strategy are presently not known. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Jahren, A. Hope; Schubert, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald’s, Burger Kin...

  12. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  13. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  14. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  15. Effect of Various Pretreatments on Quality Attributes of Vacuum-Fried Shiitake Mushroom Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pretreatments on the quality of vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom slices. Four different pretreatments addressed in this study were (1 blanching as control, (2 blanching and osmotic dehydration with maltodextrin (MD solution, (3 blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, (4 blanching and osmotic dehydration, followed by freezing. All samples were pretreated and then fried in palm oil at 90°C with vacuum degree of −0.095 MPa for 30 min. The results showed that pretreatments significantly (p0.05 differences of fried chip in the texture among the four different pretreatments. The aw values of all the fried chips were less than 0.38, indicating that the products had a long shelf life. Therefore, the blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating pretreatment before vacuum frying was the most suitable pretreatment for vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom chips.

  16. Acrylamide Mitigation in Fried Kochchi Kesel Chips Using Free and Immobilized Fungal Asparaginase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskar Gurunathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is formed when food products are fried at high temperature. Food researchers are constantly working on developing efficient methods for mitigating acrylamide in fried foods. In the present study, asparaginase from Aspergillus terreus was used for the pretreatment of kochchi kesel banana slices before frying to mitigate acrylamide formation during frying. The soaking and frying conditions were optimized using free and chitosan-immobilized asparaginase. The optimal soaking temperature and time were found to be 60 °C and 20 min, respectively. The optimal activity of free and chitosan-immobilized asparaginase was found to be 5 U/mL. The optimal frying temperature and time for both free and chitosan-immobilized asparaginase were found to be 180 °C for 25 min with an acrylamide mass fraction of 1866 and 954 µg/kg, respectively. The kinetics and thermodynamics of enzymatic mitigation of acrylamide in kochchi kesel chips were also studied. It was concluded that the chitosan-immobilized asparaginase pretreatment of kochchi kesel slices is an effective method for mitigation of acrylamide.

  17. Uptake and elimination of some radionuclides by eggs and fry of rainbow trout, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Honda, Yoshihide

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies on the uptake and elimination of radionuclides, 60 Co, 131 I, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 106 Ru by the advanced fry and the fingerlings of rainbow trout were conducted under laboratory conditions. The general patterns of uptake of 60 Co, 131 I, 144 Ce, 106 RuNO-nitro and -binuclear complexes by both the advanced fry and the fingerlings were similar to each other. On the other hand, the uptake of 137 Cs by the advanced fry was more rapid than that by the fingerlings although the uptake of 106 RuNO-nitro complex by the advanced fry was much slower. The remarkable differences in rate of uptake and turnover rate for 137 Cs and in turnover rate for 144 Ce were observed between the advanced fry and the fingerlings. The concentration factors for 60 Co and 137 Cs in the fry increased with growth of the fish. However, this trend was not necessarily observed for 131 I, 144 Ce and 106 RuNO complexes. In comparison of the tissue uptake of the radionuclides, the high concentration factor for 60 Co, 106 RuNO complexes and 144 Ce in visera including digestive tract were observed, while for 131 I in the gills. (auth.)

  18. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A Hope; Schubert, Brian A

    2010-02-02

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Arby's, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food.

  19. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  20. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya, E-mail: mahardika190@gmail.com; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Jalan Raya Sekaran Gunungpati 50229 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  1. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: formation, toxicological significance and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydic acids are generated in oxidized lipids as a result of decomposition of hydroperoxides by (β-scission reactions. Aldehydes are known to interact with proteins and DNA and to impair enzymatic functions. Aldehydic esters from oxidized lipids were reabsorbed to a significant extent in rats. This paper reviews the mechanism of formation of esterified aldehydic acids in frying oils and their physiological/toxicological effects. The paper also gives an overview of relevant basic analytical techniques that needs to be improved to establish reliable quantitative method (s.

    Ácidos aldehídicos son producidos en lípidos oxidados como resultado de la descomposición de hidroperóxidos por reacciones de (β-escición. Es conocido que los aldehídos interaccionan con las proteínas y el ADN y debilitan las funciones enzimáticas. Los esteres aldehídicos de lípidos oxidados fueron reabsorbidos en una cantidad significativa en ratas. Este artículo revisa los mecanismos de formación de ácidos aldehídicos esterificados en aceites de fritura y sus efectos fisiológicos/toxicológicos. El artículo también ofrece una visión de conjunto de las técnicas analíticas básicas que necesitan ser mejoradas para establecer métodos cuantitativos fiables.

  2. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  3. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-01-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10...

  4. Las claves en el proceso de enseñanza‐aprendizaje de la técnica de judo desde la perspectiva del error: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma The process of teaching‐learning the especific judo technique from the error perspective is the key: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gutiérrez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los errores más frecuentes de las técnicas de judo O Soto Gari y O Soto Guruma, así como clarificar las diferencias existentes entre ambas proyecciones con el fin de mejorar su proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis videográfico -mediante el uso de la metodología observacional- de la ejecución de las técnicas señaladas, siendo éstas efectuadas por alumnos de la Universidad de Vigo que cursaron la asignatura “Deportes de adversario con fines recreativos” durante aproximadamente 4 meses. Los resultados, analizados mediante estadísticos descriptivos con el paquete de software SPSS 12.0.1, muestran, en primer lugar, que O Soto Gari es una técnica donde los sujetos investigados alcanzan una mayor frecuencia y diversidad de errores que en O Soto Guruma, lo cual permite afirmar que esta última, debido a su mayor sencillez técnica, debería utilizarse antes que O Soto Gari en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En segundo lugar, también se ha concluido que, en contra de lo que cabría esperar, no son tantos los errores comunes en ambas proyecciones, y, de éstos, ninguno de ellos corresponde a los más habituales de cada técnica.
    Palabras clave:
    judo, técnica, error, iniciación, O Soto Gari, O Soto Guruma.

    The present study must know the most frequent errors of the O Soto Gari and O Soto Guruma judo techniques, and clarify the existing differences between both projections in order to improve their process of education. An analysis using video-graphics is applied. It is used as observation and recording method for the mentioned judo techniques being exercised. The analysis is carried out by students of the University of Vigo. They attended

  5. Mild mobster / Gary Peach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peach, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Valge Maja küllakutsest president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele vahetult pärast Tallinna rahutusi 2007. a. aprillis. Ülevaade T.H. Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilisest karjäärist, harrastustest. Presidendi ees seisvatest siseriiklikest väljakutsetest. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  6. Gary O's Fence Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  8. Preliminary economic assessment of the use of waste frying oils for biodiesel production in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Elyssa G; Salam, Darine A

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a method for assessing the costs of biodiesel production from waste frying oils in Beirut, Lebanon, was investigated with the aim of developing an economic evaluation of this alternative. A hundred restaurant and hotel enterprises in Beirut were surveyed for promoting them in participating in the biodiesel supply chain, and for data collection on waste frying oils generation, disposal methods and frequency, and acquisition cost. Also, waste frying oils were collected and converted into biodiesel using a one-step base catalyzed transesterification process. Physicochemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were conforming to international standards. Data produced from laboratory scale conversion of waste frying oils to biodiesel, as well as data collected from the only biodiesel plant in Lebanon was used to determine the production cost of biodiesel. Geographic Information System was used to propose a real-time vehicle routing model to establish the logistics costs associated with waste frying oils collection. Comparing scenarios of the configuration collection network of waste frying oils, and using medium-duty commercial vehicles for collection, a logistics cost of US$/L 0.08 was optimally reached. For the calculation of the total cost of biodiesel production, the minimum, average, and maximum values for the non-fixed cost variables were considered emerging 81 scenarios for possible biodiesel costs. These were compared with information on the commercialization of diesel in Lebanon for the years 2011 through 2017. Although competitive with petroleum diesel for years 2011 to 2014, the total biodiesel cost presented less tolerance to declining diesel prices in the recent years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the acquisition cost of waste frying oils is the key factor affecting the overall cost of biodiesel production. The results of this study validate the economic feasibility of waste frying oils' biodiesel production in the studied

  9. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Suroso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Most of the life cycle of tiger prawns were estuarine (Delta Mahakam. In the juvenile stage life in estuarine and the adult stage in marine. The research objective is to assess the potential of the tiger prawn fry catches in the Mahakam Delta, as a source of tiger prawn fry in the Mahakam Delta area farms. Research using interviews and descriptive analysis through monitoring with fishermen. The results showed that the fry tiger prawn from the Delta Mahakam there on the beaches or the edge of the sea where the water is shallow and slightly brackish, as in the Delta Mahakam. Fry can be captured by using rumpon. Tiger prawns fry from Delta Mahakam durability is relatively higher than fry from the hatchery. However, the number and continuity of fry very limited because it depends on the season. Abundance of fry is determined by the number of larvae produced in the wild and their survival is greatly influenced by the availability of food. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46 [How to cite this article: Suroso, B., Hutabarat, J., and Afiati, N. (2013. The Potential of Tiger Prawn Fry from Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan Indonesia, International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,43-46. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.43-46

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation to prevent the spoilage of fried-Kamaboko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H; Siagian, E G [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1979-08-01

    The study was done to determine the effect of irradiation on the shelf life and quality of a fish meat jelly product named as Fried-Kamaboko which is sometimes called as Satsumaage. Fresh samples were packed and sealed in cellophane coated polyvinylchloride bag with nitrogen gas, and irradiated at 0, 300 and 500 krad followed by storage at 10/sup 0/C. The results showed that irradiation of 300 krad extended the shelf life of Fried-Kamaboko to be 20 days, in contrast to unirradiated samples which were kept only 3 to 6 days at 10/sup 0/C. The species of main microorganisms which grew in unirradiated samples were Micrococcus, Moraxella-Acinetobacter, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds. Irradiation of Fried-Kamaboko at 300 krad reduced the aforementioned flora to the yeasts. The most radio-resistant microorganisms of Fried-Kamaboko was brownish black Fungi identified as Spicaria, and its D/sub 10/ value was obtained to be 130 krad. No remarkable difference was observed between the irradiated Fried-Kamaboko and unirradiated ones with respect to the organoleptic evaluation. But off-odor was slightly induced with the dose of 500 krad irradiation.

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation to prevent the spoilage of fried-Kamaboko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Siagian, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The study was done to determine the effect of irradiation on the shelf life and quality of a fish meat jelly product named as Fried-Kamaboko which is sometimes called as Satsumaage. Fresh samples were packed and sealed in cellophane coated polyvinylchloride bag with nitrogen gas, and irradiated at 0, 300 and 500 krad followed by storage at 10 0 C. The results showed that irradiation of 300 krad extended the shelf life of Fried-Kamaboko to be 20 days, in contrast to unirradiated samples which were kept only 3 to 6 days at 10 0 C. The species of main microorganisms which grew in unirradiated samples were Micrococcus, Moraxella-Acinetobacter, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds. Irradiation of Fried-Kamaboko at 300 krad reduced the aforementioned flora to the yeasts. The most radio-resistant microorganisms of Fried-Kamaboko was brownish black Fungi identified as Spicaria, and its D 10 value was obtained to be 130 krad. No remarkable difference was observed between the irradiated Fried-Kamaboko and unirradiated ones with respect to the organoleptic evaluation. But off-odor was slightly induced with the dose of 500 krad irradiation. (author)

  12. A Monte Carlo risk assessment model for acrylamide formation in French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Enda; Butler, Francis; Gormley, Ronan; Brunton, Nigel

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the likely human exposure to the group 2a carcinogen, acrylamide, from French fries by Irish consumers by developing a quantitative risk assessment model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Various stages in the French-fry-making process were modeled from initial potato harvest, storage, and processing procedures. The model was developed in Microsoft Excel with the @Risk add-on package. The model was run for 10,000 iterations using Latin hypercube sampling. The simulated mean acrylamide level in French fries was calculated to be 317 microg/kg. It was found that females are exposed to smaller levels of acrylamide than males (mean exposure of 0.20 microg/kg bw/day and 0.27 microg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although the carcinogenic potency of acrylamide is not well known, the simulated probability of exceeding the average chronic human dietary intake of 1 microg/kg bw/day (as suggested by WHO) was 0.054 and 0.029 for males and females, respectively. A sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of the selection of appropriate cultivars with known low reducing sugar levels for French fry production. Strict control of cooking conditions (correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.35 for frying time and temperature, respectively) and blanching procedures (correlation coefficient -0.25) were also found to be important in ensuring minimal acrylamide formation.

  13. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.

  14. Impact of fried foods on macronutrient intake, with special reference to fat and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry, CJ K.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of protein is known to reduce protein quality and the destruction of certain amino acids. Fish and chips still remain a popular food source in Britain. Little work has been done on the changes in protein quality during fish frying. The paper will present results obtained from the assessment of protein quality using net protein utilisation (NPU in fried and steamed fish. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given stock diet {RM1 expanded, SDS Ltd., Witham, Essex for 7 days at 30 days of age, groups of four were offered one of four diets that differed only in the type of fish and processing used. Diets contained 200g of fish protein, 550g carbohydrate (400g sucrose and 150g corn-meal, 50g mineral and vitamin mix and 200g fat/kg diet. The different fish species used were Cod and Plaice and the processing used was either steaming or frying. Although a fall in NPU was noted in fried fish compared to the steamed fish these changes in NPU could be reduced if the fish was covered with batter prior to frying.

  15. Indoor air quality in a restaurant kitchen using margarine for deep-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Toprak, Melis; Inal, Fikret; Cimrin, Arif H

    2015-10-01

    Indoor air quality has a great impact on human health. Cooking, in particular frying, is one of the most important sources of indoor air pollution. Indoor air CO, CO2, particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, including aldehydes, were measured in the kitchen of a small establishment where a special deep-frying margarine was used. The objective was to assess occupational exposure concentrations for cooks of such restaurants. While individual VOC and PM2.5 concentrations were measured before, during, and after frying events using active sampling, TVOC, PM10, CO, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity were continuously monitored through the whole period. VOC and aldehyde concentrations did not increase to considerable levels with deep-frying compared to the background and public indoor environment levels, whereas PM10 increased significantly (1.85 to 6.6 folds). The average PM2.5 concentration of the whole period ranged between 76 and 249 μg/m(3). Hence, considerable PM exposures could occur during deep-frying with the special margarine, which might be sufficiently high to cause health effects on cooks considering their chronic occupational exposures.

  16. Lack of mutagens in deep-fat-fried foods obtained at the retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Berg, C M; Shoptaugh, N H; Scott, V N

    1982-04-01

    The basic methylene chloride extract from 20 of 30 samples of foods fried in deep fat failed to elicit any mutagenic response that could be detected in the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The basic extracts of the remaining ten samples (all three chicken samples studied, two of the four potato-chip samples, one of four corn-chip samples, the sample of onion rings, two of six doughnuts, and one of three samples of french-fried potato) showed evidence of weak mutagenic activity. In these samples, amounts of the basic extract equivalent to 28.5-57 g of the original food sample were required to produce revertants at levels of 2.6-4.8 times the background level. Only two of the acidic methylene chloride extracts from the 30 samples exhibited mutagenic activity greater than 2.5 times the background reversion level, and in both cases (one corn-chip and one shrimp sample) the mutagenic response was quite weak. The basic extract of hamburgers fried in deep fat in a home-style fryer possessed higher levels of mutagenic activity (13 times the background reversion level). However, the mutagenic activity of deep-fried hamburgers is some four times lower than that of pan-fried hamburgers.

  17. Effect of frying temperature and time on image characterizations of pellet snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; BahramParvar, Maryam; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2015-05-01

    The development of non-destructive methods for the evaluation of food properties has important advantages for the food processing industries. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of frying temperature (150, 170, and 190 °C) and time (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 min) on image properties (L*, a* and b*, fractal dimension, correlation, entropy, contrast and homogeneity) of pellet snacks. Textures were computed separately for eight channels (RGB, R, G, B, U, V, H and S). Enhancing the frying time from 0.5 min to 2.5 min increased the fractal dimension; but its increase from 2.5 min to 4.5 min could not expand the samples. Then, the highest volume of pellet snacks was observed at 2.5 min. Features derived from the image texture contained better information than color features. The best result was for U channel which showed that increasing the frying time increased the contrast, entropy and correlation. Developing the frying temperature up to 170 °C decreased contrast, entropy and correlation of images; however these factors were increased when frying temperature was 190 °C. These results were invert for homogeneity.

  18. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during pan frying of beefsteak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Svendsen, Kristin

    2010-04-01

    Cooking with gas or electric stoves produces fumes, especially during frying, that contain a range of harmful and potentially mutagenic compounds as well as high levels of fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of this study was to see if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher mutagenic aldehydes which were collected in the breathing zone of the cook, could be detected in fumes from the frying of beefsteak. The frying was performed in a model kitchen in conditions similar to those in a Western European restaurant kitchen. The levels of PAHs (16 EPA standard) and higher aldehydes (trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, 2,4-decadienal, trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal, trans-2-decenal, cis-2-decenal, trans-2-undecenal, 2-undecenal) were measured during frying on an electric or gas stove with margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat. The number concentration of particles electric stove causes increased occupational exposure to some of the components in cooking fumes which may cause adverse health effects.

  19. Vocal Fry Use in Adult Female Speakers Exposed to Two Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A; Summers, Connie; Walls, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design. Fifty-eight women from one of three language background groups (functionally monolingual in English, functionally monolingual in Spanish, and Spanish-English bilinguals) living in El Paso, Texas, repeated a list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of English and another list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of Spanish. Perceptual analysis identified each episode of vocal fry. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in their frequency of vocal fry use despite large differences in their amount of English-language exposure. All groups produced more vocal fry when repeating English than when repeating Spanish nonwords. Because the human perceptual system encodes for vocal qualities even after minimal language experience, the widespread use of vocal fry among female residents in the United States likely is owing to mere exposure to English rather than nuanced sociolinguistic motivations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  1. Comparison of three methods for determination of N-nitrosopyrrolidine in fried dry-cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R A; Pensabene, J W; Fiddler, W

    1984-01-01

    The recently developed Eastern Regional Research Center ( ERRC ) dry column chromatographic procedure for determining N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in fried cure-pumped bacon was evaluated for its applicability to fried dry-cured bacon. The method was then compared with 2 established procedures for volatile nitrosamine analysis in cured meat products: the multidetection thermal energy analyzer (MD) method and the mineral oil distillation (MOD) screening procedure. No significant difference (P less than 0.05) in NPYR values was found between the ERRC and MD procedures, but significant differences were found between the ERRC and MOD procedures and between the MOD and MD procedures. No artifactual nitrosamine formation was found in the ERRC procedure, but significant amounts were found in samples analyzed by the MOD procedure. The ERRC method was demonstrated to be rugged and very rapid. It is proposed that the ERRC method replace the MOD method as the official screening procedure for NPYR in fried bacon.

  2. A study on the production of biodiesel from used frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.; Ali, A.S.; Farhan, M.; Shabbir, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to utilize waste frying oil for biodiesel production because it is cheap, easily available and renewable raw material. The used frying oil was analysed for water contents (0.43%) iodine value (52), sponification value (205), free fatty acids 8.7 (Xo) and acid value (0.8 mg KOH/g). Esterification and transesterification were conducted to convert free Fatty acids and triglycerides to methyl ester (biodiesel), respectively. One-step and two-step transertification reactions were carried out to measure the efficiency of these processes for biodiesel production. The biodiesel produced from used frying oil was examined for flash point (185 degree C) kinematic viscosity (4.86 mm/sup 2/s) and specific gravity (0.884 g/mL) that were meeting the limits of ASTM and Thai standards. Hence, it was proved to be a useful technique for biodiesel production at commercial scale. (author)

  3. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  4. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 31 CFR 585.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M). 585.205 Section 585.205 Money and Finance... exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including technical data or other information controlled for export...

  6. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  7. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2010-01-01

    The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...

  8. Formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids in thermoxidized olive and sunflower oils and quantitation in used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Bordeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2004-07-14

    The formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids, arising from oleic and linoleic acids, were investigated in olive oil and conventional sunflower oil, representatives of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, respectively, during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. Six monoepoxy fatty acids, cis-9,10- and trans-9,10-epoxystearate, arising from oleic acid, and cis-9,10-, trans-9,10-, cis-12,13-, and trans-12,13-epoxyoleate, arising from linoleic acid, were analyzed by gas chromatography after oil derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable amounts, ranging from 4.29 to 14.24 mg/g of oil in olive oil and from 5.10 to 9.44 mg/g of oil in sunflower oil, were found after the heating periods assayed. Results showed that the monoepoxides quantitated constituted a major group among the oxidized fatty acid monomers formed at high temperature. For similar levels of degradation, higher contents of the monoepoxides were found in olive oil than in sunflower oil. Ten used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed to determine the contents of the monoepoxides in real frying oil samples. Levels ranged from 3.37 to 14.42 mg/g of oil. Results show that, for similar degradation levels, the monoepoxides were more abundant in the monounsaturated oils than in the polyunsaturated oils.

  9. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Solichatun, Susilowati A. 2013. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 84-100. Frying process is one of the oldest cooking methods and most widely practiced in the world. Frying process is considered as a dry cooking method because the process does not involve water. In frying process, oil conduction occurs at high temperature pressing water out of food in the form of bubbles. Fried foods last longer due to reduced water levels lead less decomposition by microbes, even fried foods can be enhanced nutritional value and quality of appearance. Food frying technology can extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables and frying oil enhances the flavors of the products, however, improper frying oil can have harmful effects on human health. Vacuum frying is a promising technology that may be an option for the production of novel snacks such as fruit and vegetable crisps that present the desired quality and respond to new health trends. This technique fry food at a low temperature and pressure so that the nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the quality of the used oil does not quickly declined and became saturated oils that are harmful to human health. This technique produces chips that have physical, physico-chemical, chemical, and sensory generally better than conventional deep-fat frying methods.

  10. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdemir, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%, water activity (0.1833–0.5936, hardness (3243–4056 g, L (42.01–65.79, a* (10.56–19.24, b* (30.80–42.20, free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%, pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1, total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea, antioxidant capacity (6.53–31.61 mmol Trolox·100g−1 chickpea, absorbed fat (13.46–13.92%, and caloric value (453.17–488.49 kcal·100g−1 chickpea. Hexanal, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, nonanal, benzaldehyde, p-cymene, and carvacrol were the major volatile compounds determined. The color, hardness, moisture content, water activity, free fatty acids, and peroxide value of the products were monitored for three months at room temperature. Consumer acceptance tests were conducted to reveal the changes which occurred during the storage period. All the products developed and evaluated in this study show potential in the market and industry, with the plain type being the preferred product.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron el desarrollo de nuevos aperitivos elaborados mediante fritura de garbanzos enteros y la evaluación de las propiedades y estabilidad de los nuevos productos durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados mas destacados fueron: contenido de humedad (3,48–9,19%, actividad de agua (0,1833–0,5936, dureza (3243–4056 g, L (42,01 a 65,79, a* (10.56–19,24, b* (30,80–42,20, ácidos grasos libres (0,2195–0,3467%, índice de peróxido (3,167 a 5,25 meq O2·kg −1, fenoles total (22,34–37,34 mgGA·100g−1 garbanzo, capacidad antioxidante (6.53– 31.61 mmol Trolox·100 g−1 garbanzos, grasa absorbida (13,46–13,92%, y el valor calórico (453,17 a 488,49 kcal·100 g−1 de garbanzos. Además, los componentes volátiles más importantes

  11. USA välisminister Daniel Fried : "Me ei taha nõrka Venemaad"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 12. mai 2007, lk. 5. USA asevälisminister Euroopa ja Euraasia küsimustes Daniel Fried märkis Saksamaal toimunud Euroopa foorumil, et Venemaaga suhtlemiseks ja koostöö tegemiseks on vaja luua ühine koostööraamistik

  12. Modeling of pancake frying with non-uniform heating source applied to domestic cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Serrano, F.; Sagues, C.; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The design of domestic cooking stoves is usually optimized by performing time-consuming cooking experiments, often using frying of pancakes as a standard. Simulation of cooking processes may reduce the number of experiments used in the development of the cooking stoves, saving time and resources....

  13. Controlling the frying stability of vegetable oils with tocopherols and phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are usually oxidatively stable for salad oils; however, in high stability applications such as frying, these oils are not resistant to the deteriorative processes of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization. To solve this problem in the past, oils were hydrogenated an...

