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Sample records for heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit

  1. Effects of red grape skin and seed extract supplementation on atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Mortensen, Alicja; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between consumption of red wine and other polyphenolic compounds and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were used to investigate the effects of polyphenols in a red gra...

  2. Absorption and excretion of black currant anthocyanins in human and Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Nielsen, I. L.. F.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins are thought to protect against cardiovascular diseases. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits are hypercholesterolemic and used as a model of the development of atherosclerosis. To compare the uptake and excretion of anthocyanins in humans and WHHL rabbits, single-dose black......). The excretion and absorption of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be within the same order of magnitude in the two species regarding urinary excretion within the first 4 h (rabbits, 0.035%; humans, 0.072%) and t(ma)x (rabbits, similar to30 min; humans, similar to45 min). A food matrix effect...... was detected in rabbits, resulting in the absorption of a higher proportion of the anthocyanins from black currant juice than from an aqueous citric acid matrix. In humans the absorption and urinary excretion of anthocyanins from black currant juice were found to be proportional with dose and not influenced...

  3. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  4. Is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit a suitable experimental model for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in humans? A light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    Wanibuchi, H.; Dingemans, K. P.; Becker, A. E.; Ueda, M.; Naruko, T.; Tanizawa, S.; Nakamura, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to assess an experimental model for the study of mechanisms that underlie restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit lacks the receptor for low density lipoproteins, produces atherosclerotic lesions

  5. Pentosan polysulfate inhibits atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits: differential modulation of metalloproteinase-2 and -9.

    Lupia, Enrico; Zheng, Feng; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Tack, Ivan; Doublier, Sophie; Elliot, Sharon J; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E

    2012-02-01

    Pentosan polysulfate (PPS), a heparinoid compound essentially devoid of anticoagulant activity, modulates cell growth and decreases inflammation. We investigated the effect of PPS on the progression of established atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. After severe atherosclerosis developed on an atherogenic diet, WHHL rabbits were treated with oral PPS or tap water for 1 month. The aortic intima-to-media ratio and macrophage infiltration were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased, and plaque fibrous caps were preserved by PPS treatment. Plasma lipid levels and post-heparin hepatic lipase activity remained unchanged. However, net collagenolytic activity in aortic extracts was decreased, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) activity were increased by PPS. Moreover, PPS treatment decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory responses, in particular activation of nuclear factor-κB and p38, and activation of MMPs in macrophages. In conclusion, oral PPS treatment prevents progression of established atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. This effect may be partially mediated by increased MMP-2 and TIMP activities in the aortic wall and reduced TNFα-stimulated inflammation and MMP activation in macrophages. Thus, PPS may be a useful agent in inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis.

  6. Adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Katsuya [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki [and others

    2000-12-01

    The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit develops coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia because of a genetic deficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptors and is therefore a good animal model for studying the relationships of coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia and coronary flow reserve. The aim of the present study was to assess myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine infusion (0.2 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1}{center_dot}min{sup -1}) in 8 WHHL rabbits (13.8{+-}0.5 months) with {sup 13}N-ammonia, small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and colored microspheres. Results were compared with those from 6 age-matched Japanese white rabbits. Plaque distribution was also examined in the extramural coronary arteries. All 8 WHHL rabbits had coronary plaques, with 6 showing multiple plaques. Mean global myocardial blood flow (ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}) did not differ significantly between control and WHHL groups both at baseline (3.67{+-}0.72 vs 4.26{+-}1.12 ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}, p=NS) and with adenosine (7.92{+-}2.00 vs 9.27{+-}2.91 ml{center_dot}min{sup -1}{center_dot}g{sup -1}, p=NS), nor did coronary flow reserve (2.16{+-}0.37 vs 2.18{+-}0.41, p=NS). None showed evidence of regional perfusion abnormalities by visual and semiquantitative analyses of PET images. It was concluded that WHHL rabbits preserve adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve despite coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism develops in this animal model. (author)

  7. Adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Katsuya; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit develops coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia because of a genetic deficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptors and is therefore a good animal model for studying the relationships of coronary atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia and coronary flow reserve. The aim of the present study was to assess myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine infusion (0.2 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) in 8 WHHL rabbits (13.8±0.5 months) with 13 N-ammonia, small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and colored microspheres. Results were compared with those from 6 age-matched Japanese white rabbits. Plaque distribution was also examined in the extramural coronary arteries. All 8 WHHL rabbits had coronary plaques, with 6 showing multiple plaques. Mean global myocardial blood flow (ml·min -1 ·g -1 ) did not differ significantly between control and WHHL groups both at baseline (3.67±0.72 vs 4.26±1.12 ml·min -1 ·g -1 , p=NS) and with adenosine (7.92±2.00 vs 9.27±2.91 ml·min -1 ·g -1 , p=NS), nor did coronary flow reserve (2.16±0.37 vs 2.18±0.41, p=NS). None showed evidence of regional perfusion abnormalities by visual and semiquantitative analyses of PET images. It was concluded that WHHL rabbits preserve adenosine-induced coronary flow reserve despite coronary atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism develops in this animal model. (author)

  8. Probucol selectively increases oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed mice and in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Lauridsen, S.T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    1999-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic and cholesterol-lowering drug probucol (0.5-1%) or quercetin (1%), a natural antioxidant, was given to cholesterol-fed (1.5%) mice for a period of 6 weeks and to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits for a period of 8 weeks to investigate the oxidative changes.......001) and cholesterol-fed mice (579.7 +/- 47.3 nmol/g vs. 408.1 +/- 85.8 nmol/g, P mice: P ... and thereby leads to a decrease in cholesterol levels....

  9. Dietary supplementation with an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes does not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Frederiksen, H.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    Tomatoes are rich in lycopene and other carotenoids which have shown beneficial effects on CVD in epidemiological and intervention studies. In the present study the effect of an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes, Lyc-O-Mato (R) on atherosclerosis was studied in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic...... rabbits. The rabbits were fed a control diet, a control diet supplemented with the tomato extract or a control diet supplemented with a mixture of plant oils for 16 weeks. Lycopene was detected only in plasma of rabbits receiving tomato extract. The tomato extract had no effect on cholesterol...... and triacylglycerol levels measured in total plasma, lipoprotein fractions and on aortic atherosclerosis evaluated biochemically and by microscopy. Oxidation of lipids in unfractionated plasma also was unaffected by the intake of tomato extract. In conclusion, the tomato extract increased plasma levels of lycopene...

  10. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Lund, Claus Otto; Mortensen, A; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    -six female ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were randomised to treatment with 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)), SoyLife 150 or control for 16 weeks. Ring segments of basilar artery (BA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were mounted in myographs for isometric tension recordings...

  11. The effect of social environment on markers of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit.

    Nation, Daniel A; Gonzales, Julie A; Mendez, Armando J; Zaias, Julia; Szeto, Angela; Brooks, Larry G; Paredes, Jamespaul; D'Angola, Alyssa; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M

    2008-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that social environment can influence progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. This study examined the effect of social environment on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation to clarify the physiological pathways potentially responsible for the influence of social environment on disease. WHHL rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 social groups: an unstable group, in which unfamiliar rabbits were paired daily, with the pairing switched each week; a stable group, in which littermates were paired daily; and an individually-caged group. The stable group engaged in more affiliative social behavior than the unstable group. The unstable group showed more agonistic behavior compared with the stable group and higher C-reactive protein levels than the individually caged group. The individually caged group was behaviorally sedentary, had higher 24-hour urinary catecholamine levels than the other groups, and exhibited higher NAD(P)H-oxidase activity in the aortic arch relative to the stable group. The results suggest that social environment creates distinct behavioral contexts that can affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress early in the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically, physical inactivity associated with individual caging affects indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological markers may help to explain behaviorally related differences in the extent of atherosclerosis observed in prior studies.

  12. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    Pfister, S.L.; Schmitz, J.M.; Willerson, J.T.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 37 0 C for 15 min with 14 C-AA (5 x 10 -5 M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of 14 C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1α/ with lesser amounts of PGE 2 . Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs

  13. Stimulation of cholesteryl ester synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages by cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins from the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia

    Kita, T.; Yokode, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Narumiya, S.; Kawai, C.

    1986-01-01

    Cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit induced marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. This WHHL rabbit, an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, has severe hypercholesterolemia, cutaneous xanthomas, and fulminant atherosclerosis due to the deficiency of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, the VLDL from WHHL rabbit (WHHL-VLDL) stimulated cholesteryl [ 14 C]oleate synthesis 124-fold more than did VLDL from the normal Japanese White rabbit (control-VLDL). The enhancement in cholesteryl ester synthesis and accumulation of WHHL-VLDL was due to the presence of a high affinity binding receptor site on the macrophage cell surface that mediated the uptake and lysosomal degradation of WHHL-VLDL. Competition studies showed that the uptake and degradation of 125 I-WHHL-VLDL was inhibited by unlabeled excess WHHL-VLDL and beta-migrating VLDL (beta-VLDL), but not LDL. Furthermore, the degradation of WHHL-VLDL was not blocked by either fucoidin, polyinosinic acid, or polyguanylic acid, potent inhibitors of the acetylated (acetyl)-LDL binding site, or by acetyl-LDL. These results suggest that macrophages possess a high affinity receptor that recognizes the cholesterol-rich VLDL present in the plasma of the WHHL rabbit and that the receptor which mediates ingestion of WHHL-VLDL seems to be the same as that for beta-VLDL and leads to cholesteryl ester deposition within macrophages. Thus, the uptake of the cholesterol-rich VLDL from the WHHL rabbit by macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the WHHL rabbit

  14. Effect of rapeseed oil derived plant sterol and stanol esters on atherosclerosis parameters in cholesterol challenged heterozygous Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Schrøder, Malene; Fricke, Christiane; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (Hh-WHHL) rabbits. Four groups (n 18 per group) received a cholesterol-added (2 g/kg) standard chow or this diet with added RSO stanol esters (17 g/kg), RSO stanol esters (34 g/kg) or RSO sterol esters (34 g/kg) for 18 weeks. Feeding RSO stanol esters increased plasma...... campestanol (P Feeding RSO sterol esters increased concentrations of plasma campesterol (P ... of the RSO stanol ester groups and in one in the RSO sterol ester group. Aortic cholesterol was decreased in the treated groups (P response to lowering of plasma cholesterol induced by RSO sterol and stanol esters. In conclusion, RSO stanol and sterol esters with a high concentration...

  15. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Lund, Claus O.; Mortensen, Alicja; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of estrogen replacement therapy or soy isoflavones supplement on endothelium-dependent relaxation in vitro and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebral arteries in a rabbit model of human hypercholesterolemia. Study design: Thirty...... cholesterol was significantly higher at termination in the SoyLife(R) group (P lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was comparable in all treatment groups. Neither treatment influenced the endothelium-dependent responses to carbamylcholine chloride or L-NAME or the endothelium...

  16. Antiplatelet Effects of Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill in Platelets Aggregation in Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    Yi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill (QSYQ on platelets aggregation and its possible mechanisms. Hyperlipidemic model in rabbits was produced by a high fat/cholesterol diet for 6 weeks, the therapeutic effect of QSYQ with 2.0 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, and 0.5 g/kg was observed. Fourteen days after drug treatment, platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, arachidonic acid (AA, and collagen (COLL was significantly reduced in rabbits of model group. Moreover, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG level decreased obviously but no significant change in P-selectin and platelet factor 4 (PF4 level, while QSYQ significantly decreased the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2 to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-Keto-PGF1α and increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP level in rabbits. In summary, QSYQ can improve platelets aggregation and inhibit the over-release of β-TG in hyperlipidemic rabbits; and the increased cAMP level may be involved in this process. These results suggest that the antiplatelet aggregation effect of QSYQ may be due to its ability to increase cAMP level for improving cAMP metabolism.

  17. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  18. L-CARNITINE-INDUCED MODULATION OF PLASMA FATTY ACIDS METABOLISM IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC RABBITS

    Frank Hernández Rosales PhD

    2006-02-01

    mejoramiento del metabolismo de las lipoproteínas. ABSTRACTThe present study was designed to examine whether the hipocholesterolemic effect of L-carnitine supplementation is related with lipoprotein fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid compositional and cholesterol content changes were measured in lipoproteins of six different groups of rabbits. Group 1, rabbits fed a standard diet; group 2, rabbits fed standard diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg bw; group 3, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet; group 4, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg b.w. These four groups were fed their diets during 126 days. Group 5 and 6 were fed the same diet as group 4 in a previous period of 126 days, and after this time, group 5 was fed the same diet as group 1, and group 6 fed the same diet as group 2, during a second period of 65 days.However, the progression of hypercholesterolemia was reduced 50 % by L-carnitine administration in those animals fed cholesterol diet. Fatty acid compositional changes in lipoprotein-cholesteryl esters were found in all groups of animals supplemented with L-carnitine. During the standard-fed period the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid ratio was increased in VLDL and HDL particles whereas was decreased in LDL. In the hyperlipidemia progression period the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in HDL fraction was slightly enhanced and in the VLDL+LDL modified particle was diminished. In the hyperlipidemia regression period, plasma cholesterol level was additionally reduced in a 33 % in the group 6; and the saturated to unsaturated fatty ratio had the same behaviour from that observed in the progression period for HDL and VLDL+LDL particles. A remarkable reduction (75% of aorta atherosclerotic plaques in the group 6 was found. From these results we concluded that L-carnitine, in this experimental model, induces an improved lipoprotein metabolism.

  19. Thymol reduces oxidative stress, aortic intimal thickening, and inflammation-related gene expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Ya-Mei Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and is often associated with oxidative stress and local inflammation. Thymol, a major polyphenolic compound in thyme, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured the in vitro antioxidant activity of thymol, and investigated the effect of thymol on high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with regular chow, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HC, T3, or T6 (HC with thymol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/d or 6 mg/kg/d, respectively for 8 weeks. Aortic intimal thickening, serum lipid parameters, multiple inflammatory markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and atherosclerosis-associated indicators were significantly increased in the HC group but decreased upon thymol supplementation. In summary, thymol exhibits antioxidant activity, and may suppress the progression of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by reducing aortic intimal lipid lesion, lowering serum lipids and oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammation-related responses.

  20. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2005-01-01

    a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, but lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol significantly. There were no significant effects of either purified anthocyanins or black currant juice on aortic cholesterol or development of atherosclerosis after 16 weeks. Probucol had no effect on plasma cholesterol but significantly lowered......, antioxidant enzymes, protein and lipid oxidation were not affected by any of the anthocyanin treatments. Adverse effects of purified anthocyanins were observed on plasma- and LDL-cholesterol. These effects were not observed with black currant juice, suggesting that black currants may contain components...

  1. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) alone and in combination with two progestins on K+ and Ca2+-mediated mechanisms in coronary...... and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca2+, activated or ATP-sensitive K+ channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity. Conclusion......: When E-2 is administered with MPA, effects of E-2 on nitric oxide and Ca2+ mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects of estrogen...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and in combination with two progestins on K(+) and Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms...... and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca(2+) activated or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity....... CONCLUSION: When E(2) is administered with MPA, effects of E(2) on nitric oxide and Ca(2+)-mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects...

  3. Heritable symbiosis: The advantages and perils of an evolutionary rabbit hole.

    Bennett, Gordon M; Moran, Nancy A

    2015-08-18

    Many eukaryotes have obligate associations with microorganisms that are transmitted directly between generations. A model for heritable symbiosis is the association of aphids, a clade of sap-feeding insects, and Buchnera aphidicola, a gammaproteobacterium that colonized an aphid ancestor 150 million years ago and persists in almost all 5,000 aphid species. Symbiont acquisition enables evolutionary and ecological expansion; aphids are one of many insect groups that would not exist without heritable symbiosis. Receiving less attention are potential negative ramifications of symbiotic alliances. In the short run, symbionts impose metabolic costs. Over evolutionary time, hosts evolve dependence beyond the original benefits of the symbiosis. Symbiotic partners enter into an evolutionary spiral that leads to irreversible codependence and associated risks. Host adaptations to symbiosis (e.g., immune-system modification) may impose vulnerabilities. Symbiont genomes also continuously accumulate deleterious mutations, limiting their beneficial contributions and environmental tolerance. Finally, the fitness interests of obligate heritable symbionts are distinct from those of their hosts, leading to selfish tendencies. Thus, genes underlying the host-symbiont interface are predicted to follow a coevolutionary arms race, as observed for genes governing host-pathogen interactions. On the macroevolutionary scale, the rapid evolution of interacting symbiont and host genes is predicted to accelerate host speciation rates by generating genetic incompatibilities. However, degeneration of symbiont genomes may ultimately limit the ecological range of host species, potentially increasing extinction risk. Recent results for the aphid-Buchnera symbiosis and related systems illustrate that, whereas heritable symbiosis can expand ecological range and spur diversification, it also presents potential perils.

  4. New animal model for the study of postmenopausal coronary and cerebral artery function: the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit fed on a diet avoiding phytoestrogens

    Dalsgaard, T; Larsen, C R; Mortensen, A

    2002-01-01

    to treatment for 16 weeks with either 17 beta-estradiol or placebo. The chow used was semi-synthetic, thereby avoiding the influence of phytoestrogens. Ring segments of cerebral and coronary arteries were mounted for isometric tension recordings in myographs. The passive and active length-tension relationships...

  5. Enhancement of solubility and therapeutic potential of poorly soluble lovastatin by SMEDDS formulation adsorbed on directly compressed spray dried magnesium aluminometasilicate liquid loadable tablets: A study in diet induced hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Mohd Javed Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS containing lovastatin and to further explore the ability of porous Neusilin® US2 tablet as a solid carrier for SMEDDS. SMEDDS formulations of varying proportions of peceol, cremophor RH 40 and transcutol-P were selected and subjected to in-vitro evaluation, including dispersibility studies, droplet size, zeta potential measurement and release studies. The results indicated that the drug release profile of lovastatin from SMEDDS formulations was statistically significantly higher (p-value < 0.05 than the plain lovastatin powder. Thermodynamic stability studies also confirmed the stability of the prepared SMEDDS formulations. The optimized formulation, which consists of 12% of peceol, 44% of cremophor RH 40, and 44% of transcutol-P was loaded into directly compressed liquid loadable tablet of Neusilin® US2 by simple adsorption method. In order to determine the ability of Neusilin® US2 as a suitable carrier pharmacodynamics study were also carried out in healthy diet induced hyperlipidemic rabbits. Animals were administered with both liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS as well. From the results obtained, Neusilin® was found to be a suitable carrier for SMEDDS and was equally effective in reducing the elevated lipid profile. In conclusion, liquid loadable tablet (LLT is predicted to be a promising technique to deliver a liquid formulation in solid state.

  6. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Evaluation by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical methods and comparison of atherosclerosis variables

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1994-01-01

    estimation of aortic atherosclerosis extent and by biochemical analysis of aortic cholesterol content. No noteworthy atherosclerosis was demonstrated within 19 months in heterozygous rabbits. In homozygous rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions were seen from the age of 4 months and progressed with age. All 19......-month-old rabbits had severe atherosclerotic disease. As much as 64% of the variation in atherosclerosis extent/severity could be explained by serum cholesterol and age. A highly significant correlation between the various methods for quantitation of atherosclerosis extent and/or severity...... was demonstrated, suggesting that quantitative microscopy, macroscopic morphometry and determination of aortic cholesterol content may be equally valid as a measure of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and are therefore interchangeable....

  8. 17 beta-estradiol but not the phytoestrogen naringenin attenuates aortic cholesterol accumulation in WHHL rabbits

    Mortensen, Alicja; Breinholt, V.; Dalsgaard, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of 17 beta -estradiol (17 beta -E-2) or the phytoestrogen naringenin on spontaneous atherosclerosis were studied in 36 ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits receiving a semisynthetic control diet; this diet added 0.0040% 17 beta -E-2, or 0.20% nari...... and its antiatherogenic effect. - Mortensen, A., V. Breinholt, T. Dalsgaard, H. Frandsen, S. T. Lauridsen, J. Laigaard, B. Ottesen, and J-J. Larsen. 17 beta -Estradiol but not the phytoestrogen naringenin attenuates aortic cholesterol accumulation in WHHL rabbits.......The effects of 17 beta -estradiol (17 beta -E-2) or the phytoestrogen naringenin on spontaneous atherosclerosis were studied in 36 ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits receiving a semisynthetic control diet; this diet added 0.0040% 17 beta -E-2, or 0.......20% naringenin, for 16 weeks. The uterine weight was increased (P 17 beta -E-2 group compared with the controls. Total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were not different from those in the controls, In lipoproteins, HDL...

  9. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  10. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    Saskia J. H. Brinkmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

  11. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    ... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...

  12. Heritability of antisocial behaviour

    Kretschmer, Tina; DeLisi, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews important strands of research on the heritability of antisocial behavior and crime, including both quantitative genetic studies using twin or adoption designs as well as molecular genetic approaches. Study designs are introduced and findings discussed. Contemporary avenues

  13. Cardiometabolic Risk in Hyperlipidemic Men and Women

    Michael Leutner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex specific differences of metabolic and clinical characteristics of treated hyperlipidemic men and women (HL-men and HL-women. Methods. In this study vascular and metabolic characteristics of 35 HL-women and 64 HL-men were assessed. In addition a sex specific analysis of metabolic and nutritional habits of HL-patients with prediabetes (HL-IGR was done. Results. HL-women were older and had favourable concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-ratio but were also shown to have higher concentrations of lipoprotein-a compared to HL-men. HL-men were characterized as having higher levels of liver-specific parameters and body weight as well as being more physically active compared to HL-women. Brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP was higher in HL-women than HL-men, while no differences in metabolic syndrome and glycemic parameters were shown. HL-IGR-women were also older and still had a better profile of sex specific lipid parameters, as well as a lower body weight compared to HL-IGR-men. No differences were seen in vascular parameters such as the intima media thickness (IMT. Conclusion. HL-women were older and had overall more favourable concentrations of lipid parameters and liver enzymes but did not differ regarding vascular morphology and insulin sensitivity compared to HL-men of comparable body mass index (BMI.

  14. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  15. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae ...

    Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. ... Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TGs) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were assayed using Merck diagnostic kits. For histopathological analysis ...

  16. Heritability in inflammatory bowel disease

    Gordon, Hannah; Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    for ulcerative colitis. Heritability estimates for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis from pooled twin studies are 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. However, this is at odds with the much lower heritability estimates from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). This "missing heritability" is likely due...... to shortfalls in both family studies and GWAS. The coefficient of heritability fails to account for familial shared environment. Heritability calculations from twin data are based on Falconer's method, with premises that are increasingly understood to be flawed. GWAS based heritability estimates may...... underestimate heritability due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium, and because some single nucleotide polypeptides (SNPs) do not reach a level of significance to allow detection. SNPs missed by GWAS include common SNPs with low penetrance and rare SNPs with high penetrance. All methods of heritability...

  17. The heritability of perceived stress.

    Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability

  18. Heritability of clubfoot

    Engell, Vilhelm; Nielsen, Jan; Damborg, Frank

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aetiology of congenital clubfoot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families, and twins suggest a genetic component to the aetiology, other studies have identified environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to calculate heritability in order to determine...... based on a balance of goodness-of-fit and parsimony and to estimate heritability. RESULTS: We found an overall self-reported prevalence of congenital clubfoot of 0.0027 (95 % confidence interval 0.0022-0.0034). Fifty-five complete (both twins answered the question) twin pairs were identified...... representing 12 monozygotic, 22 same-sex dizygotic, 18 opposite-sex dizygotic, and 3 with unclassified zygosity. The model with only environmental factors (CE) was best fitting based on AIC, and the model with an additive genetic factor (ACE) came in second. Due to the small statistical power, we hypothesise...

  19. Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.

  20. Heritability of neck pain

    Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...... for only 10% in the oldest male group and 0% in the oldest female group. There was a statistically significant difference in heritability between males and females (34 vs 52%, P... gradually less important with increasing age, and environmental factors dominate almost completely in the older age groups....

  1. Synthesis and in vivo anti-hyperlipidemic activity of novel n ...

    The rats were divided into six groups: control, hyperlipidemic, hyperlipidemic plus compounds 3b, 4b, 4c, and .... duration and maintained in a 12 h light-dark cycle under standard ..... possibility of intramolecular H-bond interaction which in turn ...

  2. Heritability of caffeine metabolism

    Matthaei, Johannes; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Strube, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Heritability of caffeine pharmacokinetics and CYP1A2 activity is controversial. Here we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, an in vivo probe drug for CYP1A2 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) activity, in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In the entire group, common and unique...... environmental effects explained most variation in caffeine AUC. Apparently, smoking and hormonal contraceptives masked the genetic effects on CYP1A2 activity. However, when excluding smokers and users of hormonal contraceptives, 89% of caffeine AUC variation was due to genetic effects and even in the entire...... group, 8% of caffeine AUC variation could be explained by a CYP1A1/1A2 promotor polymorphism (rs2470893). In contrast, nearly all of the variation (99%) of NAT2 activity was explained by genetic effects. This study illustrates two very different situations in pharmacogenetics, from an almost exclusively...

  3. Pregnancy failure and heritable thrombophilia

    Middeldorp, Saskia

    2007-01-01

    Heritable thrombophilia is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy failure, defined as sporadic and recurrent miscarriage, late fetal loss, and other vascular pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. The pathogenesis is likely to include effects on

  4. Heritability of adult body height

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  5. 8Wambi heritability.pmd

    ACSS

    Cultural, biological and chemical control measures have received limited ... as a percentage of the mean (GAM) and heritability were estimated using variance components. ... présente étude a été conduite afin de déterminer l'héritabilité de la ...

  6. Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease

    Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit....

  7. Heritability Analyses of IQ Scores: Science or Numerology?

    Layzer, David

    1974-01-01

    Examines limitations of the heritability concept and heritability analysis, and discusses a conventional application of heritability analysis, IQ scores as measurements of a phenotypic character, the heritability of IQ, and the relationship of IQ and race. (JR)

  8. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. METHODS: We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297...... dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). RESULTS: Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually...

  9. Rabbit analgesia.

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0.......0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, P = 0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, dominant genetic effects explained 54% of the variation and 46% was individually environmentally determined. Conclusions: In young adult twins...

  11. Heritability of lifetime ecstasy use.

    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vreeker, Annabel; Brunt, Tibor M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2017-09-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used psychoactive drug that users often take because they experience positive effects such as increased euphoria, sociability, elevated mood, and heightened sensations. Ecstasy use is not harmless and several immediate and long term side effects have been identified. Lifetime ecstasy use is likely to be partly influenced by genetic factors, but no twin study has determined the heritability. Here, we apply a classical twin design to a large sample of twins and siblings to estimate the heritability of lifetime ecstasy use. The sample comprised 8500 twins and siblings aged between 18 and 45 years from 5402 families registered at the Netherlands Twin Registry. In 2013-2014 participants filled out a questionnaire including a question whether they had ever used ecstasy. We used the classical twin design to partition the individual differences in liability to ecstasy use into that due to genetic, shared environmental, and residual components. Overall, 10.4% of the sample had used ecstasy during their lifetime, with a somewhat higher prevalence in males than females. Twin modelling indicated that individual differences in liability to lifetime ecstasy use are for 74% due to genetic differences between individuals, whereas shared environmental and residual factors explain a small proportion of its liability (5% and 21%, respectively). Although heritability estimates appeared to be higher for females than males, this difference was not significant. Lifetime ecstasy use is a highly heritable trait, which indicates that some people are genetically more vulnerable to start using ecstasy than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic potential of ethanolic leaf extract of ...

    This study investigated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum volubile on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. The extract was screened and quantified for phytoconstituents according to standard methods. Also, acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract were carried out on Wistar rats using standard ...

  13. Effects of apple consumption on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic and overweight men.

    Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir

    2011-04-01

    Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.

  14. Intrahepatic cholesterol influences progression, inhibition and reversal of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in hyperlipidemic mice

    Wouters, Kristiaan; van Bilsen, Marc; van Gorp, Patrick J.; Bieghs, Veerle; Luetjohann, Dieter; Kerksiek, Anja; Staels, Bart; Hofker, Marten H.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation is the key factor in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes progression to liver damage. We recently identified dietary cholesterol as the cause of hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice. We now show that hepatic transcriptome responses are strongly dependent on

  15. The heritability of blood donation

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...

  16. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    , the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0...

  17. Heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes.

    G Mandela Fernández-Grandon

    Full Text Available Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124 for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354 for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.

  18. The heritable effects of nanotoxicity.

    Tortiglione, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The widespread entry of nanomaterials into manifold life fields posed serious concerns on environmental health and safety issues. Potential adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs) are continuously faced using in vitro cell systems and by mean of cell and molecular biology tools, several mechanisms have been found beyond their toxicity. The evaluation of the in vivo possible consequences derived from exposure of living organisms to NPs is instead more complex but compulsory in view of their application for diagnosis or therapeutic purposes. Here the effects of NP-induced genetic alteration on the progeny of treated animals will be treated, considering selected species from invertebrate and vertebrates as examples of transgenerational transmission of NP toxicity. The effects on reproductive capability, fertility and embryogenesis observed in different animal species upon treatment with different materials will provide an overview of the current knowledge on the heritable feature of nanotoxicity.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  20. New in vitro effects of clopidogrel on platelets in hyperlipidemic and healthy subjects

    Derya Özsavcı

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to detect novel in vitro effects of clopidogrel on platelets by assessment of the following parameters: malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitrite, aggregation response, and expressions of P-selectin, fibrinogen, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, and phosphatidylserine.Materials and Methods: Platelets were obtained from healthy (n: 9 and hyperlipidemic (n: 9 volunteers. Expressions of P-selectin, fibrinogen, apolipoproteins A1/B and phosphatidylserine with and without clopidogrel were assayed by flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde, glutathione, aggregation and nitrite levels were also assayed. Results: Without clopidogrel, the baseline values of platelet aggregation, malondialdehyde, and expressions of P-selectin, fibrinogen and phosphatidylserine were significantly higher, whereas nitrite and expression of apolipoproteins A1/B were significantly lower in hyperlipidemics than in the healthy group. In both groups, clopidogrel significantly reduced aggregation and expression of fibrinogen, but it elevated nitrite levels. Clopidogrel significantly decreased P-selectin and phosphatidylserine expression and malondialdehyde but increased expressions of apolipoproteins A1/B only in hyperlipidemics. Conclusion: It seems that clopidogrel has some new in vitro antiplatelet effects. The present study is a basic in vitro study to suggest new insights into the effects of clopidogrel on platelet functions.

  1. Familial aggregation and heritability of pyloric stenosis

    Krogh, Camilla; Fischer, Thea K; Skotte, Line

    2010-01-01

    stenosis from monozygotic twins to fourth-generation relatives according to sex and maternal and paternal contributions and to estimate disease heritability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Population-based cohort study of 1,999,738 children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008 and followed up.......51-4.99) for half-cousins. We found no difference in rate ratios for maternal and paternal relatives of children with pyloric stenosis and no difference according to sex of cohort member or sex of relative. The heritability of pyloric stenosis was 87%. CONCLUSION: Pyloric stenosis in Danish children shows strong...... familial aggregation and heritability....

  2. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  3. heritability analysis of putative drought adaptation traits

    ACSS

    2014-02-11

    Feb 11, 2014 ... College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Agricultural ... effects is most appropriate for drought tolerance improvement in sweetpotato. ..... GCA, SCA mean squares and heritability values for the various ...

  4. Nature or Nurture? Heritability in the Classroom.

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    Understanding evolution is a necessary component of undergraduate education in biology, and evolution is difficult to explain without studying the heritability of traits. However, in most classes, heritability is presented with only a handful of graphs showing typical morphological traits, for example, beak size in finches and height in humans. The active-inquiry exercise outlined in the following pages allows instructors to engage students in this formerly dry subject by bringing their own data as the basis for estimates of heritability. Students are challenged to come up with their own hypotheses regarding how and to what extent their traits are inherited from their parents and then gather, analyze data, and make inferences with help from the instructor. The exercise is simple in concept and execution but uncovers many new avenues of inquiry for students, including potential biases in their estimates of heritability and misconceptions that they may have had about the extent of inference that can be made from their heritability estimates. The active-inquiry format of the exercise prioritizes curiosity and discussion, leading to a much deeper understanding of heritability and the scientific method.

  5. Meat product based on porcine hearts and aortas ameliorates serum lipid profile and inflammation in hyperlipidemic rats

    Chernukha, I. M.; Kotenkova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The biological effect of porcine hearts and aortas in a hyperlipidemic rat model was confirmed. Porcine heart and aorta mixture in a 3:1 ratio was blended, canned and sterilized at 115°C and 0.23 Mpa for 40 min. Administration of experimental meat product to the animal model decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol low density lipoproteins by 31.8% (Pproduct compared with hyperlipidemic control rats. Normalization of white blood cell populations was also detected. Monocyte and granulocyte counts in blood of rats fed the meat product decreased by 71.1% (Pproduct compared with hyperlipidemic control rats. The data confirmed the hypolipidemic action of the sterilized meat product. Normalization of white blood cell populations led us to hypothesize an anti-inflammatory action of the new meat product, which, therefore, could be recommended as a part of maintenance therapy for people with lipid disorders or atherosclerosis.

  6. Role of paraoxonase-1 in bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in hyperlipidemic mice

    Lu, Jinxiu [Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Cheng, Henry [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Atti, Elisa [Division of Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Shih, Diana M. [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Demer, Linda L. [Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Tintut, Yin, E-mail: ytintut@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Anabolic effects of PTH were tested in hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing PON1. ► Expression of antioxidant regulatory genes was induced in PON1 overexpression. ► Bone resorptive activity was reduced in PON1 overexpressing hyperlipidemic mice. ► PON1 restored responsiveness to intermittent PTH in bones of hyperlipidemic mice. -- Abstract: Hyperlipidemia blunts anabolic effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cortical bone, and the responsiveness to PTH are restored in part by oral administration of the antioxidant ApoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F. To evaluate the mechanism of this rescue, hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing the high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg}) were generated, and daily PTH injections were administered to Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} and to littermate Ldlr{sup −/−} mice. Expression of bone regulatory genes was determined by realtime RT-qPCR, and cortical bone parameters of the femoral bones by micro-computed tomographic analyses. PTH-treated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTH receptor (PTH1R), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in femoral cortical bone, as well as significantly greater cortical bone mineral content, thickness, and area in femoral diaphyses compared with untreated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice. In contrast, in control mice (Ldlr{sup −/−}) without PON1 overexpression, PTH treatment did not induce these markers. Calvarial bone of PTH-treated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice also had significantly greater expression of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes as well as BMP-2-target and Wnt-target genes. Untreated Ldlr{sup −/−}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTHR1 than untreated Ldlr{sup −/−} mice, whereas sclerostin expression was reduced. In femoral cortical bones, expression levels of transcription factors, Fox

  7. Heritability of food preferences in young children.

    Breen, Fiona M; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-30

    There is persisting interest in the idea that taste preferences are heritable characteristics, but few twin studies have found evidence for a significant genetic component. Small sample sizes and idiosyncratic selection of foods may have contributed to the negative results. We hypothesized that using a larger twin sample and empirical groupings of food types, would give stronger evidence for the heritability of food preferences. We examined the heritability of preferences for four food groups in a sample of young twins. We administered a food preference questionnaire with 95 foods to 214 mothers of same-sex twin pairs (103 monozygotic and 111 dizygotic pairs) aged 4 to 5. 18 foods were excluded because they had been tried by fewer than 25% of the children. Foods were grouped into 'Vegetables', 'Fruits', 'Desserts' and 'Meat and Fish' on the basis of a factor analysis of the preference data. Genetic analyses were carried out on mean liking across these four groups, using model fitting techniques. Over all 77 foods, MZ correlations were higher than DZ correlations for 72 of them, with a higher mean MZ correlation (r = 0.76) than DZ correlation (r = 0.56). Using model fitting techniques with the factor scores, significant heritability estimates were obtained for all four food groups. Heritability was modest for dessert foods (0.20), moderate for vegetables (0.37) and fruits (0.51), and high for liking for protein foods (0.78). Shared environmental effects were strong for desserts, fruits and vegetables, while non-shared environmental influences were low for all four food groups. These results provide strong evidence for modest heritability of food preferences when using empirically-derived groupings of foods.

  8. Progestins oppose the effects of estradiol on the endothelin-1 receptor type B in coronary arteries from ovariectomized hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Pedersen, Susan H; Nielsen, Lars B; Mortensen, Alicja

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Progestins may be associated with the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with estrogen plus progestogen therapy, but the mechanism is not resolved. In this study we examined the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) alone and in combination with two progestins on the endothelin-1 (ET-1...

  9. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons.

    Warner, J G; Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J; Yeater, R A

    1989-10-01

    Because both aerobic exercise and fish oil ingestion have been shown to decrease plasma lipids, we examined the effects of combining these modalities in hyperlipidemic subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows: fish oil and exercise (FE), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily and 3 d.wk-1 of aerobic exercise; fish oil (F), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily; corn oil (CN), N = 10, 50 ml of oil daily; and control (C), N = 10. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, and 12 wk. The FE and F groups showed significantly lower triglycerides with respect to treatment as compared to the CN and C groups. The FE, F, and CN groups exhibited lower total cholesterol values than the control group but were not different from each other. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after treatment in the FE and F groups as compared to the CN and C groups. Serum apo-B, LDL cholesterol, and LDL protein decreased significantly in the FE group but not the F group from baseline to 12 wk. VO2max increased and percent fat decreased only in the FE group. In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  10. [Effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on serum lipids and lipoperoxidation in experimental hyperlipidemic rats].

    Chen, Wei-qiang; Luo, Shao-hong; Ll, Hong-zhi; Yang, Hong

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on blood lipid and lipoperoxidation from the experimental hyperlipidemic rats. 50 rats were randomly divided into normal group, hyperlipidemia control group, experimental group 1, 2 and 3 in which the rats were treated with ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides at dosages of 200 mg x kg(-1) and 400 mg x kg(-1) and 800 mg x kg(-1) respectively. Apart from the rats in control group, all the rats in other groups were fed with high fat forage for 30 days. The blood was collected from the tails of rats for measuring the serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, GSH-Px, SOD and LPO. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides could significantly decrease the serum contents of TC, TG, LDL-c in the experimental hyperlipidemic rats (P < 0.01), and markedly increase the level of serum HDL-C (P < 0.05), Mean Level of blood LPO in the experimental groups treated by ganoderma lacidum polysaccharides at different dosages were much lower than that in hyper lipidema group, and the GSH-Px and SOD activities of blood in the group of ganoderma were much higher than those in hyperlipidema group. Ganoderma can regulate lipid metabolism, enhance the antioxidation and reduce the lipid peroxidation in the rats with hyperlipidemia.

  11. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  12. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    Unknown

    reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of ..... pressure for longevity include low heritabilities, the increased generation interval necessary to obtain survival information, and automatic selection because long-lived cows contribute more offspring to subsequent ...

  13. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks

    Fossella John A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.

  14. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    Product-moment correlations between breeding values for stayability traits were low. The highest correlation of 0.22 was obtained between the ages of 36 and 48 months. Heritability estimates and correlations between traits appear to be of such a low magnitude that selection for these characteristics would result in limited ...

  15. [Influence of FPS on the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats].

    Wu, Qing-he; Xing, Yan-hong; Rong, Xiang-lu; Huang, Ping

    2007-08-01

    To explore the effect of FPS on low-density lipoprotein acceptor (LDL-R) mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats. Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model control, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, FPS low dosage, FPS moderate dosage, and FPS high dosage group. Excepting the rats in the normal control group, the ones in other groups were all made rats' hyperlipidemic model by irrigating hyperlipidemic emulsion into the stomach and observed the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of rats of each group. Relative content of LDL-RmRNA in low and moderate dosage groups was notably higher than that inmodel group. The contents's difference was not remarkable between FPS moderate dosage group and Gynostemma pentaphyllum group. FPS can appreciably increase the expression of LDL-R mRNA in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemic rats and promote the elimination ofLDL-C to reduce serum cholesterol notably.

  16. Heritable and non-heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors

    Hyde, Luke W.; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood identify children at high risk for severe trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies have demonstrated high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to earlier callous-unemotional behaviors. Additionally, studies indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. Method Using an adoption cohort of 561 families, biological mothers reported their history of severe antisocial behavior. Observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors when children were 27 months old. Results Biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors despite having no or limited contact with offspring. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors in children not genetically related to the parent. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. Conclusions The findings elucidate heritable and non-heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important non-heritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. As positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors, these findings have important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious antisocial behavior. PMID

  17. Pretreatment with quercetin prevents changes in lymphocytes E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and cytokines secretion in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Braun, Josiane B S; Ruchel, Jader B; Manzoni, Alessandra G; Abdalla, Fátima H; Casalli, Emerson A; Castilhos, Lívia G; Passos, Daniela F; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-11-29

    Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a condition associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Purinergic system ectoenzymes play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and immune response. This study investigated whether the preventive treatment with quercetin is able to prevent changes caused by hyperlipidemia in the purinergic system, through the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in lymphocytes, and quantify the nucleotides and nucleoside, and the secretion of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. Animals were divided into saline/control, saline/quercetin 5 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50 mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0.04 mg/kg), hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 5 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 25 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 50 mg/kg, and hyperlipidemia/simvastatin. Animals were pretreated with quercetin for 30 days and hyperlipidemia was subsequently induced by intraperitoneal administration of 500 mg/kg of poloxamer-407. Simvastatin was administered after the induction of hyperlipidemia. Lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Serum was separated for the cytokines and nucleotide/nucleoside quantification. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were increased in lymphocytes from hyperlipidemic rats and pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the increase in the activities of these enzymes caused by hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemic rats when receiving pretreatment with quercetin and treatment with simvastatin showed decreased levels of ATP and ADP when compared to the untreated hyperlipidemic group. The IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines were increased in the hyperlipidemic group when compared with control group, and decreased when hyperlipidemic rats received the pretreatment with quercetin. However, pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the alterations caused by hyperlipidemia probably by regulating the inflammatory process. We can suggest that the quercetin is a

  18. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  19. Novel Molecular Therapies for Heritable Skin Disorders

    Uitto, Jouni; Christiano, Angela M.; Irwin McLean, W. H.; McGrath, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the past two decades in molecular genetics of heritable skin diseases, and pathogenic mutations have been identified in as many as 500 distinct human genes. This progress has resulted in improved diagnosis with prognostic implications, refined genetic counseling, and has formed the basis for prenatal and presymptomatic testing as well as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. However, there has been relatively little progress in developing effective and specific treatments for these often devastating diseases. Very recently, however, a number of novel molecular strategies, including gene therapy, cell-based approaches, and protein replacement therapy have been explored for treatment of these conditions. This overview will focus on the prototypic heritable blistering disorders, epidermolysis bullosa and related keratinopathies, in which significant progress has been recently made towards treatment, and illustrate how some of the translational research therapies have already entered the clinical arena. PMID:22158553

  20. Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...... conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex......-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally...

  1. Heritability of metoprolol and torsemide pharmacokinetics

    Matthaei, Johannes; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide due to polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and OATP1B1 has been extensively studied. However, it is still unknown how much of variation in pharmacokinetics of these two clinically important drugs in total is due to genetic factors....... of the heritable variability in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide remains to be elucidated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA ON OVERWEIGHT HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS: DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Lekhani Pashine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa on serum lipid profile in overweight hyperlipidemic subjects. Methods: This was a double blind randomised control study. The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, CSM Medical University, Lucknow from July 2010-June 2011. A total of 120 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule whose BMI>25 and total cholesterol>200 mg/dl and/or triglyceride>150 mg/dl, were divided randomly using random number table into 2 groups Group-I (Aquous extract of Turmeric-1.4 gm per day (n=53 and Group-II (Placebo (n=52 for three months. They were given the same color capsules without revealing their identity, with the instructions to take the contents of each pack twice a day before meal for 90 days. Subjects were asked to give their 12 hour fasting blood samples on 0, 30, 60 and 90 day. The paired t-test was used to compare the changes amongst follow-ups and unpaired t-test was used to compare between groups. p-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: At the baseline, both the groups were similar in anthropometric and clinical parameters. Treatment group produced significant (p<0.0001 reduction in lipid profiles such as serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol and VLDL- cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group from 0 day to 30, 60 and 90 day of follow-ups. However, there was no significant change in the placebo group. The percentage reduction was higher in the subjects of Turmeric group as compared to Placebo. Conclusion: Aquous extract of Turmeric has shown lipid lowering properties among overweight hyperlipidemic subjects.

  3. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  4. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  5. The regulation of alfalfa saponin extract on key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Yinghua Shi

    Full Text Available To investigate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, 40 healthy 7 weeks old male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups with 10 rats in each group: control group, hyperlipidemic group, ASE treatment group, ASE prevention group. The body weight gain, relative liver weight and serum lipid 1evels of rats were determined. Total cholesterol (TC and total bile acids (TBA levels in liver and feces were also measured. Furthermore, the activity and mRNA expressions of Hmgcr, Acat2, Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were investigated. The results showed the following: (1 The abnormal serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats were ameliorated by ASE administration (both ASE prevention group and treatment group (P<0.05. (2 Both ASE administration to hyperlipidemic rats significantly reduced liver TC and increased liver TBA level (P<0.05. TC and TBA levels in feces of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably elevated by both ASE administration (P<0.05. (3 mRNA expressions of Hmgcr and Acat2 in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably down-regulated (P<0.05, as well as mRNA expressions of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were dramatically up-regulated by both ASE administration (P<0.05. The activities of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA levels. (4 There was no significant difference between ASE treatment and ASE prevention group for most parameters evaluated. Our present study indicated that ASE had cholesterol-lowering effects. The possible mechanism could be attributed to (1 the down-regulation of Hmgcr and Acat2, as well as up-regulation of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats, which was involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and efflux pathway; (2 the increase in excretion of cholesterol. The findings in our study suggested ASE had great potential usefulness as a natural agent for treating hyperlipidemia.

  6. Low heritability in pharmacokinetics of talinolol

    Matthaei, Johannes; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Gal, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efflux transporters like MDR1 and MRP2 may modulate the pharmacokinetics of about 50 % of all drugs. It is currently unknown how much of the variation in the activities of important drug membrane transporters like MDR1 or MRP2 is determined by genetic or by environmental factors...... of talinolol was predefined as the primary parameter. Heritability was analyzed by structural equation modeling and by within- and between-subject variance and talinolol clearance was correlated with polymorphisms in MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MDR5, OATP1B1, and OCT1. RESULTS: Talinolol clearance varied approximately...

  7. Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab

  8. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  9. RabbitMQ essentials

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  10. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  11. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats

    Maja Đurendić - Brenesel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As a source of biologically active compounds, buckwheat has beneficial effects in nutrition due to its high content of flavonoids, particularly rutin. Aim of our study was to examine effects of buckwheat on plasma lipid status and phospholipids fatty acids composition, histological and parameters of oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. This study showed that buckwheat leaf and flower (BLF mixture supplementation significantly reduce weight gain, plasma lipid concentrations and atherogenic index in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of the high-fat group of animals with buckwheat significantly increased percentage of n-6 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decreased percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA and oleic acid. Buckwheat antioxidant effects diminished negative influence of high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats, while pathohistological analysis of liver confirmed changes after high-fat consumption. Our results showed hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative features of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture, and these parts of the plant with the highest rutin content could be beneficial in prevention and curing of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  13. Fimasartan Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through PPARδ Regulation in Hyperlipidemic and Hypertensive Conditions

    Yong-Jik Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fimasartan on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperlipidemic and hypertensive conditions, the levels of biomarkers related to fatty acid metabolism were determined in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated by high fatty acid and liver and visceral fat tissue samples of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs given high-fat diet. In HepG2 cells and liver tissues, fimasartan was shown to increase the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ, phosphorylated 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK, phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, and it led to a decrease in the protein levels of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSDH1, fatty acid synthase (FAS, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Fimasartan decreased lipid contents in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and liver tissues. In addition, fimasartan increased the adiponectin level in visceral fat tissues. The antiadipogenic effects of fimasartan were offset by PPARδ antagonist (GSK0660. Consequently, fimasartan ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mainly through the activation of oxidative metabolism represented by PPARδ-AMPK-PGC-1α pathway.

  14. Effectiveness of Shelled Almonds in Decreasing Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients

    H Mozaffari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Nuts such as almonds are high in unsaturated lipids and antioxidants. Some studies indicate that nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of shelled almonds on reduction of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial (before and after and was done on 30 men volunteering for the study. They consumed 60 grams shelled almonds per day for four weeks. Their blood lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a levels were measured after and before almond consumption. Results: Shelled almond consumption caused significant decrease in serum cholesterol 36.1 mg/dl, triglyceride 45.94 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol 28.68 mg/dl and increase in HDL-cholesterol 10.64 mg/dl(p<0.001. Shelled almond consumption decreased lipoprotein (a (2.11 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B100 (8.93 mg/dl and increased apolipoprotein A (1 1.74 mg/dl levels, but this effect was insignificant statistically. Conclusion: Continuous consumption of shelled almonds has beneficial effect on blood lipids and may play a preventive role in Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. We therefore suggest that a daily intake of 60 grams of almonds can be used for treatment of hyprelipidemic patients.

  15. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  16. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  17. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs

  18. Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    , additive genetic factors (i.e. heritability) explained 77% (95% CI: 65-85%) of variation of vertical disc diameters, whereas estimated unshared environmental effect was 23% (95% CI: 15-35%). For vertical cup diameters, heritability accounted for 70% (95% CI: 55-80%) and environmental factors 30% (95% CI...

  19. Review Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for ...

    edward

    2015-05-09

    May 9, 2015 ... Heritability estimates for functional longevity have been expressed on an original or a logarithmic scale with PH models. Ducrocq & Casella (1996) defined heritability on a logarithmic scale and modified under simulation to incorporate the tri-gamma function (γ) as used by Sasaki et al. (2012) and Terawaki ...

  20. Partitioning heritability by functional category using GWAS summary statistics

    Finucane, Hilary K.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Gusev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell type-specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability in...

  1. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  2. Estimating Heritability from Nuclear Family and Pedigree Data.

    Bochud, Murielle

    2017-01-01

    Heritability is a measure of familial resemblance. Estimating the heritability of a trait could be one of the first steps in the gene mapping process. This chapter describes how to estimate heritability for quantitative traits from nuclear and pedigree data using the ASSOC program in the Statistical Analysis in Genetic Epidemiology (S.A.G.E.) software package. Estimating heritability rests on the assumption that the total phenotypic variance of a quantitative trait can be partitioned into independent genetic and environmental components. In turn, the genetic variance can be divided into an additive (polygenic) genetic variance, a dominance variance (nonlinear interaction effects between alleles at the same locus) and an epistatic variance (interaction effects between alleles at different loci). The last two are often assumed to be zero. The additive genetic variance represents the average effects of individual alleles on the phenotype and reflects transmissible resemblance between relatives. Heritability in the narrow sense (h 2 ) refers to the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total phenotypic variance. Heritability is a dimensionless population-specific parameter. ASSOC estimates association parameters (regression coefficients) and variance components from family data. ASSOC uses a linear regression model in which the total residual variance is partitioned, after regressing on covariates, into the sum of random components such as an additive polygenic component, a random sibship component, random nuclear family components, a random marital component, and an individual-specific random component. Assortative mating, nonrandom ascertainment of families, and failure to account for key confounding factors may bias heritability estimates.

  3. Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald's formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease.

  4. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Genetic parameters of rabbit semen traits and male fertilising ability.

    Brun, J M; Sanchez, A; Ailloud, E; Saleil, G; Theau-Clément, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for rabbit semen production, semen characteristics and fertilising ability following artificial insemination. It involved five successive batches of 30-36 bucks each, 22 weeks of semen collection, and 11 weeks of semen recording per batch. Semen analyses were based on 2312 ejaculates. A total of 2019 inseminations were performed on 674 females with semen from 236 ejaculates from 128 bucks. Heritability estimates of semen traits ranged from 0.05 to 0.18. At approximately 0.05-0.06 for pH, volume and mass motility, they were higher for concentration (0.10) and the total number of sperms per ejaculate (0.12), and even higher for motility traits based on computer-assisted semen analysis. The percentage of motile sperms had the highest heritability (0.18) and appeared to be a good candidate criterion to select for both sperm number and motility. The heritability estimates were close to zero for all three criteria of fertilising ability: fertility (F), prolificacy (live births, LB) and their product (LB per insemination). A permanent environmental effect of the male seemed to be higher for LB (0.04) than for F (0.01). The rabbit does accounted for approximately 10% of the variance of the three criteria. With respect to the female, the male contribution was negligible for fertility and in a ratio of 4-10 for the number of live births. In our experimental conditions, prolificacy would thus be more highly influenced by the buck than fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  7. ANOPHTHALMIA: A NON-HERITABLE EYE DEFORMITY IN Oreochromis mossambicus

    D. Tave

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven male Oreochromis mossambicus with anophthalmia were found in a hatchery population. The deformity was not observed in either the Fl or F2 generations; consequently, it was a non-heritable congenital deformity.

  8. Heritability of specific language impairment depends on diagnostic criteria.

    Bishop, D V M; Hayiou-Thomas, M E

    2008-04-01

    Heritability estimates for specific language impairment (SLI) have been inconsistent. Four twin studies reported heritability of 0.5 or more, but a recent report from the Twins Early Development Study found negligible genetic influence in 4-year-olds. We considered whether the method of ascertainment influenced results and found substantially higher heritability if SLI was defined in terms of referral to speech and language pathology services than if defined by language test scores. Further analysis showed that presence of speech difficulties played a major role in determining whether a child had contact with services. Childhood language disorders that are identified by population screening are likely to have a different phenotype and different etiology from clinically referred cases. Genetic studies are more likely to find high heritability if they focus on cases who have speech difficulties and who have been referred for intervention.

  9. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of quantitative ...

    ONOS

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... coefficient of variation; h2, heritability; GA, genetic advance;. EMS, ethyl methane ... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed the significance degree among the ... fullest extent. The estimates of range, phenotypic and.

  10. Tic symptom dimensions and their heritabilities in Tourette's syndrome

    de Haan, Marcel J; Delucchi, Kevin L; Mathews, Carol M; Cath, Danielle C

    INTRODUCTION: Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (TS) is both genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Gene-finding strategies have had limited success, possibly because of symptom heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at specifically investigating heritabilities of tic symptom factors in

  11. Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some ...

    Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some yield and yield related traits in Ethiopian ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... randomized complete block design at Adet Agricultural Research Station in 2008 cropping season.

  12. Metabolic alterations of toxic and nonessential elements by the treatment of Sempervivum tectorum extract in a hyperlipidemic rat model.

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Fehér, Erzsébet; Vinkler, Péter; Kéry, Agnes; Blázovics, Anna

    2004-01-01

    A hyperlipidemic rat model was used to examine the therapeutic effect of Sempervivum tectorum plant extract on the metabolic alterations of Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Ti in the liver and bile. Hyperlipidemia was produced by lipogenic diet and alcohol and verified by morphological investigation of the liver with the aid of light and an electron microscope. Element concentration in the liver and bile were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentration values in the liver higher than the detection limit (Al, Ba, Ni, Ti) were unambiguous. Significant differences were found for the four groups at p < 0.05 level (ANOVA). A significant difference was observed between Al and B concentration in the bile fluids of the 4 groups (p < 0.05). The excretion of Al and Ti into the bile fluid increased significantly (p < 0.05). Following the administration of S. tectorum extract to rats with hyperlipidemia, the excretion of Al, B and Ba increased, whereas the excretion of Ti decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The favorable action of the extract (protecting the liver in hyperlipidemic rats) was verified by morphological studies, and its detoxicating property was shown by the elimination of Al, Ba, Ni, and Ti from the liver.

  13. Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents.

    Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and-in large parts of the world-inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent twins registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The participants form a sample that is informative for genetic analyses, allowing the investigation of the causes of individual differences in compulsive Internet use. The internal consistency of the instrument was high and the 1.6-year test-retest correlation in a subsample (n = 902) was 0.55. CIUS scores increased slightly with age. Remarkably, gender did not explain variation in CIUS scores, as mean scores on the CIUS were the same in boys and girls. However, the time spent on specific Internet activities differed: boys spent more time on gaming, whereas girls spent more time on social network sites and chatting. The heritability estimates were the same for boys and girls: 48 percent of the individual differences in CIUS score were influenced by genetic factors. The remaining variance (52 percent) was due to environmental influences that were not shared between family members. Because a life without Internet is almost impossible nowadays, it is important to further explore the determinants of compulsive Internet use, including genetic risk factors. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for Thirteen Cancer Types

    Sampson, Joshua N; Wheeler, William A; Yeager, Meredith; Panagiotou, Orestis; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I; Lan, Qing; Abnet, Christian C; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Figueroa, Jonine D; Landi, Maria Teresa; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A; Taylor, Philip R; Vivo, Immaculata De; McGlynn, Katherine A; Purdue, Mark P; Rajaraman, Preetha; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Amary, Maria Fernanda; An, She-Juan; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M; Arici, Cecilia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Arslan, Alan A; Austin, Melissa A; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A; Bassig, Bryan A; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Benhamou, Simone; Berg, Christine; Van Den Berg, David; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Black, Amanda; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chan, John K C; Chang, Ellen T; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang, Jiang; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chu; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Ying; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Choi, Jin Eun; Choi, Yi Young; Chow, Wong-Ho; Chung, Charles C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cocco, Pierluigi; Colt, Joanne S; Comperat, Eva; Conde, Lucia; Connors, Joseph M; Conti, David; Cortessis, Victoria K; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; Crous-Bou, Marta; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G; Ding, Ti; Diver, W Ryan; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dossus, Laure; Duell, Eric J; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Erickson, Ralph L; Feychting, Maria; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Foretova, Lenka; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Freedman, Neal D; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Fuchs, Charles; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Gascoyne, Randy D; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giffen, Carol; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Glimelius, Bengt; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gorlick, Richard; Gross, Myron; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Huan; Habermann, Thomas M; Haiman, Christopher A; Halai, Dina; Hallmans, Goran; Hassan, Manal; Hattinger, Claudia; He, Qincheng; He, Xingzhou; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Henriksson, Roger; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holford, Theodore R; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Hosain, G M Monawar; Hosgood, H Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Hung, Jen-Yu; Hutchinson, Amy; Inskip, Peter D; Jackson, Rebecca D; Jacobs, Eric J; Jenab, Mazda; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Jin, Li; Johansen, Christoffer; Johnson, Alison; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kamineni, Aruna; Kane, Eleanor; Kang, Chang Hyun; Karagas, Margaret R; Kelly, Rachel S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jun Suk; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Young-Chul; Kitahara, Cari M; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert J; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kricker, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C; Kweon, Sun-Seog; LaCroix, Andrea; Lawrence, Charles; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Li, Donghui; Li, Haixin; Li, Jihua; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Yuqing; Liao, Linda M; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lin, Dongxin; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S; Link, Brian K; Liu, Chenwei; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lollo, Simonetta Di; Lu, Daru; Lund, Eiluv; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marchand, Loic Le; Marina, Neyssa; Masala, Giovanna; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Melbye, Mads; Melin, Beatrice S; Michaud, Dominique S; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Monnereau, Alain; Montalvan, Rebecca; Moore, Lee E; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E; Novak, Anne J; Oberg, Ann L; Offit, Kenneth; Oh, In-Jae; Olson, Sara H; Palli, Domenico; Pao, William; Park, In Kyu; Park, Jae Yong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H M; Perng, Reury-Perng; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Qian, Biyun; Qiao, You-Lin; Rais, Marco; Riboli, Elio; Riby, Jacques; Risch, Harvey A; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Rodabough, Rebecca; Roman, Eve; Roupret, Morgan; Ruder, Avima M; Sanjose, Silvia de; Scelo, Ghislaine; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K; Shanafelt, Tait D; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Wei; Shin, Min-Ho; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Skibola, Christine F; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Staines, Anthony; Stampfer, Meir; Stern, Marianna C; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Su, Jian; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Jae Sook; Sung, Sook Whan; Tan, Wen; Tang, Wei; Tardón, Adonina; Thomas, David; Thompson, Carrie A; Tinker, Lesley F; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Villano, Danylo J; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Junwen; Wei, Fusheng; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiner, George J; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; White, Emily; Witzig, Thomas E; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Guoping; Wu, Junjie; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ping; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Ye, Yuanqing; Yin, Zhihua; Yokota, Jun; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Zhenhong; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Zhu, Meng; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Boca, Simina M; Cerhan, James R; Ferri, Giovanni M; Hartge, Patricia; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Magnani, Corrado; Miligi, Lucia; Morton, Lindsay M; Smedby, Karin E; Teras, Lauren R; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Sophia S; Brennan, Paul; Caporaso, Neil E; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T; Slager, Susan L; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  16. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  17. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  18. The CareRabbit

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  19. Heritable and Nonheritable Pathways to Early Callous-Unemotional Behaviors.

    Hyde, Luke W; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-09-01

    Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood signal higher risk for trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies demonstrate high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Studies also indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. In a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive mothers, the authors tested novel heritable and nonheritable pathways to preschool callous-unemotional behaviors. In an adoption cohort of 561 families, history of severe antisocial behavior assessed in biological mothers and observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors at 27 months. Despite limited or no contact with offspring, biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important nonheritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. The finding that positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors has important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious

  20. Heritability of Radiation Response in Lung Cancer Families

    H.-Erich Wichmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation sensitivity is assumed to be a cancer susceptibility factor due to impaired DNA damage signalling and repair. Relevant genetic factors may also determine the observed familial aggregation of early onset lung cancer. We investigated the heritability of radiation sensitivity in families of 177 Caucasian cases of early onset lung cancer. In total 798 individuals were characterized for their radiation-induced DNA damage response. DNA damage analysis was performed by alkaline comet assay before and after in vitro irradiation of isolated lymphocytes. The cells were exposed to a dose of 4 Gy and allowed to repair induced DNA-damage up to 60 minutes. The primary outcome parameter Olive Tail Moment was the basis for heritability estimates. Heritability was highest for basal damage (without irradiation 70% (95%-CI: 51%–88% and initial damage (directly after irradiation 65% (95%-CI: 47%–83% and decreased to 20%–48% for the residual damage after different repair times. Hence our study supports the hypothesis that genomic instability represented by the basal DNA damage as well as radiation induced and repaired damage is highly heritable. Genes influencing genome instability and DNA repair are therefore of major interest for the etiology of lung cancer in the young. The comet assay represents a proper tool to investigate heritability of the radiation sensitive phenotype. Our results are in good agreement with other mutagen sensitivity assays.