  14. Order-α corrections to the decay rate of orthopositronium in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.; Salahuddin, A.A.; Schalm, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    The order-α correction to the decay rate of orthopositronium is obtained using the Fried-Yennie gauge. The result (mα 7 /π 2 ) [-1.987 84(11)] is consistent with but more accurate than the results of previous evaluations

  15. Electron beam-induced Fries rearrangement of arylsulfonamides and arylsulfonates in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Jun; Yuasa, Kanako; Yamashita, Takashi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Yoshida, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam (EB)-induced reactions of organic crystals containing a carbonyl or a sulfonyl group have been investigated. The EB irradiation of benzenesulfonanilide (BSA) in the crystalline state induced the Fries rearrangement to yield o- and p-aminodiphenylsulfones as the major and minor products, respectively. Several BSA derivatives also had the same reactivity, while benzanilide as the corresponding carbonyl compound did not rearrange under the same conditions. These results showed that the S-N bond could be cleaved selectively by EB irradiation but the C-N bond couldn't, which could take place only by the use of EB. The EB irradiation of phenyl p-toluenesulfonate (PTS) crystals gave not only Fries-type products but also the oxidation product. By comparing with the reactivity of liquid phenyl benzenesulfonate, the EB-induced Fries rearrangement was suggested to proceed under crystalline lattice restrictions. The G-values of arylsulfonamides and arylsulfonates were in the range of ca. 1-2 molecules per 100 eV of absorbed energy. This is the first Fries rearrangement via direct excitation by EB irradiation. (author)

  16. Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, John

    2002-01-01

    Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

  17. Marking pike fry otoliths with alizarin complexone and strontium : an evaluation of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Grønkjær, P.; Nielsen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated that both alizarin complexone and strontium are useful in mass marking of pike Esox lucius fry otoliths. Visual detection of alizarin complexone marks was considered more reliable than the quantitative analysis of strontium for differentiating marked and unmarked...

  18. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  19. [Processing and characterization of fried beans varieties Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was develop a snack product based on fried beans. For this purpose, three bean varieties were used: Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia. The beans were treated with two soaking solutions, EDTA disodium salt and a mixture of NaOH/water, to determine if they had some effect on the product's final quality. On the other hand, before the beans were fried, some grains were given thermal treatment (blanched), leaving the other ones without this process (raw); this also had an effect on the final quality of the fried beans. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the final fried products were determined. For three beans varieties, the blanched products had higher water content, higher oil absorption, lower protein content and larger water activity. The soaking solutions had no effect on the quality of manufactured products. The sensory analysis determined that the best treatment for Pinto 114 and Tórtola Inia was NaOH/water-raw grain, and EDTA raw grain for Suave 85.

  20. Acrylamide content in French fries prepared in households: A pilot study in Spanish homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesias, Marta; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Holgado, Francisca; Morales, Francisco J

    2018-09-15

    An observational cross-sectional pilot study in 73 Spanish households was conducted to evaluate the impact of consumer practices on the formation of acrylamide during the preparation of French fries from fresh potatoes applying one stage frying. 45.2% of samples presented acrylamide concentrations above the benchmark level for French fries (500 µg/kg). 6.9% of samples exceeded 2000 µg/kg and the 95th percentile was 2028 µg/kg. The median and average values were significantly higher than the EFSA report for this food category, suggesting that the total exposure to acrylamide by the population could be underestimated. In this randomised scenario of cooking practices, the content of reducing sugar and asparagine did not explain the acrylamide levels. However, the chromatic parameter a ∗ of the fried potato was a powerful tool to classify the samples according to the acrylamide benchmark level regardless of the agronomical characteristics of the potato or the consumer practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  2. On the mechanism by which oil uptake decreases crispy/crunchy behaviour of fried products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    A large problem for fried snack products with a crispy crust and a soft moist interior is that the crust often loses its crispy character fast, in the order of 3¿20 min. As known during cooling of these snacks adherent oil will be sucked into the crust. The presence of oil in a cellular solid crispy

  3. Effect of Boiling and Frying on the Total Carbohydrate, Vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the total carbohydrate content of the boiled and fried sweet and Irish potatoes compared with their raw tubers. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the vitamin C content of the boiled and ...

  4. Selection Criteria and Methods for Testing Different Surface Materials for Contact Frying Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya

    Inner surfaces of industrial process equipment for food are often coated to give the surfaces particular properties with respect to adhesion and cleanability. Existing coating materials (PTFE (Teflon®) or silicone based polymers) suffer from drawbacks when used in contact frying, because these co...... surface materials for contact frying processes. The surfaces selected for this purpose cover a wide spectrum of materials that range from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), aluminium (Al Mg 5754), PTFE......, an experimental rig has been constructed which enabled a controlled fouling of different coatings on steel and aluminium substrates under realistic frying conditions. A subjective rating procedure was employed for screening different surfaces according to their non-stick properties when used for frying of a model...... defects and surface roughness play a significant role. The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by performing abrasive wear experiments. The ceramic coatings: TiAlN and ZrN were found to show the best wear resistance properties. The experiments also revealed the poor wear resistance of stainless...

  5. A New Device for Studying Deep-Frying Behavior of Batters and Resulting Crust Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The formation and properties of a crust during and after deep frying are difficult to study. Batter pickup (the amount of batter adhering to a product) and core properties affect crust formation and properties of the crust in such way that it is difficult to compare batters of different viscosity or

  6. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  7. Statistical Quality Assessment of Pre-fried Carrots Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is increasingly being used for quality assessment of food items due to its non-invasive benefits. In this paper, we investigate the use of multispectral images of pre-fried carrots, to detect changes over a period of 14 days. The idea is to distinguish changes in quality from...

  8. Effect of deep frying on physicochemical properties of some edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heating on some quality characteristics of sunflower oil, cotton seed oil and a mixture (1:1) of both oils have been investigated. Every sample was heated for up to 10 hours. The study included changes in colour, viscosity, some chemical properties (acid value, peroxide value, saponification number and iodine value), fatty acids and hydrocarbons composition. The colour of the three studied oils was changed as a result of deep frying at 180 degree C for up to 10 hours. Also, the viscosity of all oil samples showed gradual increase from the 1st up to the 10th hour of frying. The acid, peroxide and saponification values of oil samples were increased by extending the frying periods whereas iodine value was decreased up to 10 hours frying. The fatty acids composition was unstable and changed as a result of heat treatments. Saturated fatty acids were increased while unsaturated fatty acids were decreased. Furthermore, the hydrocarbon contents of the three oils showed obvious change after 10 hours of boiling. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that extending the time of heating resulted in significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the oil and sunflower oil appear to be the most resistant to thermal treatment (2-3 hours

  9. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Color and chemical properties of oil used for deep frying on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Chiue, Hiroko; Mori, Terutosi

    2012-01-01

    Acid value (AV), polar compound content (PC), carbonyl value (CV) and Gardner color of oil used for deep-frying in kitchens at a supermarket, lunch chain store, restaurant, eating house, and hospital were analyzed. All AVs obtained but one (3.38) were within the limit set by the Food Sanitation Act of Japan (AV ≤ 3, peroxide value ≤ 30). However, some oil samples had a PC over 25%, which is beyond the limit legislated by some European countries. When the relation between the Gardner color and the AV, PC, or CV of the oil was investigated, well correlated logarithmic regression curves were obtained from the oil of all kitchens except the hospital kitchen. However, the use of lard-containing canola oil without oil replenishment in the eating house increased color values rapidly. All of the values obtained from pure vegetable oil used almost daily were plotted on a graph. It was found that kitchen-by-kitchen differences in fryer, vegetable oil, frying temperature, heating time, and amounts and kinds of foods fried did not influence the relation between Gardner color value versus AV, PC or CV. In conclusion, frying vegetable oil used in large-scale kitchens without official inspection can be better controlled with Gardner color determination by the operators and administrators. This would improve the quality of the oil ingested by facility patrons.

  11. Performance of cellulose derivatives in deep-fried battered snacks: Oil barrier and crispy properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Sanz, T.; Steringa, D.W.; Salvador, A.; Fiszman, S.M.; Vliet, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The performance of batters containing cellulose derivatives (methyl cellulose (A4M), three hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses (E4M, F4M and K4M) with different degree of hydroxypropyl and/or methyl substitution and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) to produce crispy deep-fried snacks crusts was studied by

  12. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  13. Effects of rice batter on oil uptake and sensory quality coated fried okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with batters of flour sources, including rice flour, a mixture of rice flour, and small amounts of pregelatinized rice flour (PGRF), and, as a control, the traditional wheat flour. The addition of PGRF, up to 8%, enhanced batter viscosity and the coating properties...

  14. Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol

  15. Cuestión de tiempo: Michael Fried y el tiempo del arte moderno A matter of time: Michael Fried and modernist art the time of modernist art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz Soto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XIX, autores fundacionales del formalismo, como Fiedler o Hildebrand, contrapusieron estrictamente las artes plásticas, «puramente visuales», a las artes verbales del discurso, proscribiéndoles la narración y disociándolas de la temporalidad: se trata del «principio de exclusión del tiempo», vinculado al formalismo. Más tarde, el crítico «modernista» de arte Clement Greenberg planteó la instantaneidad, en tanto que opuesta a la duración, como modalidad ideal de la experiencia artística. Pero el historiador y crítico de arte Michael Fried, en sus textos de los años 60 sobre arte abstracto, se distancia de Greenberg, desarrollando un discurso sobre la temporalidad en las artes plásticas, con nociones como «tiempo visual»; y en sus posteriores textos historiográficos investiga las modalidades temporales de la representación pictórica. La aparente paradoja entre la crítica de Fried a la hipóstasis «literalista» de la duración en las tardovanguardias y el papel crucial que concede a Manet y a la instantaneidad en el origen del arte moderno, la resolveremos atendiendo a su reivindicación de la temporalidad durativa de «lo cotidiano». Así cabe comprender la concepción de la modalidad temporal característica de la modernidad y del arte moderno, a la que apunta su noción teórica de presentness.In the nineteenth century, seminal authors of Formalism, like Fiedler or Hildebrand, strictly compared the «purely visual» plastic arts to the discursive arts of verbal language, ruling out narrativity from plastic arts, which they dissociated from temporality - the formalist «principle of exclusion of time». Later on, «modernist» art critic Clement Greenberg claimed that instantaneousness, as opposed to duration, was the ideal modality for artistic experience. Art critic and historian Michael Fried did not share Greenberg's position, but developed instead a discourse about time in plastic arts. In his early

  16. Haïti : les pouvoirs de l'art dans Le Sang et la Mer de Gary Victor et La Belle Amour humaine de Lyonel Trouillot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Gannier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l'auteure pose une question en écho aux événements de janvier 2010 : "comment écrire encore après les catastrophes ?". Elle en prend pour témoins les œuvres de Gary Victor et de Lyonel Trouillot (respectivement parues en 2010 et 2011 qui, pour l'une, raconte l'histoire d'une orpheline, Hérodiane, au parcours difficile, et rapporte, pour l'autre, l'enquête d'Anaïse, une étrangère, sur les traces de sa famille haïtienne. Odile Gannier analyse la construction de l'intrigue et des personnages, mais aussi les tonalités et les genres représentés dans les deux œuvres, ainsi que leurs multiples similitudes avec d'autres formes de production artistique (la peinture en particulier.

  17. "No justice, no peace" and the right to self-determination: an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gary; Muhammed, Naeema; Slatin, Craig; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2014-01-01

    This is an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed, leaders of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network. Each of them talks about where they grew up, their politicization, how their paths crossed, their work together after Hurricane Floyd, and the unique challenges of organizing for social justice for black communities in the South. We learn of their fight against concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), primarily for the hog trade, and they take us up to North Carolina's Moral Monday protests of 2013 against legislation that threatens voting rights, public education, access to medical services, unemployment benefits, workers rights, occupational and environmental health, and women's access to reproductive health care. We are grateful to these two friends of New Solutions for their contribution to the journal, and we hope that their insights regarding struggles for social and environmental justice can serve as guides for us all.

  18. Effect of phenolic extracts on trans fatty acid formation during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, TH

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil (blend of refined and virgin and sunflower oil containing added methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary and olive vegetable water or the synthetic antioxidant BHA in combination with the extracts, were used in a frying process. Eight frying operations were performed at 180 °C with 24 hr intervals between fryings. During the frying period the trans fatty acids (TFA by capillary column gas chromatography (CC-GC were determined. Trans fatty acids of oleic and linoleic were increased with frying time in both the control oil samples. The rosemary additives (extracts alone and in combination with BHA decreased the level of trans fatty acids (mainly elaidic acid, while the addition of olive vegetable water did not have any effect.

    Aceite de oliva (mezcla de virgen y refinado y aceite de girasol con extractos fenólicos de romero seco y aguas de vegetación de aceituna, o con el antioxidante sintético BHA en combinación con los extractos, se usaron en proceso de fritura. Se realizaron 8 operaciones de fritura a 180°C con intervalos de 24 h. Se determinaron los ácidos grasos trans (TFA por cromatografía de gases en columna capilar (CC-GC. Los ácidos grasos trans de oleico y linoleico aumentaron con el tiempo de fritura en las muestras de aceite control. Los extractos de romero, solos y en combinación con BHA, disminuyeron los niveles de ácidos grasos trans (principalmente ácido elaídico mientras que la adicción de aguas de vegetación de aceituna no tuvo ningún efecto.

  19. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  20. KIT RELIABILITY FOR CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF OILS IN FOOD FRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oloni Kotchoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Benin, West Africa, frying is one of the major ways of cooking. However, the chemical composition of the oil used in the food frying process contains unsaturated fatty acids and other by-products that compromise the oil quality making it toxic and often carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to check the reliability of kits in controlling three frying yams oil quality. The food frying was performed using oil in a discontinuous heating period of 15 min followed by three hours of cooling period for two experimental days. The temperature, and the oil chemical samplings were assessed with the kit every thirty minutes. In addition, selected oil chemical characteristics were determined to quantitatively and qualitatively appreciate the chemical modifications during the fast food versus the rapid food processing methods. Our findings indicate that water and volatile chemical compounds vary significantly for the first day of analysis from 0.18% to 1.6% for groundnut oil; from 0.14% to 1.4% for palm oil and from 0.17% to 1.6% for cotton oils. We detected a decrease of iodine index to 25%; 35.31% and 27.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. However, the peroxide index increases to 55.33%; 61.90% and 57.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. The increases of acid and saponification indices were also observed. Under conjugated effect of water temperature contained in the yam and air contact, the chemical characteristics of oil vary with the frying time. Our results reveal concordance consistent data with both the rapid methods and laboratory data set analysis.

  1. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Promoting growth of fry and adult fish by irradiating fish embryos with low-dose of Ra-Be neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongcheng; Zhang Yuhua; Wu Jilan

    1994-01-01

    Proper neutron dose can stimulate fries to grow. The optimum neutron fluence is from 9.2 x 10 5 cm -2 to 18 x 10 5 cm -2 . The yield of fries is increased by 16%-24% (silver carp fries) and 6%-30% (carp fries). The cultivated period of the treated silver carp fries is shortened by 28-45 days (1/3 to 1/2 period). The irradiated embryos of silver carp and carp are reared and produced for commercial adult fish in 1992

  3. Emprego de quatro exames imunológicos na determinação da prevalência da doença de chagas nos garis do serviço de limpeza urbana do distrito federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Tinoco

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da infecção chagásica em 368 garis do Serviço de Limpeza Urbana (SLU do Distrito Federal foi inicialmente indicada pelos exames de hemaglutinação e imunofluorescência, quando encontrou-se 32,1% e 47,6% de resultados positivos, respectivamente, para cada exame. Em vista das discrepâncias obsevadas. utilizou-se o teste cutâneo com o antígeno T12E para esclarecimento do diagnóstico em 15,5% dos que tinham apenas um teste sorológico positivo. O teste cutâneo foi positivo em 38,6% dos garis. A análise dos resultados de 183 garis mostrou 47% dos casos com três exames concordantes positivos. Mais 19, 7% tiveram dois exames concordantes positivos. Porém, 33,3% dos garis tinham apenas um dos três exames positivo. Empregou-se também o "immunoblot" na tentativa de esclarecer o diagnóstico nos 61 casos com apenas um resultado positivo. Foram encontrados 37,5% (3/8 dos casos positivos pela hemaglutinação, 11,5% (3/26 pelo teste cutâneo, e apenas 3,7% (1/27 pela imunofluorescência. Após a adição desses casos positivos pelo "immunoblot", o total de chagásicos passou a ser de 129, ou seja, 35%/ dos garis da amostra estudada.

  4. Differences in Bacterial Population in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbum Fry after Transfer from Incubator to Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum fry from a commercial freshwater hatchery, along with important water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, was analysed. Samples for bacteriological analysis were taken from gill, heart and kidney, from the third to the eighth week after hatching. Pure bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, with Gram staining and biochemical tests. For final identification, the APILAB Plus programme (bioMérieux, France was used. The bacterial populations of rainbow trout fry changed depending on age. Most of the bacterial colonies were cultured from the gills (64.4 %, rather than the heart (21.8 % and kidney (13.8 %. The bacterial community of fry gills from an incubator was composed mostly of Gram-positive bacteria such as Renibacterium salmoninarum, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After the transfer of fry from incubator into the pools the Gram-negative bacteria increased in number and became the dominant microflora of rainbow trout fry and comprised more than 95 % of its bacterial flora. Flavibacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram-negative genera in fry in the incubator, whereas Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were the main isolates from rainbow trout fry until the end of the experiment.

  5. MODEL PERUBAHAN VOLUME KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PROSES PENGGORENGAN SECARA VAKUM [Model for Volume Changes in Fruit Chips during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion and puffing are specific characteristics of fried products critical for consumer preferences. To obtain expanded and puffed dried products that fit well with consumer acceptance criteria, it is necessary to pay attention to the process conditions which change the raw material characteristics during frying. The important changes include volume and density ratio of the products during frying. Hypothetically, these changes are due to water vaporization and the decrease dry matter in the products. The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical model of volume and density ratio changes for jack fruit during vacuum frying as a function of water and starch content reductions. Samples were vacuum fried at 70–100OC and pressure of 80-90 kPa for 15–60 min. The parameters observed were volume and density as well as water and starch contents of samples before and after vacuum frying. The results showed that the developed model can be used to predict changes in volume and density ratio of jack fruit during vacuum frying.

  6. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon

  7. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  8. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p -oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  9. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  10. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  11. Effect of whole wheat flour on the quality, texture profile, and oxidation stability of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinlei; Zhou, Sumei; Yi, Cuiping; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-12-01

    The effects of whole wheat flour (WWF) on pasting properties of instant fried noodle dry mix and quality of final product were investigated in this research. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by WWF at different levels. The peak and final viscosities were significantly and negatively correlated to WWF substitution level. With increasing WWF level, the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and resilience values of instant fried noodles decreased by 11.63, 16.23, 16.67, 20.00%, respectively. WWF darkened noodle's surface color and increased its oil content (26.63%). A porous and less uniformed structure of the WWF instant fried noodles was observed by a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the WWF incorporation lowered peroxide values of the instant fried noodles during storage. In conclusion, even though the oil content increased, WWF was helpful to inhibit the oil oxidation and produce instant fried noodles with softer texture and less sticky surface. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by whole wheat flour (WWF), which is rich in dietary fibers, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds. The addition of WWF delayed the retrogradation tendency of starch in the dry mix. WWF-added instant noodles had softer texture, less sticky surface, and lower peroxide value. Based on the results of this study, the refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle could be partially replaced by WWF to make noodles with better texture profile and higher consumer acceptance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda S; Sampaio, Geni R; Keller, Laura M; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Chávez, Davy W H; Torres, Elizabeth A F S; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation. Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Modification of the FRI crack growth model formulation from a mathematical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki; Koshiishi, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The FRI model of crack growth, which incorporates mechanical properties into the slip oxidation mechanism of crack advance, is an extension of the well-known Ford-Andresen model. When the exponent of the oxidation current decay curve is set close to 1, however, the FRI model gives an infinite crack growth rate. Here, the oxidation decay curve integral is revised to eliminate this divergence, and modified crack growth rate equations are derived. Also presented here is a procedure for determining the oxidation current parameters from the curve-fitting to measurements of crack growth rate. Parameter value determination and crack growth calculations are illustrated for cold-worked Type 316L stainless steel. (author)

  14. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooking oil. Determination of change in the texture of oil during the oil deterioration by device Texturometer TA.XT Plus and determination the peroxide value by STN EN ISO 3960:2007. The work is also evaluating the results of the studied parameters. In all compared cases based on the content of the TPM showed higher heat resistance oil Fritol and sample of oil stored in the refrigerator.doi:10.5219/210

  15. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  16. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (−20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content...... storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again...... not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46–3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable...

  17. Influence of organic diets and probiotics on an experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    following exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the Danish project OPTIFISH is to optimize growth and survival for organic cultured rainbow trout. OPTIFISH investigates how organic vs. non-organic diet types as well as diets with or without probiotics affect the intestine, the intestinal...... of fry to pathogens, e.g. F .psychrophilum. In the current experiment four diet types were tested on fry, a conventional type (Inicio®, BioMar A/S) with and without probiotics, as well as an organic type with and without probiotic. Bactocell® (Lallemand) was used as the probiotic. Studies were done...... been fed diets that were organic or conventional nor if the feed had been added probiotic. No significance in mortalities was seen between the diet groups. The bacteriological examinations showed that the bacterium had entered the fish, as it was found in inner organs in one fourth of the sampled fish...

  18. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  19. A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

  20. Data on kinetic, energy and emission performance of biodiesel from waste frying oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio Catureba da Silva Filho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article “Environmental and techno-economic considerations on biodiesel production from waste frying oil in São Paulo city” (Silva Filho et al., 2018 [1]. This article presents the variation of the concentration of waste frying oil (WFO with the reaction time and temperature during the transesterification of WTOs collected in the residences and restaurants of the city of São Paulo. Then, the biodiesel samples were mixed with the S-10 diesel oil in order to obtain the B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B75 and B100 blends, which were tested in a diesel engine and their power, fuel consumption and gas emissions (CO, CO2 and SO2 have been measured to verify their greenhouse effect and energy efficiency. Keywords: Biodiesel, Kinetic curves, Greenhouse gas emission, Energy efficiency

  1. One-loop renormalization and the properties of radiative corrections in the Fried-Yennie gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenbojm, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.; Ehjdes, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    One-loop radiative corrections in the Fried-Yennie gauge are investigated. It is shown that the usual on-mass-shell subtraction may be performed in this gauge without use of the infrared photon mass. The behaviour of the diagrams with corrections near the mass-shell is explored, this behaviour turns out to be in the Freid-Yennie gauge milder than in any other gauge and milder than the behaviour of the corresponding graphs without radiative corrections

  2. Effects of processing and storage conditions of cocoyam strips on the quality of fries

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntowo, Oyindamola; Obadina, Adewale O.; Sobukola, Olajide P.; Adegunwa, Mojisola O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effects of blanching time and temperature on the sensory and textural properties of frozen cocoyam strips were studied for cocoyam varieties. The most preferred variety after sensory evaluation was blanched at 90?C for 5?min, reproduced, and frozen at a temperature of ?18?C for storage studies over a period of 12?weeks with Irish potato as control. Sensory evaluation and instrumental texture analysis of frozen fried samples were conducted at 3?weeks intervals for 12?weeks. Sensor...

  3. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed...

  4. Evaluating non-stick properties of different surface materials for contact frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate non-stick and cleaning properties of the coatings. In accordance with industry standards pancake was selected as the food model for the non-stick properties. The performance of different frying surfaces (stainless steel, aluminium, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and three ceramic coatings with two...... on their non-stick properties, so that the smoother surfaces gave a higher force of adhesion between pancake and surface....