  1. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  2. High heritability of liability to abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Christensen, Kaare; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2016-01-01

    of genetic and environmental factors can be assessed by comparing concordance rates between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. Higher phenotypic similarity between MZ than DZ twins indicates a genetic attribution to the etiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the heritability of AAA...... among Danish twins using concordance rates and heritability estimates. METHODS: The Danish Twin Registry was used to identify all Danish twin pairs (born 1880-1971) where both twins were alive on January 1, 1977. AAA cases were then identified using the National Patient Registry and the Registry...... of Cause of Death. Probandwise concordance rates were calculated and heritability estimated using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The study identified 414 twins with AAA; 69.8% (289/414) were men and 30.2% (125/414) women. The probandwise concordance rate in MZ twins was 30% (95% CI 20...

  3. Disease Heritability Inferred from Familial Relationships Reported in Medical Records.

    Polubriaginof, Fernanda C G; Vanguri, Rami; Quinnies, Kayla; Belbin, Gillian M; Yahi, Alexandre; Salmasian, Hojjat; Lorberbaum, Tal; Nwankwo, Victor; Li, Li; Shervey, Mark M; Glowe, Patricia; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Simmerling, Mary; Hripcsak, George; Bakken, Suzanne; Goldstein, David; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kenny, Eimear E; Dudley, Joel; Vawdrey, David K; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2018-05-15

    Heritability is essential for understanding the biological causes of disease but requires laborious patient recruitment and phenotype ascertainment. Electronic health records (EHRs) passively capture a wide range of clinically relevant data and provide a resource for studying the heritability of traits that are not typically accessible. EHRs contain next-of-kin information collected via patient emergency contact forms, but until now, these data have gone unused in research. We mined emergency contact data at three academic medical centers and identified 7.4 million familial relationships while maintaining patient privacy. Identified relationships were consistent with genetically derived relatedness. We used EHR data to compute heritability estimates for 500 disease phenotypes. Overall, estimates were consistent with the literature and between sites. Inconsistencies were indicative of limitations and opportunities unique to EHR research. These analyses provide a validation of the use of EHRs for genetics and disease research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  5. The Human Microbiome and the Missing Heritability Problem

    Santiago Sandoval-Motta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The “missing heritability” problem states that genetic variants in Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS cannot completely explain the heritability of complex traits. Traditionally, the heritability of a phenotype is measured through familial studies using twins, siblings and other close relatives, making assumptions on the genetic similarities between them. When this heritability is compared to the one obtained through GWAS for the same traits, a substantial gap between both measurements arise with genome wide studies reporting significantly smaller values. Several mechanisms for this “missing heritability” have been proposed, such as epigenetics, epistasis, and sequencing depth. However, none of them are able to fully account for this gap in heritability. In this paper we provide evidence that suggests that in order for the phenotypic heritability of human traits to be broadly understood and accounted for, the compositional and functional diversity of the human microbiome must be taken into account. This hypothesis is based on several observations: (A The composition of the human microbiome is associated with many important traits, including obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders. (B Our microbiome encodes a second genome with nearly a 100 times more genes than the human genome, and this second genome may act as a rich source of genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity. (C Human genotypes interact with the composition and structure of our microbiome, but cannot by themselves explain microbial variation. (D Microbial genetic composition can be strongly influenced by the host's behavior, its environment or by vertical and horizontal transmissions from other hosts. Therefore, genetic similarities assumed in familial studies may cause overestimations of heritability values. We also propose a method that allows the compositional and functional diversity of our microbiome to be incorporated to genome wide association studies.

  6. Heritability of the human connectome: A connectotyping study

    Oscar Miranda-Dominguez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in resting-state neuroimaging demonstrates that the brain exhibits highly individualized patterns of functional connectivity—a “connectotype.” How these individualized patterns may be constrained by environment and genetics is unknown. Here we ask whether the connectotype is familial and heritable. Using a novel approach to estimate familiality via a machine-learning framework, we analyzed resting-state fMRI scans from two well-characterized samples of child and adult siblings. First we show that individual connectotypes were reliably identified even several years after the initial scanning timepoint. Familial relationships between participants, such as siblings versus those who are unrelated, were also accurately characterized. The connectotype demonstrated substantial heritability driven by high-order systems including the fronto-parietal, dorsal attention, ventral attention, cingulo-opercular, and default systems. This work suggests that shared genetics and environment contribute toward producing complex, individualized patterns of distributed brain activity, rather than constraining local aspects of function. These insights offer new strategies for characterizing individual aberrations in brain function and evaluating heritability of brain networks. By using machine learning and two independent datasets, this report shows that the brain’s individualized functional connectome or connectotype is familial and heritable. First we expand previous findings showing that by using a model-based approach to characterize functional connectivity, we can reliably identify and track individual brain signatures—a functional “fingerprint” or “connectotype” for the human brain—in both children and adults. Such signatures can also be used to characterize familial and heritable patterns of brain connectivity, even using limited data. Most heritable systems include the fronto-parietal, dorsal attention, ventral attention

  7. Heritability of retinal vascular fractals: a twin study

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    . The retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficents. Falconer´s formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The retinal...... for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, p=0.0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, p=0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, 54% of the variation was explained...

  8. Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird.

    Järvinen, Pauliina; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E

    2017-10-01

    In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years from 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest-boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%) heritable female traits. These findings imply that nest construction may evolve but only if subjected to strong and consistent selection pressures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  10. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one generation of divergent selection

    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a  sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero

  11. Heritability and Seasonal Changes in Viscosity of Slash Pine Oleoresin

    Robert D. McReynolds

    1971-01-01

    Oleoresin viscosity was measured in slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) trees of known genetic origin over a 1-year period. A strong broad-sense heritability of this trait was found. Seasonal variation followed a definite pattern, with the highest viscosities occurring in early spring and a gradual decline occurring in...

  12. Heritability of eleven metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins

    Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Pang, Zengchang

    2013-01-01

    modeling was performed on full and nested models with the best fitting models selected. Results: Heritability estimates were compared between Danish and Chinese samples to identify differential genetic influences on each of the phenotypes. Except for hip circumference, all other body measures exhibited...

  13. The heritability of acceptability in South African Merino sheep ...

    Selection for production and reproduction in South African Merino sheep is always combined with selection based on visual appraisal and will, in all probability, remain so for many years to come. Heritabilities for acceptability were estimated using a threshold model to analyse data from two parent Merino studs. Effects ...

  14. Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games

    Kai eHiraishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2, twin participants were asked to indicate 1 how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and 2 how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted five Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed.

  15. Heritability of and mortality prediction with a longevity phenotype

    Sanders, Jason L; Minster, Ryan L; Barmada, M Michael

    2014-01-01

    Longevity-associated genes may modulate risk for age-related diseases and survival. The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) may be a subphenotype of longevity, which can be constructed in many studies for genetic analysis. We investigated the HAI's association with survival in the Cardiovascular Health Stu...... and heritability in the Long Life Family Study....

  16. Heritability of psoriasis in a large twin sample

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Liselotte; Skytthe, A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the concordance of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. METHODS: Data on psoriasis in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry was collected via a questionnaire survey. The concordance and heritability of psoriasis were estimated. RESULTS: In total...

  17. Heritability and genetics of lipid metabolism

    Fenger, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the concept of heritability and genetic effect will be reviewed and our current knowledge of the genetics of lipid metabolism summarized. The concepts of polygenic conditions and epistasis are discussed at length, and an effort is made to put the biological processes in context...

  18. Heritability of sperm length in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    Baer, Boris; de Jong, Gerdien; Schmid-Hempel, Regula

    2006-01-01

    estimates of narrow sense heritability of sperm length in a social insect, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. In spite of a balanced and straightforward rearing design of colonies, and the possibility to replicate measurements of sperm within single males nested within colonies, the analysis proved...

  19. SNP based heritability estimation using a Bayesian approach

    Krag, Kristian; Janss, Luc; Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    . Differences in family structure were in general not found to influence the estimation of the heritability. For the sample sizes used in this study, a 10-fold increase of SNP density did not improve precision estimates compared with set-ups with a less dense distribution of SNPs. The methods used in this study...

  20. Multi-trait and random regression mature weight heritability and ...

    Legendre polynomials of orders 4, 3, 6 and 3 were used for animal and maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, considering five classes of residual variances. Mature weight (five years) direct heritability estimates were 0.35 (MM) and 0.38 (RRM). Rank correlation between sires' breeding values ...

  1. Evaluation of Some Litter Traits and Heritability Estimates of ...

    SH

    The heritability estimates were 0.00 ± 0.04 for litter size at weaning and. 0.37 ± 0.12 for ... not sustainable in South-western Nigeria. Balogun (1981) ... sources for the people that eat pork. Dalton ... size and on body weight at birth and at weaning of .... Indigenous and Large White Pigs in a humid tropical environment. Asian.

  2. Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80

  3. Genetic variability and heritability studies of some reproductive traits ...

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The success of most crop improvement programs largely depends upon the genetic variability and the heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability help the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. A screen.

  4. Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under ...

    Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under varying drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Correlation analysis revealed that days to 50% tasseling and silking under non-stress, ASI and leaf senescence under severe stress exhibited negative and significant correlations with grain yield.

  5. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  7. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  8. The White Rabbit project

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  9. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  10. Tic symptom dimensions and their heritabilities in Tourette's syndrome.

    de Haan, Marcel J; Delucchi, Kevin L; Mathews, Carol M; Cath, Danielle C

    2015-06-01

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (TS) is both genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Gene-finding strategies have had limited success, possibly because of symptom heterogeneity. This study aimed at specifically investigating heritabilities of tic symptom factors in a relatively large sample of TS patients and family members. Lifetime tic symptom data were collected in 494 diagnosed individuals in two cohorts of TS patients from the USA (n=273) and the Netherlands (n=221), and in 351 Dutch family members. Item-level factor analysis, using a tetrachoric correlation matrix in SAS (v9.2), was carried out on 23 tic symptoms from the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Three factors were identified explaining 49% of the total variance: factor 1, complex vocal tics and obscene behaviour; factor 2, body tics; and factor 3, head/neck tics. Using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routine, moderate heritabilities were found for factor 1 (h2r=0.21) and factor 3 (h2r=0.25). Lower heritability was found for overall tic severity (h2r=0.19). Bivariate analyses indicated no genetic associations between tic factors. These findings suggest that (i) three tic factors can be discerned with a distinct underlying genetic architecture and that (ii) considering the low tic heritabilities found, only focusing on the narrow-sense TS phenotype and leaving out comorbidities that are part of the broader sense tic phenotype may lead to missing heritability. Although these findings need replication in larger independent samples, they might have consequences for future genetic studies in TS.

  11. Heritability of tic disorders: a twin-family study.

    Zilhão, N R; Olthof, M C; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Ligthart, L; Mathews, C A; Delucchi, K; Boomsma, D I; Dolan, C V

    2017-04-01

    Genetic-epidemiological studies that estimate the contributions of genetic factors to variation in tic symptoms are scarce. We estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to tics, employing various phenotypic definitions ranging between mild and severe symptomatology, in a large population-based adult twin-family sample. In an extended twin-family design, we analysed lifetime tic data reported by adult mono- and dizygotic twins (n = 8323) and their family members (n = 7164; parents and siblings) from 7311 families in the Netherlands Twin Register. We measured tics by the abbreviated version of the Schedule for Tourette and Other Behavioral Syndromes. Heritability was estimated by genetic structural equation modeling for four tic disorder definitions: three dichotomous and one trichotomous phenotype, characterized by increasingly strictly defined criteria. Prevalence rates of the different tic disorders in our sample varied between 0.3 and 4.5% depending on tic disorder definition. Tic frequencies decreased with increasing age. Heritability estimates varied between 0.25 and 0.37, depending on phenotypic definitions. None of the phenotypes showed evidence of assortative mating, effects of shared environment or non-additive genetic effects. Heritabilities of mild and severe tic phenotypes were estimated to be moderate. Overlapping confidence intervals of the heritability estimates suggest overlapping genetic liabilities between the various tic phenotypes. The most lenient phenotype (defined only by tic characteristics, excluding criteria B, C and D of DSM-IV) rendered sufficiently reliable heritability estimates. These findings have implications in phenotypic definitions for future genetic studies.

  12. Beneficial metabolic effects of 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N6- (3-hydroxylaniline adenosine in the liver and plasma of hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Yang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical research of hyperlipidemia has been commonly pursued using traditional approaches. However, unbiased metabonomics attempts to explore the metabolic signature of hyperlipidemia in a high-throughput manner to understand pathophysiology of the disease process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a new way, we performed (1H NMR-based metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N(6- (3-hydroxylaniline adenosine (WS070117 on plasma and liver from hyperlipidemic Syrian golden hamsters. Both plasma and liver profiles provided a clearer distinction between the control and hyperlipidemic hamsters. Compared to control animals, hyperlipidemic hamsters showed a higher content of lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate and alanine together with a lower content of choline-containing compounds (e.g., phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine, and glycerophosphocholine and betaine. As a result, metabonomics-based findings such as the PCA and OPLS-DA plotting of metabolic state and analysis of potential biomarkers in plasma and liver correlated well to the assessment of biochemical assays, Oil Red O staining and in vivo ultrasonographic imaging suggesting that WS070117 was able to regulate lipid content and displayed more beneficial effects on plasma and liver than simvastatin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates the promise of applying (1H NMR metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of WS070117 which may be a good drug candidate for hyperlipidemia.

  13. Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax

    Volckaert, F.A.M.; Hellemans, B.; Batargias, C.; Louro, B.; Massault, C.; Houdt, Van J.K.J.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Canario, A.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two

  14. Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types

    Wheeler, William A.; Yeager, Meredith; Panagiotou, Orestis; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lan, Qing; Abnet, Christian C.; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A.; Taylor, Philip R.; Vivo, Immaculata De; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Purdue, Mark P.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Amary, Maria Fernanda; An, She-Juan; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L.; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M.; Arici, Cecilia; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa A.; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Bassig, Bryan A.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Benhamou, Simone; Berg, Christine; Van Den Berg, David; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Black, Amanda; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chan, John K. C.; Chang, Ellen T.; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang, Jiang; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chu; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Ying; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Choi, Jin Eun; Choi, Yi Young; Chow, Wong-Ho; Chung, Charles C.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cocco, Pierluigi; Colt, Joanne S.; Comperat, Eva; Conde, Lucia; Connors, Joseph M.; Conti, David; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; Crous-Bou, Marta; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G.; Ding, Ti; Diver, W. Ryan; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dossus, Laure; Duell, Eric J.; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Erickson, Ralph L.; Feychting, Maria; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Foretova, Lenka; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Fuchs, Charles; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giffen, Carol; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Glimelius, Bengt; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gorlick, Richard; Gross, Myron; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Huan; Habermann, Thomas M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Halai, Dina; Hallmans, Goran; Hassan, Manal; Hattinger, Claudia; He, Qincheng; He, Xingzhou; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Henriksson, Roger; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holford, Theodore R.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Hosain, G. M. Monawar; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Hung, Jen-Yu; Hutchinson, Amy; Inskip, Peter D.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenab, Mazda; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Jin, Li; Johansen, Christoffer; Johnson, Alison; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kamineni, Aruna; Kane, Eleanor; Kang, Chang Hyun; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kelly, Rachel S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jun Suk; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Young-Chul; Kitahara, Cari M.; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kricker, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C.; Kweon, Sun-Seog; LaCroix, Andrea; Lawrence, Charles; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Li, Donghui; Li, Haixin; Li, Jihua; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Yuqing; Liao, Linda M.; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lin, Dongxin; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S.; Link, Brian K.; Liu, Chenwei; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lollo, Simonetta Di; Lu, Daru; Lund, Eiluv; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marchand, Loic Le; Marina, Neyssa; Masala, Giovanna; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Melbye, Mads; Melin, Beatrice S.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Monnereau, Alain; Montalvan, Rebecca; Moore, Lee E.; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E.; Novak, Anne J.; Oberg, Ann L.; Offit, Kenneth; Oh, In-Jae; Olson, Sara H.; Palli, Domenico; Pao, William; Park, In Kyu; Park, Jae Yong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Perng, Reury-Perng; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C.; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Qian, Biyun; Qiao, You-Lin; Rais, Marco; Riboli, Elio; Riby, Jacques; Risch, Harvey A.; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Rodabough, Rebecca; Roman, Eve; Roupret, Morgan; Ruder, Avima M.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Scelo, Ghislaine; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D.; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Wei; Shin, Min-Ho; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Skibola, Christine F.; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T.; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Staines, Anthony; Stampfer, Meir; Stern, Marianna C.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S.; Su, Jian; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Jae Sook; Sung, Sook Whan; Tan, Wen; Tang, Wei; Tardón, Adonina; Thomas, David; Thompson, Carrie A.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Villano, Danylo J.; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Junwen; Wei, Fusheng; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiner, George J.; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; White, Emily; Witzig, Thomas E.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Guoping; Wu, Junjie; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ping; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Ye, Yuanqing; Yin, Zhihua; Yokota, Jun; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Zhenhong; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Zhu, Meng; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Boca, Simina M.; Cerhan, James R.; Ferri, Giovanni M.; Hartge, Patricia; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Magnani, Corrado; Miligi, Lucia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Smedby, Karin E.; Teras, Lauren R.; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Sophia S.; Brennan, Paul; Caporaso, Neil E.; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T.; Slager, Susan L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl 2, on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. Conclusion: Our

  15. Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) Supplements on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer-407 Induced -Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Tanko, Y; Kabiru, A; Abdulrasak, A; Mohammed, K A; Salisu, A I; Jimoh, A; Gidado, N M; Sada, N M

    2017-12-30

    This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg   b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined   respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated.  As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

  16. Heritability, family, school and academic achievement in adolescence.

    Pokropek, Artur; Sikora, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate how genetically informed designs can be applied to administrative exam data to study academic achievement. ACE mixture latent class models have been used with Year 6 and 9 exam data for seven cohorts of Polish students which include 24,285 pairs of twins. Depending on a learning domain and classroom environment history, from 58% to 88% of variance in exam results is attributable to heritability, up to 34% to shared environment and from 8% to 15% depends on unique events in students' lives. Moreover, between 54% and 66% of variance in students' learning gains made between Years 6 and 9 is explained by heritability. The unique environment accounts for between 34% and 46% of that variance. However, we find no classroom effects on student progress made between Years 6 and 9. We situate this finding against the view that classroom peer groups and teachers matter for adolescent learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease

    Yauk, Carole Lyn; Argueso, J. Lucas; Auerbach, Scott S.; Awadalla, Philip; Davis, Sean R.; DeMarini, David M.; Douglas, George R.; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Elespuru, Rosalie K.; Glover, Thomas W.; Hales, Barbara F.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Klein, Catherine B.; Lupski, James R.; Manchester, David K.; Marchetti, Francesco; Montpetit, Alexandre; Mulvihill, John J.; Robaire, Bernard; Robbins, Wendie A.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Somers, Christopher M.; Taylor, James G.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Waters, Michael D.; Wilson, Thomas E.; Witt, Kristine L.; Bishop, Jack B.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis (ENIGMA) met in October 2011 to propose the necessary foundational studies, which include sequencing of parent–offspring trios from highly exposed human populations, and controlled dose–response experiments in animals. These studies will establish background levels of variability in germline mutation rates and identify environmental agents that influence these rates and heritable disease. Guidance for the types of exposures to examine come from rodent studies that have identified agents such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution as germ-cell mutagens. Research is urgently needed to establish the health consequences of parental exposures on subsequent generations. PMID:22935230

  18. Life course variations in the heritability of body size

    Zhao, J.; Luan, J.A.; Sharp, S.J.

    aim was to use this approach to investigate the life course variations in heritability of body size. Methods: We analysed height, weight and body mass index variables at 11 time-points in 2,452 individuals (1,225 men, 1,227 women) born in 1946 and enrolled in the MRC National Survey of Health...... and Development (NSHD), with genotypes at 147,949 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on Metabochips which were subsequently imputed to 506,255 according to the 1000Genomes project. We obtained genome-wide kinship matrices using genotypes at SNPs on Metabochips and genotypes at all SNPs, which were used.......11(0-0.20), 0.10(0-0.22) for height, weight and body mass index, respectively. Variation in estimates was also seen between alternative procedures. Conclusion: This work supports the utility of large-scale genotype data in heritability estimation and highlights the age-related variability in genetic...

  19. Will Big Data Close the Missing Heritability Gap?

    Kim, Hwasoon; Grueneberg, Alexander; Vazquez, Ana I; Hsu, Stephen; de Los Campos, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Despite the important discoveries reported by genome-wide association (GWA) studies, for most traits and diseases the prediction R-squared (R-sq.) achieved with genetic scores remains considerably lower than the trait heritability. Modern biobanks will soon deliver unprecedentedly large biomedical data sets: Will the advent of big data close the gap between the trait heritability and the proportion of variance that can be explained by a genomic predictor? We addressed this question using Bayesian methods and a data analysis approach that produces a surface response relating prediction R-sq. with sample size and model complexity ( e.g. , number of SNPs). We applied the methodology to data from the interim release of the UK Biobank. Focusing on human height as a model trait and using 80,000 records for model training, we achieved a prediction R-sq. in testing ( n = 22,221) of 0.24 (95% C.I.: 0.23-0.25). Our estimates show that prediction R-sq. increases with sample size, reaching an estimated plateau at values that ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 for models using 500 and 50,000 (GWA-selected) SNPs, respectively. Soon much larger data sets will become available. Using the estimated surface response, we forecast that larger sample sizes will lead to further improvements in prediction R-sq. We conclude that big data will lead to a substantial reduction of the gap between trait heritability and the proportion of interindividual differences that can be explained with a genomic predictor. However, even with the power of big data, for complex traits we anticipate that the gap between prediction R-sq. and trait heritability will not be fully closed. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Heritability and tissue specificity of expression quantitative trait loci

    Petretto, E.; Mangion, J.; Dickens, N. J.; Cook, S.A.; Kumaran, M. K.; Lu, H.; Fischer, J.; Maatz, H.; Křen, Vladimír; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, N.; Aitman, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 10 (2006), s. 1625-1633 ISSN 1553-7390 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : expression QTL * heritability * tissue specificity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.671, year: 2006

  1. Heritability and genetics of lipid metabolism

    Fenger, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the concept of heritability and genetic effect will be reviewed and our current knowledge of the genetics of lipid metabolism summarized. The concepts of polygenic conditions and epistasis are discussed at length, and an effort is made to put the biological processes in context...... in the search for genetic factors influencing the metabolic pathways. Particular physiological heterogeneity is addressed and procedures to handle this complex issue are suggested....

  2. Functional heterogeneity and heritability in CHO cell populations.

    Davies, Sarah L; Lovelady, Clare S; Grainger, Rhian K; Racher, Andrew J; Young, Robert J; James, David C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we address the hypothesis that it is possible to exploit genetic/functional variation in parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell populations to isolate clonal derivatives that exhibit superior, heritable attributes for biomanufacturing--new parental cell lines which are inherently more "fit for purpose." One-hundred and ninety-nine CHOK1SV clones were isolated from a donor CHOK1SV parental population by limiting dilution cloning and microplate image analysis, followed by primary analysis of variation in cell-specific proliferation rate during extended deep-well microplate suspension culture of individual clones to accelerate genetic drift in isolated cultures. A subset of 100 clones were comparatively evaluated for transient production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (Mab) and green fluorescent protein following transfection of a plasmid vector encoding both genes. The heritability of both cell-specific proliferation rate and Mab production was further assessed using a subset of 23 clones varying in functional capability that were subjected to cell culture regimes involving both cryopreservation and extended sub-culture. These data showed that whilst differences in transient Mab production capability were not heritable per se, clones exhibiting heritable variation in specific proliferation rate, endocytotic transfectability and N-glycan processing were identified. Finally, for clonal populations most "evolved" by extended sub-culture in vitro we investigated the relationship between cellular protein biomass content, specific proliferation rate and cell surface N-glycosylation. Rapid-specific proliferation rate was inversely correlated to CHO cell size and protein content, and positively correlated to cell surface glycan content, although substantial clone-specific variation in ability to accumulate cell biomass was evident. Taken together, our data reveal the dynamic nature of the CHO cell functional genome and the potential to evolve and

  3. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  4. Heritability of young- and old-onset ischaemic stroke.

    Bluher, A; Devan, W J; Holliday, E G; Nalls, M; Parolo, S; Bione, S; Giese, A K; Boncoraglio, G B; Maguire, J M; Müller-Nurasyid, M; Gieger, C; Meschia, J F; Rosand, J; Rolfs, A; Kittner, S J; Mitchell, B D; O'Connell, J R; Cheng, Y C

    2015-11-01

    Although the genetic contribution to stroke risk is well known, it remains unclear if young-onset stroke has a stronger genetic contribution than old-onset stroke. This study aims to compare the heritability of ischaemic stroke risk between young and old, using common genetic variants from whole-genome array data in population-based samples. This analysis included 4050 ischaemic stroke cases and 5765 controls from six study populations of European ancestry; 47% of cases were young-onset stroke (age stroke risk in these unrelated individuals, the pairwise genetic relatedness was estimated between individuals based on their whole-genome array data using a mixed linear model. Heritability was estimated separately for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke (age ≥ 55 years). Heritabilities for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke were estimated at 42% (±8%, P genetic contribution to the risk of stroke may be higher in young-onset ischaemic stroke, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 EAN.

  5. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  6. Cognitive profiles and heritability estimates in the Old Order Amish.

    Kuehner, Ryan M; Kochunov, Peter; Nugent, Katie L; Jurius, Deanna E; Savransky, Anya; Gaudiot, Christopher; Bruce, Heather A; Gold, James; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the applicability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in the Old Order Amish (OOA) and to assess the genetic contribution toward the RBANS total score and its cognitive domains using a large family-based sample of OOA. RBANS data were collected in 103 OOA individuals from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, including 85 individuals without psychiatric illness and 18 individuals with current psychiatric diagnoses. The RBANS total score and all five cognitive domains of in nonpsychiatric OOA were within half a SD of the normative data of the general population. The RBANS total score was highly heritable (h=0.51, P=0.019). OOA with psychiatric diagnoses had a numerically lower RBANS total score and domain scores compared with the nonpsychiatric participants. The RBANS appears to be a suitable cognitive battery for the OOA population as measurements obtained from the OOA are comparable with normative data in the US population. The heritability estimated from the OOA is in line with heritabilities of other cognitive batteries estimated in other populations. These results support the use of RBANS in cognitive assessment, clinical care, and behavioral genetic studies of neuropsychological functioning in this population.

  7. The success of primary chemotherapy for group D heritable retinoblastoma.

    Cohen, V M L; Kingston, J; Hungerford, J L

    2009-07-01

    To report the ocular survival and event-free survival following primary multiagent chemotherapy for group D, heritable bilateral retinoblastoma (RB). The RB database was used to identify children with heritable, bilateral RB treated with primary chemotherapy (six cycles of vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin). Only Group D eyes with more than 12 months' follow-up were analysed. The timing, number and type of salvage treatments were recorded. Kaplan-Meier estimates for the ocular survival and event-free survival (percentage of eyes that avoided external beam radiotherapy and/or enucleation) were performed as a function of time. Of 18 group D eyes, two (11%) were treated successfully with chemotherapy alone, nine (50%) underwent successful salvage treatment, and seven (39%) were enucleated. The median time from completing chemotherapy to enucleation was 9 months (range 4 to 25 months). Ocular survival was 67% at 2 years. External beam radiotherapy proved successful salvage treatment in five of nine eyes, so the event-free survival was 34% at 2 years. Multiagent chemotherapy alone is rarely sufficient for the preservation of group D eyes. External beam radiotherapy and plaque radiotherapy remain important salvage treatments for advanced, heritable retinoblastoma.

  8. Heritable temperament pathways to early callous–unemotional behaviour

    Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. Aims To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Method Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Results Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour pathway. Conclusions Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. PMID:27765772

  9. Effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum lipids and C-reactive protein among hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Tawfig, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on plasma lipid levels in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis in the age group of 30-70 years, undergoing treatment in Ahmed Gasim Cardiac and Renal transplant Centre in north Sudan were recruited for the study. Patients were randomly assigned to the study and control groups. The study group received non-surgical periodontal therapy - oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planing. The control group participants received only oral hygiene instructions. Lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG)], C-reactive protein (CRP), and periodontal parameters [Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PD), and attachment loss (ATL)] were measured and compared at baseline and after 3 months of the respective intervention. Between-groups analysis was done using independent "t" test and within-group analysis was done using dependent "t" test. At baseline, groups were comparable based on lipid profile and periodontal parameters. After 3 months, the control group showed significant decrease in the PI and GI scores while there was no significant change in the other parameters. However, the study group showed significant decrease in the LDL and CRP levels along with a significant decrease in PD, ATL, PI, and GI scores, compared to the baseline values. Local non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in improved periodontal health, with significant decrease in the LDL and CRP levels in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis. Hence, local non-surgical periodontal therapy may be considered as an adjunct in the control of hyperlipidemia, along with standard care.

  10. The White Rabbit Project

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  11. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  12. Biology of the rabbit.

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  13. Aorta measurements are heritable and influenced by bicuspid aortic valve

    Lisa J Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Word Count 266, 1609 charactersObjectives: To determine whether the contributions of genetics and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV independently influence aortic (Ao dimensions.Background: Ao dilation is a risk factor for aneurysm, dissection, and sudden cardiac death. Frequent association of BAV with Ao dilation implicates a common underlying defect possibly due to genetic factors. Methods: Families enriched for BAV underwent standardized transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to BAV status, echocardiographic measures of Ao (annulus to descending Ao, pulmonary artery and mitral valve annulus diameters were obtained. Using variance components analysis, heritability was estimated with and without BAV status. Additionally, bivariate genetic analyses between Ao dimensions and BAV were performed.Results: Our cohort was obtained from 209 families enriched for BAV. After adjusting for age, body surface area and sex, individuals with BAV had a statistically significant increase in all echocardiographic measurements (p < 0.006 except descending Ao and mitral valve annulus. Individuals with BAV were at greater odds of having Ao dilation (OR = 4.44, 95% CI 2.93 – 6.72 than family members without BAV. All echocardiographic measurements exhibited moderate to strong heritability (0.25 to 0.53, and these estimates were not influenced by inclusion of BAV as a covariate. Bivariate genetic analyses supported that the genetic correlation between BAV and echo measures were not significantly different from zero.Conclusions: We show for the first time that echocardiographic measurements of Ao, pulmonary artery and mitral valve annulus diameters are quantitative traits that exhibit significant heritability. In addition, our results suggest the presence of BAV independently influences the proximal Ao and pulmonary artery measures but not those in the descending Ao or mitral valve annulus.

  14. Heritability and linkage analysis of personality in bipolar disorder.

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Badner, Judith A; Byerley, William; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L; Remick, Ronald A; Dessa Sadovnick, A; Kelsoe, John R

    2013-11-01

    The many attempts that have been made to identify genes for bipolar disorder (BD) have met with limited success, which may reflect an inadequacy of diagnosis as an informative and biologically relevant phenotype for genetic studies. Here we have explored aspects of personality as quantitative phenotypes for bipolar disorder through the use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which assesses personality in seven dimensions. Four temperament dimensions are assessed: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PS). Three character dimensions are also included: self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-transcendence (ST). We compared personality scores between diagnostic groups and assessed heritability in a sample of 101 families collected for genetic studies of BD. A genome-wide SNP linkage analysis was then performed in the subset of 51 families for which genetic data was available. Significant group differences were observed between BD subjects, their first-degree relatives, and independent controls for all but RD and PS, and all but HA and RD were found to be significantly heritable in this sample. Linkage analysis of the heritable dimensions produced several suggestive linkage peaks for NS (chromosomes 7q21 and 10p15), PS (chromosomes 6q16, 12p13, and 19p13), and SD (chromosomes 4q35, 8q24, and 18q12). The relatively small size of our linkage sample likely limited our ability to reach genome-wide significance in this study. While not genome-wide significant, these results suggest that aspects of personality may prove useful in the identification of genes underlying BD susceptibility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The hypolipidemic activity of Ayurvedic medicine, Arogyavardhini vati in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats: A comparison with fenofibrate.

    Kumar, Gajendra; Srivastava, Amita; Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor of coronary heart disease. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Arogyavardhini vati, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation has been used for liver disorders. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Arogyavardhini vati in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity evaluation of Arogyavardhini vati against Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Overnight fasted male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into normal control group [4% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), i.p.], positive control group (Triton WR-1339 in 4% DMSO, 400 mg/kg, i.p.), standard drug treated (fenofibrate 65 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia) and Arogyavardhini vati treated (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia). Rat doses were calculated by extrapolating the equivalent human dose (therapeutic dose, sub-maximum, and maximum dose). Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein HDL, liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated at end of experiments. Arogyavardhini vati significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and significantly increased serum HDL in a dose-dependent manner. Decreased MDA and increased GSH levels in liver were observed at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and fenofibrate-treated groups when compared with Triton-treated group. Atherogenic Index (AI) level was significantly decreased in fenofibrate and Arogyavardhini vati (200 mg/kg) treated rats when compared with normal control. Arogyavardhini vati, a traditionally used Ayurvedic medicine may be a useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress (decreasing MDA and increasing GSH) and lipid levels.

  16. Estimating heritability for cause specific mortality based on twin studies

    Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus Kähler; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    the Danish twin registry and discuss how to define heritability for cancer occurrence. The key point is that this should be done taking censoring as well as competing risks due to e.g.  death into account. We describe the dependence between twins on the probability scale and show that various models can...... be used to achieve sensible estimates of the dependence within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs that may vary over time. These dependence measures can subsequently be decomposed into a genetic and environmental component using random effects models. We here present several novel models that in essence...

  17. Prospects for DNA methods to measure human heritable mutation rates

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A workshop cosponsored by ICPEMC and the US Department of Energy was held in Alta, Utah, December 9-13, 1984 to examine the extent to which DNA-oriented methods might provide new approaches to the important but intractable problem of measuring mutation rates in control and exposed human populations. The workshop identified and analyzed six DNA methods for detection of human heritable mutation, including several created at the meeting, and concluded that none of the methods combine sufficient feasibility and efficiency to be recommended for general application. 8 refs

  18. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  19. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  20. Are range-size distributions consistent with species-level heritability?

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Gotelli, Nicholas; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The concept of species-level heritability is widely contested. Because it is most likely to apply to emergent, species-level traits, one of the central discussions has focused on the potential heritability of geographic range size. However, a central argument against range-size heritability has...... been that it is not compatible with the observed shape of present-day species range-size distributions (SRDs), a claim that has never been tested. To assess this claim, we used forward simulation of range-size evolution in clades with varying degrees of range-size heritability, and compared the output...

  1. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  2. Heritability estimates for yield and related traits in bread wheat

    Din, R.; Jehan, S.; Ibraullah, A.

    2009-01-01

    A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in in-irrigated and unirrgated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits- The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m/sub -2/. spike lets spike/sup -1/ and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P < 0.0 I) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000- grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m/sup -2/ and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than Environmental variances for most of traits- Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity. spikelets spike/sup -1/ (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m/sup -2/. (author)

  3. Differential heritability of adult and juvenile antisocial traits.

    Lyons, M J; True, W R; Eisen, S A; Goldberg, J; Meyer, J M; Faraone, S V; Eaves, L J; Tsuang, M T

    1995-11-01

    Studies of adult antisocial behavior or criminality usually find genetic factors to be more important than the family environment, whereas studies of delinquency find the family environment to be more important. We compared DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder symptoms before vs after the age of 15 years within a sample of twins, rather than comparing across studies. We administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version III-revised by telephone to 3226 pairs of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Biometrical modeling was applied to each symptom of antisocial personality disorder and summary measures of juvenile and adult symptoms. Five juvenile symptoms were significantly heritable, and five were significantly influenced by the shared environment. Eight adult symptoms were significantly heritable, and one was significantly influenced by the shared environment. The shared environment explained about six times more variance in juvenile anti-social traits than in adult traits. Shared environmental influences on adult antisocial traits overlapped entirely with those on juvenile traits. Additive genetic factors explained about six times more variance in adult vs juvenile traits. The juvenile genetic determinants overlapped completely with genetic influences on adult traits. The unique environment (plus measurement error) explained the largest proportion of variance in both juvenile and adult antisocial traits. Characteristics of the shared or family environment that promote antisocial behavior during childhood and early adolescence also promote later antisocial behavior, but to a much lesser extent. Genetic causal factors are much more prominent for adult than for juvenile antisocial traits.

  4. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  6. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Liying; Ma, Zhongsu; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-12-23

    Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG) concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  7. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Yan Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  8. Comparison of the heritability of schizophrenia and endophenotypes in the COGS-1 family study.

    Light, Gregory; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2014-11-01

    Twin and multiplex family studies have established significant heritability for schizophrenia (SZ), often summarized as 81%. The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) family study was designed to deconstruct the genetic architecture of SZ using neurocognitive and neurophysiological endophenotypes, for which heritability estimates ranged from 18% to 50% (mean = 30%). This study assessed the heritability of SZ in these families to determine whether there is a "heritability gap" between the diagnosis and related endophenotypes. Nuclear families (N = 296) with a SZ proband, an unaffected sibling, and both parents (n = 1366 subjects; mean family size = 4.6) underwent comprehensive endophenotype and clinical characterization. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to all participants and used to obtain convergent psychiatric symptom information for additional first-degree relatives of interviewed subjects (N = 3304 subjects; mean family size = 11.2). Heritability estimates of psychotic disorders were computed for both nuclear and extended families. The heritability of SZ was 31% and 44% for nuclear and extended families. The inclusion of bipolar disorder increased the heritability to 37% for the nuclear families. When major depression was added, heritability estimates dropped to 34% and 20% for nuclear and extended families, respectively. Endophenotypes and psychotic disorders exhibit comparable levels of heritability in the COGS-1 family sample. The ascertainment of families with discordant sibpairs to increase endophenotypic contrast may underestimate diagnostic heritability relative to other studies. However, population-based studies also report significantly lower heritability estimates for SZ. Collectively, these findings support the importance of endophenotype-based strategies and the dimensional view of psychosis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014.

  9. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heritability of Biomarkers of Oxidized Lipoproteins: Twin Pair Study.

    Rao, Fangwen; Schork, Andrew J; Maihofer, Adam X; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Marcovina, Santica M; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; O'Connor, Daniel T; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether biomarkers of oxidized lipoproteins are genetically determined. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a heritable risk factor and carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). We measured oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (OxPL-apoB), Lp(a), IgG, and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes in 386 monozygotic and dizygotic twins to estimate trait heritability (h(2)) and determine specific genetic effects among traits. A genome-wide linkage study followed by genetic association was performed. The h(2) (scale: 0-1) for Lp(a) was 0.91±0.01 and for OxPL-apoB 0.87±0.02, which were higher than physiological, inflammatory, or lipid traits. h(2) of IgM malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes were 0.69±0.04, 0.67±0.05, and 0.80±0.03, respectively, and for IgG malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes 0.62±0.05, 0.52±0.06, and 0.53±0.06, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the major apo(a) isoform and OxPL-apoB (R=-0.49; Plipoprotein and copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes. Sib-pair genetic linkage of the Lp(a) trait revealed that single nucleotide polymorphism rs10455872 was significantly associated with OxPL-apoB after adjusting for Lp(a). OxPL-apoB and other biomarkers of oxidized lipoproteins are highly heritable cardiovascular risk factors that suggest novel genetic origins of atherothrombosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Hypolipidemic effects of chitosan and its derivatives in hyperlipidemic rats induced by a high-fat diet

    Haitao Pan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlipidemia (HLP is the primary risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Various factors, including genetics, physical inactivity, and daily nutritional habits, affect the prevalence of HLP. Recently, it was revealed that dietary fibers, such as pectin, psyllium, and especially chitosan (CTS, may play important roles in hypolipidemic management. Thus, this study aims to determine the hypolipidemic effect and mechanism of CTS and its water-soluble derivatives, chitosan oligosaccharides (MN≤1,000 Da (COSI and MN≤3,000 Da (COSIII, in male hyperlipidemic rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD. Design: After the model creation, 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were equally assigned to 12 groups fed various diets as follows: the normal group with basic diet, an HFD group, an HFD group supplemented with three doses of CTS, COSI and COSIII groups, and an HFD group treated with simvastatin (7 mg/kg·d. After 6 weeks, body weight, fat/body ratio, and the relevant biomarkers of serum, liver, and feces were measured. Additionally, the histological analysis of liver and adipose tissue was performed, and the mRNA expressions of liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα and hepatic lipase (HL were examined. Results: Compared with HFD group, rats fed CTS, COSI, and COSIII showed a better ability to regulate their body weight, liver and cardiac indices, fat/body ratio, as well as serum, liver, and fecal lipids, and simultaneously to maintain the appropriate activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, as well as liver and fecal total bile acids (TBA. Simultaneously, there had been a higher mRNA expression of PPARα and HL in the treatment groups. Conclusion: The obtained results suggested that these three function foods can effectively improve liver lipid metabolism by normalizing the expressions of PPARα and HL, and protect liver from the oxidized trauma

  12. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  13. Partitioning the Heritability of Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Reveals Differences in Genetic Architecture

    Davis, Lea K.; Yu, Dongmei; Keenan, Clare L.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Derks, Eske M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jian; Lee, S. Hong; Evans, Patrick; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Bloch, Michael H.; Blom, Rianne M.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Conti, David V.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Deforce, Dieter; Delorme, Richard; Dion, Yves; Edlund, Christopher K.; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Haddad, Stephen; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Hounie, Ana G.; Illmann, Cornelia; Jankovic, Joseph; Jenike, Michael A.; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Macciardi, Fabio; McCracken, James T.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias J.; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosàrio, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; McMahon, William; Wagner, Michael; Nicolini, Humberto; Posthuma, Danielle; Hanna, Gregory L.; Heutink, Peter; Denys, Damiaan; Arnold, Paul D.; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson B.; Pauls, David L.; Wray, Naomi R.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.

    2013-01-01

    The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease

  14. Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture

    Davis, L.K.; Yu, D.; Keenan, C.L.; Gamazon, E.R.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Derks, E.M.; Neale, B.M.; Yang, J.; Lee, S.H.; Evans, P.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Berrio, G.B.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Bloch, M.H.; Blom, R.M.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Campbell, D.; Cappi, C.; Cardona Silgado, J.C.; Cath, D.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chavira, D.A.; Chouinard, S.; Conti, D.V.; Cook, E.H.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.A.; Deforce, D.; Delorme, R.; Dion, Y.; Edlund, C.K.; Egberts, K.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.V.; Gallagher, P.J.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Girard, S.L.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Haddad, S.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.; Hounie, A.G.; Illmann, C.; Jankovic, J.; Jenike, M.A.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Kremeyer, B.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Liu, C.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Macciardi, F.; McCracken, J.T.; McGrath, L.M.; Mesa Restrepo, S.C.; Moessner, R.; Morgan, J.; Muller, H.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Ochoa, W.C.; Ophoff, R.A.; Osiecki, L.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M.T.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Rauch, S.L.; Renner, T.J.; Reus, V.I.; Richter, M.A.; Riddle, M.A.; Robertson, M.M.; Romero, R.; Rosàrio, M.C.; Rosenberg, D.; Rouleau, G.A.; Ruhrmann, S.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Sampaio, A.S.; Samuels, J.; Sandor, P.; Sheppard, B.; Singer, H.S.; Smit, J.H.; Stein, D.J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, J.A.; Valencia Duarte, A.V.; Vallada, H.; van Nieuwerburgh, F.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J.; Walitza, S.; Wang, Y.; Wendland, J.R.; Westenberg, H.G.; Shugart, Y.Y.; Miguel, E.C.; McMahon, W.; Wagner, M.; Nicolini, H.; Posthuma, D.; Hanna, G.L.; Heutink, P.; Denys, D.; Arnold, P.D.; Oostra, B.A.; Nestadt, G.; Freimer, N.B.; Pauls, D.L.; Wray, N.R.; Stewart, S.E.; Mathews, C.A.; Knowles, J.A.; Cox, N.J.; Scharf, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease

  15. Multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy with photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium diastasis in heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Pryds, Anders; Carlsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report atypical central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal thickening in a patient with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: A 40-year-old man with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension presented with blurred vision in his left eye and was followed up for 1 year...

  16. Heritability and genetic correlations for volume, foxtails, and other characteristics of Caribbean pine in Puerto Rico

    F. Thomas Ledig; J.L. Whitmore

    1981-01-01

    Caribbean pine is an important exotic being bred throughout the tropics, but published estimates are lacking for heritability of economically important traits and the genetic correlations between them. Based on a Puerto Rican trial of 16 open-pollinated parents of var. hondurensis selected in Belize, heritabilities for a number of characteristics...

  17. Low Cognitive Functioning in Nondemented 80+-Year-Old Twins Is Not Heritable.

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Johansson, Boo; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Berg, Stig; Plomin, Robert; Ahern, Frank; McClearn, Gerald E.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the genetic influence of low cognitive functioning in 200 pairs of twins aged at least 80 years and identified as not demented. Results suggest that the heritability of low cognitive functioning in this group was nonsignificant, but above-average cognitive functioning shows substantial group heritability. (SLD)

  18. Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat

    Laghari, K.A.; Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Mirbahar, A.A.; Pirzada, A.; Mancrio, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.

    2010-01-01

    Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)

  19. Heritability of Verbal and Performance Intelligence in a Pediatric Longitudinal Sample

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of IQ is well-documented as is its increasing heritability with age. In a longitudinal twin study, we addressed the question to what extent heritability and stability differ for full scale (FSIQ), verbal (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) in childhood (age 9-11 years), and

  20. Pectus excavatum and heritable disorders of the connective tissue

    Francesca Tocchioni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum, the most frequent congenital chest wall deformity, may be rarely observed as a sole deformity or as a sign of an underlying connective tissue disorder. To date, only few studies have described correlations between this deformity and heritable connective tissue disorders such as Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Poland, MASS (Mitral valve prolapse, not progressive Aortic enlargement, Skeletal and Skin alterations phenotype among others. When concurring with connective tissue disorder, cardiopulmonary and vascular involvement may be associated to the thoracic defect. Ruling out the concomitance of pectus excavatum and connective tissue disorders, therefore, may have a direct implication both on surgical outcome and long term prognosis. In this review we focused on biological bases of connective tissue disorders which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of pectus excavatum, portraying surgical and clinical implication of their concurrence.

  1. Comparison of behaviors for detection of heritable mutations.

    Ficsor, G; Goldner, L; Panda, B B

    1988-01-01

    Groups of five male HA (ICR) mice were injected intraperitoneally with 60, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg body weight of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) or with saline vehicle. Each male was mated to two untreated females at 2 and 5 weeks after treatment. The two successive matings utilized sperm derived from post- and pre-meiotic germ cells, respectively. Progeny were evaluated for litter size, body weight, negative geotactic response, swimming patterns, limb use while swimming, water escape time, and open-field motor coordination activity. Body weight, geotactic response, limb use, and open-field behavior test results demonstrated that EMS causes heritable behavior mutations in both post- and pre-meiotic germ cells. Among the tests that showed inherited differences between control and treated groups, the computer-monitored open-field behavior test was the most definitive.

  2. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable.

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-03-16

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.

  3. Heritability of Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Based on the Nationwide Danish Twin Register

    Hilker, Rikke; Helenius, Dorte; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    sample. The estimated 79% heritability of SZ is congruent with previous reports and indicates a substantial genetic risk. The high genetic risk also applies to a broader phenotype of SZ spectrum disorders. The low concordance rate of 33% in monozygotic twins demonstrates that illness vulnerability......BACKGROUND: Twin studies have provided evidence that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to schizophrenia (SZ) risk. Heritability estimates of SZ in twin samples have varied methodologically. This study provides updated heritability estimates based on nationwide twin data...... the heritability of SZ to be 79%. When expanding illness outcome to include SZ spectrum disorders, the heritability estimate was almost similar (73%). CONCLUSIONS: The key strength of this study is the application of a novel statistical method accounting for censoring in the follow-up period to a nationwide twin...

  4. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Heritability of life span in the Old Order Amish.

    Mitchell, B D; Hsueh, W C; King, T M; Pollin, T I; Sorkin, J; Agarwala, R; Schäffer, A A; Shuldiner, A R

    2001-09-01

    Although a familial contribution to human longevity is recognized, the nature of this contribution is largely unknown. We have examined the familial contribution to life span in the Old Order Amish (OOA) population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Analyses were conducted on 1,655 individuals, representing all those born prior to 1890 and appearing in the most widely available genealogy, surviving until at least age 30 years, and with known date of death. Mean age at death (+/-SD) in this population was 70.7 +/- 15.6 years, and this did not change appreciably over time. Parental and offspring ages at death were significantly correlated, as were ages of death among siblings. Offspring longevity was correlated with longevity of both parents, and in more or less additive fashion. For example, mean offspring age at death was 69.4 +/- 15.3 years in individuals for whom both parents died before the age of 75 years (n = 280) and increased to 73.5 +/- 16.0 years in individuals for whom neither parent died before the age of 75 years (n = 311). These differences were highly significant (P = 0.006). We estimated heritability of life span to be 25% +/- 5%, suggesting that the additive effects of genes account for one quarter of the total variability in life span in the OOA. We conclude that longevity is moderately heritable in the OOA, that the genetic effects are additive, and that genetic influences on longevity are likely to be expressed across a broad range of ages. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Using extended genealogy to estimate components of heritability for 23 quantitative and dichotomous traits.

    Noah Zaitlen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.

  7. Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture.

    Lea K Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and Tourette Syndrome (TS, using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12 for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07 for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs. Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002. These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.

  8. Using extended genealogy to estimate components of heritability for 23 quantitative and dichotomous traits.

    Zaitlen, Noah; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Bhatia, Gaurav; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L

    2013-05-01

    Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.

  9. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from Securigera securidaca flowers and its anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities

    Rana M. Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Abstract Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Döefl., Fabaceae, has been widely used in the Iranian, Indian and Egyptian folk medicine as antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic remedy. Phenolic profiling of the ethanolic extract (90% of the flowers of S. securidaca was performed via HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis in the positive and negative ion modes. The total polyphenols and flavonoids in the flowers were determined colorimetrically, and the quantification of their components was carried out using HPLC-UV. Total phenolics and flavonoids estimated as gallic acid and rutin equivalents were 82.39 ± 2.79 mg/g and 48.82 ± 1.95 mg/g of the dried powdered flowers, respectively. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the extract allowed the identification of 39 flavonoids and eight phenolic acids. Quantitative analysis of some flavonoids and phenolics (mg/100 g powdered flowers revealed the presence of isoquercetrin (3340 ± 2.1, hesperidin (32.09 ± 2.28, naringin (197.3 ± 30.16, luteolin (10.247 ± 0.594, chlorogenic acid (84.22 ± 2.08, catechin (3.94 ± 0.57 and protocatechuic acid (34.4 ± 0.15, in the extract. Moreover, the acute toxicity, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the extract were investigated using alloxan induced diabetes in rats in a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bwt. The ethanolic extract was safe up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. All tested doses of the flower extract showed marked decrease in blood glucose level by 31.78%, 66.41% and 63.8% at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bwt, respectively, at p < 0.05. Regarding the anti-hyperlipidemic effect, a dose of 400 mg/kg of the flower extract showed the highest reduction in serum triacylglycerides and total cholesterol levels (68.46% and 51.50%, respectively at p < 0.05. The current study proved the folk use of the flowers of S. securidaca as anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic agent which could be attributed to its high phenolic content.

  11. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  12. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  13. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  14. Heritability of ECG Biomarkers in the Netherlands Twin Registry Measured from Holter ECGs.

    Emily C Hodkinson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONThe resting ECG is the most commonly used tool to assess cardiac electrophysiology. Previous studies have estimated heritability of ECG parameters based on these snapshots of the cardiac electrical activity. In this study we set out to determine whether analysis of heart rate specific data from Holter ECGs allows more complete assessment of the heritability of ECG parameters.METHODS and RESULTSHolter ECGs were recorded from 221 twin pairs and analyzed using a multi-parameter beat binning approach. Heart rate dependent estimates of heritability for QRS duration, QT interval, Tpeak–Tend and Theight were calculated using structural equation modelling. QRS duration is largely determined by environmental factors whereas repolarization is primarily genetically determined. Heritability estimates of both QT interval and Theight were significantly higher when measured from Holter compared to resting ECGs and the heritability estimate of each was heart rate dependent. Analysis of the genetic contribution to correlation between repolarization parameters demonstrated that covariance of individual ECG parameters at different heart rates overlap but at each specific heart rate there was relatively little overlap in the genetic determinants of the different repolarization parameters.CONCLUSIONSHere we present the first study of heritability of repolarization parameters measured from Holter ECGs. Our data demonstrate that higher heritability can be estimated from the Holter than the resting ECG and reveals rate dependence in the genetic – environmental determinants of the ECG that has not previously been tractable. Future applications include deeper dissection of the ECG of participants with inherited cardiac electrical disease.

  15. H2DB: a heritability database across multiple species by annotating trait-associated genomic loci.

    Kaminuma, Eli; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoko; Kurata, Nori; Shimizu, Tokurou; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2013-01-01

    H2DB (http://tga.nig.ac.jp/h2db/), an annotation database of genetic heritability estimates for humans and other species, has been developed as a knowledge database to connect trait-associated genomic loci. Heritability estimates have been investigated for individual species, particularly in human twin studies and plant/animal breeding studies. However, there appears to be no comprehensive heritability database for both humans and other species. Here, we introduce an annotation database for genetic heritabilities of various species that was annotated by manually curating online public resources in PUBMED abstracts and journal contents. The proposed heritability database contains attribute information for trait descriptions, experimental conditions, trait-associated genomic loci and broad- and narrow-sense heritability specifications. Annotated trait-associated genomic loci, for which most are single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from genome-wide association studies, may be valuable resources for experimental scientists. In addition, we assigned phenotype ontologies to the annotated traits for the purposes of discussing heritability distributions based on phenotypic classifications.

  16. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  17. Molecular Analysis of Gli3, Ihh, Rab23, and Jag1 in a Rabbit Model of Craniosynostosis: Likely Exclusion as the Loci of Origin.

    Gilbert, James R; Taylor, Gwen M; Losee, Joseph E; Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M

    2018-03-01

    Craniosynostosis (CS) involves the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. The etiology of CS is complex and mutations in more than 50 distinct genes have been causally linked to the disorder. Many of the genes that have been associated with CS in humans play an essential role in tissue patterning and early craniofacial development. Among these genes are members of the Hedgehog (HH) and Notch signal transduction pathways, including the GLI family member Gli3, Indian Hedgehog ( Ihh), the RAS oncogene family member Rab23, and the Notch ligand JAGGED1 ( Jag1). We have previously described a colony of rabbits with a heritable pattern of coronal suture synostosis, although the genetic basis for synostosis within this model remains unknown. The present study was performed to determine if coding errors in Gli3, Ihh, Rab23, or Jag1 could be causally linked to craniosynostosis in this unique animal model. Sequencing of cDNA templates was performed using samples obtained from wild-type and craniosynostotic rabbits. Several nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in Gli3, Ihh, and Rab23, although these variants failed to segregate by phenotype. No nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in Jag1. These data indicate that the causal locus for heritable craniosynostosis in this rabbit model is not located within the protein coding regions of Gli3, Ihh, Rab23, or Jag1.

  18. Heritability and GWAS Analyses of Acne in Australian Adolescent Twins.

    Mina-Vargas, Angela; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Grasby, Katrina; Zhu, Gu; Gordon, Scott; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G

    2017-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a skin disease with a multifactorial and complex pathology. While several twin studies have estimated that acne has a heritability of up to 80%, the genomic elements responsible for the origin and pathology of acne are still undiscovered. Here we performed a twin-based structural equation model, using available data on acne severity for an Australian sample of 4,491 twins and their siblings aged from 10 to 24. This study extends by a factor of 3 an earlier analysis of the genetic factors of acne. Acne severity was rated by nurses on a 4-point scale (1 = absent to 4 = severe) on up to three body sites (face, back, chest) and on up to three occasions (age 12, 14, and 16). The phenotype that we analyzed was the most severe rating at any site or age. The polychoric correlation for monozygotic twins was higher (r MZ = 0.86, 95% CI [0.81, 0.90]) than for dizygotic twins (r DZ = 0.42, 95% CI [0.35, 0.47]). A model that includes additive genetic effects and unique environmental effects was the most parsimonious model to explain the genetic variance of acne severity, and the estimated heritability was 0.85 (95% CI [0.82, 0.87]). We then conducted a genome-wide analysis including an additional 271 siblings - for a total of 4,762 individuals. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) scan did not detect loci associated with the severity of acne at the threshold of 5E-08 but suggestive association was found for three SNPs: rs10515088 locus 5q13.1 (p = 3.9E-07), rs12738078 locus 1p35.5 (p = 6.7E-07), and rs117943429 locus 18q21.2 (p = 9.1E-07). The 5q13.1 locus is close to PIK3R1, a gene that has a potential regulatory effect on sebocyte differentiation.

  19. Use of a genealogical database demonstrates heritability of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Scholand, Mary Beth; Coon, Hilary; Wolff, Roger; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive fatal disease of unknown etiology. Identification of risk genes and pathways will enhance our understanding of this disease. Analysis of Utah genealogical resources has shown previously strong evidence for a genetic contribution to other disease, such as cancer. This approach has led to gene discovery in diseases, such as breast cancer and colon cancer and is used here for PF to quantify the heritability. We hypothesize that there is a heritable contribution to death from PF and use existing genealogic and death certificate data to examine patterns of relatedness amongst individuals who have died of PF. We analyzed familial clustering of individuals who died from PF using the Utah Population Database, a unique population-based genealogical resource that has been linked to death certificates dating from 1904. We identified 1,000 individuals with at least three generations of genealogy data and a cause of death documented as PF (cases). We estimated the relative risk (RR) of death from PF among the first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of cases. We also tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness among the cases by comparing the average pairwise relatedness of all cases to the average pair-wise relatedness of 1,000 sets of matched controls. We observed significantly increased risk for death from PF among the first- (RR = 4.69), second- (RR = 1.92), and third-degree relatives (RR = 1.14) of cases. The average relatedness of the 1,000 cases was significantly higher than the expected average relatedness of matched control sets (p < 0.001). When close (first- and second-degree) relationships were ignored, significantly increased relatedness remained (p = 0.002). Our results demonstrate significant clustering among both close and distant relatives, providing strong support for genetic contributions to death from PF. High-risk pedigrees derived from this unique resource may help identify new risk genes and gene

  20. Heritability of the somatotype components in Biscay families.

    Rebato, E; Jelenkovic, A; Salces, I

    2007-01-01

    The anthropometric somatotype is a quantitative description of body shape and composition. Familial studies indicate the existence of a familial resemblance for this phenotype and they suggest a substantial action by genetic factors on this aggregation. The aim of this study is to examine the degree of familial resemblance of the somatotype components and of a factor of shape, in a sample of Biscay nuclear families (Basque Country, Spain). One thousand three hundred and thirty nuclear families were analysed. The anthropometric somatotype components [Carter, J.E.L., Heath, B.H., 1990. Somatotyping. Development and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 503] were computed. Each component was fitted for the other two through a stepwise multiple regression, and also fitted through the LMS method [Cole, T., 1988. Fitting smoothed centile curves to reference data. J. Roy. Stat. Soc. 151, 385-418] in order to eliminate the age, sex and generation effects. The three raw components were introduced in a PCA from which a shape factor (PC1) was extracted for each generation. The correlations analysis was performed with the SEGPATH package [Province, M.A., Rao, D.C., 1995. General purpose model and computer programme for combined segregation and path analysis (SEGPATH): automatically creating computer from symbolic language model specifications. Genet. Epidemiol. 12, 203-219]. A general model of transmission and nine reduced models were tested. Maximal heritability was estimated with the formula of [Rice, T., Warwick, D.E., Gagnon, J., Bouchard, C., Leon, A.S., Skinner, J.S., Wilmore, J.H., Rao, D.C., 1997. Familial resemblance for body composition measures: the HERITAGE family study. Obes. Res. 5, 557-562]. The correlations were higher between offspring than in parents and offspring and a significant resemblance between mating partners existed. Maximum heritabilities were 55%, 52% and 46% for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively, and 52% for PC1

  1. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO.The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001, 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001 and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001. Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins.Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent and merits further evaluation.

  2. Dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in 9cis, 11trans, 13cis conjugated linolenic acid on lipid metabolism in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF Rats

    Cha Jae-Young

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated fatty acid, the general term of positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds, has attracted considerable attention because of its potentially beneficial biological effects. In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA on lipid metabolism was investigated in obese, hyperlipidemic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. After 2 weeks feeding period, OLETF rats revealed obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with their progenitor LETO rats. Feeding of the diet supplemented with 9% safflower oil and 1% pomegranate seed oil (9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet did not affect abdominal white adipose tissue weights and serum lipid levels compared with the diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil (control diet in OLETF rats. However, the accumulated hepatic triacylglycerol was markedly decreased by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet in OLETF rats. Activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid β-oxidation were not altered by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet. Levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, major storage form of fatty acid, in serum triacylglycerol were markedly higher in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF rats than in lean LETO rats. In addition, 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet significantly decreased MUFA levels in OLETF rats. This is the first study showing that 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA suppresses delta-9 desaturation in vivo, and we suggest that the alleviation of hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet was, at least in part, attributable to the suppression of delta-9 desaturation in OLETF rats.