  5. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Loss in tocopherols and oxidative stability during the frying of frozen cassava chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsini, Mara S.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at verifying tocopherols losses and oxidative stability changes in vegetable oils used in discontinuous frying. The frying of frozen cassava chips was carried out in a household electric frying pan, where the oil was heated to a temperature of 180°C for 25 hours, with fresh oil replacement. The results obtained from the analytical determinations were submitted to variance analysis, in a factorial scheme, using a completely randomized design, making it possible to determine the influence of the type of oil and frying times on changes in the oil. The data show that the smallest changes occur in palm oil, which is more saturated. For sunflower and cottonseed oils, which are more unsaturated, there was a clear decrease in both tocopherol concentration and oxidative stability.El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los cambios en la concentración de tocoferoles y la evolución de la alteración oxidativa en aceites vegetales utilizados en fritura discontinua. La fritura de palitos de mandioca congelados fue realizada en una freidora eléctrica doméstica, en la cual el aceite fue calentando a 180°C, durante 25 horas, con reposición de aceite fresco. Los resultados obtenidos de las determinaciones analíticas fueron sometidos a análisis de variancia, en esquema factorial para determinar la influencia de los factores aceite y tiempo de fritura sobre las alteraciones en los aceites. Los resultados muestran que las menores alteraciones ocurren para el aceite de palma, más saturado. Para los aceites de algodón y girasol, más insaturados, se verificó que, conforme disminuyó la concentración de tocoferoles, disminuye la estabilidad oxidativa.

  7. Inquiring into Appreciative Inquiry: A Conversation With David Cooperrider and Ronald Fry

    OpenAIRE

    Grieten, Styn; Lambrechts, Frank; Bouwen, René; Huybrechts, Jolien; Fry, Ronald; Cooperrider, David

    2018-01-01

    David Cooperrider and Ronald Fry are professors of Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University. CWRU’s Department of Organizational Behavior is consistently acknowledged as one of the best in the world by the Financial Times. Together with their mentor, Suresh Srivastva, they created Appreciative Inquiry over 30 years ago. Since then, Appreciative Inquiry has been extensively applied world-wide, and many exciting results have been achieved ...

  8. A statistical regression model for the estimation of acrylamide concentrations in French fries for excess lifetime cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Wei-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Human exposure to acrylamide (AA) through consumption of French fries and other foods has been recognized as a potential health concern. Here, we used a statistical non-linear regression model, based on the two most influential factors, cooking temperature and time, to estimate AA concentrations in French fries. The R(2) of the predictive model is 0.83, suggesting the developed model was significant and valid. Based on French fry intake survey data conducted in this study and eight frying temperature-time schemes which can produce tasty and visually appealing French fries, the Monte Carlo simulation results showed that if AA concentration is higher than 168 ppb, the estimated cancer risk for adolescents aged 13-18 years in Taichung City would be already higher than the target excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), and that by taking into account this limited life span only. In order to reduce the cancer risk associated with AA intake, the AA levels in French fries might have to be reduced even further if the epidemiological observations are valid. Our mathematical model can serve as basis for further investigations on ELCR including different life stages and behavior and population groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The changes of astaxanthin content and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) due to processing: boiling, smoking and frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    Food processing using high temperatures can cause changes in pigment color and chemical characteristics in food stuffs, including prawn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in pigment and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn caused by boiling, smoking and frying. Ten kg of tiger prawn was boiled, smoked and fried at the temperature of ± 100 °C for ± 10 min. The results showed that boiling, smoking and frying gave a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the astaxanthin pigment, pH, moisture, protein, salt content, Aw and color. The content of astaxanthin pigments in fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 132.79 ± 1.5 μg·g-1 82.89 ± 0.92 μg·g-1 78.28 ± 0.1 μg·g-1 and 91.35 ± 2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The value of °Hue on fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 87.85° 52.5° 55.94° and 53.98°. The tiger prawn processed by the smoking method has preferable by panelist rather than processed by boiling and frying.

  10. Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Detailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data. The results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did. In the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  12. Effect of acclimation on the temperature tolerance of young muskellunge fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, K.C.; Spotila, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature tolerances of newly hatched muskellunge fry (Esox masquinongy) were determined in the laboratory. Three groups of fry were reared in a closed tank system under controlled environmental conditions for 31 days at 7, 15, and 25 0 C. The photoperiod was 12 hr of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness (L--D, 12:12). Biweekly water samples were taken to monitor the closed tank systems. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, organic and nitrate nitrogen, phosphates, and ammonia, all of which were in normal concentrations. Critical thermal maximum (CTM) was used to indicate temperature tolerance. Experimental fish reared at 25 0 C exhibited the highest temperature tolerance (33.2 to 36.1 0 C) throughout their development. The CTM values for the 15 0 C experimental fish ranged from 29.8 to 34.4 0 C. These fish exhibited a decrease in temperature tolerance during their swim-up stage, followed by a slow recovery period indicated by a general increase in CTM values. Two days after the experiment began, 7 0 C experimental fry entered a torpid state that lasted for 10 days and was followed by a general decrease in thermal tolerance and a high mortality rate. The CTM values for this group ranged from an initial high of 34.0 0 C on the first day to 27.2 0 C at the termination of the experiment. Development never reached the free-swimming stage

  13. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  14. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of koose, a deep-fat fried cowpea cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Serem, June C; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2017-12-15

    Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The phenolic acids identified included benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The predominant flavonoid classes were flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Deep-fat frying of the cowpea pastes decreased their TPC, radical scavenging capacities and total quantified flavonoids. The koose inhibited radical-induced oxidative cellular and DNA damage. It is concluded that koose is a potential functional food that can contribute to alleviating radical-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiasarán, Iciar; Abella, Elena; Gatta, Giulia; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-06-28

    The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries' values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered " trans free products". This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.

  16. [Edmonton Frail Scale in Colombian older people. Comparison with the Fried criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramírez, Jairo Uriel; Cadena Sanabria, Miguel Oswaldo; Ochoa, Miguel Enrique

    The Edmonton Frailty Scale was developed in Alberta (Canada). It has been applied in different scenarios, such as acute units, day hospitals, and outpatient care. There are no studies published describing the usefulness of this scale in Colombia. A cross-sectional study and secondary diagnostic test analysis was designed with the objective of studying the criterion validity of the Edmonton Frail Scale using Fried's frailty criteria as standard. Patients 60 years old and over from the community were included. Patients with severe dementia, limited mobility, and unable to perform the tests were excluded. The study included 101 patients from the community in Floridablanca, Colombia. The mean age was 68.9 years, and 74% were women. The median walking speed was 1.1m/sec. According to the Fried's criteria, 46% were vigorous elderly, and the prevalence of frailty was 7.9%. Using the EFS, 78% were vigorous elderly, with a prevalence of frailty of 8.9%. Taking 6 or more points as a cut-off, the sensitivity of this scale was 75% and had a specificity of 88%. A similar frequency of frailty was found on applying the two measurement scales. It is important to highlight the multidimensional view of the Edmonton scale, complementing the data of the most physical and sarcopenia-centred phenotype of Fried's criteria. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of L-asparaginase on acrylamide mitigation in a fried-dough pastry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukurová, Kristína; Morales, Francisco J; Bednáriková, Alena; Ciesarová, Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    A dough resembling traditional Spanish rosquillas was used as a model to represent classical fried-dough pastry to investigate the effects of asparaginase and heat treatment on amino acid levels and acrylamide mitigation. Wheat-based dough was deep fried at 180 and 200 degrees C for 4, 6, and 8 min. Two recipes were formulated by addition of different asparaginase levels (100 and 500 U/kg flour) to the dough. The temperature/time profile of the frying process, moisture, sugars, amino acids, acrylamide, and some indicators of the Maillard reaction (hydroxymethylfurfural, color, free fluorescence compounds, and browning) were determined to investigate the extent of the reaction and the effect on reactants. At the both levels of asparaginase used, 96-97% of the asparagine present was converted to aspartic acid, and consequently the acrylamide level was very efficiently reduced (up to 90%). The asparaginase also affected the content of glutamine and glutamic acid in dough, resulting in a 37% increase in glutamic acid compared with the untreated sample. Concerning color, browning and Maillard reaction parameters, no significant changes between untreated and enzymatically treated samples were observed, pointing out the potential industrial and domestic enzyme application.

  18. Quadrature demodulation based circuit implementation of pulse stream for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoupeng, Song; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Converting ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream is the key step of finite rate of innovation (FRI) sparse sampling. At present, ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming techniques are mainly based on digital algorithms. No hardware circuit that can achieve it has been reported. This paper proposes a new quadrature demodulation (QD) based circuit implementation method for forming an ultrasonic pulse stream. Elaborating on FRI sparse sampling theory, the process of ultrasonic signal is explained, followed by a discussion and analysis of ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming methods. In contrast to ultrasonic signal envelope extracting techniques, a quadrature demodulation method (QDM) is proposed. Simulation experiments were performed to determine its performance at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The circuit was then designed, with mixing module, oscillator, low pass filter (LPF), and root of square sum module. Finally, application experiments were carried out on pipeline sample ultrasonic flaw testing. The experimental results indicate that the QDM can accurately convert ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream, and reverse the original signal information, such as pulse width, amplitude, and time of arrival. This technique lays the foundation for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling directly with hardware circuitry. (paper)

  19. Planning for Production of Freshwater Fish Fry in a Variable Climate in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppanunchai, Anuwat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Lebel, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Provision of adequate numbers of quality fish fry is often a key constraint on aquaculture development. The management of climate-related risks in hatchery and nursery management operations has not received much attention, but is likely to be a key element of successful adaptation to climate change in the aquaculture sector. This study explored the sensitivities and vulnerability of freshwater fish fry production in 15 government hatcheries across Northern Thailand to climate variability and evaluated the robustness of the proposed adaptation measures. This study found that hatcheries have to consider several factors when planning production, including: taking into account farmer demand; production capacity of the hatchery; availability of water resources; local climate and other area factors; and, individual species requirements. Nile tilapia is the most commonly cultured species of freshwater fish. Most fry production is done in the wet season, as cold spells and drought conditions disrupt hatchery production and reduce fish farm demand in the dry season. In the wet season, some hatcheries are impacted by floods. Using a set of scenarios to capture major uncertainties and variability in climate, this study suggests a couple of strategies that should help make hatchery operations more climate change resilient, in particular: improving hatchery operations and management to deal better with risks under current climate variability; improving monitoring and information systems so that emerging climate-related risks are known sooner and understood better; and, research and development on alternative species, breeding programs, improving water management and other features of hatchery operations.

  20. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  1. Hydrocolloid-Based Coatings are Effective at Reducing Acrylamide and Oil Content of French Fries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Al-Asmar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available French fries are popular products worldwide. However, this product is a sufferable source of high acrylamide due to high temperature and low moisture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grass pea flour (GPF, transglutaminase (TGase-treated (GPF + TGase, chitosan (CH, and pectin (PEC hydrocolloid coating solutions on the formation of acrylamide, water retention as well as on oil content. In addition, the Daily Intake (DI and Margin of Exposure (MOE were calculated to estimate variations in risk assessment by applying coating solutions before frying. Our results showed that the highest acrylamide content was detected in the control sample, reaching a value of 2089 µg kg−1. Hydrocolloid coating solutions were demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation, with the percentage of acrylamide reduction equal to 48% for PEC, >38% for CH, ≥37% for GPF + TGase, and >31% for GPF, respectively. We hypothesized that the coatings were able to increase the water retention and, thus reduce the Maillard reaction, which is responsible for acrylamide formation. In fact, the MOE value for coated French fries was increase, resulting in being closer to the safety level to avoid carcinogenic risk. Moreover, our coatings were effective in reducing oil uptake.

  2. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamamre, Zayed; Yamin, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of waste frying oil as potential source for Biodiesel production. • Optimization of important reaction parameters. • A high yield and conversion of the feedstock to biodiesel. • Determination of fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from used frying oil. - Abstract: Waste frying oil (WFO) conversion to Biodiesel (Biodiesel) by Alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied. The effect of operating and processing variables e.g. reaction temperature, MeOH/oil ratio, type of catalyst used and its concentration was investigated at different reaction times. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the WFO and the produced methyl ester (Biodiesel) were measured. Results showed that (within the range of variables studied) the optimum conditions for Biodiesel manufacturing were MeOH/oil ratio 0.4 v/v (corresponds to 9.5 M ratio), with 1.0% (% w/v) KOH (corresponds to 0.83% w/w), temperature of 50 °C and reaction time between 20 and 40 min. Under these conditions, the obtained Biodiesel yield was approximately 98%. Results also showed that the viscosity of the obtained Biodiesel was 5.86 mm 2 /s which is close to that of petrodiesel with an average decrease of 69.5% in comparison with WFO. Furthermore, the iodine value (25.36 g I 2 /100 g sample) and the density (0.877 g/cm 3) of the Biodiesel met the values specified by JUS EN14214

  3. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT

  4. Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2016-02-10

    The effect of active coating treatments on oil uptake, moisture loss, lipid oxidation, texture, color, and sensory evaluation of shrimp after deep-fat frying process was investigated. Compared with the uncoated samples, coating treatments decreased the oil uptake and moisture loss of fried shrimp by 34.50 and 13.9%, respectively. Fried shrimp samples were analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The most reduction in lipid oxidation (46.4% for PV and 40.8% for TBA) was observed when shrimp samples were coated with CS4 (containing 10% thyme), while the control samples had the highest values of PV and TBA after deep-fat frying process. Coated fried samples had significantly lower toughness and stiffness than control samples (P0.05). However, for the texture, juiciness, chewiness, and overall acceptability, coated fried samples had higher scores than control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnanç, T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils deteriorate physically and chemically at frying temperatures due to several reasons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during a repeated frying process. Potatoes were serially fried in carvacrol-added palm oil, BHT-added palm oil and a control oil (without any antioxidants. After each tenth frying cycle, several chemical analyses were carried out on collected samples to evaluate deterioration in the oils. The free fatty acid, para-anisidine, iodine, and total polar component values of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.85, 57.1 and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.165, 11.80, 46.7, 11.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.151, 11.28, 49.2 and 10.5 for BHT-added oil; 0.140, 7.19, 51.7, 10.0 for carvacrol-added oil after 40 frying cycles. The results revealed that the use of carvacrol could significantly improve the oxidative stability of palm oil when compared to the control samples. This effect was also comparable to BHT. Using carvacrol in frying oil slowed down the rate of the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes compared to the oil with BHT and the control. The frying process significantly changed the viscosity of the oil samples.Las grasas y aceites se deterioran física y químicamente a las temperaturas de fritura debido a diferentes razones. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del carvacrol en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de palma durante el proceso de fritura repetida. Se sometió a fritura repetida patatas en el aceite de palma con carvacrol agregado, en aceite de palma con BHT agregado y en aceite control (sin antioxidante. Después de cada décimo ciclo de fritura, se realizaron diferentes análisis sobre las muestras recogidas para evaluar el deterioro de los aceites. Ácidos grasos libre, para-anisidina, índice de yodo y componentes polares totales del aceite fresco fueron: 0,080, 2,85, 57,1 y 7,5, respectivamente

  6. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti Haryanti; Ketut Mahardika; Sari Budi Moria; I Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-01-01

    Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate size...

  7. Emprego de quatro exames imunológicos na determinação da prevalência da doença de chagas nos garis do serviço de limpeza urbana do distrito federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Tinoco

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da infecção chagásica em 368 garis do Serviço de Limpeza Urbana (SLU do Distrito Federal foi inicialmente indicada pelos exames de hemaglutinação e imunofluorescência, quando encontrou-se 32,1% e 47,6% de resultados positivos, respectivamente, para cada exame. Em vista das discrepâncias obsevadas. utilizou-se o teste cutâneo com o antígeno T12E para esclarecimento do diagnóstico em 15,5% dos que tinham apenas um teste sorológico positivo. O teste cutâneo foi positivo em 38,6% dos garis. A análise dos resultados de 183 garis mostrou 47% dos casos com três exames concordantes positivos. Mais 19, 7% tiveram dois exames concordantes positivos. Porém, 33,3% dos garis tinham apenas um dos três exames positivo. Empregou-se também o "immunoblot" na tentativa de esclarecer o diagnóstico nos 61 casos com apenas um resultado positivo. Foram encontrados 37,5% (3/8 dos casos positivos pela hemaglutinação, 11,5% (3/26 pelo teste cutâneo, e apenas 3,7% (1/27 pela imunofluorescência. Após a adição desses casos positivos pelo "immunoblot", o total de chagásicos passou a ser de 129, ou seja, 35%/ dos garis da amostra estudada.Seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 308 street-sweepers of the SLU. Federal District. Brazil, with the aid of haemaglutination. immunofluorescence and, also, a delayed-type skin test to the parasite T12E antigen. It showed 32,1%, 42.7% and 38.6% positive results, respectively for cach assay. Among these, however, only 47% were positive with each of three exams performed. In addition, 19.7% were positive with two out of three exams performed. The remaining 33-3% sera yielded one positive result out of three exams employed and were submitted to the immunoblot assay. This analysis confirmed 3 cases (37.5% positive by hemmaglutination. 3 (11.5% positive by skin test, and 1 (3-7% positive by immunofluorescence. At the end of the analysis, it was shown that 129 (35% individuals

  8. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  9. Status of the bioactive phytoceuticals during deep-fat frying of snack food using nutra-coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesh Kumar, M; Faiza, Sheema; Debnath, Sukumar; Nasirullah

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to study the physico-chemical changes that take place in both product and oil during the deep fat frying of a traditional savoury snack 'kodubale', at 120-160 °C for 120-600 s using coconut oil (CO) and nutra-coconut oil (NCO). Further, kinetic studies on moisture loss, oil uptake, color and degradation of β-carotene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity for kodubale was carried out during frying as a function of temperature and time. The study showed that the kinetic coefficients for above parameters increased with temperature and time and the data obtained were well fitted with first order kinetic model. The results also revealed that NCO fried product retained major phenolic acids due to the presence of antioxidants in the NCO which was enriched with flaxseed oil concentrate. The fatty acids profile of oil extracted from products obtained by frying using NCO was characterized with higher ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids content as compared to same obtained using CO. However, the breaking strength and sensory characteristics of CO and NCO fried kodubale was found to have no significant difference ( p  < 0.05).

  10. Changes in extra-virgin olive oil added with Lycium barbarum L. carotenoids during frying: Chemical analyses and metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, F; Rocchetti, G; Montesano, D; Lucini, L; Chiodelli, G; Ghisoni, S; Baccolo, G; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2018-03-01

    In this work, an Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) sample and the same sample added with a carotenoid-rich nutraceutical extract from Lycium barbarum L. (EVOOCar) were subjected to a frying process to comparatively assess chemical and physical changes and heat stability. Oxidation progress was monitored by measuring oil quality changes such as peroxide value, free acidity, K232, K268, and fatty acid composition as well as minor compound content, phenols, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids. An UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics approach discriminated the two oil samples based on their chemical changes during frying, identifying also the phenolic classes most exposed to statistically significant variations. Partial least square discriminant analysis and volcano analysis were applied together to identify the most significant markers allowing group separation. The decrease in total phenolic content was lower in EVOOCar than in EVOO during frying. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant percentage loss, 3.7% and 17.2%, respectively, in EVOO after 180min frying at 180°C, while they remained constant or slightly changed in EVOOCar. Zeaxanthin added to the oil rapidly decreased during the frying process. These findings showed that the addition of a carotenoid extract from L. barbarum can help to improve the oxidative stability of extra-virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elaboration process, chemical and sensory analyses of fried-salted soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, María F.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop an elaboration process of fried-salted soybean and to determine the chemical composition, consumer acceptance and sensory description of the product. Different fried-salted soybean products were obtained under different temperature and time conditions by maceration in water, roasting and frying. Four of the best products were selected and evaluated by consumers (overall, color and texture acceptances: FSS1, FSS2, FSS3 and FSS4. The product with the highest consumer acceptance (7 = “like moderately” in a hedonic scale of 9 points was the one obtained by maceration at 100°C during 10 min and fried at 170°C for 5 min (FSS3. Proximate and fatty acid composition along with sensory attribute intensity ratings from descriptive analyses were determined on the fried-salted soybean with the highest consumer acceptance (FSS3. Proximate and fatty acid composition were also determined in raw soybeans. FSS3 had lower percentages of moisture and proteins, and higher lipids and carbohydrates than raw soybean. The use of sunflower oil in the frying process improved the fatty acid composition of the soybean product. Sensory attributes from descriptive analyses that were detected in high intensity ratings for the product were roasted, salty, crunchiness, hardness, brown color and gloss. This product is neither commonly consumed nor easily available in markets. It could be promoted to be consumed as a snack because of its high nutritional and sensory quality.

    El propósito de este trabajo fue desarrollar un proceso de elaboración de soja frita salada, determinar la composición química, la aceptabilidad por consumidores y la descripción sensorial del producto. Diferentes productos de soja frita salada fueron obtenidos bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y tiempo de: maceración, tostado y fritura. Los consumidores evaluaron y seleccionaron los cuatro mejores productos, los que presentaron mayor aceptaci

  12. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Sutherland, W H; McCormick, M P; Yeoman, D; de Jong, S A; Walker, R J

    2001-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fats are more susceptible to oxidation during heating than monounsaturated fats but their effects on endothelial function when heated are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of meals rich in heat-modified safflower and olive oils on postprandial flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in healthy men. Flow-mediated EDD and glyceryltrinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design. There were high levels of lipid oxidation products (peroxides and carbonyls) in both heated oils. Plasma triglycerides were markedly increased at 4 hours after heated olive oil (1.26 +/- 0.43 vs 2.06 +/- 0.97 mmol/L) and heated safflower oil (1.44 +/- 0.63 vs 1.99 +/- 0.88 mmol/L). There was no change in EDD between fasting and postprandial studies and the response during the postprandial period was not significantly (p = 0.51) different between the meals (heated olive oil: 4.9 +/- 2.2% vs 4.9 +/- 2.5%; heated safflower oil: 5.1 +/- 3.1% vs 5.6 +/- 3.4%). Meals rich in olive and safflower oils previously used for deep frying and containing high levels of lipid oxidation products increase postprandial serum triglycerides without affecting endothelial function. These findings suggest that relatively short-term use of these vegetable oils for frying may not adversely affect postprandial endothelial function when foods containing the heat-modified oils are consumed.

  13. Sampling of deep benthic perch fry: insight into the diel vertical migrations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Peterka, Jiří; Jůza, Tomáš; Draštík, Vladislav; Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 784, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bathypelagic perch fry * Breder trap * Fulton's condition factor * Perca fluviatilis * Římov Reservoir * SCUBA diving Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  14. Effects of canola meal on growth and digestion of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİT, Nalan Özgür; KOCA, Seval BAHADIR; BAYRAK, Halit; DULLUÇ, Arife; DİLER, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with rainbow trout fry (initial weight of 1.57 ± 0.01 g) to examine the effects of partial substitution of canola meal in prepared diets on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), nutrient digestibility, somatic indices, and survival rate. Five isonitrogenous (44% crude protein) and isocaloric (4000 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated to contain 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% canola meal against no canola meal (control group). A total of 375 rainbow trou...

  15. [Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428 from inoculated fried pork meat and roasted chicken].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martínez, M L; Sánchez-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-Montaño, R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Lugo de la Fuente, G; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    1993-01-01

    The human gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni in some industrialized countries is higher than gastroenteritis produced by Salmonella and Shigella. This has induced the development of techniques to demonstrate the presence of the microorganism in different foods using some culture media combinations. There is not a method to isolate C. jejuni from roasted chicken and fried pork meat, which are popular foods in México. The sensitivity of two culture media combinations was compared: Rama broth (RB)-Rama agar (RA) and Preston broth (PB)-Skirrow agar (SA) to isolate C. jejuni from these foods. The RB-RA combination demonstrated to be the best one to isolate C. jejuni.

  16. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  17. Effect of frying temperature and time on image characterizations of pellet snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; BahramParvar, Maryam; Razavi, Seyed M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of non-destructive methods for the evaluation of food properties has important advantages for the food processing industries. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of frying temperature (150, 170, and 190 °C) and time (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 min) on image properties (L*, a* and b*, fractal dimension, correlation, entropy, contrast and homogeneity) of pellet snacks. Textures were computed separately for eight channels (RGB, R, G, B, U, V, H and S). Enhancing...

  18. A new flavonoid derivative from leaves of Oxandra sessiliflora R. E. Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Elcilene A. de; Silva, Armenio A.C.A. da; Chaves, Mariana H.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Lago, Joao Henrique G.