  3. Ferulic Acid Supplementation Improves Lipid Profiles, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Status in Hyperlipidemic Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Akkarach Bumrungpert

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound found in vegetables and cereal grains. In vitro and animal studies have shown ferulic acid has anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of ferulic acid supplementation on lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status in hyperlipidemia. The study design is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with hyperlipidemia were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 24 was given ferulic acid (1000 mg daily and the control group (n = 24 was provided with a placebo for six weeks. Lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed before and after the intervention. Ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol (8.1%; p = 0.001, LDL-C (9.3%; p < 0.001, triglyceride (12.1%; p = 0.049, and increased HDL-C (4.3%; p = 0.045 compared with the placebo. Ferulic acid also significantly decreased the oxidative stress biomarker, MDA (24.5%; p < 0.001. Moreover, oxidized LDL-C was significantly decreased in the ferulic acid group (7.1%; p = 0.002 compared with the placebo group. In addition, ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the inflammatory markers hs-CRP (32.66%; p < 0.001 and TNF-α (13.06%; p < 0.001. These data indicate ferulic acid supplementation can improve lipid profiles and oxidative stress, oxidized LDL-C, and inflammation in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, ferulic acid has the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) enhances vascular and renal damage induced by hyperlipidemic diet in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Muñoz-García, Begoña; Moreno, Juan Antonio; López-Franco, Oscar; Sanz, Ana Belén; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Blanco, Julia; Jakubowski, Aniela; Burkly, Linda C; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. TWEAK binds and activates the Fn14 receptor, and may regulate apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in different pathological conditions. We have evaluated the effect of exogenous TWEAK administration as well as the role of endogenous TWEAK on proinflammatory cytokine expression and vascular and renal injury severity in hyperlipidemic ApoE-knockout mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 4 to 10 weeks, then randomized and treated with saline (controls), TWEAK (10 microg/kg/d), anti-TWEAK neutralizing mAb (1000 microg/kg/d), TWEAK plus anti-TWEAK antibody (10 microg TWEAK +1000 microg anti-TWEAK/kg/d), or nonspecific IgG (1000 microg/kg/d) daily for 9 days. In ApoE(-/-) mice, exogenous TWEAK administration in ApoE(-/-) mice induced activation of NF-kappaB, a key transcription factor implicated in the regulation of the inflammatory response, in vascular and renal lesions. Furthermore, TWEAK treatment increased chemokine expression (RANTES and MCP-1), as well as macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques and renal lesions. These effects were associated with exacerbation of vascular and renal damage. Conversely, treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice with an anti-TWEAK blocking mAb decreased NF-kappaB activation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration, and vascular and renal injury severity, indicating a pathological role for endogenous TWEAK. Finally, in murine vascular smooth muscle cells or tubular cells, either ox-LDL or TWEAK treatment increased expression and secretion of both RANTES and MCP-1. Furthermore, ox-LDL and TWEAK synergized for induction of MCP-1 and RANTES expression and secretion. Our results suggest that TWEAK exacerbates the inflammatory response associated with a high lipid-rich diet. TWEAK may be a novel therapeutic target to prevent vascular and renal damage associated with

  5. Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Pantazis, Panayotis; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001), 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001). Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. Conclusions Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent

  6. Potential Lipid-Lowering Effects of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn. Extract on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Ong, Siew Ling; Nalamolu, Koteswara Rao; Lai, How Yee

    2017-01-01

    To date, anti-obesity agents based on natural products are tested for their potential using lipase inhibition assay through the interference of hydrolysis of fat by lipase resulting in reduced fat absorption without altering the central mechanisms. Previous screening study had indicated strong anti-obesity potential in Eleusine indica ( E. indica ), but to date, no pharmacologic studies have been reported so far. This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of E. indica using both in vitro and in vivo models. The crude methanolic extract of E. indica was fractionated using hexane (H-Ei), dichloromethane (DCM-Ei), ethyl acetate (EA-Ei), butanol (B-Ei), and water (W-Ei). All the extracts were tested for antilipase activity using porcine pancreatic lipase. Because H-Ei showed the highest inhibition, it was further subjected to chemical profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subsequently, oral toxicity analysis of H-Ei was performed [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines using fixed dose procedure (No. 420)]; efficacy analysis was performed using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic female Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the toxicity and efficacy analyses, H-Ei did not demonstrate any noticeable biochemical toxicity or physiologic abnormalities and did not cause any tissue damage as per histologic analysis. Furthermore, H-Ei significantly reduced body weight and improved serum profile and did not show hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity based on the serum profile. Moreover, H-Ei alleviated HFD-induced hepatosteatosis and ameliorated induced adiposity in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that H-Ei effectively improved hyperlipidemia. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted. Hexane extract of Eleusine indica (H-Ei) showed strong potential in the inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (27.01

  7. Protective Effects of Setarud (IMODTM on Development of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits

    MH Shahhosseiny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new herbal drug setarud (IMODTM containing selenium, carotene, and flavonoids, was expected to have positive effects on lipid metabolism and liver functions, due to the nature of its primary components. This study was designed to determine effectiveness of the drug in reducing the risk of development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in laboratory animals. Methods: Two groups of male rabbits (n=10 per group as: intact and control groups on regular chow, were fed a high-cholesterol diet, and two experimental groups were maintained on the same diet and treated with different daily doses (0.02 g/kg and 0.04 g/kg of setarud (brand name IMOD®, Pars Roos, Iran. The treatment groups were then compared with the intact and control groups and with one another for the effects of the drug which was determined by changes in blood sugar, serum lipid levels, and liver function tests. Results: Results showed that drug had important benefits in alleviating the impact of high-cholesterol diet on serum lipids and liver function markers in drug-treated groups relative to hyperlipidemic controls (p < 0.001. A more favorable modification of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and the atherogenic index was found in animals, which received 0.04 g/kg drug, as compared to the 0.02 g/kg dose group (p < 0.05. Assessment of serum total protein, albumin, transaminases, and bilirubin levels showed that no changes in liver function of control and drug-treated animals during the period of the study. Conclusion: From the results of this study it may concluded that setarud has dose-dependent positive effects on liver and lipid metabolism and may acts as an effective anti-hyperglycemic agent.

  8. Heritability Estimates of Endophenotypes of Long and Health Life: The Long Life Family Study

    Matteini, Amy M; Fallin, M Daniele; Kammerer, Candace M

    2010-01-01

    survival were identified and heritability estimates were calculated. Principal components (PCs) analysis was carried out using 28 physiologic measurements from five trait domains (cardiovascular, cognition, physical function, pulmonary, and metabolic). RESULTS: The five most dominant PCs accounted for 50......% of underlying trait variance. The first PC (PC1), which consisted primarily of poor pulmonary and physical function, represented 14.3% of the total variance and had an estimated heritability of 39%. PC2 consisted of measures of good metabolic and cardiovascular function with an estimated heritability of 27%. PC...

  9. Heritability of telomere length in a study of long-lived families

    Honig, Lawrence S; Kang, Min Suk; Cheng, Rong

    2015-01-01

    in a given age group, it has been hypothesized to be a marker of biological aging. However, the principal basis for the variation of human LTL has not been established, although various studies have reported heritability. Here, we use a family-based study of longevity to study heritability of LTL in 3037...... individuals. We show that LTL is shorter in older individuals, and in males, and has a high heritability (overall h(2) = 0.54). In the offspring generation, who are in middle-life, we find an ordinal relationship: persons more-closely-related to elderly probands have longer LTL than persons less...

  10. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  11. Evidence for a heritable predisposition to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Bateman Lucinda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS came to attention in the 1980s, but initial investigations did not find organic causes. Now decades later, the etiology of CFS has yet to be understood, and the role of genetic predisposition in CFS remains controversial. Recent reports of CFS association with the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukemic virus-related virus (XMRV or other murine leukemia related retroviruses (MLV might also suggest underlying genetic implications within the host immune system. Methods We present analyses of familial clustering of CFS in a computerized genealogical resource linking multiple generations of genealogy data with medical diagnosis data of a large Utah health care system. We compare pair-wise relatedness among cases to expected relatedness in the Utah population, and we estimate risk for CFS for first, second, and third degree relatives of CFS cases. Results We observed significant excess relatedness of CFS cases compared to that expected in this population. Significant excess relatedness was observed for both close (p Conclusions These analyses provide strong support for a heritable contribution to predisposition to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A population of high-risk CFS pedigrees has been identified, the study of which may provide additional understanding.

  12. Host-race formation: promoted by phenology, constrained by heritability.

    Whipple, A V; Abrahamson, W G; Khamiss, M A; Heinrich, P L; Urian, A G; Northridge, E M

    2009-04-01

    Host-race formation is promoted by genetic trade-offs in the ability of herbivores to use alternate hosts, including trade-offs due to differential timing of host-plant availability. We examined the role of phenology in limiting host-plant use in the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) by determining: (1) whether phenology limits alternate host use, leading to a trade-off that could cause divergent selection on Eurosta emergence time and (2) whether Eurosta has the genetic capacity to respond to such selection in the face of existing environmental variation. Experiments demonstrated that oviposition and gall induction on the alternate host, Solidago canadensis, were the highest on young plants, whereas the highest levels of gall induction on the normal host, Solidago gigantea, occurred on intermediate-age plants. These findings indicate a phenological trade-off for host-plant use that sets up the possibility of divergent selection on emergence time. Heritability, estimated by parent-offspring regression, indicated that host-race formation is impeded by the amount of genetic variation, relative to environmental, for emergence time.

  13. Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.

    Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes.

  14. Age at fatherhood: heritability and associations with psychiatric disorders.

    Frans, E M; Lichtenstein, P; Hultman, C M; Kuja-Halkola, R

    2016-10-01

    Advancing paternal age has been linked to psychiatric disorders. These associations might be caused by the increased number of de novo mutations transmitted to offspring of older men. It has also been suggested that the associations are confounded by a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders in parents. The aim of this study was to indirectly test the confounding hypotheses by examining if there is a genetic component to advancing paternal age and if men with a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders have children at older ages. We examined the genetic component to advancing paternal age by utilizing the twin model in a cohort of male twins (N = 14 679). We also studied ages at childbirth in men with or without schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and/or autism spectrum disorder. Ages were examined in: (1) healthy men, (2) affected men, (3) healthy men with an affected sibling, (4) men with healthy spouses, (5) men with affected spouses, and (6) men with healthy spouses with an affected sibling. The twin analyses showed that late fatherhood is under genetic influence (heritability = 0.33). However, affected men or men with affected spouses did not have children at older ages. The same was found for healthy individuals with affected siblings. Instead, these men were generally having children at younger ages. Although there is a genetic component influencing late fatherhood, our data suggest that the associations are not explained by psychiatric disorders or a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders in the parent.

  15. Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain.

    Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K; Walters, Raymond K; Bras, Jose; Duncan, Laramie; Escott-Price, Valentina; Falcone, Guido J; Gormley, Padhraig; Malik, Rainer; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Ripke, Stephan; Wei, Zhi; Yu, Dongmei; Lee, Phil H; Turley, Patrick; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Chouraki, Vincent; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Berr, Claudine; Letenneur, Luc; Hannequin, Didier; Amouyel, Philippe; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Duron, Emmanuelle; Vardarajan, Badri N; Reitz, Christiane; Goate, Alison M; Huentelman, Matthew J; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Larson, Eric B; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A; Farrer, Lindsay A; Barnes, Lisa L; Beach, Thomas G; Demirci, F Yesim; Head, Elizabeth; Hulette, Christine M; Jicha, Gregory A; Kauwe, John S K; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Leverenz, James B; Levey, Allan I; Lieberman, Andrew P; Pankratz, Vernon S; Poon, Wayne W; Quinn, Joseph F; Saykin, Andrew J; Schneider, Lon S; Smith, Amanda G; Sonnen, Joshua A; Stern, Robert A; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Van Eldik, Linda J; Harold, Denise; Russo, Giancarlo; Rubinsztein, David C; Bayer, Anthony; Tsolaki, Magda; Proitsi, Petra; Fox, Nick C; Hampel, Harald; Owen, Michael J; Mead, Simon; Passmore, Peter; Morgan, Kevin; Nöthen, Markus M; Rossor, Martin; Lupton, Michelle K; Hoffmann, Per; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lawlor, Brian; McQuillin, Andrew; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Bis, Joshua C; Ruiz, Agustin; Boada, Mercè; Seshadri, Sudha; Beiser, Alexa; Rice, Kenneth; van der Lee, Sven J; De Jager, Philip L; Geschwind, Daniel H; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Rotter, Jerome I; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Hyman, Bradley T; Cruchaga, Carlos; Alegret, Montserrat; Winsvold, Bendik; Palta, Priit; Farh, Kai-How; Cuenca-Leon, Ester; Furlotte, Nicholas; Kurth, Tobias; Ligthart, Lannie; Terwindt, Gisela M; Freilinger, Tobias; Ran, Caroline; Gordon, Scott D; Borck, Guntram; Adams, Hieab H H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Wedenoja, Juho; Buring, Julie E; Schürks, Markus; Hrafnsdottir, Maria; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Penninx, Brenda; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kurki, Mitja I; Hämäläinen, Eija; Huang, Hailiang; Huang, Jie; Sandor, Cynthia; Webber, Caleb; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Göbel, Hartmut; Macaya, Alfons; Pozo-Rosich, Patricia; Hansen, Thomas; Werge, Thomas; Kaprio, Jaakko; Metspalu, Andres; Kubisch, Christian; Ferrari, Michel D; Belin, Andrea C; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Zwart, John-Anker; Boomsma, Dorret; Eriksson, Nicholas; Olesen, Jes; Chasman, Daniel I; Nyholt, Dale R; Avbersek, Andreja; Baum, Larry; Berkovic, Samuel; Bradfield, Jonathan; Buono, Russell; Catarino, Claudia B; Cossette, Patrick; De Jonghe, Peter; Depondt, Chantal; Dlugos, Dennis; Ferraro, Thomas N; French, Jacqueline; Hjalgrim, Helle; Jamnadas-Khoda, Jennifer; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kunz, Wolfram S; Lerche, Holger; Leu, Costin; Lindhout, Dick; Lo, Warren; Lowenstein, Daniel; McCormack, Mark; Møller, Rikke S; Molloy, Anne; Ng, Ping-Wing; Oliver, Karen; Privitera, Michael; Radtke, Rodney; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Sander, Thomas; Schachter, Steven; Schankin, Christoph; Scheffer, Ingrid; Schoch, Susanne; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Philip; Sperling, Michael; Striano, Pasquale; Surges, Rainer; Thomas, G Neil; Visscher, Frank; Whelan, Christopher D; Zara, Federico; Heinzen, Erin L; Marson, Anthony; Becker, Felicitas; Stroink, Hans; Zimprich, Fritz; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, Raphael; Heutink, Peter; Martinez, Maria; Morris, Huw R; Sharma, Manu; Ryten, Mina; Mok, Kin Y; Pulit, Sara; Bevan, Steve; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Battey, Thomas; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Thijs, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Mitchell, Braxton; Rothwell, Peter; Sharma, Pankaj; Sudlow, Cathie; Vicente, Astrid; Markus, Hugh; Kourkoulis, Christina; Pera, Joana; Raffeld, Miriam; Silliman, Scott; Boraska Perica, Vesna; Thornton, Laura M; Huckins, Laura M; William Rayner, N; Lewis, Cathryn M; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Hudson, James I; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Monteleone, Palmiero; Karwautz, Andreas; Mannik, Katrin; Baker, Jessica H; O'Toole, Julie K; Trace, Sara E; Davis, Oliver S P; Helder, Sietske G; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Danner, Unna N; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Clementi, Maurizio; Forzan, Monica; Docampo, Elisa; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hauser, Joanna; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Papezova, Hana; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Wagner, Gudrun; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Herms, Stefan; Julià, Antonio; Rabionet, Raquel; Dick, Danielle M; Ripatti, Samuli; Andreassen, Ole A; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri J; Steen, Vidar M; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W; Aschauer, Harald; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Halmi, Katherine A; Mitchell, James; Strober, Michael; Bergen, Andrew W; Kaye, Walter; Szatkiewicz, Jin Peng; Cormand, Bru; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Ribasés, Marta; Casas, Miguel; Hervas, Amaia; Arranz, Maria Jesús; Haavik, Jan; Zayats, Tetyana; Johansson, Stefan; Williams, Nigel; Dempfle, Astrid; Rothenberger, Aribert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Oades, Robert D; Banaschewski, Tobias; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Doyle, Alysa E; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Freitag, Christine; Rivero, Olga; Palmason, Haukur; Romanos, Marcel; Langley, Kate; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Børglum, Anders D; Waldman, Irwin; Wilmot, Beth; Molly, Nikolas; Bau, Claiton H D; Crosbie, Jennifer; Schachar, Russell; Loo, Sandra K; McGough, James J; Grevet, Eugenio H; Medland, Sarah E; Robinson, Elise; Weiss, Lauren A; Bacchelli, Elena; Bailey, Anthony; Bal, Vanessa; Battaglia, Agatino; Betancur, Catalina; Bolton, Patrick; Cantor, Rita; Celestino-Soper, Patrícia; Dawson, Geraldine; De Rubeis, Silvia; Duque, Frederico; Green, Andrew; Klauck, Sabine M; Leboyer, Marion; Levitt, Pat; Maestrini, Elena; Mane, Shrikant; De-Luca, Daniel Moreno-; Parr, Jeremy; Regan, Regina; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven; Vorstman, Jacob; Wassink, Thomas; Wijsman, Ellen; Cook, Edwin; Santangelo, Susan; Delorme, Richard; Rogé, Bernadette; Magalhaes, Tiago; Arking, Dan; Schulze, Thomas G; Thompson, Robert C; Strohmaier, Jana; Matthews, Keith; Melle, Ingrid; Morris, Derek; Blackwood, Douglas; McIntosh, Andrew; Bergen, Sarah E; Schalling, Martin; Jamain, Stéphane; Maaser, Anna; Fischer, Sascha B; Reinbold, Céline S; Fullerton, Janice M; Guzman-Parra, José; Mayoral, Fermin; Schofield, Peter R; Cichon, Sven; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Degenhardt, Franziska; Schumacher, Johannes; Bauer, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B; Gershon, Elliot S; Rice, John; Potash, James B; Zandi, Peter P; Craddock, Nick; Ferrier, I Nicol; Alda, Martin; Rouleau, Guy A; Turecki, Gustavo; Ophoff, Roel; Pato, Carlos; Anjorin, Adebayo; Stahl, Eli; Leber, Markus; Czerski, Piotr M; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Jones, Ian R; Posthuma, Danielle; Andlauer, Till F M; Forstner, Andreas J; Streit, Fabian; Baune, Bernhard T; Air, Tracy; Sinnamon, Grant; Wray, Naomi R; MacIntyre, Donald J; Porteous, David; Homuth, Georg; Rivera, Margarita; Grove, Jakob; Middeldorp, Christel M; Hickie, Ian; Pergadia, Michele; Mehta, Divya; Smit, Johannes H; Jansen, Rick; de Geus, Eco; Dunn, Erin; Li, Qingqin S; Nauck, Matthias; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan Tf; Knowles, James A; Viktorin, Alexander; Arnold, Paul; Barr, Cathy L; Bedoya-Berrio, Gabriel; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Brentani, Helena; Burton, Christie; Camarena, Beatriz; Cappi, Carolina; Cath, Danielle; Cavallini, Maria; Cusi, Daniele; Darrow, Sabrina; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M; Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas; Figee, Martijn; Freimer, Nelson; Gerber, Gloria; Grados, Marco; Greenberg, Erica; Hanna, Gregory L; Hartmann, Andreas; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Huang, Alden; Huyser, Chaim; Illmann, Cornelia; Jenike, Michael; Kuperman, Samuel; Leventhal, Bennett; Lochner, Christine; Lyon, Gholson J; Macciardi, Fabio; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Malaty, Irene A; Maras, Athanasios; McGrath, Lauren; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Mir, Pablo; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicolini, Humberto; Okun, Michael S; Pakstis, Andrew; Paschou, Peristera; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Plessen, Kerstin; Ramensky, Vasily; Ramos, Eliana M; Reus, Victor; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Roessner, Veit; Rosário, Maria; Samuels, Jack F; Sandor, Paul; Stein, Dan J; Tsetsos, Fotis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Weatherall, Sarah; Wendland, Jens R; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Worbe, Yulia; Zai, Gwyneth; Goes, Fernando S; McLaughlin, Nicole; Nestadt, Paul S; Grabe, Hans-Jorgen; Depienne, Christel; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Valencia-Duarte, Ana; Bramon, Elvira; Buccola, Nancy; Cahn, Wiepke; Cairns, Murray; Chong, Siow A; Cohen, David; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James; Davidson, Michael; DeLisi, Lynn; Dinan, Timothy; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Haan, Lieuwe; Hougaard, David; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khrunin, Andrey; Klovins, Janis; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lee Chee Keong, Jimmy; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Maher, Brion; Mattheisen, Manuel; McDonald, Colm; Murphy, Kieran C; Nenadic, Igor; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Pato, Michele; Petryshen, Tracey; Quested, Digby; Roussos, Panos; Sanders, Alan R; Schall, Ulrich; Schwab, Sibylle G; Sim, Kang; So, Hon-Cheong; Stögmann, Elisabeth; Subramaniam, Mythily; Toncheva, Draga; Waddington, John; Walters, James; Weiser, Mark; Cheng, Wei; Cloninger, Robert; Curtis, David; Gejman, Pablo V; Henskens, Frans; Mattingsdal, Morten; Oh, Sang-Yun; Scott, Rodney; Webb, Bradley; Breen, Gerome; Churchhouse, Claire; Bulik, Cynthia M; Daly, Mark; Dichgans, Martin; Faraone, Stephen V; Guerreiro, Rita; Holmans, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S; Koeleman, Bobby; Mathews, Carol A; Price, Alkes; Scharf, Jeremiah; Sklar, Pamela; Williams, Julie; Wood, Nicholas W; Cotsapas, Chris; Palotie, Aarno; Smoller, Jordan W; Sullivan, Patrick; Rosand, Jonathan; Corvin, Aiden; Neale, Benjamin M

    2018-06-22

    Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Heritability of epistaxis in the Australian Thoroughbred racehorse population.

    Velie, B D; Raadsma, H W; Wade, C M; Knight, P K; Hamilton, N A

    2014-11-01

    Post exercise epistaxis, the manifestation of a severe form of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), has been observed in many equine racing populations. Although multiple analyses have suggested that non-genetic factors may lead to the development of this condition, relatively little consensus has been reached regarding its genetic aetiology. The objective of this study was to provide insight into both genetic and non-genetic factors that may contribute to the expression of epistaxis in the Australian Thoroughbred racing population. Racing records and reported epistaxis occurrences were acquired for 117,088 horses entered in races and official barrier trials from 1 August 2000 until 22 February 2011. Heritability was estimated using two different logistic generalised linear mixed models (lifetime epistaxis risk h(2) = 0.27 and individual race epistaxis risk h(2) = 0.50). Sex, age, and year of birth were shown to be significant; however, trainer, jockey, race distance, condition of the track (i.e. 'going'), racecourse, track surface, number of race starters, year and month of race were not significant. Evidence suggests genetic and non-genetic links to EIPH expressed as epistaxis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  18. Effect of regulatory architecture on broad versus narrow sense heritability.

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Additive genetic variance (VA and total genetic variance (VG are core concepts in biomedical, evolutionary and production-biology genetics. What determines the large variation in reported VA /VG ratios from line-cross experiments is not well understood. Here we report how the VA /VG ratio, and thus the ratio between narrow and broad sense heritability (h(2 /H(2 , varies as a function of the regulatory architecture underlying genotype-to-phenotype (GP maps. We studied five dynamic models (of the cAMP pathway, the glycolysis, the circadian rhythms, the cell cycle, and heart cell dynamics. We assumed genetic variation to be reflected in model parameters and extracted phenotypes summarizing the system dynamics. Even when imposing purely linear genotype to parameter maps and no environmental variation, we observed quite low VA /VG ratios. In particular, systems with positive feedback and cyclic dynamics gave more non-monotone genotype-phenotype maps and much lower VA /VG ratios than those without. The results show that some regulatory architectures consistently maintain a transparent genotype-to-phenotype relationship, whereas other architectures generate more subtle patterns. Our approach can be used to elucidate these relationships across a whole range of biological systems in a systematic fashion.

  19. Heritable strategies for controlling insect vectors of disease.

    Burt, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are causing a substantial burden of mortality, morbidity and economic loss in many parts of the world, despite current control efforts, and new complementary approaches to controlling these diseases are needed. One promising class of new interventions under development involves the heritable modification of the mosquito by insertion of novel genes into the nucleus or of Wolbachia endosymbionts into the cytoplasm. Once released into a target population, these modifications can act to reduce one or more components of the mosquito population's vectorial capacity (e.g. the number of female mosquitoes, their longevity or their ability to support development and transmission of the pathogen). Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). Several successful field trials have now been performed with Aedes mosquitoes, and such trials are helping to define the appropriate developmental pathway for this new class of intervention.

  20. Heritable variation in maternally derived yolk androgens, thyroid hormones and immune factors

    Ruuskanen, S; Gienapp, P; Groothuis, T G G; Schaper, S V; Darras, V M; Pereira, C.; Vries, de Bonnie; Visser, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Maternal reproductive investment can critically influence offspring phenotype, and thus these maternal effects are expected to be under strong natural selection. Knowledge on the extent of heritable variation in the physiological mechanisms underlying maternal effects is however limited. In birds,

  1. Screening and treatment for heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure: inconsistencies among UK early pregnancy units.

    Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.

  2. Heritability of Tpeak-Tend Interval and T-wave Amplitude: A Twin Study

    Haarmark, Christian; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) and T-wave amplitude (Tamp) carry diagnostic and prognostic information regarding cardiac morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and QT interval are known to be heritable traits. The heritability of T-wave morphology parameters such as TpTe and Tamp is unknown...... interval, QTpeak and QTend interval) were measured and averaged over three consecutive beats in lead V5. TpTe was calculated as the QTend and QTpeak interval difference. Heritability was assessed using structural equation models adjusting for age, gender and BMI. All models were reducible to a model...... of additive genetics and unique environment. All variables had considerable genetic components. Adjusted heritability estimates were: TpTe 46%, Tamp lead V1 34%, Tamp lead V5 47%, RR interval 55%, QT interval 67% and QTcB 42%. CONCLUSIONS: -RR interval, QT-interval, T-wave amplitude and Tpeak-Tend interval...

  3. Heritability studies for seed quality traits in introgressed segregating populations of brassica

    Farhatullah, S.; Nasim, A.; Fayyaz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of genetic parameters in the context of trait characterization is an essential component of future targeted crop improvement programs. Collection of knowledge about genetic behavior such as genetic variability and heritability etc., of the germplasm is the basic step for initiation of any breeding program. Genetic variability and Broad sense heritability for various seed quality traits in 10 brassica genotypes and their 12 F2 progenies comprising of introgressed hybrids were studied. The genotypes had highly significant variation for oil content, protein, glucosinolates contents, oleic, linolenic and erucic acid contents. Glucosinolates content and erucic acid showed high heritability in all F2 populations, while rest of the traits showed variable trends. The cross combination 547 x 118 (B. napus x B. campestris) proved to be a good interspecific hybrid that had high proportion of introgression and has high heritability for beneficial traits. The individual plants having combination of desirable traits were also identified from the F2 populations. (author)

  4. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L

    Benyamin, B.; Pourcain, B.; Davis, O.S.; Davies, G.; Hansell, N.K.; Brion, M.J.; Kirkpatrick, R.M.; Cents, R.A.; Franić, S.; Miller, M.B.; Haworth, C.M.; Meaburn, E.; Price, T.S.; Evans, D.M.; Timpson, N.; Kemp, J.; Ring, S.; McArdle, W.; Medland, S.E.; Yang, J.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Scheet, P.; Xiao, X.; Hudziak, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Star, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Pennell, C.; Tiemeier, H.; Iacono, W.G.; Palmer, L.J.; Montgomery, G.W.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Posthuma, D.; McGue, M.; Wright, M.J.; Davey Smith, G.; Deary, I.J.; Plomin, R.; Visscher, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly heritable

  5. HERITABLE VARIATION FOR AGGRESSION AS A REFLECTION OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES

    BENUS, RF; BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; VANOORTMERSSEN, GA

    1991-01-01

    Evidence is presented in rodents, that individual differences in aggression reflect heritable, fundamentally different, but equally valuable alternative strategies to cope with environmental demands. Generally, aggressive individuals show an active response to aversive situations. In a social

  6. Heritability of Neuropsychological Measures in Schizophrenia and Nonpsychiatric Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Del Re, Elisabetta C; Lam, Max; DeLisi, Lynn E; Donohoe, Gary; Walters, James T R; Seidman, Larry J; Petryshen, Tracey L

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by neuropsychological deficits across many cognitive domains. Cognitive phenotypes with high heritability and genetic overlap with schizophrenia liability can help elucidate the mechanisms leading from genes to psychopathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 170 published twin and family heritability studies of >800 000 nonpsychiatric and schizophrenia subjects to accurately estimate heritability across many neuropsychological tests and cognitive domains. The proportion of total variance of each phenotype due to additive genetic effects (A), shared environment (C), and unshared environment and error (E), was calculated by averaging A, C, and E estimates across studies and weighting by sample size. Heritability ranged across phenotypes, likely due to differences in genetic and environmental effects, with the highest heritability for General Cognitive Ability (32%-67%), Verbal Ability (43%-72%), Visuospatial Ability (20%-80%), and Attention/Processing Speed (28%-74%), while the lowest heritability was observed for Executive Function (20%-40%). These results confirm that many cognitive phenotypes are under strong genetic influences. Heritability estimates were comparable in nonpsychiatric and schizophrenia samples, suggesting that environmental factors and illness-related moderators (eg, medication) do not substantially decrease heritability in schizophrenia samples, and that genetic studies in schizophrenia samples are informative for elucidating the genetic basis of cognitive deficits. Substantial genetic overlap between cognitive phenotypes and schizophrenia liability (average rg = -.58) in twin studies supports partially shared genetic etiology. It will be important to conduct comparative studies in well-powered samples to determine whether the same or different genes and genetic variants influence cognition in schizophrenia patients and the general population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  7. The heritability of telomere length among the elderly and oldest-old

    Bischoff, Claus; Graakjaer, Jesper; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    . Structural equation models revealed that a model including additive genetic effects and non-shared environment was the best fitting model and that telomere length was moderately heritable, with an estimate that was sensitive to the telomere length standardization procedure. Sex-specific analyses showed lower...... heritability in males, although not statistically significant, which is in line with our earlier finding of a sex difference in telomere dynamics among the elderly and oldest-old....

  8. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  9. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  11. The contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation: heritability of personality.

    Dochtermann, Ned A; Schwab, Tori; Sih, Andrew

    2015-01-07

    Individual animals frequently exhibit repeatable differences from other members of their population, differences now commonly referred to as 'animal personality'. Personality differences can arise, for example, from differences in permanent environmental effects--including parental and epigenetic contributors--and the effect of additive genetic variation. Although several studies have evaluated the heritability of behaviour, less is known about general patterns of heritability and additive genetic variation in animal personality. As overall variation in behaviour includes both the among-individual differences that reflect different personalities and temporary environmental effects, it is possible for personality to be largely genetically influenced even when heritability of behaviour per se is quite low. The relative contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation can be estimated whenever both repeatability and heritability are estimated for the same data. Using published estimates to address this issue, we found that approximately 52% of animal personality variation was attributable to additive genetic variation. Thus, while the heritability of behaviour is often moderate or low, the heritability of personality is much higher. Our results therefore (i) demonstrate that genetic differences are likely to be a major contributor to variation in animal personality and (ii) support the phenotypic gambit: that evolutionary inferences drawn from repeatability estimates may often be justified. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study

    Gizer, Ian R.; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview 2nd edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1204 first-degree relatives recruited for the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates (h2) for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25–.49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, scales measuring antisocial behavior (ASP), depressive symptoms (DEP), and addictive behavior (MAC-R) led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the ASP, DEP, and MAC-R scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when utilized as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol dependence phenotype. PMID:20390702

  13. What role does heritability play in transgenerational phenotypic responses to captivity? Implications for managing captive populations.

    Courtney Jones, Stephanie K; Byrne, Phillip G

    2017-12-01

    Animals maintained in captivity exhibit rapid changes in phenotypic traits, which may be maladaptive for natural environments. The phenotype can shift away from the wild phenotype via transgenerational effects, with the environment experienced by parents influencing the phenotype and fitness of offspring. There is emerging evidence that controlling transgenerational effects could help mitigate the effects of captivity, improving the success of captively bred animals post release. However, controlling transgenerational effects requires knowledge of the mechanisms driving transgenerational changes. To better understand the genetic mechanisms that contribute to transgenerational effects in captivity we investigated the heritability of behavioral phenotypes using mid parent- and single parent-offspring regressions in a population of captive-reared house mouse (Mus musculus) that we had previously shown exhibit transgenerational changes in boldness and activity behavioral types. Slopes for boldness and activity were all positive, indicating a low to moderate degree of heritability. Though, none of the heritability estimates were statistically significant due to the large surrounding errors. However, the large error surrounding the heritability estimates may also indicate that there is variability in heritability between behavioral traits within the boldness and activity behavioral types. The implication of this finding is that the potential for heritable genetic changes in captivity varies considerably between traits. We conclude that continued investigation of the potential for traits to evolve in captivity is needed to better inform captive breeding and reintroduction programs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The heritability of avoidant and dependent personality disorder assessed by personal interview and questionnaire.