    2014-01-01

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) phase obtained from the partition of the ethanol (EtOH) extract from leaves of O. sessiliflora R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) was subjected to several chromatographic steps, including high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), to afford the flavonoids: quercetin- 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), unprecedented in the literature, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (3), and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside (4). The structures were elucidated by analysis of their 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D and 2D) spectra and mass spectrometry. (author)

  19. Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carino, V S; Alvendia-Casauay, A [Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1991-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab.

  20. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  1. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fričova pařížská léta tučná i hubená

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesová, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, 1-2 (2016), s. 63-72 ISSN 0036-5351 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Frič, Josef Václav Frič * Literary Archives of the Museum of Czech Literatur * personal library * National Museum Library * literary history * 19th century Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  3. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  4. Simultaneous demonstration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry by use of paired immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Ø.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which is the causative agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), are both highly pathogenic for rainbow trout fry. Several...

  5. Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Reading Difficulties: DeFries-Fulker Analysis of Reading Performance Data from Twin Pairs and Their Non-Twin Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to…

  6. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of biodiesel production in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayal, Dyneshwar; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Rathod, Virendra K

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for the synthesis of biodiesel with used frying oil as a feedstock. The synthesis involved the transesterification of used frying oil (UFO) with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The effect of geometry and upstream pressure of a cavitating orifice plate on the rate of transesterification reaction has been studied. It is observed that the micro level turbulence created by hydrodynamic cavitation somewhat overcomes the mass transfer limitations for triphasic transesterification reaction. The significant effects of upstream pressure on the rate of formation of methyl esters have been seen. It has been observed that flow geometry of orifice plate plays a crucial role in process intensification. With an optimized plate geometry of 2mm hole diameter and 25 holes, more than 95% of triglycerides have been converted to methyl esters in 10 min of reaction time with cavitational yield of 1.28 × 10(-3) (Grams of methyl esters produced per Joule of energy supplied). The potential of UFO to produce good quality methyl esters has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of frying, grilling, and steaming on amino acid composition of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Nuray; Özden, Özkan; Selçuk, Arif

    2010-12-01

    Amino acid and proximate compositions were determined in six raw and cooked marine fish species that are commonly consumed in Turkey. The changes in amino acid and proximate content were found to be significant for all cooking methods in all fish species. Cooking did, in general, significantly increase the contents of essential, semiessential, and other amino acids compared with raw fish species. Grilled Atlantic bonito, anchovy, and bluefish and fried mullet and hake appeared to be more valuable fish dishes for obtaining the officially recommended appropriate daily intake of essential amino acids for humans. Moisture, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents of raw fish ranged between 48.01% and 83.05%, 0.87% and 30.48%, 1.10% and 1.61%, and 0.09% and 8.70%, respectively. All fresh fish investigated were high in protein: 11.20-17.14 g/100 g. Wide variations in protein content (18.11-25.65 g/100 g) between species and methods of cooking were observed. Fried fish had intermediate fat values, whereas grilled and steamed fishes had a comparatively low value.

  9. Evolution of the quality of the oil and the product in semi-industrial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz, M.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality of two commercial brands of cooking oil were studied under the frying conditions traditionally used in the Portuguese hospitality trade. Three hundred rissoles were fried at a temperature of 160-170°C for 1 hour. Values of peroxide, p-anisidine, Totox, acidity and total polar compounds were determined. Isomeric cis and trans fatty acids were quantified using CP-Sil 88-packed capillary column via gas chromatography.

    La evolución de la calidad de dos marcas comerciales de aceite comestible fue estudiada según la forma tradicional de fritura usada en el mercado portugués, por el cual trescientas empanadillas rellenas fueron fritas a temperatura de 160-170°C durante un período de una hora. Se determinaron los índices de peróxido , p-anisidina, Totox, acidez y compuestos polares totales. Los ácidos grasos isoméricos cis y trans fueron cuantificados por cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar rellena con CP-Sil 88.

  10. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  11. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  12. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  13. 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in commercial deep-fat fried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisseto, Adriana Pavesi; Marcolino, Priscila Francisca Corrêa; Vicente, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters were evaluated in commercial deep-fat fried foods from the Brazilian market using a GC-MS method preceded by acid-catalysed methanolysis. A limit of detection of 0.04 mg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 0.08 mg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 82% to 92%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 2.5% to 5.0% for repeatability and from 3.6% to 6.5% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during in-house validation. The levels of the compounds in the evaluated samples, expressed as free 3-MCPD equivalent, ranged from not detected to 0.99 mg kg(-)(1), and the highest concentrations were observed in samples of chopped onion and garlic. A preliminary estimation of 3-MCPD intake using these occurrence data suggested low risks to human health, but a potential concern may arise in particular cases of consumers of fried food.

  14. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  15. Fri havn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2009-01-01

      Havnearealerne beskrives som et værdifuldt, bymæssigt tilskud, dertilhører alle. En kajkant uden trippende mennesker og fysisk aktivitet er et uudnyttet byrum. Artiklen henviser til projekter i Sydhavn i København og Odense Havn, hvor havnene i projekter fra Cennter for Idræt og Arkitektur gent...

  16. Oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts: evaluation of a surface and an internal lipid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative quality of commercial fried nuts was evaluated by independent analyses of two lipid fractions, the surface oil, and the internal lipid fraction. The nuts studied were 6 samples of almonds, 10 samples of peanuts, 4 samples of sunflower seeds and 2 samples of cashew nuts. The oil content, peroxide value, polymer content, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. The results showed two lipid fractions with different oxidation status. Higher oxidation levels were normally found in the oil fraction more exposed  to air, although considerably higher oxidation status in the internal oil was also detected in various samples. Oxidative quality was also evaluated in selected samples of each nut after 1 year of storage at room temperature, in the dark . Only the almonds and cashew nuts exhibited acceptable oxidative quality after storage. In addition, a study on the changes due to frying and the contribution of the frying oil to the lipids in the final product showed that the composition of the surface oil can be changed by the incorporation of substantial contents of the frying fat. Consequently, the frying fat may exert some effect on the oxidative quality and oxidative stability of the surface oil.En este estudio se evalúa la calidad oxidativa de muestras comerciales de frutos secos fritos mediante el análisis independiente de dos fracciones lipídicas, el aceite superficial, fácilmente extraíble con disolventes orgánicos, y la fracción de lípidos internos. Las muestras estudiadas fueron 6 muestras de almendras, 10 muestras de cacahuetes, 4 muestras de pipas de girasol y 2 muestras de anacardos. Se analizaron el contenido de aceite, el índice de peróxidos, el contenido de polímeros y la composición de ácidos grasos. Los resultados mostraron dos fracciones lipídicas con diferente estado de oxidación. Mayores niveles de oxidación fueron normalmente encontrados en la fracción más expuesta al aire, aunque estados de oxidaci

  17. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  18. VLBA AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF JETS IN FRI RADIO GALAXIES: CONSTRAINTS ON JET EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharb, P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Tilak, A.; Baum, S. A.; Haynes, E.; Noel-Storr, J.; Fallon, C.; Christiansen, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present here the results from new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz of 19 galaxies of a complete sample of 21 Uppasala General Catalog (UGC) Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) radio galaxies. New Chandra data of two sources, viz., UGC 00408 and UGC 08433, are combined with the Chandra archival data of 13 sources. The 5 GHz observations of 10 'core-jet' sources are polarization-sensitive, while the 1.6 GHz observations constitute second-epoch total intensity observations of nine 'core-only' sources. Polarized emission is detected in the jets of seven sources at 5 GHz, but the cores are essentially unpolarized, except in M87. Polarization is detected at the jet edges in several sources, and the inferred magnetic field is primarily aligned with the jet direction. This could be indicative of magnetic field 'shearing' due to jet-medium interaction, or the presence of helical magnetic fields. The jet peak intensity I ν falls with distance d from the core, following the relation, I ν ∝d a , where a is typically ∼ – 1.5. Assuming that adiabatic expansion losses are primarily responsible for the jet intensity 'dimming,' two limiting cases are considered: (1) the jet has a constant speed on parsec scales and is expanding gradually such that the jet radius r∝d 0 .4 ; this expansion is, however, unobservable in the laterally unresolved jets at 5 GHz, and (2) the jet is cylindrical and is accelerating on parsec scales. Accelerating parsec-scale jets are consistent with the phenomenon of 'magnetic driving' in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. While slow jet expansion as predicted by case (1) is indeed observed in a few sources from the literature that are resolved laterally, on scales of tens or hundreds of parsecs, case (2) cannot be ruled out in the present data, provided the jets become conical on scales larger than those probed by VLBA. Chandra observations of 15 UGC FRIs detect X-ray jets in 9 of them. The high frequency of occurrence of X

  19. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  20. Effect of cooking time and temperature on the heterocyclic amine content of fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Dolbeare, F A; Carroll, K L; Moore, D H; Felton, J S

    1994-07-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were measured in ground-beef patties fried at 150, 190 and 230 degrees C for 2-10 min on each side. Heterocyclic amines were purified using solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Recovery-corrected amounts of each heterocyclic amine were determined by the method of standard addition based on spiked samples with recoveries ranging from 40 to 70%. Mutagenic activity measured by the Ames/Salmonella test was determined for each sample. The amounts of MeIQx, PhIP, DiMeIQx and IQ increased with time and temperature of cooking. 3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) were not detected in any sample. The mutagenic activity response measured for the meat extracts (TA98 revertants) was similar to the mutagenic activity calculated from the mass of heterocyclic amines present. The rate of formation of PhIP in a model system containing creatinine and phenylalanine heated in 80% diethylene glycol was compared with PhIP formation during meat frying. The apparent heats of activation were 6.5 kcal/mol in the model system compared with 6.0 kcal/mol in the fried meat patties. The increase in PhIP and MeIQx formation fitted an exponential function over the range 0 to 11 min and from 150 to 230 degrees C. This report shows clearly that increases in cooking temperature and time can have a profound effect on the amounts of heterocyclic amines generated and subsequently consumed in the diet.

  1. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF STIMULUS SELECTION IN THE FILIAL FOLLOWING RESPONSE OF FRY OF SUBSTRATE SPAWNING CICHLID FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAERENDS, GP

    This paper reports on experimental research undertaken to analyse the information processing mechanism by which the fry of substrate spawning cichlid fish visually recognise their guarding parent(s), already from the earliest time they are able to swim. The study is inspired by LORENZ' concept of

  2. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  4. Structural elucidation of an antibiotic from the fungus Fusarium avenaceum Fries Sacc.; an amended structure for lateropyrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorst-Allman, C.P.; Van Rooyen, P.H.; Wnuk, S.; Golinski, P.; Chelkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    The structural elucidation by X-ray crystallography of an antibiotic produced by Fusarium avenaceum Fries Sacc. is described. Some chemical reactions of the metabolite are reported, and the identity of the metabolite with lateropyrone is proposed. The structure reported for lateropyrone is amended. 1 H n.m.r. and 13 C n.m.r. are used in this study

  5. Measurement and characterization of external oil in the fried waxy maize starch granules using ATR-FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Sun, Binghua; Cai, Canxin; Ma, Rongrong; Jin, Zhengyu

    2018-03-01

    Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform-methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that large amounts of oil were absorbed in or within waxy maize starch, but the majority of oil was located near the surface layer of the starch granules. After defatting, the internal oil was thoroughly removed, while a small amount of external oil remained. As evidenced by the changes of the crystalline characteristics with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the interaction between starch and lipids on the surface was confirmed to form V-type complex compounds during frying at high moisture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GROWTH ENHANCEMENT, SURVIVAL AND DECREASE OF ECTOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN MASCULINIZED NILE TILAPIA FRY IN A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jiménez García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Under lab conditions, tilapia fry at culture densities of 8 fish/L-1 can reach a body weight of 0.5 to 1.0 g after the masculinization phase. In commercial hatcheries, the stocking density is four to six times higher, and consequently the occurrence of ectoparasitic infections also rises. The aim of this study was to examine the growth and survival of masculinized Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fry in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The fry, which were naturally parasitized by protozoan of the genera Trichodina, Ambiphrya and Chilodonella, weighed 0.013 ± 0.003 g and were reared in replicated tanks (N = 3 during 32 days at density of 18 fish/L-1 in the RAS to maintain good water quality, which was achieved especially during the first 22 days of fish rearing. The infection parameters and growth were monitored twice a week. The final fish weight was 1.17 ± 0. 6 g and survival 99.5%. The most frequent parasites were Trichodina and Gyrodactylus cichlidarum (Monogenea. Although nitrogen compounds increased significantly over the last 10 days of fry rearing, final growth and survival were higher than those reported, additionally, the ectoparasitic infections were relatively low.

  7. Effectiveness of a temperature control system in home induction hobs to reduce acrylamide formation during pan frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillen, S.; Oria, R.; Salvador, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to determine the influence of the use of temperature control systems on physico-chemical characteristics and acrylamide formation in the domestic preparation of potatoes. French fries were pre-treated by soaking in water or acidified water, and then they were cooked...

  8. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of

  9. [Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis on the association between consumption of fried food and both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L W; Liu, S Z; Zhang, M; Chen, Q; Zhang, S K; Sun, X B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fried food intake on the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods: From 2005 to 2013, all the residents aged 40-69 years from 11 counties (cities) where cancer screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer had been conducted in rural areas of Henan province, were recruited as the subjects of study. Information on demography and lifestyle was collected. The residents under study were screened with iodine staining endoscopic examination and biopsy samples were diagnosed pathologically, under standardized criteria. Subjects with high risk were divided into the groups based on their different pathological degrees. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the frequency of fried food intake and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Results: A total number of 8 792 cases with normal esophagus, 3 680 with mild hyperplasia, 972 with moderate hyperplasia, 413 with severe hyperplasia carcinoma in situ, and 336 cases of esophageal cancer were recruited. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, when compared with those who did not eat fried food, the intake of fried food (food appeared a risk factor for both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.

  10. 31 CFR 586.408 - Exempt financial transactions within the territory of the FRY (S&M); prohibition on establishment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conducted exclusively through the domestic banking system within the FRY (S&M) in local currency (dinars), or using bank notes or barter. A U.S. entity must have a permanent establishment, such as a branch or... authorization of certain trade-related transactions conducted using bank notes or barter by U.S. persons located...

  11. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of water and infrared blanching methods for processing performance and final product quality of French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this work was to compare infrared blanching (IRB) with water blanching (WB) as a pretreatment method for producing lower calorie French fries. It was observed that complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme for 9.43 mm potato strips could be achieved in 200 s and 16 min...

  13. Association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-09-15

    Long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3/n-6 PUFA) play important roles in emotional regulation. We previously reported an association between fish consumption, which is major source of LC n-3 PUFA, and resilience to depression, where resilience is the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity. Although the traditional Japanese dietary pattern of high fish consumption is associated with low depressive symptoms, the current Japanese diet pattern has become westernized. Westernized diets contain excessive amounts of LC n-6 PUFA due to high intake of vegetable oils commonly used in fried food and are associated with risk of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 715 Japanese company workers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was used to measure resilience. Frequency of fish and fried food consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Regression analyses using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script were used to adjust for demographic factors, frequency of physical exercise, and fish consumption. Significant associations were identified between frequency of fried food consumption and total CES-D score (path c, B = 0.72; P frequency of fried food consumption and total RS-14 score (path a, B = -1.73, P food consumption and total CES-D score was not significant when we controlled for RS-14 score. Bootstrapping results showed that there was a significant positive indirect association between frequency of fried food and CESD score through RS-14 (95 % bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.92). Frequency of fried food consumption was associated with lower resilience to depression. Further nutritional interventional studies to

  14. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from waste frying coconut oil using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Jayachandran, K

    2013-02-01

    To improve biosurfactant production economics by the utilization of potential low-cost materials. In an attempt to utilize cost-effective carbon sources in the fermentative production of biosurfactants, various pure and waste frying oils were screened by a standard biosurfactant producing strain. Considering the regional significance, easy availability and the economical advantages, waste frying coconut oil was selected as the substrate for further studies. On isolation of more competent strains that could use waste frying coconut oil efficiently as a carbon source, six bacterial strains were isolated on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-methylene blue agar plate, from a soil sample collected from the premises of a coconut oil mill. Among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa D was selected as the potential producer of rhamnolipid. Spectrophotometric method, TLC, methylene blue active substance assay, drop collapse technique, surface tension measurement by Du Nouy ring method and emulsifying test confirmed the rhamnolipid producing ability of the selected strain and various process parameters were optimized for the production of maximum amount of biosurfactant. Rhamnolipid components purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, HPLC and TLC were characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. The rhamnolipid homologues detected were Rha-Rha-C(10) -C(10) , Rha-C(12) -C(10) and Rha-C(10) -C(8) /Rha-C(8) -C(10) . These results indicated the possibility of waste frying coconut oil to be used as a very effective alternate substrate for the economic production of rhamnolipid by a newly isolated Ps. aeruginosa D. Results of this study throws light on the alternate use of already used cooking oil as high-energy source for producing a high value product like rhamnolipid. This would provide options for the food industry other than the recycling and reuse of waste frying

  15. Immune Response in Head Kidney of Rainbow Trout Fry Following Stress and Infection with Flavobacterium Psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Madsen, Lone

    response in rainbow trout against F. psychrophilum in order to create preventive measures against RTFS. A limited number of studies have been carried out so far and have relied on samples from either naturally infected or injection-challenged fish. The use of naturally infected fish introduces many...... before pathogen exposure to elevate mortality. The model was used to examine the immune response to infection in rainbow trout fry (≈1 g); both with and without preceding H2O2 treatment. Samples from the head kidney were taken before pathogen exposure and 4 hours, 48 hours, 125 hours and 192 hours after...... exposure. The regulation of several immune relevant genes was examined and the relative bacterial load was assessed. Although it is not determined how H2O2 increases mortality, it is assumed to be due to stress. Exposure to H2O2 prior to infection altered the regulation of several genes, and several...

  16. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  17. Mullet fry (Mugilidae in coastal waters of Montenegro, their spatial distribution and migration phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićković B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three localities, representing three distinct coastal areas, were investigated: 1. the mouth of the Sutorina River; 2. the mouth of the Jaška River; 3. the mouth of the Bojana River (right branch. Regarding the composition of young mullet assemblages, Lisa saliens, Lisa ramada and Lisa aurata were dominant at the first locality; L. aurata and Chelon labrosus at the second; and at the third L. ramada was clearly dominant, Mugil cephalus occupied the subdominant position, while L. aurata was absent. The seasons of the first appearance of migratory fry were October, April, November, October and July, for M. cephalus, C. labrosus, L. ramada, L. aurata and L. saliens, respectively. Migratory periods varied from 2 (C. labrosus to 7 (L. ramada months.

  18. A new flavonoid derivative from leaves of Oxandra sessiliflora R. E. Fries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Elcilene A. de; Silva, Armenio A.C.A. da; Chaves, Mariana H., E-mail: mariana@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas

    2014-04-15

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) phase obtained from the partition of the ethanol (EtOH) extract from leaves of O. sessiliflora R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) was subjected to several chromatographic steps, including high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), to afford the flavonoids: quercetin- 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), unprecedented in the literature, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (3), and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside (4). The structures were elucidated by analysis of their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D and 2D) spectra and mass spectrometry. (author)

  19. Use of DNA vaccination for determination of onset of adaptive immunity in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil

    2013-01-01

    ). The fish were challenged by immersion at different times post vaccination. Protective immunity was induced in both sizes of fish, but whereas clear-cut specific protection was evident in the fish vaccinated at 0.5g, the results suggested that the protection in the fish vaccinated at 0.25 g was mainly due......Vaccine producers often recommend a minimum size of 5g for vaccination of rainbow trout, but implementation of prophylactic vaccination in smaller sized fish would be an advantage for several infectious diseases. To implement a cost efficient vaccination strategy, it is important to know...... the duration and nature of the protective immunity induced by the vaccines in the fish. The present work aimed at determination of the smallest size at which specific immunity could be induced in rainbow trout fry by DNA vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Earlier experiments revealed...

  20. Air gun seismic effects on larvae and fry offshore; modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, S.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents results from modeling and simulation of air gun seismic effects on fish and fry. A model has been developed to describe the behavior of fishes when a seismic ship is approaching and passes by the volume of residence of the fishes. The swimming capacity, the reaction to acoustic stimuli, the hearing threshold and the vertical distribution of the fishes have been included in the model. The model has been applied on cod fishes of length 25 and 350 mm. For realistic vertical distributions the big cod fishes will get away from the region near the boat where the probability for a mortal damage is greatest. 121 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs

  1. THE QUALITY OF FRIED SNACKS FORTIFIED WITH FIBER AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tajner Czopek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of fortification of extruded potato pellets, obtained with 5 and 10 % addition of wheat bran, corn bran and corn germ, applied separately and in mixtures with 3 % addition of potato protein concentrate on fat content and physical properties of snacks fried from them. The addition of wheat bran, regardless its dose, did positively influenced on snacks texture. Yet it also caused the increase in fat content and density, as well as darkening of snacks color. The use of corn bran contributed to lower values of snacks density and fat absorption, while the addition of corn germ resulted in lighter, more desired snacks color, but at the same time it brought about increased fat content and made snacks harder. There was not recorded any significant snacks diversity concerning expansion degree, regardless the kind of additive used, as well as snacks moisture. doi:10.5219/54

  2. A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA, oleic acid (OL, and essential fatty acids (EFA, was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

  3. EXPERIENCE GROWING A FRY WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION LUCIOPERCA UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martsenuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The question of growing and cultivation technology a fry walleye (Stizostedion Sander lucioperca, in various conditions of intensification and cultivation of the objects on the example of Ukraine, Poland and Czech Republic. Methodology. Some of the research conducted in JSC "Lebedynska RMS." There was a corresponding work of herd sires and fry. Also used published articles and monographs using statistical analysis methods. Findings. The existing technology of breeding and raising perch as in natural waters and artificial reproduction. Also, this is a clear description of the biology walleye in the early stages postembryogenesis perch. Also highlighted key points in the technology of the object at different aquaculture technologies. Originality. On the basis of existing technologies were analyzed current methods for growing and perch are to be brought in fish farms Ukraine, depending on the technical capabilities of enterprises. Practical value. Comparative review of technology growing perch allows farmers to introduce more appropriate technology of walleye for your own needs. Since it is directly a particular manufacturer planting material of the object is necessary to choose the most suitable and perfect technology, based on the existing herd sires, space, equipment and ability to use hormonal stimulation. So can use the following methods of breeding walleye: natural spawning, uncontrolled; controlled natural spawning; spawning in lake; artificial spawning; spawning outside-seasonal. During the early stages of walleye can identify a number of critical periods greatly affect the possibility of wound development: small body size at the final stage of resorption of yolk sac; small size of the cavity; feed intake in the water column; high sensitivity to stress; belonging to the group of fish with a closed bladder; great demands on environmental conditions; relative preferences heat; penchant for cannibalism.

  4. Improvement of Microbiological and Sensory Quality of Fried Seasoning Anchovy Fish Snack by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakongsil, Panchalee; Neramitmansook, Naruemon; Phianphak, Wannipa; Kaewchoung, Pravait

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbiological and sensory qualities of gamma irradiated fried seasoning anchovy fish snack were evaluated. The samples were packed in polyethylene bags and stored under three different conditions. In Group I, the fish snacks were vacuum-packed and stored at room temperature. In Group II, the bags were sealed normally and stored at room temperature. Group-III samples were packed as in Group II but they were stored at 18 O C. Gamma irradiation was applied at the minimum absorbed dose of 2.0 kGy. Microbiological qualities were evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 months post irradiation. At three months, unirradiated samples from all three storage conditions were found with their total bacterial counts exceeding the limit for the quality standard of the Ministry of Industry (>10 3 cfu/g), while the total bacterial counts from irradiated samples were 1 log cycle fewer than those from unirradiated samples. The total yeast and mold counts produced by irradiated samples were within the limit throughout the three-month storage for all three conditions. E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and Clostridium spp. were not found under all storage conditions for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. No significant differences in the sensory quality were observed between irradiated and unirradiated samples for all three conditions. Although irradiated fried seasoning anchovy fish snack in a vacuum pack yielded better microbiological qualities than irradiated samples in a normal-sealed pack, samples in a normal-sealed pack stored at room temperature would be more appropriate for commercial production when production costs were considered

  5. Protein level affects the relative lysine requirement of growing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Noelie; Govaerts, Bernadette; Abboudi, Tarik; Detavernier, Christel; De Saeger, Sarah; Larondelle, Yvan; Rollin, Xavier

    2009-07-01

    The effect of two digestible protein levels (310 and 469 g/kg DM) on the relative lysine (Lys; g Lys/kg DM or g Lys/100 g protein) and the absolute Lys (g Lys intake/kg 0.75 per d) requirements was studied in rainbow trout fry using a dose-response trial. At each protein level, sixteen isoenergetic (22-23 MJ digestible energy/kg DM) diets were tested, involving a full range (2-70 g/kg DM) of sixteen Lys levels. Each diet was given to one group of sixty rainbow trout fry (mean initial body weight 0.78 g) reared at 15 degrees C for 31 feeding d. The Lys requirements were estimated based on the relationships between weight, protein, and Lys gains (g/kg 0.75 per d) and Lys concentration (g/kg DM or g/100 g protein) or Lys intake (g/kg 0.75 per d), using the broken-line model (BLM) and the non-linear four-parameter saturation kinetics model (SKM-4). Both the model and the response criterion chosen markedly impacted the relative Lys requirement. The relative Lys requirement for Lys gain of rainbow trout estimated with the BLM (and SKM-4 at 90 % of the maximum response) increased from 16.8 (19.6) g/kg DM at a low protein level to 23.4 (24.5) g/kg DM at a high protein level. However, the dietary protein content affected neither the absolute Lys requirement nor the relative Lys requirement expressed as g Lys/100 g protein nor the Lys requirement for maintenance (21 mg Lys/kg 0.75 per d).

  6. [Effect of fried bacon and parsley sauce on gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy old boys footballer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Jensen, Mogens Pfeiffer

    2012-12-03

    Knowledge of the importance of diet on gastrointestinal function and symptoms is generally poorly. In recent years, The New Nordic Food Culture is suggested to have favourable effects. Unfortunally there are huge waiting lists at the most popular restaurants, so we investigated the more traditional "Nordic kitchen". There are no previous studies concerning intake of fried bacon and parsley sauce (FBPS) in healthy middle-aged footballers. Non-blinded, non-randomized, crossover study with a questionnaire survey of 18 healthy old boys footballers before and after FBPS intake. Ten players responded to the questionnaire, including one who was not exposed to FBPS. The median intake was 15 pieces of fried bacon (range 12-23), 1.5 dl parsley sauce (range 1-5 dl), and eight potatoes (range 6-30), but no dessert. We found a significantly increased stool frequency and a trend towards change in consistency compared to baseline. We found increased abdominal pain and a decrease in general well-being, but could not demonstrate any impact on complaints from the family. In otherwise healthy old boys footballers the FBPS diet has great impact on a range of gastrointestinal symptoms. FBPS affected stool frequency and abdominal pain, but caused no effect on family complaints. We cannot exclude a dose-response effect or a gender/age phenomenon; and we suggest supplemental dose-response studies and studies including women of all ages. Further, we recommend a detailed dietary assessment before referring patients with gastrointestinal symptoms for invasive procedures like colonoscopy or CT-scanning. none none.

  7. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3–10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω, the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss, according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L. The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L. The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs.

  8. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  9. KINETIKA PERUBAHAN KADAR 5-Hydroxymethyl -2-Furfural (HMF BAHAN MAKANAN BERPATI SELAMA PENGGORENGAN [Kinetics of Changes of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furfural (HMF Content Of Starchy Food during Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono3

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of the starchy foods at high temperature can result in formation of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furfural (HMF compound. The HMF content of starchy foods changes during the heat treatment in the frying process. The rate of change of the HMF content during frying depends on oil temperature, initial water content and the amylosa – amylopctin ratio of the material. The objective of the research was to study the kinetics of HMF change in the starchy foods during frying process. The change of the HMF content was assumed following by the first order kinetic model. The samples used in the experiment were the dried dough corn powders. The dough was made of a mixture of two varietes of corn with different amylosa – amylopectin content, with variation on the composition of the mixture. Bisma variety was used as the high amylosa ( low amylopectin and Pulut (waxy was used as the low amylosa (high amylopectin.The samples were fried in palm oil using a deep fat frying method with variation of oil temperature, initial water content and content of amylosa – amylopektin ratio. The HMF of the fried product was extracted with absolute ethanol and the extracts were determined by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at 281,5 nm. The result indicated that the rate of change of the HMF content in corn increased with the increasing oil temperature and amylosa content and decreased with initial water content. The model applied to the changing on HMF content showed that the equation : Xhmf = A (1– B e-km t (with Xhmf = the HMF content; km = The rate of the HMF changing; t = frying time; A and B = the contsnts can be used for estimation the change of the HMF content of the corn fried product during the frying process

  10. Mapping of Mcs30, a new mammary carcinoma susceptibility quantitative trait locus (QTL30 on rat chromosome 12: identification of fry as a candidate Mcs gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Ren

    Full Text Available Rat strains differ dramatically in their susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. On the assumption that susceptibility genes are conserved across mammalian species and hence inform human carcinogenesis, numerous investigators have used genetic linkage studies in rats to identify genes responsible for differential susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Using a genetic backcross between the resistant Copenhagen (Cop and susceptible Fischer 344 (F344 strains, we mapped a novel mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs30 locus to the centromeric region on chromosome 12 (LOD score of ∼8.6 at the D12Rat59 marker. The Mcs30 locus comprises approximately 12 Mbp on the long arm of rat RNO12 whose synteny is conserved on human chromosome 13q12 to 13q13. After analyzing numerous genes comprising this locus, we identified Fry, the rat ortholog of the furry gene of Drosophila melanogaster, as a candidate Mcs gene. We cloned and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the 13 kbp Fry mRNA. Sequence analysis indicated that the Fry gene was highly conserved across evolution, with 90% similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence among eutherian mammals. Comparison of the Fry sequence in the Cop and F344 strains identified two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, one of which creates a putative, de novo phosphorylation site. Further analysis showed that the expression of the Fry gene is reduced in a majority of rat mammary tumors. Our results also suggested that FRY activity was reduced in human breast carcinoma cell lines as a result of reduced levels or mutation. This study is the first to identify the Fry gene as a candidate Mcs gene. Our data suggest that the SNPs within the Fry gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the F344 rat strain to mammary carcinogenesis. These results provide the foundation for analyzing the role of the human FRY gene in cancer susceptibility and progression.

  11. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  12. MODEL PERUBAHAN WARNA KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PENGGORENGAN VAKUM Model of Fruit Flaky Color Change during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The natural colour of fruit flaky product is one of specific property prefered by consumer. To maintain the natural colourof the fruit flaky during frying, it is necessary to pay attention the characteristic changes of raw material and control the process in order not to have much changes to get the intended colour. The objective of this research is to develop empirically mathematical model of fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying process by considering the change of water and sucrose contents in the product. Sample of the research were jack fruits fried in the temperature of 70–100OC, frying duration of 15–60 minutes, and vacuum pressure of 13-23 kPa. The observed parameters are colour (L, colour (a, colour (b, water and sukrose contents before and after frying. The result showed that colour changes (L, a and b were influenced by free water vaporization and sukrose decreasing in product, so empirically, the developed mathematical model of colour changes (L, a and b can be used to predict fruit flaky colour changes during vacuum frying. ABSTRAK Warna alami pada produk keripik buah adalah merupakan salah satu sifat khas yang disukai oleh konsumen, untukmempertahankan warna alami keripik buah agar tidak banyak mengalami perubahan selama dalam penggorengan, perlu diperhatikan perubahan karakteristik bahan baku dan pengendalian proses, agar warna keripik buah yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan secara empirik model matematik perubahan warna keripik buah selama dalam proses penggorengan vakum dengan mempertimbangkan ke dalam model perubahan kadar air dan kadar sukrosa di dalam padatan. Sampel penelitian adalah buah nangka digoreng pada suhu70-100 OC, lama penggorengan 15-60 menit dan tekanan vakum 13-23 kPa. Parameter yang diamati adalah warna (L, warna (a, warna (b, kadar air dan kadar sukrosa sebelum dan setelah sampel digoreng. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perubahan warna L, a

  13. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  14. Hubungan Antara Gaya Hidup Dan Pemilihan Merek Lokal Atau Merek Luar Negeri (Survei Pada Ayam Bakar Wong Solo Vs Kentucky Fried Chicken)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Budhi; Febrianto, Awang

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of lifesyle on probability in buying intention toward domestic brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo) or foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken). Convenience sampling method was employed to acquire 250 samples with the criteria of: (1) the respondents had the intention to buy Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or has intention to buy Kentucky Fried Chicken, (2) respondents had the freedom to take or to refuse to paticipate in the survey. (3) Survey was conducted in the form of direct...

  15. Draft genome sequence of the yeast Starmerella bacillaris (syn., Candida zemplinina) FRI751 isolated from fermenting must of dried Raboso grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos Junior, Wilson Jose Fernandes; Treu, Laura; da Silva Duarte, Vinicius

    2017-01-01

    Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast.......Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast....

  16. Biomarker candidate discovery in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) continuously exposed to North Sea produced water from egg to fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohne-Kjersem, Anneli; Bache, Nicolai; Meier, Sonnich

    2010-01-01

    were able to compare the induced changes by PW to the mode of action of oestrogens. Changes in the proteome in response to exposure in whole cod fry (approximately 80 days post-hatching, dph) were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis and identified by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass...... spectrometry, using a newly developed cod EST database and the NCBI database. Many of the protein changes occurred at low levels (0.01% and 0.1% PW) of exposure, indicating putative biological responses at lower levels than previously detected. Using discriminant analysis, we identified a set of protein...... changes that may be useful as biomarker candidates of produced water (PW) and oestradiol exposure in Atlantic cod fry. The biomarker candidates discovered in this study may, following validation, prove effective as diagnostic tools in monitoring exposure and effects of discharges from the petroleum...

  17. Change in the radiation responses of oogonia in the embryos and fry of the fish Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, S.

    1976-01-01

    Embryos of the fish Oryzias latipes were irradiated with 1000 R of X-rays 1 day before hatching, and the post-irradiation change in the female germ-cell population was observed. Scarcely any reduction in the number of oogonia was observed, but their proliferation was inhibited. Repopulation occurred between 12 and 20 days after hatching. These responses were quite different from those of germ cells in the irradiated fry. Embryos and/or fry were also exposed to 1000 R of X-rays 1 day before hatching and 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after hatching. A comparison of their responses suggested that the change in the radiation responses of oogonia is correlated with the initiation of meiosis. (author)

  18. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  19. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNO-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF FERTILITY ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF KARAN FRIES BULL SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Raman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was detection, isolation, partial purification and immunobiochemical characterization of fertility associated protein in the seminal plasma of high prolific Karan fries bull. Seminal plasma of Karan Fries bull was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE for their polypeptide profile. PAGE analysis revealed major band of 55 kDa, and 26 kDa. Hyperimmune serum was raised in rabbit against crude seminal plasma protein. Single precipitin line was observed in DID test when each of the partially purified 26 kDa and 55 kDa proteins were reacted with hyperimmune serum. These proteins were also found to be immunoreactive against hyperimmune serum in Western blot technique.

  20. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in inflammatory (mainly...

  1. Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew Partners : The Contributions of British Architects to Built Environment in Colonial Nigeria, 1946-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Akeem Oladiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contributions of two British architects, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew in the development of built environment in Nigeria after World War II. It analyses the historical development of the built environment in Nigeria’s public space with respect to modernize infrastructures such as banks, schools, teachers training colleges and the university needed in support of the colonial administration in Nigeria. The agitation of the nationalists and postwar reconstruction facilitated and encouraged the British Empire to develop the edifice or structures that would be suitable for the environment. This, to a large extent, influenced the Nigerian architecture and built environment. Their design principles yielded functional institutional spaces and a hybrid aesthetics that signifies modernist construction and colonial influence. The paper concludes that the designs of both Fry and Drew represent a milestone and significant contribution to the development of built environment in colonial Nigeria.

  2. Severe malformations of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) fry are induced by maternal estrogenic exposure during early embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant eelpout were exposed via the water to known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to clarify if EDCs could be causing the increased eelpout fry malformation frequencies observed in coastal areas receiving high anthropogenic input. The presence of a teratogenic window for estrogen...... induced by EE2 (5.7 and 17.8 ng/L) but not by 4-t-OP and pyrene. A critical period for estrogen-induced fry malformations was identified and closed between 14 and 22 days post fertilization (dpf). Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) between 0 and 14 dpf caused severe malformations and severity increased...... the closer exposure start was to fertilization, whereas malformations were absent by exposure starting later than 14 dpf. Data on ovarian fluid volume and larval length supported the suggested teratogenic window. Larval mortality also increased when exposure started right after fertilization....

  3. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-05-15

    The physico-chemical, oxidative and sensory characteristics of fried rice snack, yukwa with different amounts of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) were investigated. The moisture content of the pallet ranged from 16.47% to 19.84%. After frying the pallet, a slight decrease in the degree of expansion was obtained with increasing turmeric powder content. The textural properties of yukwa were not changed until the turmeric powder content reached 5%; however, over 8% addition induced a decrease in the hardness and an increase in the crispiness. Oxidative deterioration was effectively inhibited by turmeric powder addition, and more turmeric powder in yukwa led to higher free radical scavenging activity. Based on the sensory characteristics, a 5% addition of turmeric powder was the most acceptable for the yukwa product. In the correlation results among variables, the moisture content of the pallet proved to be the most important factor for yukwa quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photochemical primary process of photo-Fries rearrangement reaction of 1-naphthyl acetate as studied by MFE probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohdo, Masao; Takamasu, Tadashi; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2011-01-14

    Photo-Fries rearrangement reactions of 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) in n-hexane and in cyclohexane were studied by the magnetic field effect probe (MFE probe) under magnetic fields (B) of 0 to 7 T. Transient absorptions of the 1-naphthoxyl radical, T-T absorption of NA, and a short-lifetime intermediate (τ = 24 ns) were observed by a nanosecond laser flash photolysis technique. In n-hexane, the yield of escaped 1-naphthoxyl radicals dropped dramatically upon application of a 3 mT field, but then the yield increased with increasing B for 3 mT < B≤ 7 T. These observed MFEs can be explained by the hyperfine coupling and the Δg mechanisms through the singlet radical pair. The fact that MFEs were observed for the present photo-Fries rearrangement reaction indicates the presence of a singlet radical pair intermediate with a lifetime as long as several tens of nanoseconds.

  5. Effects of γ-rays on hatching of the eggs and survival period of the fry of Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, R.S.; Dwivedi, P.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were exposed to 0.0258, 0.129, 0.258, 0.516, and 1.29 C/kg, respectively, 60 Co γ-radiation. The time between spawning and hatching of the fry was 48 to 56 hours compared to 72 to 79 hours in the untreated controls. With increasing exposure the hatching rates were 36, 24, 28, 30 and 34%; the survival periods were 11, 9, 8, 7 and 6 days and the 50% mortality period was 8, 7, 6, 4 and 4 days, respectively. With increasing radiation doses the fry exhibited increasing deformations of the body, especially of the postanal region, as well as unbalanced movements

  6. A simple procedure to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A standard procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures, taking the advantages provided by the Rancimat apparatus, i. e., standard vessels, temperature correction and temperature homogenity in all vessels resulting from the particular characteristics of the heating block. The results obtained in oil samples of 8 g heated at 180° C for 10 h in triplicate gave coefficients of variation lower than 6% for total polar compounds and polymers. In case of limited amount of oil, it is additionally proposed to use only 2 g of sample provided that a similar surface-to-oil volume ratio is maintained, and coefficients of variation of the same order than those for 8 g samples were thus obtained. Advantages of the procedure as well as potential applications for evaluation of frying fats and oils are Included. As an example, the effect of α-tocopherol on performance of sunflower oils was analyzed.

    Se propone un procedimiento estándar para evaluar el comportamiento de aceites y grasas a temperaturas de fritura. En este procedimiento se utilizan las ventajas del aparato Rancimat, que permite el uso de tubos estándar, la corrección de la temperatura, en su caso, y la igualdad de temperatura en todos los tubos dadas las características del bloque de calentamiento. De los resultados obtenidos en muestras de 8 g de aceite calentadas a 180° C durante 10 h, analizadas por triplicado, se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación inferiores al 6% para la determinación de compuestos polares y polímeros. En caso de limitación en la cantidad de aceite, se propone utilizar 2 g de muestra, manteniendo similares valores para la relación superficie a volumen de aceite, lo que permite obtener valores de alteración y coeficientes de variación del mismo orden. Se analizan finalmente las ventajas globales del procedimiento y sus distintas posibilidades en la evaluación de grasas de fritura. Como ejemplo, se aplica el

  7. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  8. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, H.; Hilmi, E.; Abdullah, M.

    2008-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P 0 .05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved

  9. Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary and its effect on the occurrence of Chanos fry

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, K.C.; Misra, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal variation in some physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary was studied. The surface water temperature varied from 20 to 34.5 degree C, the transparency of the water from 6.3 to 12 cm, the salinity from 28.3 to 32.8 % and the pH from 6.77 to 7.35. The transparency and salinity showed bimodal distribution. Occurrence of the Chanos fry were correlated to it.

  10. Fried-Yennie gauge recalculation of the electron line induced radiative-recoil corrections to muonium hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, V.Yu.; Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    A new analytic calculation of radiative-recoil corrections to muonium ground-state hyperfine splitting induced by electron line insertions is performed. The starting point of this calculation is presented by the Fried-Yennie gauge expression for the electron line factor. The final result confirms the one obtained previously from the apparently different expression in the Feynman gauge and removes the slight discrepancy which existed in the literature between the calculations in different gauges. (orig.)

  11. Effect of azolla-incorporated diets on the growth and survival of Labeo fimbriatus during fry-to-fingerling rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gangadhar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of 75 days duration was conducted in fertilized outdoor circular cement tanks (1,000 L with soil base for evaluating the growth and survival of Labeo fimbriatus fry fed with pelleted feed containing varied levels of dried azolla (Azolla pinnata. The Control feed contained 45% groundnut oilcake plus 45% rice bran and 10% finger millet flour added as binder for pelleting. Dried azolla powder was incorporated into the feed at 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels, replacing the groundnut cake and rice bran proportionately. L. fimbriatus (mean length 2.42 cm fry were stocked in all the tanks at 30 m−3. The fish were fed 10% of body weight during the first month, followed by 7% during the second month and 5% during the last 15 days. Incorporation of azolla did not affect (p > 0.05 the water quality, growth and survival of fingerlings at harvest. Incorporation of azolla in the diet reduced the cost of feed (Rs. per 100 g biomass; Rs: Indian rupee, INR; 1 INR ≈ 0.015 EUR from 3.35 to 2.53, with a cost saving of 24.48%. The study indicated the possibility of incorporating azolla in diets of L. fimbriatus up to 40% during fry-to-fingerling rearing, resulting in savings on feed cost.

  12. [Deep frying snack product of legume/cereal mixture based on corn and three varieties of beans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M

    2001-09-01

    To increase legume consumption and give a better protein quality in the snack products, mixtures of fried beans-corn were formulate in different proportions: 60:40 (A); 50:50 (B) and 40:60 (C). Fried corn used in mixtures was previously soaked in a predetermined solution (NaOH/EDTA) and then blanched. Three beans varieties (Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia) were mixed with fried yellow dent corn in the above described proportions, obtaining nine mixtures whose physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were very homogeneous in all the analyzed characteristics. The protein content for the A mix was the greatest, nevertheless the sensorial analysis showed the last acceptance. The moisture content and water activity of these mixtures was low assuring a good microbiological stability under storage conditions. The protein contribution of each species in different prepared mixtures determined the selection of the best cereal/legume mix. From a nutritional stand point the best results were obtained when the 50% of protein was supplied by bans and the 50% by corn. From the mixtures tried in this study, mix C with bean Pinto 114 one closed to the recommended conditions. Nevertheless, for each cereal/legume mix, the best proportion was C, due to its better acceptability, even though it had less nutritional value.

  13. Influence of Boiling, Steaming and Frying of Selected Leafy Vegetables on the In Vitro Anti-inflammation Associated Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica, Cassia auriculata, Gymnema lactiferum, Olax zeylanica, Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results revealed that the frying of all the tested leafy vegetables had reduced the inhibition abilities of protein denaturation, hemolysis, proteinase, and lipoxygenase activities when compared with other food preparation methods. Steaming significantly increased the protein denaturation and hemolysis inhibition in O. zeylanica and P. edulis. Steaming of leaves increased inhibition activity of protein denaturation in G. lactiferum (by 44.8% and P. edulis (by 44%; hemolysis in C. asiatica, C. auriculata, and S. grandiflora; lipoxygenase inhibition ability in P. edulis (by 50%, C. asiatica (by 400%, and C. auriculata leaves (by 250%; proteinase inhibition in C. auriculata (100% when compared with that of raw leaves. In general, steaming and boiling in contrast to frying protect the health-promoting properties of the leafy vegetables.

  14. Who will become dominant? Investigating the roles of individual behaviour, body size, and environmental predictability in brown trout fry hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näslund Joacim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study investigating performance of brown trout fry, with different behavioural characteristics, in environments differing in food predictability. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesised that more active individuals would be favoured by a predictable environment, as compared to an unpredictable environment, as a consequence of being more aggressive and likely to dominate the best feeding stations. This hypothesis was not supported, as more active individuals instead tended to perform better, in terms of growth and survival, in unpredictable environments. However, this effect may stem from initial size differences, as more active fish also tended to be larger. In predictable environments, no trends between activity (or size and performance were detected. Dominant individuals could be identified based on lighter body colouration in 9 out of 10 rearing tanks, but dominance appeared not to be related to activity score. The results highlight a potential advantage of more active and/or larger fry in unpredictable environments, while performance in predictable environments is likely depending on other phenotypic characteristics. Our general experimental approach can be useful for further developments in the investigation of performance of different ethotypes of brown trout fry.

  15. Reciprocal subsidies and food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry in a temperate marine-terrestrial ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanuk, Tamara N; Levings, Colin D

    2010-04-08

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine subsidies of carbon to invertebrates along a tidal gradient (low-intertidal, mid-intertidal, high-intertidal, supralittoral) and to determine the relative importance of terrestrial carbon in food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Howe Sound, British Columbia. We found a clear gradient in the proportion of terrestrially derived carbon along the tidal gradient ranging from 68% across all invertebrate taxa in the supralittoral to 25% in the high-intertidal, 20% in the mid-intertidal, and 12% in the low-intertidal. Stable isotope values of chum salmon fry indicated carbon contributions from both terrestrial and marine sources, with terrestrially derived carbon ranging from 12.8 to 61.5% in the muscle tissue of chum salmon fry (mean 30%). Our results provide evidence for reciprocal subsidies of marine and terrestrially derived carbon on beaches in the estuary and suggest that the vegetated supralittoral is an important trophic link in supplying terrestrial carbon to nearshore food webs.

  16. Effect of boiling, frying, and baking on recovery of aflatoxin from naturally contaminated corn grits or cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, L; Trucksess, M W

    1981-05-01

    Corn grits naturally contaminated with aflatoxins were used for making boiled grits, and portions of the boiled grits were used for making pan-fried grits; cornmeal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins was used for making corn muffins. Procedures and recipes were derived from cookbook and market package recommendations. From analyses of the products for aflatoxins before and after preparation of the table-ready products, it was determined that 72 +/- 9% (n = 15) of the aflatoxin found in the original grits could be recovered after the grits were boiled. The recovery of aflatoxin B1 after the grits were fried was either 66 +/- 10% (n = 6) or 47 +/- 8% (n = 9), depending on whether 3 cups of water or 4 cups of water per cup of grits, respectively, were used for preparing the boiled grits before frying. Similarly, it was determined that 87 +/- 4% (n = 9) of the aflatoxin B1 found in the original cornmeal could be recovered from the baked muffins. No detectable aflatoxin B2 a was present in the extracts from any of the table-ready products.