    Gjerde, L C; Czajkowski, N; Røysamb, E; Orstavik, R E; Knudsen, G P; Ostby, K; Torgersen, S; Myers, J; Kendler, K S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2012-12-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be modestly heritable. Accurate heritability estimates are, however, dependent on reliable measurement methods, as measurement error deflates heritability. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of DSM-IV avoidant and dependent personality disorder, by including two measures of the PDs at two time points. Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of young adult Norwegian twins, of whom 8045 had completed a self-report questionnaire assessing PD traits. 2794 of these twins subsequently underwent a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Questionnaire items predicting interview results were selected by multiple regression, and measurement models of the PDs were fitted in Mx. The heritabilities of the PD factors were 0.64 for avoidant PD and 0.66 for dependent PD. No evidence of common environment, that is, environmental factors that are shared between twins and make them similar, was found. Genetic and environmental contributions to avoidant and dependent PD seemed to be the same across sexes. The combination of both a questionnaire- and an interview assessment of avoidant and dependent PD results in substantially higher heritabilities than previously found using single-occasion interviews only. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Sequential recruitment of study participants may inflate genetic heritability estimates.

    Noce, Damia; Gögele, Martin; Schwienbacher, Christine; Caprioli, Giulia; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; Platzgummer, Stefan; Pramstaller, Peter P; Pattaro, Cristian

    2017-06-01

    After the success of genome-wide association studies to uncover complex trait loci, attempts to explain the remaining genetic heritability (h 2 ) are mainly focused on unraveling rare variant associations and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. Little attention is paid to the possibility that h 2 estimates are inflated as a consequence of the epidemiological study design. We studied the time series of 54 biochemical traits in 4373 individuals from the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, a pedigree-based study enrolling ten participants/day over several years, with close relatives preferentially invited within the same day. We observed distributional changes of measured traits over time. We hypothesized that the combination of such changes with the pedigree structure might generate a shared-environment component with consequent h 2 inflation. We performed variance components (VC) h 2 estimation for all traits after accounting for the enrollment period in a linear mixed model (two-stage approach). Accounting for the enrollment period caused a median h 2 reduction of 4%. For 9 traits, the reduction was of >20%. Results were confirmed by a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis with all VCs included at the same time (one-stage approach). The electrolytes were the traits most affected by the enrollment period. The h 2 inflation was independent of the h 2 magnitude, laboratory protocol changes, and length of the enrollment period. The enrollment process may induce shared-environment effects even under very stringent and standardized operating procedures, causing h 2 inflation. Including the day of participation as a random effect is a sensitive way to avoid overestimation.

  16. Heritability of semen traits in German Warmblood stallions.

    Gottschalk, M; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic parameters for semen quality traits of 241 fertile German Warmblood stallions regularly employed in artificial insemination (AI). Stallions were owned by the National Studs Celle and Warendorf in Germany. Semen traits analyzed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and total number of progressively motile sperm. Semen protocols from a total of 63,972 ejaculates were collected between the years 2001 and 2014 for the present analysis. A multivariate linear animal model was employed for estimation of additive genetic and permanent environmental variances among stallions and breeding values (EBVs) for semen traits. Heritabilities estimated for all German Warmblood stallions were highest for gel-free volume (h(2)=0.28) and lowest for total number of progressively motile sperm (h(2)=0.13). The additive genetic correlation among gel-free volume and sperm concentration was highly negative (rg=-0.76). Average reliabilities of EBVs were at 0.37-0.68 for the 241 stallions with own records. The inter-stallion variance explained between 33 and 61% of the trait variance, underlining the major impact of the individual stallion on semen quality traits analyzed here. Recording of semen traits from stallions employed in AI may be recommended because EBVs achieve sufficient accuracies to improve semen quality in future generations. Due to favorable genetic correlations, sperm concentration, total number of sperm and total number of progressively motile sperm may be increased simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heritability of the human infectious reservoir of malaria parasites.

    Yaye Ramatoulaye Lawaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on human genetic factors associated with malaria have hitherto concentrated on their role in susceptibility to and protection from disease. In contrast, virtually no attention has been paid to the role of human genetics in eliciting the production of parasite transmission stages, the gametocytes, and thus enhancing the spread of disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed four longitudinal family-based cohort studies from Senegal and Thailand followed for 2-8 years and evaluated the relative impact of the human genetic and non-genetic factors on gametocyte production in infections of Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. Prevalence and density of gametocyte carriage were evaluated in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and/or RT-PCR (for falciparum in one site. A significant human genetic contribution was found to be associated with gametocyte prevalence in asymptomatic P. falciparum infections. By contrast, there was no heritability associated with the production of gametocytes for P. falciparum or P. vivax symptomatic infections. Sickle cell mutation, HbS, was associated with increased gametocyte prevalence but its contribution was small. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a significant human genetic contribution to gametocyte prevalence in asymptomatic infections suggests that candidate gene and genome wide association approaches may be usefully applied to explore the underlying human genetics. Prospective epidemiological studies will provide an opportunity to generate novel and perhaps more epidemiologically pertinent gametocyte data with which similar analyses can be performed and the role of human genetics in parasite transmission ascertained.

  18. Frequency and mitotic heritability of epimutations in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Roquis, David; Rognon, Anne; Chaparro, Cristian; Boissier, Jerome; Arancibia, Nathalie; Cosseau, Celine; Parrinello, Hugues; Grunau, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic platyhelminth responsible for intestinal bilharzia. It has a complex life cycle, infecting a freshwater snail of the Biomphalaria genus, and then a mammalian host. Schistosoma mansoni adapts rapidly to new (allopatric) strains of its intermediate host. To study the importance of epimutations in this process, we infected sympatric and allopatric mollusc strains with parasite clones. ChIP-Seq was carried out on four histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K27ac and H4K20me1) in parallel with genomewide DNA resequencing (i) on parasite larvae shed by the infected snails and (ii) on adult worms that had developed from the larvae. No change in single nucleotide polymorphisms and no mobilization of transposable elements were observed, but 58-105 copy number variations (CNVs) within the parasite clones in different molluscs were detected. We also observed that the allopatric environment induces three types of chromatin structure changes: (i) host-induced changes on larvae epigenomes in 51 regions of the genome that are independent of the parasites' genetic background, (ii) spontaneous changes (not related to experimental condition or genotype of the parasite) at 64 locations and (iii) 64 chromatin structure differences dependent on the parasite genotype. Up to 45% of the spontaneous, but none of the host-induced chromatin structure changes were transmitted to adults. In our model, the environment induces epigenetic changes at specific loci but only spontaneous epimutations are mitotically heritable and have therefore the potential to contribute to transgenerational inheritance. We also show that CNVs are the only source of genetic variation and occur at the same order of magnitude as epimutations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  20. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  1. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  2. Heritability of antibody isotype and subclass responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.

    Nancy O Duah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the extent to which genetic factors regulate acquired immunity to common infections. A classical twin study design is useful to estimate the heritable component of variation in measurable immune parameters.This study assessed the relative heritability of different plasma antibody isotypes and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgA and IgE naturally acquired to P. falciparum blood stage antigens AMA1, MSP1-19, MSP2 (two allelic types and MSP3 (two allelic types. Separate analyses were performed on plasma from 213 pairs of Gambian adult twins, 199 child twin pairs sampled in a dry season when there was little malaria transmission, and another set of 107 child twin pairs sampled at the end of the annual wet season when malaria was common. There were significantly positive heritability (h(2 estimates for 48% (20/42 of the specific antibody assays (for the seven isotypes and subclasses to the six antigens tested among the adults, 48% (20/42 among the children in the dry season and 31% (13/42 among the children in the wet season. In children, there were significant heritability estimates for IgG4 reactivity against each of the antigens, and this subclass had higher heritability than the other subclasses and isotypes. In adults, 75% (15/20 of the significantly heritable antigen-specific isotype responses were attributable to non-HLA class II genetic variation, whereas none showed a significant HLA contribution.Genome-wide approaches are now warranted to map the major genetic determinants of variable antibody isotype and subclass responses to malaria, alongside evaluation of their impact on infection and disease. Although plasma levels of IgG4 to malaria antigens are generally low, the exceptionally high heritability of levels of this subclass in children deserves particular investigation.

  3. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  4. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  5. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  6. The paradox of intelligence: Heritability and malleability coexist in hidden gene-environment interplay.

    Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence can have an extremely high heritability, but also be malleable; a paradox that has been the source of continuous controversy. Here we attempt to clarify the issue, and advance a frequently overlooked solution to the paradox: Intelligence is a trait with unusual properties that create a large reservoir of hidden gene-environment (GE) networks, allowing for the contribution of high genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in IQ. GE interplay is difficult to specify with current methods, and is underestimated in standard metrics of heritability (thus inflating estimates of "genetic" effects). We describe empirical evidence for GE interplay in intelligence, with malleability existing on top of heritability. The evidence covers cognitive gains consequent to adoption/immigration, changes in IQ's heritability across life span and socioeconomic status, gains in IQ over time consequent to societal development (the Flynn effect), the slowdown of age-related cognitive decline, and the gains in intelligence from early education. The GE solution has novel implications for enduring problems, including our inability to identify intelligence-related genes (also known as IQ's "missing heritability"), and the loss of initial benefits from early intervention programs (such as "Head Start"). The GE solution can be a powerful guide to future research, and may also aid policies to overcome barriers to the development of intelligence, particularly in impoverished and underprivileged populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Heritability estimates of the Big Five personality traits based on common genetic variants.

    Power, R A; Pluess, M

    2015-07-14

    According to twin studies, the Big Five personality traits have substantial heritable components explaining 40-60% of the variance, but identification of associated genetic variants has remained elusive. Consequently, knowledge regarding the molecular genetic architecture of personality and to what extent it is shared across the different personality traits is limited. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix residual maximum likelihood analysis (GREML), we here estimated the heritability of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness for experience) in a sample of 5011 European adults from 527,469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. We tested for the heritability of each personality trait, as well as for the genetic overlap between the personality factors. We found significant and substantial heritability estimates for neuroticism (15%, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.04) and openness (21%, s.e. = 0.08, P Big Five personality traits using the GREML approach. Findings should be considered exploratory and suggest that detectable heritability estimates based on common variants is shared between neuroticism and openness to experiences.

  8. Correlation and heritability Analysis in the genetic improvement of camu-camu

    Mario Pinedo Panduro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Peru and Brazil have been made between 2002 and 2011, correlation and heritability in search of tools for genetic improvement of camu-camu. We studied basic collections, comparative and progeny clones exist in the INIA, IIAP and INPA. The length of petiole (LP, has a half heritability (in the broad sense of h2 g = 0.42 and correlation coefficients of r2 = 0.37 with fruit yield and r2 = 0.54 with fruit weight. Basal branch number (NRB also shows levels of heritability average (in the strict sense: h2 a = 0.45 and h2 g = 0.33 in the broad sense. NRB in turn significantly correlated with fruit yield (RF (r2 = 0.43, fruit weight (FW (r2 = 0.38 and ascorbic acid (AA (r2 =- 0.30. The values of pH and soluble solids (degrees Brix of the pulp showed a high correlation with AA (r2 = 0.85 and r2 = 0.94 respectively. In light of the information correlation and heritability, we emphasize that the parameters "number of basal branches", "petiole length" and "fruit weight" and present a relatively high correlation with "yield fruit" also have a level intermediate heritability, which qualify them as important tools for the selection of superior plants camu-camu

  9. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  10. Study of the effects of raw garlic consumption on the level of lipids and other blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals.

    Mahmoodi, M; Islami, M R; Asadi Karam, G R; Khaksari, M; Sahebghadam Lotfi, A; Hajizadeh, M R; Mirzaee, M R

    2006-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the famous disorders that can lead to atherosclerosis. Garlic has been considered as one of the blood lipids lowering agents for ages, and various studies have been carried out, some of them confirmed this effect of garlic and some did not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of raw garlic consumption on human blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals. This clinical trial was conducted on 30 volunteer individuals with blood cholesterol higher than 245 mg/dl. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical tests. The volunteers consumed 5 g raw garlic twice a day for 42 days. Second fasting blood samples were collected and the individuals did not use any kind of garlic for next 42 days. After that, the third fasting blood samples were collected and the biochemical factors were measured. After 42 days of garlic consumption the mean of blood total cholesterol (pconsumption total cholesterol (pconsumption alone can decrease serum lipids, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. Garlic can be used in mild hyperlipidemia or when the patients cannot tolerate the chemical drugs.

  11. Hypolipidemic activity of P-methoxycinnamic diester (PCO-C) isolated from Copernicia prunífera against Triton WR-1339 and hyperlipidemic diet in mice.

    Filho, A C V A; Rodrigues, P A S; Benjamin, S R; Paim, R T T; Holanda, M O; Silva, J Y G; Milo, T S; Vieira, I G P; Queiroz, M G R; Guedes, M I F

    2017-12-01

    Carnauba wax is extracted from the leaves of the Copernicia prunífera and contains approximately 80% of esters in its composition. The purpose of the present study was evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of p-methoxycinnamic diesters (PCO-C) extracted from Copernicia prunífera in a model of acute and chronic dyslipidemia in mice. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced plasma levels in PCO-C at the dose of 100mg/kg in a model of acute and chronic dyslipidemia. Histological studies showed that PCO-C has no hepatotoxic effect and reduces hepatic steatosis in animals that consumed hyperlipidemic ration. Thus, it was concluded that PCO-C isolated from Copernicia Prunifera was effective in reducing total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both dyslipidemia induction models. The finding indicates that PCO-C might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic extract from Ocimum basilicum restores lipid metabolism in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice and prevents lipoprotein-rich plasma oxidation

    Ilham Touiss

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the hypolipidemic and anti-lipoprotein-oxidation activities of phenolic extract from sweet basil a popular culinary herb. The hypolipidemic activity was studied in mice model injected intraperitoneally with Triton WR-1339 at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were grouped as follows: normolipidemic control group (n = 8, hyperlipidemic control group (n = 8 and phenolic extract-treated group (n = 8 at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. After 7 h and 24 h treatment, the oral administration of the phenolic extract exerts a significant reduction of plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001. On the other hand, we demonstrated that the phenolic extract prevents plasma lipid oxidation by 16% (P < 0.001, 20% (P < 0.001, 32% (P < 0.001 and 44% (P < 0.001 at a doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. The results were compared with ascorbic acid used as standard synthetic antioxidant. HPLC analysis shows that the extract contains 4 major phenolics and is especially rich in rosmarinic acid. This finding indicates that the phenolic extract might be beneficial in lowering hyperlipidemia and preventing atherosclerosis.

  13. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  14. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  15. Interpreting estimates of heritability--a note on the twin decomposition.

    Stenberg, Anders

    2013-03-01

    While most outcomes may in part be genetically mediated, quantifying genetic heritability is a different matter. To explore data on twins and decompose the variation is a classical method to determine whether variation in outcomes, e.g. IQ or schooling, originate from genetic endowments or environmental factors. Despite some criticism, the model is still widely used. The critique is generally related to how estimates of heritability may encompass environmental mediation. This aspect is sometimes left implicit by authors even though its relevance for the interpretation is potentially profound. This short note is an appeal for clarity from authors when interpreting the magnitude of heritability estimates. It is demonstrated how disregarding existing theoretical contributions can easily lead to unnecessary misinterpretations and/or controversies. The key arguments are relevant also for estimates based on data of adopted children or from modern molecular genetics research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Partitioning Heritability of Regulatory and Cell-Type-Specific Variants across 11 Common Diseases

    Gusev, Alexander; Lee, S Hong; Trynka, Gosia

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory and coding variants are known to be enriched with associations identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex disease, but their contributions to trait heritability are currently unknown. We applied variance-component methods to imputed genotype data for 11 common...... diseases to partition the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg(2)) across functional categories (while accounting for shared variance due to linkage disequilibrium). Extensive simulations showed that in contrast to current estimates from GWAS summary statistics, the variance-component approach...... partitions heritability accurately under a wide range of complex-disease architectures. Across the 11 diseases DNaseI hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) from 217 cell types spanned 16% of imputed SNPs (and 24% of genotyped SNPs) but explained an average of 79% (SE = 8%) of hg(2) from imputed SNPs (5.1× enrichment...

  17. Heritability analysis of surface-based cortical thickness estimation on a large twin cohort

    Shen, Kaikai; Doré, Vincent; Rose, Stephen; Fripp, Jurgen; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Salvado, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the heritability of cerebral cortex, based on measurements of grey matter (GM) thickness derived from structural MR images (sMRI). With data acquired from a large twin cohort (328 subjects), an automated method was used to estimate the cortical thickness, and EM-ICP surface registration algorithm was used to establish the correspondence of cortex across the population. An ACE model was then employed to compute the heritability of cortical thickness. Heritable cortical thickness measures various cortical regions, especially in frontal and parietal lobes, such as bilateral postcentral gyri, superior occipital gyri, superior parietal gyri, precuneus, the orbital part of the right frontal gyrus, right medial superior frontal gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right paracentral lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus.

  18. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  19. Heritability of myopia and ocular biometrics in Koreans: the healthy twin study.

    Kim, Myung Hun; Zhao, Di; Kim, Woori; Lim, Dong-Hui; Song, Yun-Mi; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sung, Joohon; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the heritabilities of myopia and ocular biometrics among different family types among a Korean population. We studied 1508 adults in the Healthy Twin Study. Spherical equivalent, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal astigmatism were measured by refraction, corneal topography, and A-scan ultrasonography. To see the degree of resemblance among different types of family relationships, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Variance-component methods were applied to estimate the genetic contributions to eye phenotypes as heritability based on the maximum likelihood estimation. Narrow sense heritability was calculated as the proportion of the total phenotypic variance explained by additive genetic effects, and linear and nonlinear effects of age, sex, and interactions between age and sex were adjusted. A total of 240 monozygotic twin pairs, 45 dizygotic twin pairs, and 938 singleton adult family members who were first-degree relatives of twins in 345 families were included in the study. ICCs for spherical equivalent from monozygotic twins, pooled first-degree pairs, and spouse pairs were 0.83, 0.34, and 0.20, respectively. The ICCs of other ocular biometrics were also significantly higher in monozygotic twins compared with other relative pairs, with greater consistency and conformity. The estimated narrow sense heritability (95% confidence interval) was 0.78 (0.71-0.84) for spherical equivalent; 0.86 (0.82-0.90) for axial length; 0.83 (0.76-0.91) for anterior chamber depth; and 0.70 (0.63-0.77) for corneal astigmatism. The estimated heritability of spherical equivalent and ocular biometrics in the Korean population suggests the compelling evidence that all traits are highly heritable.

  20. Heritability of face shape in twins: a preliminary study using 3D stereophotogrammetry and geometric morphometrics

    Seth M. Weinberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable.  Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape.  In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods: 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic.  Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis.  This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis.  The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results: Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions: Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation.

  1. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  2. Missing heritability : Is the gap closing? An analysis of 32 complex traits in the Lifelines Cohort Study

    Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Boezen, H. Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rots, Marianne G.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swertz, Morris A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold

    Despite the recent explosive rise in number of genetic markers for complex disease traits identified in genome-wide association studies, there is still a large gap between the known heritability of these traits and the part explained by these markers. To gauge whether this 'heritability gap' is

  3. The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage in the Friesian cattle in the province of Friesland

    El-Shimy, S.A.F.

    1956-01-01

    The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage was calculated of herd-registered cattle in Friesland. The estimates were based on daughter-dam comparisons. Comparisons covered the first three lactations. The average heritability estimates of milk yield within sires, and according to the different

  4. Heritability of non-HLA genetics in coeliac disease : a population-based study in 107 000 twins

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Halfvarson, Jonas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Almost 100% individuals with coeliac disease (CD) are carriers of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8 alleles. Earlier studies have, however, failed to consider the HLA system when estimating heritability in CD, thus violating an underlying assumption of heritability

  5. A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.

  6. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  7. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

    Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  8. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Geurts, Hilde M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  9. Revertant Mosaicism in Heritable Skin Diseases - Mechanisms of Natural Gene Therapy

    Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Uitto, Jouni

    Revertant mosaicism (RM) refers to the co-existence of cells carrying disease-causing mutations with cells in which the inherited mutation is genetically corrected by a spontaneous event. It has been discovered in an increasing number of heritable skin diseases: ichthyosis with confetti and

  10. Stress-induced DNA methylation changes and their heritability in asexual dandelions

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Jansen, J.J.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    • DNA methylation can cause heritable phenotypic modifications in the absence of changes in DNA sequence. Environmental stresses can trigger methylation changes and this may have evolutionary consequences, even in the absence of sequence variation. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent

  11. Stress-induced DNA methylation changes and their heritability in asexual dandelions

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Jansen, J.J.; Dijk, P.J.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation can cause heritable phenotypic modifications in the absence of changes in DNA sequence. Environmental stresses can trigger methylation changes and this may have evolutionary consequences, even in the absence of sequence variation. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent

  12. Association Between Mortality and Heritability of the Scale of Aging Vigor in Epidemiology

    Sanders, Jason L; Singh, Jatinder; Minster, Ryan L

    2016-01-01

    (questionnaire), physical activity (days walked in prior 2 weeks), and slowness (gait speed); each component was scored 0, 1, or 2 using approximate tertiles, and summed (range 0 (vigorous) to 10 (frail)). Heritability was determined using a variance component-based family analysis using a polygenic model...

  13. Shared genetic variance between the features of the metabolic syndrome: Heritability studies

    Povel, C.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Heritability estimates of MetS range from approximately 10%–30%. The genetic variation that is shared among MetS features can be calculated by genetic correlation coefficients. The objective of this paper is to identify MetS feature as well as MetS related features which have much genetic variation

  14. Heritability of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Dutch Twin-family study

    Vink, J.M.; Sadrzadeh, S.; Lambalk, C.B.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. There is evidence for a genetic component in PCOS based on familial clustering of cases. Objective: In the present study, the heritability of PCOS was estimated.

  15. Heritability of asymmetry and lateral plate number in the threespine stickleback.

    John Loehr

    Full Text Available The estimation of individual fitness and quality are important elements of evolutionary ecological research. Over the past six decades, there has been great interest in using fluctuating asymmetry (FA to represent individual quality, yet, serious technical problems have hampered efforts to estimate the heritability of FA, which, in turn, has limited progress in the investigation of FA from an evolutionary perspective. Here we estimate the heritability of number of lateral plates, their FA and directional asymmetry (DA in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. By (i using a meristic trait and (ii basing our calculations on a large half-sib design experiment involving 2,079 offspring from 84 families, we overcame many of the difficulties faced by earlier FA studies. Both lateral plate number and FA in lateral plates were heritable (h(2 = 0.46 and 0.21, respectively, even after controlling for marker genotypes linked to EDA (the major locus influencing plate number. Likewise, DA in lateral plates was heritable h(2 = 0.23. The additive genetic component of FA in lateral plates makes it a prime candidate for further investigation into the evolutionary implications of FA and the genetic underpinnings of developmental instability. This discovery in an evolutionary model species holds the possibility to invigorate the study of FA from an evolutionary perspective.

  16. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming behaviour in Austrian honey bees

    Brascamp, Evert; Willam, Alfons; Boigenzahn, Christian; Bijma, Piter; Veerkamp, Roel F.

    2016-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for honey yield and behavioural traits in Austrian honey bees using data on nearly 15,000 colonies of the bee breeders association Biene Österreich collected between 1995 and 2014. The statistical models used distinguished between the genetic

  17. The Heritability of Breast Cancer among women in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    Möller, Sören; Mucci, Lorelei A; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    and heritability of breast cancer among 21,054 monozygotic and 30,939 dizygotic female twin pairs from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer, the largest twin study of cancer in the world. We accounted for left-censoring, right-censoring, as well as the competing risk of death. Results From 1943 through 2010, 3...

  18. Growth Performance and Initial Heritability Estimates for Growth Traits in Juvenile Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    Ma. Josefa Pante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of performance traits of maricultured species is becoming an important concern. Improvement of performance traits is important for two reasons: it enhances the growth and survival of the animals and it translates to economic gains to the fish farmer. In the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, growth performance of the different families and heritabilities for wet weight, test diameter and test height were estimated from 1,020 offspring from a mating of each of the 15 males with 1 or 2 females. Measurements were done monthly starting at the grow-out stage or four months after hatching. There were significant family differences for the performance traits in sea urchin reared in tanks at the BML hatchery as revealed by ANOVA. Estimates of heritabilities based on the sire component of variance were low for wet weight (0.027, test diameter (0.033 and zero for test height. Heritabilities estimated from the dam component of variance were low for wet weight (0.063, moderate for test diameter (0.286 and test height (0.227. The results indicate that test diameter and wet weight have lowly heritable traits, which means that mass or individual selection may not be the best method for improving the traits for sea urchin populations in Bolinao. Other methods such as family and combined family selection should be explored.

  19. 78 FR 955 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting

    2013-01-07

    ... Education and Training; (5) a presentation on the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Newborn Screening Symposium... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting In accordance with...

  20. Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Among Twins in Nordic Countries

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Harris, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Estimates of familial cancer risk from population-based studies are essential components of cancer risk prediction. Objective: To estimate familial risk and heritability of cancer types in a large twin cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective study of 80 309 monozygotic ...

  1. Heritability estimates for methane emission in Holstein cows using breath measurements

    Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Jørgen; Løvendahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Enteric methane emission from ruminants contributes substantially to the greenhouse effect. Few studies have focused on the genetic variation in enteric methane emission from dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability for enteric methane emission from Danish Holste...... to ketosis....

  2. Quantitative genetic tools for insecticide resistance risk assessment: estimating the heritability of resistance

    Michael J. Firko; Jane Leslie Hayes

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative genetic studies of resistance can provide estimates of genetic parameters not available with other types of genetic analyses. Three methods are discussed for estimating the amount of additive genetic variation in resistance to individual insecticides and subsequent estimation of heritability (h2) of resistance. Sibling analysis and...

  3. Heritability for Yield and Glycoalkaloid Content in Potato Breeding under Warm Environments

    Benavides Manuel A. Gastelo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures affect potato production in the tropics, putting tuber yield and quality at risk and leading to increased glycoalkaloid concentration the cause of the bitter taste in potatoes and a cause for concern for human health. The International Potato Center (CIP, has developed new heat tolerant clones which are heat tolerant and also resistant to late blight. These clones offer an opportunity to evaluate yield and glycoalkaloid levels after growth under high temperature environments. We evaluated four sets of 16 full-sib families and 20 clones for tuber yield and glycoalkaloid content in order to estimate narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability respectively. We used a randomized complete block design replicated in three locations in Peru; San Ramon, La Molina and Majes At harvest, the number and weight of marketable and nonmarketable tubers were recorded. We analyzed samples of tubers from each clone for glycoalkaloid content using spectrophotometry. Narrow-sense heritability for tuber yield, tuber number and average tuber weight were 0.41, 0.50 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that further gains in breeding for heat tolerance will be possible. Broadsense heritability for glycoalkaloid content was 0.63 and correlation with tuber yield was weak, r=0.33 and R²=0.11 (P<0.01. High heritability and weak correlation will allow us to select clones with high tuber yield and low glycoalkaloid content, to serve as candidate varieties and parents in breeding programs.

  4. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins.

    Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-09-01

    To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Prospective, observational cohort study. Academic medical center. There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h(2)) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P performance deficit accumulations on PVT during sleep deprivation.

  5. Genotype-covariate interaction effects and the heritability of adult body mass index

    Robinson, Matthew R.; English, Geoffrey; Moser, Gerhard; Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Triplett, Marcus A; Zhu, Zhihong; Nolte, Ilja M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Snieder, Harold; Esko, Tonu; Milani, Lili; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus; Yang, Jian; Cesarini, David; Visscher, Peter M.

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, with major health and economic costs. Here we estimate heritability for body mass index (BMI) in 172,000 sibling pairs and 150,832 unrelated individuals and explore the contribution of genotype-covariate interaction effects at common SNP loci. We find evidence for

  6. Female strobili incidence in a Minnesota population of black spruce: heritability and correlation with height growth

    C. Dana Nelson; C. A. Mohn

    1989-01-01

    Significant family variation in female strobili incidence, ripeness-to-flower and production were found in a Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) population tested at four locations. Heritability estimates indicated that gain in early flowering from selection would be possible. Height growth through age 12 years was positively correlated (genetic and...

  7. Thought problems from adolescence to adulthood: measurement invariance and longitudinal heritability

    Abdellaoui, A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the longitudinal heritability in Thought Problems (TP) as measured with ten items from the Adult Self Report (ASR). There were ∼9,000 twins, ∼2,000 siblings and ∼3,000 additional family members who participated in the study and who are registered at the Netherlands Twin

  8. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the

  9. Social disinhibition is a heritable subphenotype of tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Darrow, Sabrina M; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Dion, Yves; King, Robert A; Pauls, David L; Budman, Cathy L; Cath, Danielle C; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J; Yu, Dongmei; McGrath, Lauren M; McMahon, William M; Lee, Paul C; Delucchi, Kevin L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2016-08-02

    To identify heritable symptom-based subtypes of Tourette syndrome (TS). Forty-nine motor and phonic tics were examined in 3,494 individuals (1,191 TS probands and 2,303 first-degree relatives). Item-level exploratory factor and latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify tic-based subtypes. Heritabilities of the subtypes were estimated, and associations with clinical characteristics were examined. A 6-factor exploratory factor analysis model provided the best fit, which paralleled the somatotopic representation of the basal ganglia, distinguished simple from complex tics, and separated out socially disinhibited and compulsive tics. The 5-class LCA model best distinguished among the following groups: unaffected, simple tics, intermediate tics without social disinhibition, intermediate with social disinhibition, and high rates of all tic types. Across models, a phenotype characterized by high rates of social disinhibition emerged. This phenotype was associated with increased odds of comorbid psychiatric disorders, in particular, obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, earlier age at TS onset, and increased tic severity. The heritability estimate for this phenotype based on the LCA was 0.53 (SE 0.08, p 1.7 × 10(-18)). Expanding on previous modeling approaches, a series of TS-related phenotypes, including one characterized by high rates of social disinhibition, were identified. These phenotypes were highly heritable and may reflect underlying biological networks more accurately than traditional diagnoses, thus potentially aiding future genetic, imaging, and treatment studies. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Genetic variability and heritability estimates of some polygenic traits in upland cotton

    Baloch, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Plant breeders are more interested in genetic variance rather than phenotypic variance because it is amenable to selection and bring further improvement in the character. Twenty-eight F/sub 2/ progenies were tested in two environments so as to predict genetic variances, heritability estimates and genetic gains. Mean squares for locations were significant for all the five traits suggesting that genotypes performed differently under varying environments. Genetic variances, in most cases, however, were about equal to that of phenotypic variances consequently giving high heritability estimates and significant genetic gains. The broad sense heritability estimates were; 94.2, 92.9, 33.6, 81.9 and 86.9% and genetic gains were; 30.19, 10.55,0.20,0.89 and 1.76 in seed cotton yield, bolls per plant, lint %, fibre length and fibre uniformity ratio, respectively. Substantial genetic variances and high heritability estimates implied that these characters could be improved through selection from segregating populations. (author)

  11. Appetitive operant conditioning in mice: heritability and dissociability of training stages

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Battaglia, F.P.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2010-01-01

    To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioral screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD) mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between

  12. Development and heritability of subcortical brain volumes at age 9 and 12

    Swagerman, S.C.; Brouwer, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Subcortical brain structures are involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional functions and follow different trajectories of increase and decrease in volume from childhood to adulthood. The heritability of development of subcortical brain volumes during adolescence has not been studied

  13. Estimation of heritability and genetic gain in height growth in Ceiba ...

    However, there is relatively inefficient information available on the heritability and genetic gain in height growth in C. pentandra based on which selection and subsequent breeding could be made. This poses a major challenge to the production of new cultivars for the forestry industry of Ghana. The current study looked at ...