  17. Analysis of azaarenes in pan fried meat and its gravy by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Urszula; Janoszka, Beata

    2008-07-01

    A method for analysis of six azaarenes (benzo[h]quinoline, benzo[a]acridine, benzo[c]acridine, dibenzo[a,c]acridine, dibenzo[a,j]acridine and dibenzo[a,h]acridine) in thermally treated high-protein food has been described. The clean-up procedure used based on alkaline hydrolysis, tandem solid phase extraction on columns filled with Extrelut - diatomaceous earth and cation exchanger (propyl sulfonic acid), enabled a selective isolation of carcinogenic compounds belonging to benzoacridines and dibenzoacridines from samples of cooked meat and its gravy. The isolated fractions of aza-PAHs were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The detection limits for the azaarenes were between 0.0001ng and 0.005ng loaded on column. The recoveries for the four-ring and five-ring azaarenes were from 55% to 67%. Two types of dishes prepared from pork by pan-frying were investigated. Total contents of the benzoacridines and dibenzoacridines determined in cooked meat were 1.57 and 2.50ng/g in collar and chop samples, respectively; their gravies contained 0.34 and 0.59ng of these azaarenes per g of cooked meat. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A K; Shivahre, P R; Bhakat, M; Singh, K Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (page group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (page groups. Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause.

  19. Fried Green Tomatoes and The Color Purple: A case study in lesbian friendship and cultural controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proehl, Kristen

    2018-01-02

    Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship. As filmmakers Steven Spielberg and Jon Avnet adapted these novels for the screen, they made decisions about how to portray the texts' representations of homoerotic friendship and same-sex love. Both films generated significant cultural controversy as a result, particularly as some viewers claimed that the films elided the novels' representations of lesbian sexuality. Building upon recent scholarship in critical race theory, queer theory, and friendship studies, I argue that Walker's and Flagg's representations of queer friendship, a term that I describe in more detail throughout the essay, subvert dominant classifications of romantic, familial, and platonic love. By comparatively analyzing the American public's reception of the two film adaptations in conjunction with close readings of scenes from the novels and films, I reveal how representations of queer friendship not only catalyze cultural controversy, but also serve as a vehicle of social criticism.

  20. Regulation of trans fats: the gap, the Polder, and McDonald's French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B

    2006-05-01

    Lowering the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) probably reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Estimates of the reduction vary from 4% based on changes in plasma LDL and HDL concentrations alone, to > 20% based on epidemiological associations when TFA intake is lowered by 2% of energy (5 g/day). Even the lowest estimate represents enough cases to justify measures to reduce TFA intake. In The Netherlands, a major reduction in TFA content of retail foods has been achieved in the 1990s through efforts of industry; government intervention has been minimal. Societal pressure is now helping to reduce the TFA content of fast foods. McDonald's French fries in The Netherlands now have less than 4% trans and 24% saturates, as opposed to 21% trans and 21% saturates in the USA. This illustrates the feasibility of reducing TFA in fast foods without increasing saturates. As a result of these developments, dairy and meat have become the major remaining source of TFA in Europe. The question whether these ruminant TFA have the same effect on coronary heart disease risk as industrial TFA has not been settled.

  1. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  2. NATO aggression against FRY: “A war on the border between law and morality”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the ethical aspects of NATO aggression (or so-called “humanitarian intervention”, exerted against the FRY, actually Serbia, in the period from March to June 1999. The paper has been conceived as a critical dialogue with Jürgen Habermas, or rather the positions presented by him in a text entitled “Bestialität und Humanität: Eine Krieg an der Grenze zwischen Recht und Moral”. Following a short presentation of Habermas’s point of view, in the introduction to her paper the author discusses the moral implications of, as he points out, “the surgical precision of the air-strikes, as well as the programmatic sparing of the civilian population”, which are, according to him, the characteristics of this aggression with “a highly legitimating effect”. She then focuses on the key and declaratively moral argument that served to justify the aggression - the protection of human rights of Kosmet Albanians and the prevention of the humanitarian catastrophe they had been allegedly exposed to. After analyzing this argument thoroughly, in several steps, the author concludes that the aggression was not, as Habermas claimed, a “war on the border between law and morality”, but that it was actually beyond the borders of both law and morality and was deeply situated into a domain of interest-driven armed acts of the US foreign policy.

  3. Utilization of mixed adsorbents to extend frying oil life cycle in poultry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Innawong, Bhundit; Siasakul, Chatchalai; Okafor, Christopher

    2018-05-15

    The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I. The changes of oil color in com I were L ∗ 30.7, a ∗ 1.7, and b ∗ 31.9%; in com II they were 53.2, 19.1, and 39.5% respectively. The higher the L ∗ observed, the better the oil quality obtained because of the bleaching ability of adsorbents. Therefore, the use of such adsorbents is recommended for poultry processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary exposure to aluminium in the popular Chinese fried bread youtiao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Shimin; Hua, Hongying; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiheng

    2017-06-01

    Youtiao is a typical, traditional and widely consumed fried food in China. Fermentation of youtiao involves the use of aluminium potassium sulphate (alum). There are health concerns related to the levels of aluminium in food; therefore, we aimed to determine the aluminium concentrations of youtiao from various locations, and to estimate the dietary exposure by different age groups in southern and northern China. The aluminium content of youtiao samples varied considerably (range = 4.46-852.69 mg kg -1 ). Both the mean and median aluminium contents of youtiao exceeded 100 mg kg -1 , which is the China National Standard (GB) 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for food additives. However, the median and 97.5th percentile of weekly dietary exposure to aluminium from youtiao, estimated using Monte Carlo simulation, did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) set by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for children, adolescents, adults and seniors. The weekly dietary exposure to aluminium would exceed the PTWI if children, adolescents, adults and seniors consumed 134.47, 260.98, 327.10 or 320.41 g of youtiao per week, respectively.

  5. P-waves imaging of the FRI and BK zones at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Blueming, P.; Sattel, G.

    1990-08-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geological repository for nuclear waste. Tomographic imaging studies using a high frequency (10 Khz.) piezoelectric source and a three component receiver were carried out in two different regions of the underground Nagra Grimsel test facility in Switzerland. Both sites were in fractured granite, one being in a strongly foliated granite (FRI site), and the other being in a relatively homogeneous granite (BK zone). The object of the work was to determine if the seismic techniques could be useful in imaging the fracture zones and provide information on the hydrologic conditions. Both amplitude and velocity tomograms were obtained from the Data. The results indicate that the fracture zones strongly influenced the seismic wave propagation, thus imaging the fracture zones that were hydrologically important. 11 refs., 24 figs

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel, TM. Vol 6, No 2 (2006) - Articles Model Development for Economic Replacement of Equipment in a Depressed Economy Abstract · Vol 8 (2008) - Articles Comparison of physical workload in four Gari-frying working postures in Nigeria Abstract · Vol 8 (2008) - Articles Preliminary study of the ergonomics of Gari frying

  7. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on conservation of the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Frederico Scarin do; Sanches, Maria Angelica Santos Fernandes; Arthur, Valter

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes, conserved under temperature of refrigeration from 7 to 10 deg C. The irradiation process aims to discharge the refrigeration that increases the cost of the product and the useful life and decreases the microbial load. The previously fried potatoes were in the commerce of Piracicaba City and led to CENA - a laboratory of Food Irradiation. The potatoes were defrosted and stored in plastic packages and irradiated. They were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 698 Gy/hour), with doses of 2,0 kGy, 4,0 kGy and 6,0 kGy. The loss of fresh weight was analyzed as well as smell and color (factors L, a, b), after 1, 4 and 6 days of radiation. The experimental delineation used was entirely at random with six repetitions. The irradiated previously fried potatoes presented more significant variations in relation to those not irradiated in relation to their color and smell. The potatoes were darkened and there was alteration of smell (rancidity) more intense in the samples with doses of irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation happens because of the state of rancidity of the oil used in the previous-fried process. In the sample of 2,0 kGy there was no alteration of color and smell. The colorimetric rates: L, a, b, did not present statistically - coherent results. However it was visually noted in the irradiated samples with doses of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy the loss of the characteristic coloration of the previously fried potato, predominating an opaque color (gray) because of the degradation of pigments (betacarotenoids, etc). It is also an consequence of the irradiation. By analyzing the results it was concluded that the irradiated sample with doses of 2,0 kGy was the sample that maintained

  8. Vaccination in Nile tilapia broodstock with whole cell vaccine and disease resistance in its fry against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukenda Sukenda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effectivity of vaccination in Nile tilapia broodstock with whole cell vaccine and disease resistance in fry tilapia against Aeromonas hydrophila. Tilapia Nirwana strain that used for this had average body weight of 185±13.23 g and were maintained in ponds sizing of (2.5×2.5×1 m3. Vaccinations that has been done through intraperitoneal injection using dose of 0.1 mL/fish, meanwhile the fish for control was injected by phosphate buffered saline (PBS. This study used complete randomized design with two treatments and three replications. Antibody level was measured by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method in the broodstock, egg, and fry.  Challenge test in fry tilapia performed at the age of 5, 10, and 15 days. The results showed that vaccination in tilapia broodstock delivered a significant antibody level in broodstock, eggs, and fry (P<0.05 compared to the control. Relative percent survival of offspring at 5, 10, and 15 days were 78.26%, 70.59%, and 65.52%, respectively.  As a conclusion, vaccination in tilapia broodstock was effective to improve specific and non-specific immunity, and protect fry tilapia from A. hydrophila infection through maternal immunity. Keywords: vaccination, antibody, maternal immunity, tilapia, Aeromonas hydrophila  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efikasi vaksinasi pada induk nila dengan vaksin sel utuh dan ketahanan benih yang dihasilkan terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila. Ikan nila stain Nirwana yang digunakan dalam penelitian memiliki bobot rata-rata 185±13,23 g dan ikan dipelihara dalam kolam (2,5×2,5×1 m3. vaksinasi dilakukan melalui penyuntikan intraperitoneal dengan dosis 0,1 mL/ikan, sementara itu ikan kontrol disuntik dengan phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Tingkat antibodi diukur dengan menggunakan metode indirect enzyme

  9. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on conservation of the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Frederico Scarin do; Sanches, Maria Angelica Santos Fernandes [Fundacao Educacional de Fernandopolis FEF-SP, Fernandopolis, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: maengal@yahoo.com.br; frescarin@yahoo.com.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this work was to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of previously fried potatoes, conserved under temperature of refrigeration from 7 to 10 deg C. The irradiation process aims to discharge the refrigeration that increases the cost of the product and the useful life and decreases the microbial load. The previously fried potatoes were in the commerce of Piracicaba City and led to CENA - a laboratory of Food Irradiation. The potatoes were defrosted and stored in plastic packages and irradiated. They were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 698 Gy/hour), with doses of 2,0 kGy, 4,0 kGy and 6,0 kGy. The loss of fresh weight was analyzed as well as smell and color (factors L, a, b), after 1, 4 and 6 days of radiation. The experimental delineation used was entirely at random with six repetitions. The irradiated previously fried potatoes presented more significant variations in relation to those not irradiated in relation to their color and smell. The potatoes were darkened and there was alteration of smell (rancidity) more intense in the samples with doses of irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy. The smell alteration caused by the irradiation happens because of the state of rancidity of the oil used in the previous-fried process. In the sample of 2,0 kGy there was no alteration of color and smell. The colorimetric rates: L, a, b, did not present statistically - coherent results. However it was visually noted in the irradiated samples with doses of 4,0 and 6,0 kGy the loss of the characteristic coloration of the previously fried potato, predominating an opaque color (gray) because of the degradation of pigments (betacarotenoids, etc). It is also an consequence of the irradiation. By analyzing the results it was concluded that the irradiated sample with doses of 2,0 kGy was the sample that maintained

  10. The effect of a portion size intervention on French fries consumption, plate waste, satiety and compensatory caloric intake: an on-campus restaurant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Marie; Versele, Vickà; Stok, Marijn; Mullie, Patrick; D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom

    2018-04-13

    One of the driving factors of dietary overconsumption throughout the last decennia is the increase of food portion sizes. Larger portions induce higher daily energy intake, so reducing portion size may reduce intake of excess calories. However, real-life studies about the effects of portion size reduction are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of a French fries portion size reduction on French fries consumption, French fries plate waste, satiety and caloric intake during the subsequent afternoon among university students and employees in a Belgian on-campus restaurant setting. Moreover, this study evaluated consumers' perception about the portion size reduction. The study took place over a two-time (i.e. baseline and intervention week) 4-day period (Tuesday-Friday) in the on-campus restaurant where ±1200 meals are served every day. French fries' portions were reduced by 20% by replacing the usual porcelain bowl served during the baseline week (±200 g) with smaller volume paper bags during the intervention week (±159 g) in a pre-post real-life experiment. French fries consumption and plate waste were measured in 2056 consumers at baseline and 2175 consumers at intervention. Additionally, interviews were conducted directly after lunch and again between 4 and 6 p.m. on the same day to assess satiety and caloric intake at pre and post in a small subsample of both French fries consumers (n = 19) and non-French fries consumers (n = 14). Post-intervention, the same subsample was interviewed about their perception of the portion size reduction (n = 28). Total French fries intake decreased by 9.1%, and total plate waste decreased by 66.4%. No differences were found in satiety or caloric intake between baseline and intervention week among the French fries' consumers. The majority (n = 24, 86%) of French fries consumers noticed the reduction in portion size during the intervention. Although most participants (n = 19, 68%) perceived the

  11. A randomised crossover trial of the acute effects of a deep-fried Mars bar or porridge on the cerebral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William G; Walters, Matthew R

    2014-11-01

    The deep-fried Mars bar has been cited as 'all that is wrong with the high-fat, high-sugar Scottish diet'. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a deep-fried Mars bar or porridge on cerebrovascular reactivity. We hypothesised that deep-fried Mars bar ingestion would impair cerebrovascular reactivity, which is associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke. Twenty-four fasted volunteers were randomised to receive a deep-fried Mars bar and then porridge (control), or vice-versa. We used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to calculate Breath Holding Index as a surrogate measure of cerebrovascular reactivity. Change in Breath Holding Index post-ingestion was the primary outcome measure. Twenty-four healthy adults (mean (SD) age 21.5 (1.7) years, 14 males) completed the protocol. Deep-fried Mars bar ingestion caused a non-significant reduction in cerebrovascular reactivity relative to control (mean difference in absolute Breath Holding Index after deep-fried Mars bar versus porridge -0.11, p = 0.40). Comparison of the difference between the absolute change in Breath Holding Index between genders demonstrated a significant impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity in males (mean difference women minus men of 0.65, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.00, p = 0.0003). Ingestion of a bolus of sugar and fat caused no overall difference in cerebrovascular reactivity, but there was a modest decrease in males. Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity is associated with increased stroke risk, and therefore deep-fried Mars bar ingestion may acutely contribute to cerebral hypoperfusion in men. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Effectiveness of Pricing Strategies on French Fries and Fruit Purchases among University Students: Results from an On-Campus Restaurant Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; Annemans, Lieven; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a 10 and 20% meal price increase when choosing French fries and a 10 and 20% meal price reduction when choosing fruit for dessert on university students' purchasing behaviour in an on-campus restaurant. The moderating effect of gender was also investigated. Secondly, this study aimed at gaining further insight into reasons why these price manipulations did or did not change students' purchasing behaviour. This two-phased mixed-methods study was conducted in a Belgian on-campus university restaurant with approximately 1200 to 1300 student visitors per day. In a first phase (French fries experiment), data were collected during a control week (no price manipulation) and two separate intervention weeks (10 and 20% meal price increase when students chose French fries). In a second phase (fruit experiment), following the same protocol but carried out a few weeks later, meal prices were reduced by 10 and 20% when students chose fruit for dessert. French fries and fruit sale counts relative to the total number of items sold were used as outcome measure. Short interviews were conducted in convenient subsamples of student customers to assess influences on food choice. Increasing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing French fries was associated with respective 10.9 and 21.8% absolute reductions in French fries purchases, while reducing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing fruit for dessert was associated with absolute increases in fruit purchases of respectively 25.1 and 42.4% (all pprice, food/taste preference, eating habits, health, availability and accessibility, and body satisfaction influenced students' food choices, with taste being the most frequently mentioned factor. Pricing may be a promising strategy to improve university students' eating behaviour. The likelihood of intervention success may increase when combining pricing strategies with offering healthy, tasty and meal matching starchy alternatives to French fries and

  13. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-03-16

    The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10 cfu/g; 100 cfu/g and 1000 cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100 cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000 cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000 cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100 cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000 cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking

  14. Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2 were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms. Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes.

  15. Development of soya milk extender for semen cryopreservation of Karan Fries (crossbreed cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Singh, A K; Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2013-01-01

    Egg yolk based semen extenders are used widely, with the potential risk of xenobiotic contamination. This study was designed to develop a soya milk based extender to substitute egg yolk based extender for bovine semen cryopreservation. In the first experiment soya milk was prepared from fresh soya bean (Glycine max). Concentration of soya milk in tris based extender was standardized based on quality parameters of spermatozoa during liquid preservation at 5°C up to 72 h and compared with egg yolk tris (EYT) extender. Sperm in soya milk tris (SMT) extender with 25 percent soya milk showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences in all the quality parameters like motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, as compared to sperm in EYT extender up to 72h in liquid dilution. In the second experiment the Karan Fries semen was cryopreserved in SMT extender with 25 percent soya milk (selected from the first experiment) using different concentration of glycerol, as cryoprotectant, ranging from 6-7 percent with a difference of 0.2 percent to standardize optimum concentration based on post thaw motility of spermatozoa. Glycerol at a final concentration of 6.4 percent was found to be the best among all. Further, semen samples were split and cryopreserved in newly developed SMT extender containing 6.4 percent glycerol and compared with conventional EYT extender for post thaw sperm quality parameters and degree of cryocapacitation. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between sperm in EYT extender and SMT extender for post thaw motility, viability, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and cryocapacitation. In conclusion, the newly developed SMT extender maintained comparable semen quality as compared to EYT extender hence it can.

  16. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  17. Simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes during the vacuum frying of potato chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Yamsaengsung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental two-dimensional model to predict the heat and mass transfer that occur during the vacuum frying of potato chips was solved using the Finite Element toolbox in MATLAB 6.1. The simulation of the heat transfer process included the convection of heat from the surface to the product, the conduction of heat into the product, and a loss of heat using the heat source term representing evaporation. The mass transfer process was divided into two periods: (1 water loss and (2 oil absorption. The first scenario included a diffusion term and a source term. The source term represented the convection and evaporation of water from the product. For the second period, the diffusion term represented the gradual absorption of oil through capillary diffusion.From the simulation, a good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted values was obtained. From the heat transfer model, the rapid increase in temperature of the product toward the boiling point of water (at the associated pressure followed by its steady increase toward the temperature of the oil was validated. Furthermore, by separating the rate of moisture loss into two parts to represent the constant rate and falling rate period of drying, the model was able to predict an initial period of rapid moisture loss followed by a decreasing rate of moisture loss. The simulation also demonstrated the formation of the crust and the gradual movement of the crust inward. Finally, using two sets of diffusion coefficients that correlated to the two schemes of moisture loss, the model predicted the rapid flux of oil into the product during the constant drying stage, followed by a small amount of oil absorption into its interior once the crust had been established.

  18. KINETICS PROCESSES OF DEHYDRATION AND HEATING FISH DURING FRYING, DURING SEMI HOT AND HOT SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pokholchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Calculated methods of graphing of curves for kinetics of dehydration and fish heating during the processes of frying, semi hot smoking and hot smoking have been developed. The offered methods of calculating are based on the basic regularities of heat and mass exchanges of these processes. Based on the research of the regularities of dehydration on the kinetic curves, critical points were identified, that characterize the transition from the moisture removal with lower energy of its bond with material to the removal of one with higher energy bond, also the influence of the product shrinkage on the velocity of the moisture removal. These points are characteristic for the temperature curves as well. It’s suggested for the temperature curve to be replaced by broken line that consists of three straight lines that are crossing in points, corresponded with the critical moistures and critical temperatures. Significant amount of the experimental material of the research of the kinetics of dehydration and fish heating under different modes is shown by authors in the form of generalized dependencies. The method allows modeling the processes of heating and dehydrating of fish and choosing the most rational modes based on the calculated data. The proposed technique makes it possible to construct the curves of the kinetics of heating and dehydration kinetics in processes of roasting, semi hot and hot smoked fish, which allows to optimize a particular process, design more efficient in terms of consumption of raw materials and energy technology, as well as to create better machines or upgrade existing equipment into account the relationship of heat and mass transfer processes.

  19. Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahim Bouaid; Mercedes Martinez; Jose Aracil [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils. Production of biodiesel has grown tremendously in European Union in the last years. Though the commercial prospects for biodiesel have also grown, there remains some concern with respect to its resistance to oxidative degradation during storage. Due to the chemical structure of biodiesel the presence of the double bond in the molecule produce a high level of reactivity with the oxygen, especially when it placed in contact with air. Consequently, storage of biodiesel over extended periods may lead to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. This study used samples of biodiesel prepared by the process of transesterification from different vegetable oils: high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), high and low erucic Brassica carinata oil (HEBO and LEBO) respectively and used frying oil (UFO). These biodiesels, produced from different sources, were used to determine the effects of long storage under different conditions on oxidation stability. Samples were stored in white (exposed) and amber (not exposed) glass containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 30-months. At regular intervals, samples were taken to measure the following physicochemical quality parameters: acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), viscosity {nu}, iodine value (IV) and insoluble impurities (II). Results showed that AV, PV, {nu} and II increased, while IV decreased with increasing storage time of biodiesel samples. However, slight differences were found between biodiesel samples exposed and not exposed to daylight before a storage time of 12 months. But after this period the differences were significant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  1. Egg quality traits and predictors of embryo and fry viability in red snapper Lutjanus campechanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bardon-Albaret

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of red snapper eggs is highly variable and unpredictable in aquaculture, leading to high mortality during early larval rearing. In this work, the viability of red snapper eggs was monitored from fertilization until unfed larvae expired because of exhaustion of vitelline reserves to determine egg quality traits in this species. The spawns were obtained via strip spawning wild-caught females following hormonal induction with chorionic gonadotropin. Females were induced immediately after capture (wild group, n = 17 or held captive for the entire maturation period prior to induction (captive group, n = 7. Candidate predictors of egg quality measured on the female parent at the time of induction or on the spawn at ovulation were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The fertilization rate, the hatching rate, and the duration of survival of unfed larvae post hatch were weakly correlated to each other (-0.23 < r < −0.08, revealing occurrence of distinct and independent components of egg quality. Spawns from captive females were characterized by a longer latency interval between hormonal induction and ovulation, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rates, as compared to those from wild females. Among the wild brood fish, a positive correlation was observed between the age of the female and the hatching rate. The best model optimized during stepwise multiple regression analysis of hatching rate data only explained 34% of the variance for this trait and no model could be optimized for the prediction of fertilization rate or the duration of survival post hatch. These results highlight the need to develop alternative egg quality measures to predict the viability of fry with confidence.

  2. Effects of Soursop flowers (Annona muricata L. extract on chemical changes of refined palm olein stored at frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonfack Djikeng Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant activity of soursop flowers extract in delaying palm olein oxidation at frying temperature was assessed. The oil was supplemented with the extract at concentrations 200–1800 ppm, and stored in the oven at 180 °C for 6 days (4 h heating per day. Palm olein containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT served as positive control while the same oil without antioxidant (Control served as negative one, in order to monitor changes in oils. After each two heating days, oil samples were collected, and their chemical indexes were determined. Peroxide, para-anisidine, TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid and iodine values were the parameters evaluated. Additionally, the evolution of the fatty acid composition of each oil sample during the storage was assessed by gas-chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. Generally, palm olein samples containing the natural extract have exhibited the lowest rate of oxidation, and were efficient in limiting the destruction of unsaturated fatty acids in oil at frying temperature. The order of effectiveness in inhibiting oil oxidation was the following: PO + AnM1800ppm> PO + AnM1400ppm> PO + AnM1000ppm > PO + An.M600ppm> PO + An.M200ppm> PO + BHT200ppm = Control. From these results, it can be concluded that soursop flowers are a potent sources of natural antioxidants for stabilization of palm olein. Keywords: Soursop flowers, Stabilization, Natural antioxidant, Palm olein, Frying, Oxidative stability

  3. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Regeneration of Used Frying Palm Oil with Coffee Silverskin (CS), CS Ash (CSA) and Nanoparticles of CS (NCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-Elmonem A; El-Anany, Ayman Mohammed; Ali, Rehab Farouk M

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the efficiency of coffee silverskin (CS), CS ash (CSA) and nanoparticles of CS (NCS) in regeneration the quality of used frying palm oil. The adsorbents were mixed individually with used frying palm oil at level 4% (w/v) for 60 min. The properties of CS, CSA and NCS adsorbents were studied using (SEM) scanning electron microscopy technique. Some of physico-chemical characteristics of used frying palm oil (UFPO) and UFPO treated with adsorbents were determined. The results showed that the CS ash particles composed of irregular spherical and semispherical grains with deep cavities. The size of particles of CS ash ranged in diameter from 1.1 to 1.7 µm. The morphology of NCS consisted of cluster-type spherical nanoparticles and flakes. The particle size of NCS varies from 0.9 to 1.7 µm. Purification treatments caused marked (poil compared to untreated oil. The treatment of UFPO with 4% of adsorbents caused significant reductions in the content of free fatty acids ranged from 51.2 to 65.0%. The lowest level of peroxide (2.1 meq/kg) was recorded for UFPO treated with 4% of NCS. The highest reductions (72.8; 70.0%) in p-anisidine value were observed in UFPO treated with 4% of CSA and NCS, respectively. Treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS significantly lowered the polar content from 13.9% to 6.3, 4.8 and 3.9%, respectively. The results also indicate that CSA and NCS have nearly the same adsorption efficiency in lowering polymer content of UFPO. Filtration treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS markedly lowered the viscosity and colour values of treated UFPO.

  5. Optimization of Vacuum Frying Parameters in Combination with Osmotic Dehydration of Kiwi Slices to Produce Healthy Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Aghabozorg Afjeh Aghabozorg Afjeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration under discontinuous reduced pressure is one of the new methods of preparation fruits and vegetable processing with in view of good health. Processing of foods at high temperatures used to cook them can cause the formation of carcinogenic substances like acrylamide, and this risk remains even if the trans-fat is removed. The low temperatures employed in this method resulted in the products with the desired texture, nutritional, and colour. The purpose of this research was evaluation of the variable effects of osmotic dehydration process (ambient pressure, contact time of product and solution, concentration and temperature of osmotic solution on the quality factors of product (colour changes, texture, moisture, oil uptake, and water loss to solid gain ratio and achieving the optimum process conditions. Studying the quality parameters of the product, the temperature range of osmotic solution, pressure, concentration of the osmotic solution and contact time of product and solution were assumed as 30 to 50°C, 500 to 700 mbar, 30 to 50% and 60 to 180 min, respectively. The test plans involving 31 tests were obtained by using response surface statistical models and central composite design. They were fried at the condition of 108ºC, 8 min and 320 mbar by using statistical correlations, 48.71ºC for the osmotic solution temperature, 592.07 mbar for the pressure, 62.92 min for the time and 34.87% for the osmotic solution. Concentrations were obtained as optimum conditions of osmotic dehydration of kiwi slices under reduced pressure. In summary combination of osmotic dehydration and vacuum frying improved the quality of the final fried kiwi, so this method is recommended for production of healthy products.

  6. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l -1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Assessment of digestive enzymes activity during the fry development of the endangered Caspian brown trout Salmo caspius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A; Hajimoradloo, A; Madani, R; Farhangi, M

    2009-09-01

    The study of digestive enzymes activity at Salmo caspius fry showed that enzymes were available at the moment of mouth opening on the first day post hatching (dph) and the activity of enzymes showed no significant difference from the hatching day 28 dph. An increased activity was seen between 32 and 43 dph and this activity was significantly higher than the activity during the first 28 days. In the primary stages after yolk sac resorption (43-58 dph), enzymes activity showed an increased profile, however none of them showed a significant difference between 43 and 58 dph.

  8. Food fried in extra-virgin olive oil improves postprandial insulin response in obese, insulin-resistant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetti, Sara; Malandrino, Noemi; Luciani, Davide; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Capristo, Esmeralda

    2011-03-01

    The benefits of low glycemic load (GL) diets on clinical outcome in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have extensively been demonstrated. The GL of a meal can be affected by modulating the bioavailability of carbohydrates or by changing food preparation. We investigated the effect on plasma glucose and insulin response in lean and obese women of adding raw or fried extra-virgin olive oil to a carbohydrate-containing meal. After an overnight fast, 12 obese insulin-resistant women (body mass index [BMI], 32.8 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) and five lean subjects (BMI, 22.2 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive two different meals (designated A and B). Meal A was composed of 60 g of pasta made from wheat flour and 150 g of grilled courgettes with 25 g of uncooked oil. Meal B included 15 g of oil in the 150 g of deep-fried courgettes and 10 g of oil in the 60 g of stir-fried pasta. Both meals included 150 g of apple. Blood samples were collected at baseline and every 30 minutes over a 3-hour post-meal period and were tested for levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides. The area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. In obese women the AUCs for C-peptide were significantly higher after meal A than after meal B at 120 minutes (W [Wilcoxon sign rank test] = 27.5, P = .0020), 150 minutes (W = 26.5, P = .0039), and 180 minutes (W = 26.5, P = .0039). No differences were found in lean subjects. This study demonstrated that in obese, insulin-resistant women, food fried in extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced both insulin and C-peptide responses after a meal.

  9. Quality changes of Moringa oleífera, variety Mbololo of Kenya, seed oil during frying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The frying performance of Moringa oleífera variety Mbololo of Kenya seed oil (produced by cold pressure, extraction with n-hexane and a mixture of chloroform-methanol was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 ± 5°C for 5 consecutive days. Under such conditions thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oils takes place. The chemical changes occurring in the oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, peroxide value, specific extinction at 232 nm, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine values, smoke points, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol concentration decreased. The effect of the oils on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold pressure produced oil and the highest in n-hexane extracted oil.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la fritura, especialmente en el caso de frituras repetidas de aceite de semilla Moringa oleífera variedad Mbololo de Kenya (producido por presión en frío, extracción con n-hexano y una mezcla de cloroformo-metanol. Los aceites se usaron para la fritura intermitente de rodajas de patatas y filetes de bacalao a temperatura de 175 ± 5°C durante 5 días consecutivos. Bajo estas condiciones tuvo lugar la descomposición térmica y oxidativa de los aceites. Se evaluaron los cambios químicos ocurridos en los aceites. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxido, extinción específica a 232 nm, compuestos polares, color y viscosidad de los aceites aumentaron, en tanto que el índice de iodo, punto de humo, contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, período de inducción y concentración en tocoferol disminuyeron. También se determinó el efecto de los aceites sobre

  10. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years...

  12. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  13. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  14. Apparent and quantitative loss of fatty acids and triacylglycerols at frying temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux, O.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive and sunflower oils were heated at 180 °C for 5, 10 and 15 hours with the aim of defining the changes in the contents of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and triacylglycerols (TAG under frying conditions. Differences between apparent and real loss of FAME or TAG are defined for an adequate interpretation of the changes taking place at high temperature. Such differences depend on the expression of the results and frequently result in erroneous conclusions. Results showed that from the normalized composition it could be deduced that only the most unsaturated FAME (C18:2 or TAG containing it was significantly altered. However, quantitative data indicated that all the unsaturated FAME were degraded in samples of olive oil and sunflower oil whose levels of alteration ranged from 14.6 to 35.4% polar compounds. With regard to TAG, their loss depended on both the number of double bonds and the concentration of the linoleyl group, which is the most unsaturated fatty acyl group in both oils.

    Aceites de oliva y girasol se calentaron a 180 °C durante 5, 10 y 15 horas con el objetivo de definir los cambios en la concentración de ácidos grasos y especies de triglicéridos en condiciones de fritura. Se definen las diferencias entre la pérdida aparente y cuantitativa de ácidos grasos y triglicéridos que dependen de la forma de expresión de los resultados dando lugar en muchas ocasiones a interpretaciones erróneas. Así, a partir de la composición normalizada, podría deducirse que sólo el ácido graso más insaturado en los aceites (C18:2 se altera. Sin embargo, los datos cuantitativos muestran claramente que en muestras con niveles de compuestos polares entre 14.6 y 35.4%, todos los ácidos grasos insaturados sufren degradación significativa en ambos aceites. Con respecto a los cambios en los distintos triglicéridos, su pérdida cuantitativa dependió no sólo de su número de dobles enlaces sino también del contenido del ácido m

  15. Semi-scale production of PHAs from waste frying oil by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawia F. Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing a strategy to improve the volumetric production of PHAs by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 using waste frying oil (WFO as the sole carbon source. For this purpose, several cultivations were set up to steadily improve nutrients supply to attain high cell density and high biopolymer productivity. The production of PHAs was examined in a 14 L bioreactor as one-stage batch, two-stage batch, and high-cell-density fed-batch cultures. The highest value of polymer content in one-stage bioreactor was obtained after 60 h (33.7%. Whereas, the two-stage batch culture increased the polymer content to 50.1% after 54 h. High-cell-density (0.64 g/L at continuous feeding rate 0.55 mL/l/h of WFO recorded the highest polymer content after 54 h (55.34%. Semi-scale application (10 L working volume increased the polymer content in one-stage batch, two-stage batch and high cell density fed-batch cultures by about 12.3%, 5.8% and 11.3%, respectively, as compared with that obtained in 2 L fermentation culture. Six different methods for biopolymer extraction were done to investigate their efficiency for optimum polymer recovery. The maximum efficiency of solvent recovery of PHA was attained by chloroform-hypochlorite dispersion extraction. Gas chromatography (GC analysis of biopolymer produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 indicated that it solely composed of 3-hydrobutyric acid (98.7%. A bioplastic film was prepared from the obtained PHB. The isolate studied shares the same identical sequence, which is nearly the complete 16S rRNA gene. The identity of this sequence to the closest pseudomonads strains is about 98-99%. It was probably closely related to support another meaningful parsiomony analysis and construction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolate is so close to Egyptian strain named EG 639838.

  16. Negative stereotypes of the Scottish diet: A qualitative analysis of deep-fried Mars bar references in bestselling newspapers in Scotland, 2011-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The Scottish diet is associated in the UK media and popular discourse with unhealthy deep-fried foods. In addition to the stereotype's negative effects on perceptions of Scottish food, culture and people, there is evidence that the stereotype of the Scottish diet has negative effects on food behaviour and public health in Scotland, having been shown to encourage consumption of deep-fried foods and discourage positive dietary change. The most notorious deep-fried food associated with Scotland is the deep-fried Mars bar (DFMB), arguably invented in Stonehaven (near Aberdeen), and first reported in the Scottish and UK press in 1995. This article reports findings from an analysis of newspaper references to the DFMB in the two highest selling newspapers in Scotland, the Scottish Sun and the Daily Record, between 2011 and 2014. A keyword search ("deep fried Mars bar") using the online media database Lexis Library generated 97 unique records, and the resulting dataset was analysed thematically and discursively. Analysis showed that both newspapers clearly associated the DFMB with Scotland. Further, both newspapers portrayed the DFMB and the broader "deep-fried" Scottish diet stereotype ambivalently (mixed positive and negative associations). However, the Daily Record actively criticised the DFMB stereotype much more often than did the Scottish Sun. These findings suggest that the Scottish population encounters different messages in the press about food and nutrition from people elsewhere in the UK, and that these messages vary depending on choice of media in Scotland. Given the known negative effects of the stereotype, differences in Scottish media discourse should be considered a potential factor in persistent health inequalities affecting Scotland. Educational efforts, and opening discussion with journalists and amongst the Scottish public, may be helpful. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of temperature and NaCl on the formation of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein during deep-fat frying of potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Muhamad, Halimah; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Nyam, Kar Lin; Tan, Chin Ping

    2017-03-15

    The effects of frying duration, frying temperature and concentration of sodium chloride on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 160°C and 180°C) of potato chips (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% NaCl) for 100min/d for five consecutive days in eight systems were compared in this study. All oil samples collected after each frying cycle were analyzed for 3-MCPD esters, GEs, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm (K 232 and K 268 ), p-anisidine value (pAV), and fatty acid composition. The 3-MCPD ester trend was decreasing when the frying duration increased, whereas the trend was increasing when frying temperature and concentration of NaCl increased. The GEs trend was increasing when the frying temperature, frying duration and concentration of NaCl increased. All of the oil qualities were within the safety limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Návrh online marketingové strategie Zámku Fryštát v Karviné

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to devise an online marketing strategy for chateau Fryštát in Karviná. The theoretical part of this thesis deals with marketing, definitions of related terms and description of the marketing plan. The thesis also focuses on the specifications of online and social media marketing and in the last chapter of the theoretical part marketing in tourism and marketing of cultural attractions is defined. The practical part of the thesis introduces chateau Fryštát, ev...

  19. Genetic and environmental etiologies of reading difficulties: DeFries-Fulker analysis of reading performance data from twin pairs and their nontwin siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to providing estimates of heritability, this analysis yields a test of the difference between shared environmental influences for twins versus sibling...

  20. Fat and Moisture Content in Chinese Fried Bread Sticks: Assessment and Rapid Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fried bread sticks (FBS are one of the most widely consumed deep fried food products in China. Understanding the fat and moisture content in FBS will help consumers make healthy food choices as well as assist food processors to provide FBS with desirable quality. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared methods (FT-NIR were developed for determining fat and moisture content in FBS collected from 123 different vendors in Shanghai, China. FBS samples with minimum sample preparation (either finely or coarsely ground were used for NIR analyses. Spectra of FBS were treated with different mathematic pretreatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and fat (7.71%–30.89% or moisture (17.39%–32.65% content in FBS. Finely ground samples may lead to slightly more robust PLS models, but the particle sizes of ground FBS samples did not seriously affect the predictability of the models with appropriate mathematical treatments. The fat and moisture content in FBS predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (fat, R2=0.965; moisture, R2=0.983, which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of fat and moisture content in FBS.

  1. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  2. Odor and VOC Emissions from Pan Frying of Mackerel at Three Stages: Raw, Well-Done, and Charred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hyeon Ahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many classes of odorants and volatile organic compounds that are deleterious to our wellbeing can be emitted from diverse cooking activities. Once emitted, they can persist in our living space for varying durations. In this study, various volatile organic compounds released prior to and during the pan frying of fish (mackerel were analyzed at three different cooking stages (stage 1 = raw (R, stage 2 = well-done (W, and stage 3 = overcooked/charred (O. Generally, most volatile organic compounds recorded their highest concentration levels at stage 3 (O, e.g., 465 (trimethylamine and 106 ppb (acetic acid. In contrast, at stage 2 (W, the lowest volatile organic compounds emissions were observed. The overall results of this study confirm that trimethylamine is identified as the strongest odorous compound, especially prior to cooking (stage 1 (R and during overcooking leading to charring (stage 3 (O. As there is a paucity of research effort to measure odor intensities from pan frying of mackerel, this study will provide valuable information regarding the management of indoor air quality.

  3. Technology Development of Salak (Salacca Zalacca) Chips With Vacuum Frying Machine Base On Expert System In Kramat-Bangkalan Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosida, D. F.; Happyanto; Anggraeni; Sugiarto; Hapsari

    2018-01-01

    Agropolitan Program is one form of regional development to improve agribusiness system and effort to improve the welfare of the community. One of the leading commodities in Bangkalan agroclimates is salak which is a potentially very large commodity to be developed. Salak commodities in Kramat Bangkalan Indonesia have developed varous salak produced such as dates of salak, syrup and dodol salak. Salak chips was the target of innovation from processed salak. The Production of salak chips using frying technology with vacuum system to obtain crunchy chips. To get the results need to be developed synergy technology to combine the process conditions and the right system in producing good quality salak chips. Bangkalan Regency is the potential to continue to develop products using a variety of salak to the processed form of vacuum frying machine based on expert system so that the resulting product would be great texture, aroma and taste. This will make the area of Bangkalan, Indonesia be more independent in producing and increasing revenue.

  4. Efeitos do som basal em fendas glóticas Effects of vocal fry incomplete glottal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana de Paula Bolzan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: som basal em fendas glóticas. PROCEDIMENTOS: participaram desta pesquisa dois sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos e diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico de fenda em ampulheta. Houve gravação da emissão sustentada da vogal /a/ e exame videolaringoestroboscópico, imediatamente a seguir, os sujeitos realizaram o som basal em três séries de 15 repetições, e foram submetidos a novo exame laríngeo e gravação da vogal. Os dados pré e pós-realização do som basal foram submetidos às analises acústica, perceptivo-auditiva e videolaringoestroboscópica, realizadas por juízes (três fonoaudiólogas e três otorrinolaringologistas, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: em ambos os sujeitos, houve melhora no fechamento glótico e amplitude de vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; piora no tipo de voz; aumento das medidas de ruído e de Jitter. CONCLUSÃO: o som basal promoveu redução das fendas glóticas e aumento da amplitude de vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; piora do tipo de voz, que ficou mais ruidoso; aumento das medidas de ruído e de Jitter, sugerindo irregularidade vibratória, provavelmente devido ao efeito do ajuste do som basal ao mobilizar intensamente a mucosa.BACKGROUND: vocal fry in incomplete glottal closure. PROCEDURE: two individuals aged between 20 and 40 years old presenting an otolaryngological diagnosis of ampoule chink were part of the study. A recording of the sustained emission of /a/ vowel took place, as well as a videostroboscopic examination. Right after, the individuals completed the vocal fry in three series of 15 repetitions, being submitted to a new laryngeal examination and to the vowel’s recording. Both pre-vocal and post vocal fry data were assessed through acoustic, perceptive-auditive and videostroboscopic analysis, carried out by judges (three speech and language pathologists and three otolaryngologists, respectively. RESULTS: for both individuals, there was an improvement

  5. The addition of salt in the water media containing zeolite and active charcoal on closed system transportation of gourami fish fry Osphronemus goramy Lac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of fish fry with high density in closed system will reduce levels of O2, increasing CO2 and NH3, will also elevate the fish stress so that increase fish mortality. To reduce the effects of increased CO2 and NH3 can be applied by using zeolite and activated charcoal, while to reduce the fish stress is through the addition of salt. This study aims to determine the dose of salt added into the water containing zeolite and activated charcoal in a closed transportation system with a high fry density for 72 hours. The study was conducted two stages, namely the preliminary study and the primary study. The preliminary study involved the observation of the survival rate of fish fry during fasting, oxygen consumption rate of fish fry, the rate of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN excretion of fish fry, and the adsorption capacity of TAN by zeolite and activated charcoal. In the primary study, fry transport simulations was carried out for 72 hours in the laboratory. Gourami fry (body length of 4 cm and body weight of 1.7 g with the fry density of 50 fish/L were placed in the packing bag which has been filled with zeolite as much as 20 g/L and activated charcoal as much as 10 g/L. The study used a completely randomized design with five treatments and two replications: A: blank (without zeolite, activated charcoal, and salt, B: control (20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal, C: 20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 1 g/L salt, D: 20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 3 g/L of salt, and E: 20 g/ L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 5 g/L salt. The results of preliminary study showed that the survival rate of fish fry was 100% and active swimming for five days without food, the level of oxygen consumption as much as 1340.28 mgO2, produce NH3 as much as 22.64 mg/L, while zeolite and activated charcoal adsorbs >50% of TAN in time of 120 seconds. In the primary study, the survival rate of fish fry during the 72-hour transportation for

  6. Inactivation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor inoculated into Peruvian ''choro'' mussels (Aulacomya ater) and two species of clams (Argopecten purpuratus and Gari solida) using medium-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Bernuy, B.; Kahn, G.; Zapata, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Leon, R.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor inoculated through the natural feeding system into three species of bivalve mollusks from the Peruvian Pacific coast: ''choro'' mussels (Aulacome ater), ''abanico'' clams (Argopecten purpuratus), and common clams (Gari solida), was determined in vivo. The D 10 value obtained in vivo was 0.14 kGy in all mollusks tested. Concurrent studies conducted to determine the potential use of irradiation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the mollusks during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C indicated that a dose of 1.0 kGy was optimal for choro mussels and abanico clams, whereas 2.0 kGy produced the best results when treating common clams. Shelf-life extension thus achieved was 31 days for choro mussels, 16 days for abanico clams, and 21 days for common clams. Non-irradiated control samples of all mollusks spoiled after 17 days of refrigerated storage. There were no significant (p<.05) adverse effects from the application of the optimal radiation treatments on the sensory characteristics (i.e. appearance, odor, flavor, and texture) of the mollusks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and pH values were examined for use as indexes of seafood freshness. (author)

  7. Various Extraction Methods Influence the Adhesive Properties of Dried Distiller’s Grains and Solubles, and Press Cakes of Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L. and Lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gary S. Watson], in the Fabrication of Lignocellulosic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Tisserat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic composite (LC panels were fabricated using an adhesive matrix prepared from three different agricultural by-products: dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L. press cake (PPC, or lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gary S. Watson] press cake (LPC reinforced with Paulownia elongata L. wood (PW particles. The goal in this study was to assess the mechanical properties of composites utilizing these low-cost matrix materials, which were subjected to various oil extraction methods. Three types of oil extraction methods were utilized: ethanol, supercritical CO2, and hexane, in order to generate matrix materials. These matrix materials were mixed with equal proportions of PW and hot pressed to generate panels. Overall, hexane extraction was the best method to enhance the mechanical properties of the matrices used to fabricate lignocellulosic composites. LPC’s produced a matrix that gave the resulting composite superior flexural properties compared to composites generated from DDGS and PPC matrices. The mechanical properties of composites generated from soy products (soybean meal flour or soy protein isolate were similar to those derived from DDGS, PPC, or LPC. The dimensional stability properties of LCs were improved when the hexane extraction method was employed, unlike with the other extraction methods that were used to generate matrices.

  8. Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) yolk-sac fry mortality is associated with disturbances in the function of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) and consecutive gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, Kristiina A.M.; Soitamo, Arto; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffer from abnormally high yolk-sac fry mortality designated as M74-syndrome. In 1990s, 25-80% of salmon females, which ascended rivers to spawn, produced yolk-sac fry suffering from the syndrome. Symptoms of M74-affected fry include neurological disturbances, impaired vascular development and abnormal haemorrhages. The latter symptoms are observed in mammalian embryos if the function of hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α), its dimerization partner aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) or target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is disturbed. To study the possible involvement of HIF-1α and its target gene VEGF in the development of the syndrome, we collected healthy and M74-affected wild Baltic salmon yolk-sac fry and analyzed HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression, HIF-1α DNA-binding, target gene VEGF protein expression, and blood vessel density in both groups at different stages of yolk-sac fry development. In addition, since Baltic salmon females contain organochlorine contaminants, which have been suggested to be the cause of M74 syndrome via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent gene expression pathway, we studied AhR protein expression, AhR DNA-binding and target gene CYP1A protein expression. Since the parents of both healthy and M74-affected wild fry will have experienced the organochlorine load from the Baltic Sea, hatchery-reared fry were included in the studies as an additional control. The results show that the vascular defects observed in fry suffering from M74 are associated with reduced DNA-binding activity of HIF-1α and subsequent downregulation of its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In addition, also AhR function is decreased in diseased fry making it unlikely that symptoms of M74-affected fry would be caused by an upregulation of xenobiotically induced AhR-dependent gene expression pathway

  9. Volume magnetostriction at the AF-FRI metamagnetic transition in the itinerant-electron system Mn2-xTxSb (T=Co, Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartashevich, M.I.; Goto, T.; Baranov, N.V.; Gaviko, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    Mn 2 Sb is a ferrimagnet, and substitution of Co or Cr for Mn above the critical concentration results in the appearance of a spontaneous first-order magnetic phase transition from ferrimagnetic (FRI) to antiferromagnetic (AF) with decreasing temperature below T t . At T t a first-order field-induced AF-FRI transition is observed at a critical field B c . The spontaneous as well as the field induced AF-FRI transition is accompanied by a significant magnetovolume effect. Magnetization under high pressure up to 12 kbar, magnetostriction of Mn 1.8 Co 0.2 Sb and Mn 1.94 Cr 0.04 Sb as well as thermal expansion of the Mn 1-x Co x Sb system has been measured in order to clarify the origin of the contradictory experimental results on the pressure effect on B c and that on T t , implying opposite changes. The observed differences are explained by the found anomalous change of sign of the magnetovolume effect at the AF-FRI transition with decreasing temperature

  10. The effect of deep frying or conventional oven cooking on inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli (STEC) in meatballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects deep frying or oven cooking on inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli (STEC) in meatballs. A finely-ground veal and/or a beef-pork-veal mixture were inoculated (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g) with an eight-strain, genetically-marked cocktail of rifampicin-res...