  14. 75 FR 21645 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children

    2010-04-26

    ... risk for heritable disorders. The changing dynamics of emerging technology and the complexity of... ensure follow-up for those affected. Each State has a law that either requires or allows newborn... place to evaluate the extent, timing and understanding of parental education with an eye towards...

  15. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  17. Synthesis and Anti-hyperlipidemic Activity of 3H-benzo [4, 5] thieno [2, 3-d] [1, 2, 3] triazin-4-ones: Possible Mechanism of Altered Lipid Metabolism

    Gollapalle L. Viswanatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of newly synthesized tricyclic benzothieno 1, 2, 3-triazine derivatives namely CP-1 (3-(methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one, CP-2 (3-(ethyl- 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno[2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one and CP-6 (3-(2-chloro phenyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one against dexamethasone and Triton WR-1339-induced hyper-lipidemia in rats.Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of the test compounds were evaluated against dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.] and Triton WR-1339 (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p] induced hyperlipidemia in rats.Results: Administration of single dose of Triton WR-1339 (200 mg/kg i.p and dexamethasone (10 mg/kg s.c. for 8 consecutive days to adult wistar rats caused severe hyperlipidemia characterized by marked increase in serum cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and triglyceride levels along with an increase in atherogenic index. Serum HDL-C levels were decreased significantly compare to normal control. Pretreatment with Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o., CP-1 (25 & 50 mg/kg, CP-2 (25 & 50 mg/kg and CP-6 (25 & 50mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent protection against dexamethasone and Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats by maintaining serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C levels within the normal range. Also, a significant decrease in atherogenic index was observed. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of CP-6 was comparable with reference standard Atorvastatin. Furthermore, CP-6 was found to be more potent than CP-1 and CP-2.Conclusion: These findings suggest that CP-1, CP-2 and CP-6 possess significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity against experimental animal models of hyperlipidemia.

  18. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  19. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  20. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  1. The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate ("Eco-Atkins") diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Greaves, Kathryn A; Paul, Gregory; Singer, William

    2009-06-08

    Low-carbohydrate, high-animal protein diets, which are advocated for weight loss, may not promote the desired reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. The effect of exchanging the animal proteins and fats for those of vegetable origin has not been tested. Our objective was to determine the effect on weight loss and LDL-C concentration of a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetable proteins from gluten, soy, nuts, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and vegetable oils compared with a high-carbohydrate diet based on low-fat dairy and whole grain products. A total of 47 overweight hyperlipidemic men and women consumed either (1) a low-carbohydrate (26% of total calories), high-vegetable protein (31% from gluten, soy, nuts, fruit, vegetables, and cereals), and vegetable oil (43%) plant-based diet or (2) a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (58% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 25% fat) for 4 weeks each in a parallel study design. The study food was provided at 60% of calorie requirements. Of the 47 subjects, 44 (94%) (test, n = 22 [92%]; control, n = 22 [96%]) completed the study. Weight loss was similar for both diets (approximately 4.0 kg). However, reductions in LDL-C concentration and total cholesterol-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B-apolipoprotein AI ratios were greater for the low-carbohydrate compared with the high-carbohydrate diet (-8.1% [P = .002], -8.7% [P = .004], and -9.6% [P = .001], respectively). Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also seen (-1.9% [P = .052] and -2.4% [P = .02], respectively). A low-carbohydrate plant-based diet has lipid-lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet in improving heart disease risk factors not seen with conventional low-fat diets with animal products.

  2. The Effect of Education by Pharmacists for Hyperlipidemic Patients Treated With Statins on Patient’s Beliefs About Proper Use of Medications

    Mehrpooya M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is one of the most common chronic diseases found in millions of people. Studies have shown that the patient’s adherences to medication instructions provided by the pharmacist or doctor are important, yet unfortunately many patients do not adhere to proper usage of these drugs. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of education by pharmacists for hyperlipidemic patients treated with statins on patient beliefs about the proper use of medications and compliance. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, the studied population was all hospitalized patients with heart disease treated with statins at Hamadan Farshchian hospital from January 2016 to June 2016. The sample size in this study was 50. Information was obtained in relation to each patient, using 2 questionnaires including demographic characteristics and beliefs questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.19 software and t test, Mann-Whitney, and X2 tests. Significance level was considered less than 0.05 Results: Statistical test results showed that before the intervention, treatment belief was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.54, yet after the intervention the treatment belief increased in the intervention group (P = 0.007 and concern about using the drug declined. Conclusions: These findings suggest that education by pharmacists in patients with hyperlipidemia could have a positive and effective role on their belief about the proper use of drugs. In other words, it could have a role in the control of chronic diseases and could help promote public health.

  3. Heritability of methane emissions from dairy cows over a lactation measured on commercial farms.

    Pszczola, M; Rzewuska, K; Mucha, S; Strabel, T

    2017-11-01

    Methane emission is currently an important trait in studies on ruminants due to its environmental and economic impact. Recent studies were based on short-time measurements on individual cows. As methane emission is a longitudinal trait, it is important to investigate its changes over a full lactation. In this study, we aimed to estimate the heritability of the estimated methane emissions from dairy cows using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during milking in an automated milking system by implementing the random regression method. The methane measurements were taken on 485 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows at 2 commercial farms located in western Poland. The overall daily estimated methane emission was 279 g/d. Genetic variance fluctuated over the course of lactation around the average level of 1,509 (g/d), with the highest level, 1,866 (g/d), at the end of the lactation. The permanent environment variance values started at 2,865 (g/d) and then dropped to around 846 (g/d) at 100 d in milk (DIM) to reach the level of 2,444 (g/d) at the end of lactation. The residual variance was estimated at 2,620 (g/d). The average repeatability was 0.25. The heritability level fluctuated over the course of lactation, starting at 0.23 (SE 0.12) and then increasing to its maximum value of 0.3 (SE 0.08) at 212 DIM and ending at the level of 0.27 (SE 0.12). Average heritability was 0.27 (average SE 0.09). We have shown that estimated methane emission is a heritable trait and that the heritability level changes over the course of lactation. The observed changes and low genetic correlations between distant DIM suggest that it may be important to consider the period in which methane phenotypes are collected.

  4. Estimation of heritability of the nectar guide of flowers in Brassica rapa L

    Syafaruddin; Kobayashi, K.; Yoshioka, Y.; Horisaki, A.; Niikura, S.

    2006-01-01

    Flowers of Brassica rapa L, produce a nectar guide, which consists of a coloured pattern (the dark, UV-absorbing centre of the flower) invisible to humans but visible to insect pollinators. As a result, the colour of the flowers typically appears as uniform light yellow to human eyes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mode of inheritance of this character by using two inbred lines and their Fsub(1), Fsub(2) and Fsub(3) progenies with a view to improving this character. After digitizing UV-photographs of each flower, we measured the UV-absorbing area (UVA) and the total flower area (FA), based on image analysis. The ratio of UVA to FA represented the UV colour proportion (UVP). We estimated the broad-sense and narrow-sense heritabilities from within-generation variances in the UVP scores and environmental variance from the average value of the variances in the parental lines. The value of broad-sense heritability of UVP was high (0.75) in the Fsub(2) generation (hBsup2[Fsub(2)]) and higher (0.84) in the Fsub(3) generation (hBsup2[Fsub(3)]), indicating that UVP is a heritable character. Moreover, the high value of broad-sense heritability of UVP indicates that breeders have not focused their selection intentionally on this character in B. rapa. In contrast, the value of narrow-sense heritability was much lower: 0.12 (hBsup2[Fsub(2)]) and 0.24 (hBsup2[Fsub(3)]), respectively, suggesting that the genetic variation in UVP was mainly due to dominance effects. If we attempt to breed new lines with larger or smaller UVP values, we need to select this trait in advanced generations, in which additive effects become larger

  5. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels.

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-11-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol levels with these methods. While the effects of several specific single genetic variants is known, the joint genome-wide contribution to cortisol levels is unclear. Our aim was to estimate the amount of cortisol variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. the SNP heritability, using a variety of cortisol measures, cohorts and analysis approaches. We analyzed morning plasma (n=5705) and saliva levels (n=1717), as well as diurnal saliva levels (n=1541), in the Rotterdam Study using genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium score regression was fitted on the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed by the CORNET consortium on morning plasma cortisol (n=12,597) and saliva cortisol (n=7703). No significant SNP heritability was detected for any cortisol measure, sample or analysis approach. Point estimates ranged from 0% to 9%. Morning plasma cortisol in the CORNET cohorts, the sample with the most power, had a 6% [95%CI: 0-13%] SNP heritability. The results consistently suggest a low SNP heritability of these acute and short-term measures of cortisol. The low SNP heritability may reflect the substantial environmental and, in particular, situational component of these cortisol measures. Future GWAS will require very large sample sizes. Alternatively, more long-term cortisol measures such as hair cortisol samples are needed to discover further genetic pathways regulating cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heritability of Performance Deficit Accumulation During Acute Sleep Deprivation in Twins

    Kuna, Samuel T.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M.; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F.; Pack, Allan I.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Interventions: Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h2) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P sleep deprivation. Citation: Kuna ST; Maislin G; Pack FM; Staley B; Hachadoorian R; Coccaro EF; Pack AI. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1223-1233. PMID:22942500

  7. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  8. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  9. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  10. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  11. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  12. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  13. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  14. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  15. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  16. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  17. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  18. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Late language emergence in 24-month-old twins: heritable and increased risk for late language emergence in twins.

    Rice, Mabel L; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the etiology of late language emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins, considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modeling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and grammar phenotypes, controlling for familiality. Heritability was estimated with DeFries-Fulker regression and variance components models to determine effects of heritability, shared environment, and nonshared environment. Twins had lower average language scores than norms for single-born children, with lower average performance for monozygotic than dizygotic twins and for boys than girls, although gender and zygosity did not interact. Gender did not predict LLE. Significant heritability was detected for vocabulary (0.26) and grammar phenotypes (0.52 and 0.43 for boys and girls, respectively) in the full sample and in the sample selected for LLE (0.42 and 0.44). LLE and the appearance of Word Combinations were also significantly heritable (0.22-0.23). The findings revealed an increased likelihood of LLE in twin toddlers compared with single-born children that is modulated by zygosity and gender differences. Heritability estimates are consistent with previous research for vocabulary and add further suggestion of heritable differences in early grammar acquisition.

  1. Volumetric mammographic density: heritability and association with breast cancer susceptibility loci.

    Brand, Judith S; Humphreys, Keith; Thompson, Deborah J; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2014-12-01

    Mammographic density is a strong heritable trait, but data on its genetic component are limited to area-based and qualitative measures. We studied the heritability of volumetric mammographic density ascertained by a fully-automated method and the association with breast cancer susceptibility loci. Heritability of volumetric mammographic density was estimated with a variance component model in a sib-pair sample (N pairs = 955) of a Swedish screening based cohort. Associations with 82 established breast cancer loci were assessed in an independent sample of the same cohort (N = 4025 unrelated women) using linear models, adjusting for age, body mass index, and menopausal status. All tests were two-sided, except for heritability analyses where one-sided tests were used. After multivariable adjustment, heritability estimates (standard error) for percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume were 0.63 (0.06) and 0.43 (0.06) and 0.61 (0.06), respectively (all P associated with rs10995190 (ZNF365; P = 9.0 × 10(-6) and 8.9 × 10(-7), respectively) and rs9485372 (TAB2; P = 1.8 × 10(-5) and 1.8 × 10(-3), respectively). We also observed associations of rs9383938 (ESR1) and rs2046210 (ESR1) with the absolute dense volume (P = 2.6 × 10(-4) and 4.6 × 10(-4), respectively), and rs6001930 (MLK1) and rs17356907 (NTN4) with the absolute nondense volume (P = 6.7 × 10(-6) and 8.4 × 10(-5), respectively). Our results support the high heritability of mammographic density, though estimates are weaker for absolute than percent dense volume. We also demonstrate that the shared genetic component with breast cancer is not restricted to dense tissues only. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  3. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  5. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  6. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  7. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  8. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  9. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  10. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  11. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  12. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  13. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  14. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  15. Heritability of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese

    Duan, Haiping; Zhang, Dongfeng; Liang, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The heritability of age-related hearing loss has been studied mostly in developed countries. The authors aimed to estimate the heritability of better ear hearing level (BEHL), defined as hearing level of the better ear at a given frequency, and pure-tone averages at the middle (0.5, 1.......0, and 2.0 kHz) and high (4.0, 8.0, and 12.5 kHz) frequencies among middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, and to explore their genetic correlations. DESIGN: This population-based twin study included 226 monozygotic and 132 dizygotic twin-pairs and 1 triplet (age range, 33 to 80 years; mean age, 51.......75 at high frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based twin study suggests that genetic factors are associated with age-related hearing loss at middle and high frequencies among middle-aged and elderly Chinese....

  16. Heritability and environmental effects for self-reported periods with stuttering: A twin study from Denmark

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence for stuttering was studied based on adult self-reporting. Using nation-wide questionnaire answers from 33,317 Danish twins, a univariate biometric analysis based on the liability threshold model was performed in order to estimate the heritability of stuttering. The self......-reported incidences for stuttering were from less than 4% for females to near 9% for males. Both probandwise concordance rate and tetrachoric correlation were substantially higher for monozygotic compared to dizygotic pairs, indicating substantial genetic influence on individual liability. Univariate biometric...... analyses showed that additive genetic and unique environmental factors best explained the observed concordance patterns. Heritability estimates for males/females were 0.84/0.81. Moderate unique environmental effects were also found. Genetic influence for stuttering was studied based on adult self...

  17. The Tapestry of Life: Lateral Transfers of Heritable Elements - Scientific Meeting

    Claire M. Fraser, Ph.D.

    2005-12-31

    The Sackler Colloquium The Tapestry of Life: Lateral Transfers of Heritable Elements was held on December 12-13, 2005. What Darwin saw as a tree of life descending in a linear fashion, is now more accurately seen as a tapestry of life, an anastomosing network, with important lateral transfers of heritable elements among parallel lines of descent These transfers range in complexity from small insertion sequences, to whole genes, gene islands, and portions of whole genomes which may be combined in symbiogenesis. The colloquium brought together researchers, empirical and theoretical, working at all levels on genomics, comparative genomics, and metagenomics to identify common and differentiating features of lateral gene transfer and to examine their implications for science and for human concerns.

  18. The Heritability of Prostate Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is thought to be the most heritable cancer, although little is known about how this genetic contribution varies across age. Methods: To address this question, we undertook the world’s largest prospective study in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer cohort, including 18...... risk and liability. Results: The cumulative risk of prostate cancer was similar to that of the background population. The cumulative risk for twins whose co-twin was diagnosed with prostate cancer was greater for MZ than for DZ twins across all ages. Among concordantly affected pairs, the time between...... diagnoses was significantly shorter for MZ than DZ pairs (median 3.8 versus 6.5 years, respectively). Genetic differences contributed substantially to variation in both the risk and the liability (heritability=58% (95% CI 52%–63%) of developing prostate cancer. The relative contribution of genetic factors...

  19. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating between group members and strangers is a key feature of social life. Nestmate recognition is very effective in social insects and is manifested by aggression and rejection of alien individuals, which are prohibited to enter the nest. Nestmate recognition is based on the quantitative...... variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical...... diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure...

  20. Calcification of intervertebral discs in the Dachshund: An estimation of heritability

    Stigen, Ø. [Norges Veterinaerhoegskole, Oslo (Norway); Christensen, K.

    1993-07-01

    The heritability of calcified intervertebral discs in the dachshund was estimated using data gathered from a radiographic study. Radiographs of the vertebral columns of 274 clinically normal, 12 to 18 months old dachshunds, were examined. The dogs were offspring from 75 different sires, representing the same number of half sib groups. There were 2 to 14 offspring in each half-sib group. The number of full sib groups was 81. Calcified intervertebral discs were identified in 20.4% of the dogs. An analysis of variance that used the data as a continuous and as an either/or-variable estimated the heritability of calcified discs to be 0.22 and 0.15 respectively. A genetic factor was found to be essential for the occurrence of calcified discs in a dog while a common environmental factor presumably resulting from non-genetic causes was significant in determining the number of discs to undergo calcification in affected dogs.

  1. Heritability of resting heart rate and association with mortality in middle-aged and elderly twins

    Jensen, Magnus T; Wod, Mette; Galatius, Søren

    2018-01-01

    , heritability estimates were 0.23 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.30); 0.27 (0.15 to 0.38) for males and 0.17 (0.06 to 0.28) for females. In multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, pulmonary function, smoking, physical activity and zygosity, RHR was significantly associated......OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR...... in RHR. CONCLUSIONS: RHR is a trait with a genetic influence in middle-aged and elderly twins free of cardiovascular disease. RHR is independently associated with longevity even when familial factors are controlled for in a twin design....

  2. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...... cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative...... magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...

  3. Familial Risk and Heritability of Colorectal Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    Graff, Rebecca E; Möller, Sören; Passarelli, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    included 39,990 monozygotic and 61,443 same-sex dizygotic twins from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer. We compared each cancer's risk in twins of affected co-twins relative to the cohort risk (familial risk ratio; FRR). We then estimated the proportion of variation in risk that could be attributed......BACKGROUND & AIMS: We analyzed data from twins to determine how much the familial risk of colorectal cancer can be attributed to genetic factors vs environment. We also examined whether heritability is distinct for colon vs rectal cancer, given evidence of distinct etiologies. METHODS: Our data set...... to genetic factors (heritability). RESULTS: From earliest registration in 1943 through 2010, 1861 individuals were diagnosed with colon cancer and 1268 with rectal cancer. Monozygotic twins of affected co-twins had an FRR for colorectal cancer of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) relative to the cohort risk. Dizygotic...

  4. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...... predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.......Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...

  5. Heritable Variation for Sex Ratio under Environmental Sex Determination in the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra Serpentina)

    Janzen, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    The magnitude of quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was measured in families extracted from a natural population of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which possesses temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at three temperatures that produced mixed sex ratios. This experimental design provided estimates of the heritability of sex ratio in multiple environments and a test of the hypothesis that genotype X environment (G X E) interactions may be maintaining genetic variation for sex ratio in this population of C. serpentina. Substantial quantitative genetic variation for primary sex ratio was detected in all experimental treatments. These results in conjunction with the occurrence of TSD in this species provide support for three critical assumptions of Fisher's theory for the microevolution of sex ratio. There were statistically significant effects of family and incubation temperature on sex ratio, but no significant interaction was observed. Estimates of the genetic correlations of sex ratio across environments were highly positive and essentially indistinguishable from +1. These latter two findings suggest that G X E interaction is not the mechanism maintaining genetic variation for sex ratio in this system. Finally, although substantial heritable variation exists for primary sex ratio of C. serpentina under constant temperatures, estimates of the effective heritability of primary sex ratio in nature are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Small effective heritability and a long generation time in C. serpentina imply that evolution of sex ratios would be slow even in response to strong selection by, among other potential agents, any rapid and/or substantial shifts in local temperatures, including those produced by changes in the global climate. PMID:1592234

  6. Heritability and Fitness Correlates of Personality in the Ache, a Natural-Fertility Population in Paraguay

    Bailey, Drew H.; Walker, Robert S.; Blomquist, Gregory E.; Hill, Kim R.; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed the heritability of personality in a traditional natural-fertility population, the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Self-reports (n = 110) and other-reports (n = 66) on the commonly used Big Five Personality Inventory (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness) were collected. Self-reports did not support the Five Factor Model developed with Western samples, and did not correlate with other-reports for three of the five measured personality factors. Heritability was assessed using factors that were consistent across self- and other-reports and factors assessed using other-reports that showed reliabilities similar to those found in Western samples. Analyses of these items in combination with a multi-generation pedigree (n = 2,132) revealed heritability estimates similar to those found in most Western samples, although we were not able to separately estimate the influence of the common environment on these traits. We also assessed relations between personality and reproductive success (RS), allowing for a test of several mechanisms that might be maintaining heritable variation in personality. Phenotypic analyses, based largely on other-reports, revealed that extraverted men had higher RS than other men, but no other dimensions of personality predicted RS in either sex. Mothers with more agreeable children had more children, and parents mated assortatively on personality. Of the evolutionary processes proposed to maintain variation in personality, assortative mating, selective neutrality, and temporal variation in selection pressures received the most support. However, the current study does not rule out other processes affecting the evolution and maintenance of individual differences in human personality. PMID:23527163

  7. The Heritability of Prostate Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is thought to be the most heritable cancer, although little is known about how this genetic contribution varies across age. Methods: To address this question, we undertook the world's largest prospective study in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer cohort, including 18,680....... The role of genetic factors is consistently high across age Impact: Findings impact the search for genetic and epigenetic markers and frame prevention efforts....

  8. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both...... the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion....

  9. Heritability and familial aggregation of refractive error in the Old Order Amish.

    Peet, Jon A; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight

    2007-09-01

    To determine the heritability of refractive error and familial aggregation of myopia and hyperopia in an elderly Old Order Amish (OOA) population. Nine hundred sixty-seven siblings (mean age, 64.2 years) in 269 families were recruited for the Amish Eye Study in the Lancaster County area of Pennsylvania. Refractive error was determined by noncycloplegic manifest refraction. Heritability of refractive error was estimated with multivariate linear regression as twice the residual sibling-sibling correlation after adjustment for age and gender. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the sibling recurrence odds ratio (OR(s)). Myopia and hyperopia were defined with five different thresholds. The age- and gender-adjusted heritability of refractive error was 70% (95% CI: 48%-92%) in the OOA. Age and gender-adjusted OR(s) and sibling recurrence risk (lambda(s)), with different thresholds defining myopia ranged from 3.03 (95% CI: 1.58-5.80) to 7.02 (95% CI: 3.41-14.46) and from 2.36 (95% CI: 1.65-3.19) to 5.61 (95% CI: 3.06-9.34). Age and gender-adjusted OR(s) and lambda(s) for different thresholds of hyperopia ranged from 2.31 (95% CI: 1.56-3.42) to 2.94 (95% CI: 2.04-4.22) and from 1.33 (95% CI: 1.22-1.43) to 1.85 (95% CI: 1.18-2.78), respectively. Women were significantly more likely than men to have hyperopia. There was no significant gender difference in the risk of myopia. In the OOA, refractive error is highly heritable. Hyperopia and myopia aggregate strongly in OOA families.

  10. Association with Mortality and Heritability of the Scale of Aging Vigor in Epidemiology (SAVE)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Singh, Jatinder; Minster, Ryan L.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Matteini, Amy M.; Christensen, Kaare; Mayeux, Richard; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Perls, Thomas; Newman, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vigor may be an important phenotype of healthy aging. Factors that prevent frailty or conversely promote vigor are of interest. Using the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), we investigated the association with mortality and heritability of a rescaled Fried frailty index, the Scale of Aging Vigor in Epidemiology (SAVE), to determine its value for genetic analyses. Design/Setting Longitudinal, community-based cohort study of long lived individuals and their families (N=4075 genetically-related individuals) in the United States and Denmark. Methods The SAVE was measured in 3599 participants and included weight change, weakness (grip strength), fatigue (questionnaire), physical activity (days walked in prior 2 weeks), and slowness (gait speed), each component scored 0, 1 or 2 using approximate tertiles, and summed from 0 (vigorous) to 10 (frail). Heritability was determined with a variance-component based family analysis using a polygenic model. Association with mortality in the proband generation (N=1421) was calculated with Cox proportional hazards mixed effect models. Results Heritability of the SAVE was 0.23 (p = 1.72 × 10−13) overall (n=3599), 0.31 (p = 2.00 × 10−7) in probands (n=1479), and 0.26 (p = 2.00 × 10−6) in offspring (n=2120). In adjusted models, compared with lower SAVE scores (0–2), higher scores were associated with higher mortality (score 5–6 HR, 95%CI = 2.83, 1.46–5.51; score 7–10 HR, 95% CI = 3.40, 1.72–6.71). Conclusion The SAVE was associated with mortality and was moderately heritable in the LLFS, suggesting a genetic component to age-related vigor and frailty and supporting its use for further genetic analyses. PMID:27294813

  11. The Heritability of Cluster B Personality Disorders Assessed both by Personal Interview and Questionnaire

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for ...

  12. Heritability and confirmation of genetic association studies for childhood asthma in twins.

    Ullemar, V; Magnusson, P K E; Lundholm, C; Zettergren, A; Melén, E; Lichtenstein, P; Almqvist, C

    2016-02-01

    Although the genetics of asthma has been extensively studied using both quantitative and molecular genetic analysis methods, both approaches lack studies specific to the childhood phenotype and including other allergic diseases. This study aimed to give specific estimates for the heritability of childhood asthma and other allergic diseases, to attempt to replicate findings from genomewide association studies (GWAS) for childhood asthma and to test the same variants against other allergic diseases. In a cohort of 25 306 Swedish twins aged 9 or 12 years, data on asthma were available from parental interviews and population-based registers. The interviews also inquired about wheeze, hay fever, eczema, and food allergy. Through structural equation modeling, the heritability of all phenotypes was calculated. A subset of 10 075 twins was genotyped for 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from previous GWAS; these were first tested for association with asthma and significant findings also against the other allergic diseases. The heritability of any childhood asthma was 0.82 (95% CI 0.79-0.85). For the other allergic diseases, the range was approximately 0.60-0.80. Associations for six SNPs with asthma were replicated, including rs2305480 in the GSDMB gene (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86, P = 1.5*10(-8) ; other significant associations all below P = 3.5*10(-4) ). Of these, only rs3771180 in IL1RL1 was associated with any other allergic disease (for hay fever, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.77, P = 2.5*10(-6) ). Asthma and allergic diseases of childhood are highly heritable, and these high-risk genetic variants associated specifically with childhood asthma, except for one SNP shared with hay fever. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Heritability and whole genome linkage of pulse pressure in Chinese twin pairs

    Jiang, Wengjie; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang

    2012-01-01

    with a heritability estimate of 0.45. Genome-wide non-parametric linkage analysis identified three significant linkage peaks on chromosome 11 (lod score 4.06 at 30.5 cM), chromosome 12 (lod score 3.97 at 100.7 cM), and chromosome 18 (lod score 4.01 at 70.7 cM) with the last two peaks closely overlapping with linkage...

  14. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  15. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  16. Superparasitism Drives Heritable Symbiont Epidemiology and Host Sex Ratio in a Wasp.

    Steven R Parratt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates it, have not been considered in heritable symbiont epidemiology. Here, we tested for the importance of host contact, and resulting horizontal transmission, for the epidemiology of a male-killing heritable symbiont (Arsenophonus nasoniae in parasitoid wasp hosts. We observed that host contact through superparasitism is necessary for this symbiont's spread in populations of its primary host Nasonia vitripennis, such that when superparasitism rates are high, A. nasoniae almost reaches fixation, causes highly female biased population sex ratios and consequently causes local host extinction. We further tested if natural interspecific variation in superparasitism behaviours predicted symbiont dynamics among parasitoid species. We found that A. nasoniae was maintained in laboratory populations of a closely related set of Nasonia species, but declined in other, more distantly related pteromalid hosts. The natural proclivity of a species to superparasitise was the primary factor determining symbiont persistence. Our results thus indicate that host contact behaviour is a key factor for heritable microbe dynamics when horizontal transmission is possible, and that 'reproductive parasite' phenotypes, such as male-killing, may be of secondary importance in the dynamics of such symbiont infections.

  17. Field heritability of a plant adaptation to fire in heterogeneous landscapes.

    Castellanos, M C; González-Martínez, S C; Pausas, J G

    2015-11-01

    The strong association observed between fire regimes and variation in plant adaptations to fire suggests a rapid response to fire as an agent of selection. It also suggests that fire-related traits are heritable, a precondition for evolutionary change. One example is serotiny, the accumulation of seeds in unopened fruits or cones until the next fire, an important strategy for plant population persistence in fire-prone ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the potential of this trait to respond to natural selection in its natural setting. For this, we use a SNP marker approach to estimate genetic variance and heritability of serotiny directly in the field for two Mediterranean pine species. Study populations were large and heterogeneous in climatic conditions and fire regime. We first estimated the realized relatedness among trees from genotypes, and then partitioned the phenotypic variance in serotiny using Bayesian animal models that incorporated environmental predictors. As expected, field heritability was smaller (around 0.10 for both species) than previous estimates under common garden conditions (0.20). An estimate on a subset of stands with more homogeneous environmental conditions was not different from that in the complete set of stands, suggesting that our models correctly captured the environmental variation at the spatial scale of the study. Our results highlight the importance of measuring quantitative genetic parameters in natural populations, where environmental heterogeneity is a critical aspect. The heritability of serotiny, although not high, combined with high phenotypic variance within populations, confirms the potential of this fire-related trait for evolutionary change in the wild. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Heritability of Cluster B Personality Disorders Assessed both by Personal Interview and Questionnaire

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40–.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders. PMID:23281671

  19. Prevalence and heritability of psoriasis and benign migratory glossitis in one Brazilian population*

    Jorge, Maria Augusta; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Tomimori, Jane; Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Barbosa, Calógeras Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Background An oral condition associated to psoriasis is benign migratory glossitis. The review of the literature does not show any publication about heritability in both soriasis and benign migratory glossitis and prevalence of psoriasis in the Brazilian population. Objective This research was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of psoriasis and benign migratory glossitis in the Brazilian population from a Brazilian sample, as well as the heritability in these conditions. Methods Six thousand patients were studied from the records of the outpatient dermatology department. The sample had 129 patients with cutaneous psoriasis, 399 with benign migratory glossitis without psoriasis and a control group with 5,472 patients. After data collection, the statistical analysis was made using Woolf, Chi-square and Falconer tests. Results The prevalence of psoriasis was 2.15% and the benign migratory glossitis was 7.0%. The prevalence of benign migratory glossitis in the psoriasis group was high (16.3%), and that was statistically significant. Family history in the psoriasis group was 38% for the condition itself and 2,75% for benign migratory glossitis and in the benign migratory glossitis group was 17.54% for the condition itself and 1.5% for psoriasis. The study of heritability was 38.8% for psoriasis and 36.6% for benign migratory glossitis, both with medium heritability. Study limitations This study was only in the state of São Paulo. Conclusion This is the first publication that quantifies how much of these conditions have a genetic background and how important the environmental factors are in triggering them. PMID:29364438

  20. Appetitive operant conditioning in mice: heritability and dissociability of training stages

    Hemi A I Malkki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioural screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between successive training stages to study whether learning deficits at an advanced stage of operant conditioning may be dissociated from normal performance in preceding phases of training.The training consisted of two phases: an operant nose poking phase, in which mice learned to collect a sucrose pellet from a food magazine by nose poking, and an operant lever press and nose poking phase, in which mice had to execute a sequence of these two actions to collect a food pellet. As a measure of magazine oriented exploration, we also studied the nose poke entries in the food magazine during the intertrial intervals at the beginning of the first session of the nose-poke training phase.We found significantly heritable components in initial magazine checking behaviour, operant nose-poking and lever press-nose poking. Performance levels in these phases were positively correlated, but several individual strains were identified that showed poor lever press-nose poking while performing well in preceding training stages. Quantitative trait loci mapping revealed suggestive likelihood ratio statistic peaks for initial magazine checking behaviour and lever press – nose poking. These findings indicate that consecutive stages towards more complex operant behavior show significant heritable components, as well as dissociability between stages in specific mouse strains. These heritable components may reside in different chromosomal areas.