  11. L-ASPARAGINASE FROM BACILLUS SP. RKS-20: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATION IN THE INHIBITION OF ACRYLAMIDE FORMATION IN FRIED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi V. Mahajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reports of presence of acrylamide in wide range of fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, by Swedish researchers in 2002 has raised a worldwide concern. However, the enzyme Lasparaginase reduces the formation of acrylamide in fried foods by pre-amidohydrolase of L-asparagine present. In this context, we report the hyper production of L-asparaginase from Bacillus sp. RKS-20, by process optimization involving statistical modeling approach. A maximum of 15.10 IU/ml of L-asparaginase were obtained in 18h under statistically optimized conditions wherein KH2 PO4 (3.0 g/L, NaCl (1.0 g/L, L-asparagine (14.0 g/L and glucose (2.0 g/L were the influential factors. This was an approximately 10-fold increase as compared to the initial un-optimized activity of 1.50 IU/ml. The potential of this enzyme for the inhibition of acrylamide formation was confirmed when the potato slices treated with L-asparaginase (40 IU/mg of dry potatoes, showed reduction of 69.80% in acrylamide formation upon frying as compared to untreated potato slices. Hence, this enzyme is potential candidate for healthier production of food.

  12. Conventional steaming retains tocols and γ-oryzanol better than boiling and frying in the jasmine rice variety Khao dok mali 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichamnong, Warangkana; Thiyajai, Parunya; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various cooking methods on the white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and parboiled geminated brown rice (PGBR) of the same variety, focusing on γ-oryzanol and tocols. The methods used for analysis of γ-oryzanol and tocols included solvent extraction and HPLC. The results indicated that PGBR had a higher content of γ-oryzanol and tocols compared to BR and WR, when different cooking methods (raw, steamed, boiled and fried) were used. Steaming method retained the higher γ-oryzanol content (53.6-62.2mg/100g) in both PGBR and BR, in comparison with boiling (53.0-60.6mg/100g) and frying (23.4-31.5mg/100g) methods. Frying reduced the γ-oryzanol content significantly regardless of the rice type. Regarding tocols, a similar trend was noticed in all the methods studied. Tocotrienol was the most abundant tocol found in PGBR and BR. Therefore, steaming is the best cooking method to preserved most of the bioactive compounds; however, a slight increase in total tocols was observed after frying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in flavonoids of sliced and fried yellow onions (allium cepa L. var. zittauer) during storage at different atmospheric, temperature and light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islek, Merve; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Knuthsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid changes in sliced and fried onions which were packed and stored at different atmospheric conditions (air, nitrogen and vacuum), temperatures (ambient, +5 and -18C) and light (dark or light) were investigated. Flavonoids were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed us......, or -18C, vacuum or nitrogen atmosphere, under dark, preserved flavonoids for 21 days, whereas for fried onions, 7 days of storage at +5C, vacuum atmosphere under dark resulted in highest flavonoid content. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......Flavonoid changes in sliced and fried onions which were packed and stored at different atmospheric conditions (air, nitrogen and vacuum), temperatures (ambient, +5 and -18C) and light (dark or light) were investigated. Flavonoids were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed...... using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector. Total flavonoid content, quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside contents in sliced reference onion samples were found as 1,570±176, 926±105 and 564±64μg q.e./g d.w., respectively. Frying did...

  14. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined.

  16. Particle size fractionation of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour as an oil barrier in a batter-coated fried system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particle size effects of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour on quality attributes of frying batters were characterized in terms of physicochemical, rheological, and oil-resisting properties. High-amylose rice flours were fractionated into four fractions (70, 198, 256, and 415 µm) of which morpho...

  17. Effectiveness of Pricing Strategies on French Fries and Fruit Purchases among University Students: Results from an On-Campus Restaurant Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Deliens

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a 10 and 20% meal price increase when choosing French fries and a 10 and 20% meal price reduction when choosing fruit for dessert on university students' purchasing behaviour in an on-campus restaurant. The moderating effect of gender was also investigated. Secondly, this study aimed at gaining further insight into reasons why these price manipulations did or did not change students' purchasing behaviour.This two-phased mixed-methods study was conducted in a Belgian on-campus university restaurant with approximately 1200 to 1300 student visitors per day. In a first phase (French fries experiment, data were collected during a control week (no price manipulation and two separate intervention weeks (10 and 20% meal price increase when students chose French fries. In a second phase (fruit experiment, following the same protocol but carried out a few weeks later, meal prices were reduced by 10 and 20% when students chose fruit for dessert. French fries and fruit sale counts relative to the total number of items sold were used as outcome measure. Short interviews were conducted in convenient subsamples of student customers to assess influences on food choice.Increasing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing French fries was associated with respective 10.9 and 21.8% absolute reductions in French fries purchases, while reducing the meal price by 10 and 20% when choosing fruit for dessert was associated with absolute increases in fruit purchases of respectively 25.1 and 42.4% (all p<0.001. No moderating effect of gender was detected. Besides price, food/taste preference, eating habits, health, availability and accessibility, and body satisfaction influenced students' food choices, with taste being the most frequently mentioned factor.Pricing may be a promising strategy to improve university students' eating behaviour. The likelihood of intervention success may increase when combining pricing strategies with offering

  18. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI CaCl2 DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK KERIPIK PISANG MULI (Musa paradisiaca L. DENGAN PENGGORENGAN VAKUM (VACUUM FRYING

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    Fibra Nurainy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ripe muli banana is very sensitive to high temperatures, therefore this type banana cannot be fried at normal atmosphere pressur. Therefore , a frying process at low temperature and low pressureis needed. The objective of this research was to determine the best CaCl2 concentration, soaking time, and the interaction between  them in producing the best muli banana cracker using vacuum frying. The factorial experiment was arranged  in a complete randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was the CaCl2 (K concentration and the second factor was soaking time (T. The CaCl2 concentration consisted of three levels: 1% (K1, 2% (K2, and 3% (K3. The soaking times were 10 minutes (T1, 20 minutes (T2, and 30 minutes (T3. Weight of each sample processed was 2 kg. The sensory evaluation data homogeneity  and additivity were  tested using Bartlet  and Tuckey tests.  Then the data were analyzed using ANOVA, and further analyzed using honest significant difference with significant level of 5%. The best organoleptic properties of vacuum fried muli banana cracker was found on the treatment of  1% CaCl2 soaked for10 minutes (K1L1 with characteristics of typical banana aroma, yellow brownish color, sweet and a little bit sour taste, no after taste, and crunchy. The overall acceptance was favorable. Keywords: CaCl2, cracker, crunchiness, muli banana, vacuum frying

  19. Characterization of isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum associated with coldwater disease or rainbow trout fry syndrome II: serological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of seroIogical differentiation between isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was analyzed by ELISA and slide agglutination. Twenty-five Danish isolates and 20 isolates from other European countries were studied using polyclonal rabbit antisera and whole-cell preparations....... Unabsorbed as well as reciprocally absorbed antisera and purified Ig preparations derived from the antisera were included. Most of the isolates originated from clinical outbreaks of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) or coldwater disease (CWD), but some were isolated from asymptomatic fish or from other fish...... species with different disease signs, The ELISA showed the existence of different serotypes most distinctly, but slide agglutination supported the ELISA results. Three serotypes were found among the isolates studied: 1 major serotype (serotype Th) represented most of the Danish isolates and isolates from...

  20. Effectiveness of inactivation of foodborne pathogens during simulated home pan frying of steak, hamburger or meat strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Wang, Xiang; De Boeck, Elien; Verguldt, Elien; Geeraerd, Annemie; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-08-03

    In order to evaluate the effect of simulated home pan frying of raw meat and meat preparations of different animal species on the thermal inactivation of pathogens, the heat resistance (D-value) of three strains of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and two strains of generic E. coli was validated in BHI and adjusted BHI (i.e. pH5.6 and 1.5% NaCl) at 60°C. The D-values were obtained of the linear phase of the survivor curves created in GInaFiT, a freeware tool to fit models to experimental data. The obtained D-values corresponded to those previously published in literature and confirmed L. monocytogenes to be the most heat resistant pathogen among them. Heat treatment in adjusted BHI significantly increased heat-resistance of E. coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli. Subsequently, the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated using a standardized procedure simulating commonly used home pan frying of various types of meat including steaks or filets, hamburgers and meat strips from various animal species such as pork, beef, chicken, lamb and some turkey, horse, kangaroo and crocodile meat. Corresponding F70-values were calculated based upon measured core time/temperature profiles. It was noted that a core temperature of 70 °C was not always achieved and, moreover, a heat treatment equivalent to 2 min at 70 °C was also not always obtained. This was in particular noted in hamburgers although the meat was visually judged well done. On several occasions, residual survivors of the initial inoculated (4 logCFU/g) food borne pathogens could be recovered either by enumeration (limit of detection 1 logCFU/g) or by the presence/absence testing per 25 g. Pan frying of hamburgers yielded the highest number of surviving pathogenic bacteria (46%), followed by well-done filets and steaks (13%) and meat strips (12%). Taking only steaks (beef, horse, kangaroo, crocodile and

  1. Magnetic isotope and external magnetic field effects upon the photo-Fries rearrangement of 1-naphthyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagaki, R.; Hiramatsu, M.; Watanabe, T.; Tanimoto, Y.; Nagakura, S.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of the photo-Fries rearrangement of 1-naphthyl acetate has been studied by means of steady-state photolysis and laser flash photolysis. A radical pair consisting of the 1-naphthoxyl and acetyl radicals is concluded to be a reaction intermediate. The yield of an in-cage product (2-acetyl-1-naphthol) exhibits a positive external magnetic field effect for the ester labeled by magnetically active 13 C, but no effect for the normal 12 C ester. The magnetic field effect observed for the labeled ester is quantitatively or semiquantitatively explained in terms of the radical-pair mechanism by considering hyperfine coupling between magnetically active nuclei ( 1 H and 13 C) and an unpaired electron in the acetyl radical. The in-cage product is formed through the singlet radical pair. 26 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  2. Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Horton, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site in San Juan County, southeastern Utah, was affected by the historical (1957-68) processing of uranium and copper-uranium ores. Relict uranium tailings and related ponds, and a large copper heap-leach pile at the site represent point sources of uranium and copper to local soils, surface water, and groundwater. This study was designed to establish the nature, extent, and pathways of contaminant dispersion. The methods used in this study are applicable at other sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing. The uranium tailings and associated ponds sit on a bench that is as much as 4.25 meters above the level of the adjacent modern channel of Fry Creek. The copper heap leach pile sits on bedrock just south of this bench. Contaminated groundwater from the ponds and other nearby sites moves downvalley and enters the modern alluvium of adjacent Fry Creek, its surface water, and also a broader, deeper paleochannel that underlies the modern creek channel and adjacent benches and stream terraces. The northern extent of contaminated groundwater is uncertain from geochemical data beyond an area of monitoring wells about 300 meters north of the site. Contaminated surface water extends to the State highway bridge. Some uranium-contaminated groundwater may also enter underlying bedrock of the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone along fracture zones. Four dc-resistivity surveys perpendicular to the valley trend were run across the channel and its adjacent stream terraces north of the heap-leach pile and ponds. Two surveys were done in a small field of monitoring wells and two in areas untested by borings to the north of the well field. Bedrock intercepts, salt distribution, and lithologic information from the wells and surface observations in the well field aided interpretation of the geophysical profiles there and allowed interpretation of the two profiles not tested by wells. The geophysical data for the two profiles to the north of the

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial safety and quality of stir fry chicken dices with hot chili during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qian; Cao, Mei; Chen, Hao; Gao, Peng; Fu, Yi; Liu, Mianxue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of irradiation with different doses on microbial safety, sensory quality and protein content of ready-to-eat stir fry chicken dices with hot chili (FCC) during one year storage. Fresh chicken meat was cut into small dices and fried at approximately 180 °C for 10 min for preparation of FCC samples. The samples were vacuum-packaged and gamma irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy. The results suggest that irradiation with the doses of 10 and 20 kGy could ensure microbiological safety of the samples without deterioration of sensory quality. Microbial counts, sensory qualities and protein contents of the samples were investigated during one year storage. No viable cells were observed and the samples were completely sterilized. Sensory qualities showed no significant difference after irradiated at the doses of 10 and 20 kGy during the storage period. Protein contents were also not affected by irradiation at the same doses. Our results indicate that gamma irradiation of 10 and 20 kGy are effective to maintain shelf stability of ready-to-eat FCC products with microbial safety, sensory quality and nutritional value. - Highlights: • Microbial safety and sensory quality of the FCC are ensured by gamma irradiation. • No viable cells in the irradiated FCC are detected during one year storage. • Sensory quality of the irradiated FCC is not changed during one year storage. • Protein content of the FCC is not affected by irradiation during one year storage.

  4. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzi; Xiang, Hai; Zhang, Guoliang; Cao, Xia; Meng, Qing

    2009-08-15

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O&G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O&G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O&G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O&G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12h was required for removing approximately 95% of O&G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  5. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongzi; Xiang Hai; Zhang Guoliang; Cao Xia; Meng Qing

    2009-01-01

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  6. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  7. Nota científica: métodos para estimativa da area foliar de plantas daninhas: 2: Wissadula subpeltata (Kuntze Fries Methods for estimation of leaf area of weeds: 2: Wissadula subpeltata (Kuntze Fries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianco

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter uma equação que, através de parâmetros lineares dimensionais das folhas, permitisse estimar a área foliar de Wissadula subpeltata (Kuntze Fries, estudaram- se correlações entre a área foliar real e o comprimento da folha ao longo da nervura principal (C , largura máxi ma da folha (L , comprimento do espaço entre o ponto de inserção do pecíolo na folha até a primeira ramificação da nervura principal (CE, L + C, L x C e L x CE. Todas as equações, geométricas ou lineares simples, permitiram boas estimativas da área foliar . Do pont o de vista prático, sugere- se optar pela equação linear simples envolvendo o produto C x L, considerando o coeficiente linear igual a zero. Deste modo, a estimativa da área foliar de W. subpeltata pode ser feita pel a fórmula Y = 0, 85 49 (C x L, ou seja 85 ,49% do produto entre o comprimento da nervura principal e a largura máxima da folha.In order to final an equation that make poss ible to estimate the leaf area of Wissadula usbpeltata (Kuntze Fries , were studied correlations between truelea far ea (Y and the lea flenght in the mid rib direct ion (C, maximum leaf width (L , lenght of the segment between the petiole insert ion point in the leaf and the first rami fication of leaf mid rib (CE, L + C, L x C and L x CE. Al l equations, geometric and simple linear, permited good lea fare a estimatives. It is suggested to decid e for simple linear equations envolving the C x L, considering zero the linear coefficient. Thus , the leaf area of W. subpeltata can be estimated by the equation Y = 0.8549 (C x L, or else 85,49% of the multiplication between the leaf lenght in the mid rib direction and the maximum leaf width.

  8. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John

    2007-02-01

    Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.

  9. The contributions of Lewis Fry Richardson to drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John; Raats, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The EGU Division on Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics awards the Lewis Fry Richardson Medal. Richardson's significance is highlighted in http://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-lewis-fry-richardson/, but his contributions to soil physics and to numerical solutions of heat and diffusion equations are not mentioned. We would like to draw attention to those little known contributions. Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) made important contributions to many fields including numerical weather prediction, finite difference solutions of partial differential equations, turbulent flow and diffusion, fractals, quantitative psychology and studies of conflict. He invented numerical weather prediction during World War I, although his methods were not successfully applied until 1950, after the invention of fast digital computers. In 1922 he published the book `Numerical weather prediction', of which few copies were sold and even fewer were read until the 1950s. To model heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere, he did much original work on turbulent flow and defined what is now known as the Richardson number. His technique for improving the convergence of a finite difference calculation is known as Richardson extrapolation, and was used by John Philip in his 1957 semi-analytical solution of the Richards equation for water movement in unsaturated soil. Richardson's first papers in 1908 concerned the numerical solution of the free surface problem of unconfined flow of water in saturated soil, arising in the design of drain spacing in peat. Later, for the lower boundary of his atmospheric model he needed to understand the movement of heat, liquid water and water vapor in what is now called the vadose zone and the soil plant atmosphere system, and to model coupled transfer of heat and flow of water in unsaturated soil. Finding little previous work, he formulated partial differential equations for transient, vertical flow of liquid water and for transfer of heat and water vapor. He

  10. Effect of the cooking method (grilling, roasting, frying and sous-vide) on the oxidation of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and protein cross-linking in jerky chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábio A. P.; Ferreira, Valquíria C. S.; Madruga, Marta S.; Estévez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Broiler breast (pectoralis major) meat was submitted to salting with NaCl + NaNO3 followed by a drying process to produce jerky-type chicken. The final product (raw broiler charqui) was desalted and then cooked using grilled, roasted, fried and sous-vide techniques. Sous-vide cooked samples showed lowest results of moisture loss compared to roasted and fried ones. Fatty acid profile suffered minor changes after cooking of broiler charqui. Regarding to protein oxidation, tryptophan fluorescenc...

  11. Comparison and characterization of volatile compounds as markers of oils stability during frying by HS-SPME-GC/MS and Chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Freitas, Flavia; Ammar, Sonda; Da Silva, M D R Gomes; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    The formation and emission of volatile compounds, including the aldehydes and some toxic compounds of oil samples, ROPO pure (100%) and the blended ROPO/RCO (80-20%), were carried out during deep frying at 180°C. The volatile profile of both oil samples was evaluated by an optimized HS-SPME-GC/MS method, before and after 20, 40 and 60 successive sessions of deep-frying. Actually, from 100 detected compounds, aldehydes were found to be the main group formed. In addition, the oil degradation under thermal treatment regarding the volatile compounds were evaluated and compared. Consequently, the blended ROPO/RCO revealed fewer formations of unsaturated aldehydes, including toxic ones, such as acrolein, and showed a greater stability against oxidative thermal degradation compared to ROPO pure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC ON IMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT IN THE FRY AND SPAWNER PRODUCTION OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanti Haryanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve immune system of Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei from any kinds of diseases, various probiotic agents were tested such as Bacillus sp. BC, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and mixed of both. The probiotics were cultured and added directly to the larval rearing tank (106 cfu/mL equal to 0.5 liter/m3 up to PL-12. In cultured shrimp spawners, probiotic was mixed with feed coated with chitosan, and without adding probiotic as control. In the present experiment, shrimp fry and spawners were reared in tank capacity of 5 m3 and 8 m3. Immunity response was analyzed by quantitative value of the immunity related gene expression with RTqPCR. The results showed that survival rate of shrimp fry cultured with mixed probiotic was 63.16% (PL-8 and 53.46% (PL-12, while control 13.35% (PL-8 and 12.48% (PL-12 respectively. The number of shrimp hemocytes starting from 420 to 530.5 x 104 cells/mL and after challenged with WSSV (for 72 hrs exposure between two treatments of Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and Bacillus cereus BC was not significantly different P>0.05 (402.5 and 432.5 x 104 cells/mL, while in mixed probiotic and control treatments were 391.75 and 229.0 x 104 cells/mL, respectively. The analysis of immunity gene expression revealed that the use of probiotic from larval stages up to spawner has been proved in increasing immunity responses quantified from ProPO activating system (prophenoloxidase/proPO as much as 1.6-2.0 fold, clotting system (transglutaminase, clotting protein of 1.5-2 fold, Antimicrobial Peptide System (anti-LPS factor, crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin2 of 1.5-2.8 fold, and Antioxidant defense mechanism (superoxidase dismutase/SOD, glutathione peroxidase/GPx of 1.8-2.0 fold compared to control.

  13. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  14. Assessment of vulnerable older adults' physical function according to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system and Fried's criteria for frailty syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Miyuki; Yabushita, Noriko; Kim, Mi-Ji; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Seino, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the physical frailty status of vulnerable older adults as classified in the Japanese LTCI system and to compare this with Fried's definition. A total of 444 older adults were classified based on the LTCI system as independent, vulnerable, or dependent, and 400 of these participants also fit Fried's criteria for not frail, pre-frail or frail. We evaluated their physical function with a 12 item physical function test. We derived a physical function score (PFS) from these 12 items and a principal component analysis was used to make comparisons. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the PFS cut-off points to distinguish the dependent category from the other categories. We found significant differences and a hierarchical order for the PFSs among the three groups of the LTCI system (the independent, 0.41 ± 0.54; the vulnerable, -0.40 ± 0.76; and the dependent, -1.49 ± 0.73) and of Fried's definition (not frail, 0.50 ± 0.51; pre frail, -0.11 ± 0.63; and frail, -1.25 ± 0.98). The optimal cut-off value (OCV) was -0.593. This study showed that the range of physical function of people considered frail category (pre-frail, vulnerable, and frail) is wide and overlapping. That is, the physical function of vulnerable older adults is worse than the pre-frail, but better than the frail. To better recognize older adults in need of greater support, the vulnerable should also receive assessment of their frailty status according to Fried's definition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (pextract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into predusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuch Raksakulthai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible coatings and their concentrations on moisture and fat contents of fried breaded potato were investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, methylcellulose (MC or wheat gluten (WG were incorporate into predusting mix to achieve coating material concentration of 3-12% (w/w. Blanched potatoes were first coated with predusting mix and followed sequentially by battering, breading and deep frying at 170°C for 3 min. Moisture and fat contents in the core and crust of sample and intact samples were determined. It was found that HPMC and MC could reduce moisture loss and fat absorption than WG. Predusting mix with 6% MC was the most effective to retain moisture and reduce fat absorption. This predusting mix was then applied to commercial breaded shrimps. In both prefried and fried products, treated breaded shrimps had more moisture and less fat than untreated breaded shrimps. They also were lower in product hardness and crust hardness than untreated samples. Sensory evaluation showed that treated and untreated shrimp samples had similar rating for appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall. Treated breaded shrimp was acceptable to the consumers. The application of edible coatings into predusting mix can be easily introduced into the production process and is beneficial to both food industry and consumers.

  19. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Prediction of Acrylamide Content in French-Fried Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedipe, Oluwatosin E; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Truong, Van-Den; Yencho, G Craig

    2016-03-02

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 μg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various pretreatments and cook times (n = 84) and obtained from quick-service restaurants (n = 64) were used for model development and validation. Acrylamide was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of each freeze-dried sample were captured on a Foss XDS Rapid Content Analyzer-NIR spectrometer. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and PLS regression modeling demonstrated that NIRS could accurately detect acrylamide content as low as 50 μg/kg in the model potato matrix. Prediction errors of 135 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.98) and 255 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.93) were achieved with the best PLS models for acrylamide prediction in Russet Norkotah French-fried potato and multiple samples of unknown varieties, respectively. The findings indicate that NIRS can be used as a screening tool in potato breeding and potato processing research to reduce acrylamide in the food supply.

  20. Controlling acrylamide in French fry and potato chip models and a mathematical model of acrylamide formation: acrylamide: acidulants, phytate and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonhwa; Yang, Heewon; Storkson, Jayne M; Albright, Karen J; Liu, Wei; Lindsay, Robert C; Pariza, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that in potato chip and French fry models, the formation of acrylamide can be reduced by controlling pH during processing steps, either by organic (acidulants) or inorganic acids. Use of phytate, a naturally occurring chelator, with or without Ca++ (or divalent ions), can reduce acrylamide formation in both models. However, since phytate itself is acidic, the question remains as to whether the effect of phytate is due to pH alone or to additional effects. In the French fry model, the effects on acrylamide formation of pH, phytate, and/or Ca++ in various combinations were tested in either blanching or soaking (after blanching) steps. All treatments significantly reduced acrylamide levels compared to control. Among variables tested, pH may be the single most important factor for reducing acrylamide levels, while there were independent effects of phytate and/or Ca++ in this French fry model. We also developed a mathematical formula to estimate the final concentration of acrylamide in a potato chip model, using variables that can affect acrylamide formation: glucose and asparagine concentrations, cut potato surface area and shape, cooking temperature and time, and other processing conditions.