  1. The heritability of cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire.

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2007-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by questionnaires and personal interviews are heritable. However, we know neither how much unreliability of measurement impacts on heritability estimates nor whether the genetic and environmental risk factors assessed by these two methods are the same. We wish to know whether the same set of PD vulnerability factors are assessed by these two methods. A total of 3334 young adult twin pairs from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel (NIPHTP) completed a questionnaire containing 91 PD items. One to 6 years later, 1386 of these pairs were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Self-report items predicting interview results were selected by regression. Measurement models were fitted using Mx. In the best-fit models, the latent liabilities to paranoid personality disorder (PPD), schizoid personality disorder (SPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) were all highly heritable with no evidence of shared environmental effects. For PPD and STPD, only unique environmental effects were specific to the interview measure whereas both environmental and genetic effects were found to be specific to the questionnaire assessment. For SPD, the best-fit model contained genetic and environmental effects specific to both forms of assessment. The latent liabilities to the cluster A PDs are highly heritable but are assessed by current methods with only moderate reliability. The personal interviews assessed the genetic risk for the latent trait with excellent specificity for PPD and STPD and good specificity for SPD. However, for all three PDs, the questionnaires were less specific, also indexing an independent set of genetic risk factors.

  2. The heritability of Cluster B personality disorders assessed both by personal interview and questionnaire.

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-12-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.

  3. Heritability and prevalence of selected osteochondrosis lesions in yearling Thoroughbred horses.

    Russell, J; Matika, O; Russell, T; Reardon, R J M

    2017-05-01

    Osteochondrosis is considered multifactorial in origin, with factors such as nutrition, conformation, body size, trauma and genetics thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. Few studies have investigated the effects of genetic variability of osteochondrosis in Thoroughbreds. To describe the prevalence and genetic variability of a subset of osteochondrosis lesions in a group of Thoroughbred yearlings. Retrospective cohort study. Radiographs of 1962 Thoroughbred yearlings were retrieved from clinical records obtained between 2005 and 2013. Pedigree information was obtained from the Australian Stud Book. Osteochondrosis lesions were documented in selected joints and estimates of heritability were obtained by fitting linear mixed models in ASREML software. The overall prevalence of osteochondrosis was 23%. Osteochondrosis was identified in 10% of stifle joints, 6% of hock joints and 8% of fetlock joints. The heritability estimates ranged from 0 to 0.21. The largest estimates were 0.10, 0.14, 0.16 and 0.21 for lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia, dorso-proximal proximal phalanx (P1), any stifle osteochondrosis, and lesions of the lateral trochlear ridge of the distal femur, respectively. Although calculated heritability estimates had high standard errors, meta-analyses combining the present results with published estimates were significant at 0.10, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.20 for stifle, tarsal, fetlock and these joints combined, respectively. In addition, there was a permanent environment attributable to the dam effect. Inclusion criteria were based on radiographic findings in specific joints at a specific age range in Thoroughbreds. The present results indicate that only a proportion of osteochondrosis in Thoroughbreds is heritable. The permanent environment effects of the dam were observed to have effects on some categories of osteochondrosis. © 2016 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  4. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  5. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  6. Heritable alteration of DNA methylation induced by whole-chromosome aneuploidy in wheat.

    Gao, Lihong; Diarso, Moussa; Zhang, Ai; Zhang, Huakun; Dong, Yuzhu; Liu, Lixia; Lv, Zhenling; Liu, Bao

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy causes changes in gene expression and phenotypes in all organisms studied. A previous study in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana showed that aneuploidy-generated phenotypic changes can be inherited to euploid progenies and implicated an epigenetic underpinning of the heritable variations. Based on an analysis by amplified fragment length polymorphism and methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we found that although genetic changes at the nucleotide sequence level were negligible, extensive changes in cytosine DNA methylation patterns occurred in all studied homeologous group 1 whole-chromosome aneuploid lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), with monosomic 1A showing the greatest amount of methylation changes. The changed methylation patterns were inherited by euploid progenies derived from the aneuploid parents. The aneuploidy-induced DNA methylation alterations and their heritability were verified at selected loci by bisulfite sequencing. Our data have provided empirical evidence supporting earlier suggestions that heritability of aneuploidy-generated, but aneuploidy-independent, phenotypic variations may have an epigenetic basis. That at least one type of aneuploidy - monosomic 1A - was able to cause significant epigenetic divergence of the aneuploid plants and their euploid progenies also lends support to recent suggestions that aneuploidy may have played an important and protracted role in polyploid genome evolution. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Heritability, genetic advance and correlation studies of some important traits in rice

    Bughio, H.R.; Asad, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Bughio, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variability, estimates of broad sense heritability, genetic advance as percent of mean and genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed in eight rice genotypes at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam in 2005. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited for number of fertile grains per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant, indicating additive gene action and possibility of improving these traits by simple selection. High heritability with moderate genetic advance was exhibited for plant height, 1000-grain weight and panicle length indicating the involvement of additive and non-additive type of gene action and postponement of selection programs for the improvement of these traits. The characters productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fertile grains per panicle, panicle fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield per plant. While plant height and days to 50% flowering were observed non-significant and negatively correlated with grain yield per plant. Fertile grain had significant and positive correlation with panicle fertility percentage. (author)

  8. Heritability estimates on resting state fMRI data using ENIGMA analysis pipeline.

    Adhikari, Bhim M; Jahanshad, Neda; Shukla, Dinesh; Glahn, David C; Blangero, John; Reynolds, Richard C; Cox, Robert W; Fieremans, Els; Veraart, Jelle; Novikov, Dmitry S; Nichols, Thomas E; Hong, L Elliot; Thompson, Paul M; Kochunov, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Big data initiatives such as the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis consortium (ENIGMA), combine data collected by independent studies worldwide to achieve more generalizable estimates of effect sizes and more reliable and reproducible outcomes. Such efforts require harmonized image analyses protocols to extract phenotypes consistently. This harmonization is particularly challenging for resting state fMRI due to the wide variability of acquisition protocols and scanner platforms; this leads to site-to-site variance in quality, resolution and temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR). An effective harmonization should provide optimal measures for data of different qualities. We developed a multi-site rsfMRI analysis pipeline to allow research groups around the world to process rsfMRI scans in a harmonized way, to extract consistent and quantitative measurements of connectivity and to perform coordinated statistical tests. We used the single-modality ENIGMA rsfMRI preprocessing pipeline based on modelfree Marchenko-Pastur PCA based denoising to verify and replicate resting state network heritability estimates. We analyzed two independent cohorts, GOBS (Genetics of Brain Structure) and HCP (the Human Connectome Project), which collected data using conventional and connectomics oriented fMRI protocols, respectively. We used seed-based connectivity and dual-regression approaches to show that the rsfMRI signal is consistently heritable across twenty major functional network measures. Heritability values of 20-40% were observed across both cohorts.

  9. Heritability of the Effective Connectivity in the Resting-State Default Mode Network.

    Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei; Friston, Karl

    2017-12-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity. Model comparison favored a full-connected model. Structural equal modeling was used to estimate the additive genetics (A), common environment (C) and unique environment (E) contributions to variance for the DMN effective connectivity. The ACE model was preferred in the comparison of structural equation models. Heritability of DMN effective connectivity was 0.54, suggesting that the genetic made a greater contribution to the effective connectivity within DMN. Establishing the heritability of default-mode effective connectivity endorses the use of resting-state networks as endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes in the search for the genetic basis of psychiatric or neurological illnesses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Heritability of Stroop and flanker performance in 12-year old children

    Polderman Tinca JC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great interest in appropriate phenotypes that serve as indicator of genetically transmitted frontal (dysfunction, such as ADHD. Here we investigate the ability to deal with response conflict, and we ask to what extent performance variation on response interference tasks is caused by genetic variation. We tested a large sample of 12-year old monozygotic and dizygotic twins on two well-known and closely related response interference tasks; the color Stroop task and the Eriksen flanker task. Using structural equation modelling we assessed the heritability of several performance indices derived from those tasks. Results In the Stroop task we found high heritabilities of overall reaction time and – more important – Stroop interference (h2 = nearly 50 %. In contrast, we found little evidence of heritability on flanker performance. For both tasks no effects of sex on performance variation were found. Conclusions These results suggest that normal variation in Stroop performance is influenced by underlying genetic variation. Given that Stroop performance is often hampered not only in people suffering from frontal dysfunction, but also in their unaffected relatives, we conclude that this variable may constitute a suitable endophenotype for future genetic studies. We discuss several reasons for the absence of genetic effects on the flanker task.

  11. Heritable genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR with an associated protein (Cas9 system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and Cas9-mRNA into silkworm embryos. Mutation frequencies of 16.7-35.0% were observed in the injected generation, and DNA fragments deletions were also noted. Bm-ok mosaic mutants were used to test for mutant heritability due to the easily determined translucent epidermal phenotype of Bm-ok-disrupted cells. Two crossing strategies were used. In the first, injected Bm-ok moths were crossed with wild-type moths, and a 28.6% frequency of germline mutation transmission was observed. In the second strategy, two Bm-ok mosaic mutant moths were crossed with each other, and 93.6% of the offsprings appeared mutations in both alleles of Bm-ok gene (compound heterozygous. In summary, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can act as a highly specific and heritable gene-editing tool in Bombyx mori.

  12. Heritability of Susceptibility to Ionizing Radiation-Induced Apoptosis of Human Lymphocyte Subpopulations

    Schmitz, Annette; Bayer, Jan; Dechamps, Nathalie; Goldin, Lynn; Thomas, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the heritability of intrinsic radiosensitivity, the induction of apoptosis in lymphocyte subpopulations was determined on samples from related individuals belonging to large kindred families. Methods and Materials: Quiescent lymphocytes from 334 healthy individuals were gamma-irradiated in vitro. Apoptosis was determined 18 h after irradiation by eight-color flow cytometry. Radiosensitivity was quantified from dose-effect curves. Intrafamilial correlations and heritability were computed for 199 father-mother-offspring trios using the programs SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) and SAGE (Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology). Segregation analyses were conducted using SAGE. Results: Marked differential susceptibility of naive and memory T lymphocytes was demonstrated. Also, although age and gender were significant covariates, their effects only accounted for a minor part of the inter-individual variation. Parent-offspring and sib-sib correlations were significant for the radiosensitivity of B cells, T4, and T8 and of effector memory T4 and T8 subpopulations. In the T4-effector memory subpopulation, the phenotype showed correlations most consistent with dominant or additive genetic effects, and the results of the segregation analysis were consistent with the contribution of a bi-allelic dominant locus. Conclusions: Heritability was demonstrated for the susceptibility to ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphocyte populations, and the segregation of the T4-effector memory radiosensitivity phenotype was consistent with a simple mendelian transmission model involving one major gene

  13. Heritability of audiometric shape parameters and familial aggregation of presbycusis in an elderly Flemish population.

    Demeester, Kelly; van Wieringen, Astrid; Hendrickx, Jan-jaap; Topsakal, Vedat; Huyghe, Jeroen; Fransen, Erik; Van Laer, Lut; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2010-06-14

    This study describes the heritability of audiometric shape parameters and the familial aggregation of different types of presbycusis in a healthy, otologically screened population between 50 and 75 years old. About 342 siblings of 64 families (average family-size: 5.3) were recruited through population registries. Audiometric shape was mathematically quantified by objective parameters developed to measure size, slope, concavity, percentage of frequency-dependent and frequency-independent hearing loss and Bulge Depth. The heritability of each parameter was calculated using a variance components model. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs). Estimates of sibling recurrence risk ratios (lambda(s)) are also provided. Heritability estimates were generally higher compared to previous studies. ORs and lambda(s) for the parameters Total Hearing Loss (size), Uniform Hearing Loss (percentage of frequency-dependent hearing loss) and Bulge Depth suggest a higher heredity for severe types of presbycusis compared to moderate or mild types. Our results suggest that the separation of the parameter 'Total Hearing Loss' into the two parameters 'Uniform Hearing Loss' and 'Non-uniform Hearing Loss' could lead to the discovery of different genetic subtypes of presbycusis. The parameter 'Bulge Depth', instead of 'Concavity', seemed to be an important parameter for classifying subjects into 'susceptible' or 'resistant' to societal or intensive environmental exposure. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  15. Polygenic risk score and heritability estimates reveals a genetic relationship between ASD and OCD.

    Guo, W; Samuels, J F; Wang, Y; Cao, H; Ritter, M; Nestadt, P S; Krasnow, J; Greenberg, B D; Fyer, A J; McCracken, J T; Geller, D A; Murphy, D L; Knowles, J A; Grados, M A; Riddle, M A; Rasmussen, S A; McLaughlin, N C; Nurmi, E L; Askland, K D; Cullen, B A; Piacentini, J; Pauls, D L; Bienvenu, O J; Stewart, S E; Goes, F S; Maher, B; Pulver, A E; Valle, D; Mattheisen, M; Qian, J; Nestadt, G; Shugart, Y Y

    2017-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. The top ranked SNP is rs4785741 (chromosome 16) with P value=6.9×10 -7 in our re-analysis. Polygenic risk score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic relationship within and across the two disorders. These analyses identified a significant polygenic component of ASD, predicting 0.11% of the phenotypic variance in an independent OCD data set. In addition, we examined the genomic architecture of ASD and OCD by estimating heritability on different chromosomes and different allele frequencies, analyzing genome-wide common variant data by using the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) program. The estimated global heritability of OCD is 0.427 (se=0.093) and 0.174 (se=0.053) for ASD in these imputed data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues.

    Wheeler, Heather E; Shah, Kaanan P; Brenner, Jonathon; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Cox, Nancy J; Nicolae, Dan L; Im, Hae Kyung

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR Decomposition (OTD) approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan).

  17. Correlation, path analysis and heritability estimation for agronomic traits contribute to yield on soybean

    Sulistyo, A.; Purwantoro; Sari, K. P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection is a routine activity in plant breeding programs that must be done by plant breeders in obtaining superior plant genotypes. The use of appropriate selection criteria will determine the effectiveness of selection activities. The purpose of this study was to analysis the inheritable agronomic traits that contribute to soybean yield. A total of 91 soybean lines were planted in Muneng Experimental Station, Probolinggo District, East Java Province, Indonesia in 2016. All soybean lines were arranged in randomized complete block design with two replicates. Correlation analysis, path analysis and heritability estimation were performed on days to flowering, days to maturing, plant height, number of branches, number of fertile nodes, number of filled pods, weight of 100 seeds, and yield to determine selection criteria on soybean breeding program. The results showed that the heritability value of almost all agronomic traits observed is high except for the number of fertile nodes with low heritability. The result of correlation analysis shows that days to flowering, plant height and number of fertile nodes have positive correlation with seed yield per plot (0.056, 0.444, and 0.100, respectively). In addition, path analysis showed that plant height and number of fertile nodes have highest positive direct effect on soybean yield. Based on this result, plant height can be selected as one of selection criteria in soybean breeding program to obtain high yielding soybean variety.

  18. Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie.

    De Risio, Luisa; Lewis, Tom; Freeman, Julia; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara; Blott, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD) and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie. Entire litters of Border Collies that presented to the Animal Health Trust (1994-2008) for assessment of hearing status by brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) at 4-10 weeks of age were included. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML). Of 4143 puppies that met the inclusion criteria, 97.6% had normal hearing status, 2.0% were unilaterally deaf and 0.4% were bilaterally deaf. Heritability of deafness as a trichotomous trait (normal/unilaterally deaf/bilaterally deaf) was estimated at 0.42 using multivariate analysis. Genetic correlations of deafness with iris colour and merle coat colour were 0.58 and 0.26, respectively. These results indicate that there is a significant genetic effect on CSD in Border Collies and that some of the genes determining deafness also influence pigmentation phenotypes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Vandeputte, M.; Kocour, Martin; Mauger, S.; Duppont Nivet, M.; De Guerry, D.; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Vallod, D.; Chevassus, B.; Linhart, Otomar

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 235, - (2004), s. 223-236 ISSN 0044-8486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp * Cyprinus carpio * heritability Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.627, year: 2004

  20. On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities: the more heritable, the more culture dependent.

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; van der Maas, Han L J

    2013-12-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. These findings require an explanation because they do not follow from mainstream theories of intelligence. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that heritability coefficients differ across cognitive abilities as a result of differences in the contribution of genotype-environment covariance. The counterintuitive finding that the most heritable abilities are the most culture-dependent abilities sheds a new light on the long-standing nature-nurture debate of intelligence.

  1. Blending of heritable recognition cues among ant nestmates creates distinct colony gestalt odours but prevents within-colony nepotism

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Brask, Josefine B.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    members to create a Gestalt odour. Although earlier studies have established that hydrocarbon profiles are influenced by heritable factors, transfer among nestmates and additional environmental factors, no studies have quantified these relative contributions for separate compounds. Here, we use the ant...... discrimination or as nestmate recognition cues. These results indicate that heritable compounds are suitable for establishing a genetic Gestalt for efficient nestmate recognition, but that recognition cues within colonies are insufficiently distinct to allow nepotistic kin discrimination....

  2. Comparison between multitrait and unitrait analysis in the heritability estimate of electrical conductivity of milk

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conductivity of milk is an indirect method for diagnosis of mastitis that can be used as criterion of selection in breeding programs, to obtain more resistant animals to infection. Data from 9,302 records of electrical conductivity from the morning milking (ECM, 13,070 milk yield records (MY and 11,560 records of milking time (MT, of 1,129 first lactation Holstein cows, calving from 2001 to 2011, were used in statistical analysis. Data of eight herds of Southeast region of Brazil were obtained by the WESTFALIA® electronic milking machines, with “Dairyplan” management system. Two analysis were performed: a multitrait, including MY, MT and ECM, and an unitrait, considering only test-day morning electrical conductivity. The model included additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects as random. Additionally, contemporary groups (CG, the age of cow at calving (AGC and days in milk (DIM (linear and quadratic regression were included as fixed effects. The CG was composed by herd, year and month of test. DIM classes were formed with weekly intervals, constituting a total of 42 classes. The variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (REML, using the Wombat software. The average and standard deviation of ECM were 4.80 mS cm-1 and 0.54 mS cm-1, respectively. The heritability estimates by multitrait model and their standard errors were 0.33 (0.05, 0.15 (0.03 and 0.22 (0.03 for ECM, MY and MT, respectively. Genetic correlation was 0.74 for MY and MT, 0.37 for MY and ECM and -0.09 for MY and ECM. In the unitrait analysis, the heritability estimate for ECM was 0.35 with a standard error of 0.05. These results agree with the literature that reported heritability estimates for electrical conductivity ranging from 0.26 to 0.39. Although the estimates were close, the heritability estimated by unitrait analysis was slightly higher that estimated by multtrait probably because the pedigree file was the

  3. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  4. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  5. Evaluation of biodistribution and imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using 111In-labeled low-density lipoprotein

    Yamashina, Hisayo

    1993-01-01

    111 In-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was administered to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits (WHHL group) and control rabbits (control group) to evaluate its biodistribution and scintigraphic images by γ-camera and radioactivity of each organ. With external imaging, the heart, liver, kidney, bone and spleen of each rabbit were observed. By setting the region of interest, the liver/heart ratio of the WHHL group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p 111 In-labeled-LDL was recognized in the aortic arch, bifurcation of intercostal and celiac artery in the WHHL group. By the use of labeled LDL with the combination of γ-camera, it is capable of detecting the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and imaging atherosclerotic lesions externally. (author)

  6. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Comparison of the effects of fish oil and olive oil on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits

    Mortensen, Alicja; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    1998-01-01

    ). No group differences were recorded for LDL- and HDL-cholesterol or triacylglycerol levels. A significantly higher oxidation of LDL was recorded 1 h after exposure to CuSO4 in the fish-oil group when compared with the olive-oil soup (0.465 v. 0.202, arbitrary units). The following indicators...

  8. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  9. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  10. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  11. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  12. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  14. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  15. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  16. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  17. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  18. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  19. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  20. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  1. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  2. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  3. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  4. A veritable menagerie of heritable bacteria from ants, butterflies, and beyond: broad molecular surveys and a systematic review.

    Jacob A Russell

    Full Text Available Maternally transmitted bacteria have been important players in the evolution of insects and other arthropods, affecting their nutrition, defense, development, and reproduction. Wolbachia are the best studied among these and typically the most prevalent. While several other bacteria have independently evolved a heritable lifestyle, less is known about their host ranges. Moreover, most groups of insects have not had their heritable microflora systematically surveyed across a broad range of their taxonomic diversity. To help remedy these shortcomings we used diagnostic PCR to screen for five groups of heritable symbionts-Arsenophonus spp., Cardinium hertigii, Hamiltonella defensa, Spiroplasma spp., and Wolbachia spp.-across the ants and lepidopterans (focusing, in the latter case, on two butterfly families-the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae. We did not detect Cardinium or Hamiltonella in any host. Wolbachia were the most widespread, while Spiroplasma (ants and lepidopterans and Arsenophonus (ants only were present at low levels. Co-infections with different Wolbachia strains appeared especially common in ants and less so in lepidopterans. While no additional facultative heritable symbionts were found among ants using universal bacterial primers, microbes related to heritable enteric bacteria were detected in several hosts. In summary, our findings show that Wolbachia are the dominant heritable symbionts of ants and at least some lepidopterans. However, a systematic review of symbiont frequencies across host taxa revealed that this is not always the case across other arthropods. Furthermore, comparisons of symbiont frequencies revealed that the prevalence of Wolbachia and other heritable symbionts varies substantially across lower-level arthropod taxa. We discuss the correlates, potential causes, and implications of these patterns, providing hypotheses on host attributes that may shape the distributions of these influential bacteria.

  5. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  6. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  7. Heritability of hsp70 expression in the beetle Tenebrio molitor: Ontogenetic and environmental effects.

    Lardies, Marco A; Arias, María Belén; Poupin, María Josefina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D

    2014-08-01

    Ectotherms constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity and are especially likely to be vulnerable to climate warming because their basic physiological functions such as locomotion, growth, and reproduction are strongly influenced by environmental temperature. An integrated view about the effects of global warming will be reached not just establishing how the increase in mean temperature impacts the natural populations but also establishing the effects of the increase in temperature variance. One of the molecular responses that are activated in a cell under a temperature stress is the heat shock protein response (HSP). Some studies that have detected consistent differences among thermal treatments and ontogenetic stages in HSP70 expression have assumed that these differences had a genetic basis and consequently expression would be heritable. We tested for changes in quantitative genetic parameters of HSP70 expression in a half-sib design where individuals of the beetle Tenebrio molitor were maintained in constant and varying thermal environments. We estimated heritability of HSP70 expression using a linear mixed modelling approach in different ontogenetic stages. Expression levels of HSP70 were consistently higher in the variable environment and heritability estimates were low to moderate. The results imply that within each ontogenetic stage additive genetic variance was higher in the variable environment and in adults compared with constant environment and larvae stage, respectively. We found that almost all the genetic correlations across ontogenetic stages and environment were positive. These suggest that directional selection for higher levels of expression in one environment will result in higher expression levels of HSP70 on the other environment for the same ontogenetic stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heritability in the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans.

    Seoighe, Cathal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts of protein-coding genes in which an intron has been retained in the coding region normally result in premature stop codons and are therefore degraded through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. There is evidence in the form of selective pressure for in-frame stop codons in introns and a depletion of length three introns that this is an important and conserved quality-control mechanism. Yet recent reports have revealed that the efficiency of NMD varies across tissues and between individuals, with important clinical consequences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using previously published Affymetrix exon microarray data from cell lines genotyped as part of the International HapMap project, we investigated whether there are heritable, inter-individual differences in the abundance of intron-containing transcripts, potentially reflecting differences in the efficiency of NMD. We identified intronic probesets using EST data and report evidence of heritability in the extent of intron expression in 56 HapMap trios. We also used a genome-wide association approach to identify genetic markers associated with intron expression. Among the top candidates was a SNP in the DCP1A gene, which forms part of the decapping complex, involved in NMD. CONCLUSIONS: While we caution that some of the apparent inter-individual difference in intron expression may be attributable to different handling or treatments of cell lines, we hypothesize that there is significant polymorphism in the process of NMD, resulting in heritable differences in the abundance of intronic mRNA. Part of this phenotype is likely to be due to a polymorphism in a decapping enzyme on human chromosome 3.

  9. Heritability and combining ability of vegetative growth and phenological development of diallel crosses of rapeseed

    Naheed Hafsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate combining ability and heritability of F2 populations of 4 x 4 full diallel crosses and parents, an experiment was carried out at The University of Agriculture, during 2012-2013. Four parental lines and F2 populations of six direct and six reciprocal crosses were planted in the experiment using RCB design. Data were recorded on phenological and vegetative growth traits: Days to flowering, plant height, main stem length, main raceme length, primary branches, and days to maturity. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among genotypes for all the parameters studied. The results of combining ability analysis showed that general combining ability (GCA was highly significant for primary branches plant-1, significant for plant height and days to physiological maturity and non-significant for the remaining traits. Specific combining ability (SCA and reciprocal effects (RE were significant for plant height, days to flowering, main raceme length and days to physiological maturity. Genotype AUP-401 was best general combiner for main raceme length, primary branches plant-1 and days to physiological maturity. Among the crosses, AUP-404 x AUP-402 was best specific combiner for plant height, days to flowering and main stem length. Broad sense heritability was high (>70% for plant height, main stem length and primary branches. Moderate heritability was observed for main raceme length, days to 50% flowering and days to physiological maturity. The variance components of SCA were greater than respective GCA components of all the characters signifying the presence of non- additive genetic effects in transfer of these traits and selection in the later generations should be practiced for improvement of these traits.

  10. Heritability estimates for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis status of German Holstein cows tested by fecal culture.

    Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic manifestation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in German Holstein cows. Incorporated into this study were 11,285 German Holstein herd book cows classified as MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals using fecal culture results and originating from 15 farms in Thuringia, Germany involved in a paratuberculosis voluntary control program from 2008 to 2009. The frequency of MAP-positive animals per farm ranged from 2.7 to 67.6%. The fixed effects of farm and lactation number had a highly significant effect on MAP status. An increase in the frequency of positive animals from the first to the third lactation could be observed. Threshold animal and sire models with sire relationship were used as statistical models to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability estimates of fecal culture varied from 0.157 to 0.228. To analyze the effect of prevalence on genetic parameter estimates, the total data set was divided into 2 subsets of data into farms with prevalence rates below 10% and those above 10%. The data set with prevalence above 10% show higher heritability estimates in both models compared with the data set with prevalence below 10%. For all data sets, the sire model shows higher heritabilities than the equivalent animal model. This study demonstrates that genetic variation exists in dairy cattle for paratuberculosis infection susceptibility and furthermore, leads to the conclusion that MAP detection by fecal culture shows a higher genetic background than ELISA test results. In conclusion, fecal culture seems to be a better trait to control the disease, as well as an appropriate feature for further genomic analyses to detect MAP-associated chromosome regions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica, its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown and belly (white-to-brownish feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations

  12. Heritability in the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans

    Seoighe, Cathal

    2010-07-21

    Background: In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts of protein-coding genes in which an intron has been retained in the coding region normally result in premature stop codons and are therefore degraded through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. There is evidence in the form of selective pressure for in-frame stop codons in introns and a depletion of length three introns that this is an important and conserved quality-control mechanism. Yet recent reports have revealed that the efficiency of NMD varies across tissues and between individuals, with important clinical consequences. Principal Findings: Using previously published Affymetrix exon microarray data from cell lines genotyped as part of the International HapMap project, we investigated whether there are heritable, inter-individual differences in the abundance of intron-containing transcripts, potentially reflecting differences in the efficiency of NMD. We identified intronic probesets using EST data and report evidence of heritability in the extent of intron expression in 56 HapMap trios. We also used a genome-wide association approach to identify genetic markers associated with intron expression. Among the top candidates was a SNP in the DCP1A gene, which forms part of the decapping complex, involved in NMD. Conclusions: While we caution that some of the apparent inter-individual difference in intron expression may be attributable to different handling or treatments of cell lines, we hypothesize that there is significant polymorphism in the process of NMD, resulting in heritable differences in the abundance of intronic mRNA. Part of this phenotype is likely to be due to a polymorphism in a decapping enzyme on human chromosome 3. © 2010 Seoighe, Gehring.

  13. Identification of two heritable cross-disorder endophenotypes for Tourette Syndrome

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Davis, Lea K.; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Dion, Yves; King, Robert; Pauls, David; Budman, Cathy L.; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J.; Yu, Dongmei; McGrath, Lauren M.; McMahon, William M.; Lee, Paul C.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Phenotypic heterogeneity in Tourette syndrome (TS) is partly due to complex genetic relationships between TS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying symptom-based endophenotypes across diagnoses may aid gene-finding efforts. Method 3494 individuals recruited for genetic studies were assessed for TS, OCD, and ADHD symptoms. Symptom-level factor and latent class analyses were conducted in TS families and replicated in an independent sample. Classes were characterized by comorbidity rates and proportion of parents. Heritability and TS-, OCD-, and ADHD-associated polygenic load were estimated. Results We identified two cross-disorder symptom-based phenotypes across analyses: symmetry (symmetry, evening up, checking obsessions; ordering, arranging, counting, writing-rewriting compulsions, repetitive writing tics) and disinhibition (uttering syllables/words, echolalia/palilalia, coprolalia/copropraxia and obsessive urges to offend/mutilate/be destructive). Heritability estimates for both endophenotypes were high (disinhibition factor= 0.35, SE=0.03, p= 4.2 ×10−34; symmetry factor= 0.39, SE=0.03, p= 7.2 ×10−31; symmetry class=0.38, SE=0.10, p=0.001). Mothers of TS probands had high rates of symmetry (49%) but not disinhibition (5%). Polygenic risk scores derived from a TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) were associated with symmetry (p= 0.02), while risk scores derived from an OCD GWAS were not. OCD polygenic risk scores were associated with disinhibition (p =0.03), while TS and ADHD risk scores were not. Conclusions We identified two heritable TS-related endophenotypes that cross traditional diagnostic boundaries. The symmetry phenotype correlated with TS polygenic load, and was present in otherwise “TS-unaffected” mothers, suggesting that this phenotype may reflect additional TS (rather than OCD) genetic liability that is not captured by traditional DSM-based diagnoses. PMID:27809572

  14. Inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance under laboratory conditions of Triatoma infestans from Bolivia.

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; Pessoa, Grasielle D'Avila Caldas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Echeverria, Jorge Espinoza; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2015-11-16

    Over the last few decades, pyrethroid-resistant in Triatoma infestans populations have been reported, mainly on the border between Argentina and Bolivia. Understanding the genetic basis of inheritance mode and heritability of resistance to insecticides under laboratory conditions is crucial for vector management and monitoring of insecticide resistance. Currently, few studies have been performed to characterize the inheritance mode of resistance to pyrethroids in T. infestans; for this reason, the present study aims to characterize the inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans populations from Bolivia with different toxicological profiles. Experimental crosses were performed between a susceptible (S) colony and resistant (R) and reduced susceptibility (RS) colonies in both directions (♀ x ♂ and ♂ x ♀), and inheritance mode was determined based on degree of dominance (DO) and effective dominance (D(ML)). In addition, realized heritability (h(2)) was estimated based on a resistant colony, and select pressure was performed for two generations based on the diagnostic dose (10 ng. i. a. /nymph). The F1 progeny of the experimental crosses and the selection were tested by a standard insecticide resistance bioassay. The result for DO and D(ML) (Bolivia. The lethal doses (LD50) increase from one generation to another rapidly after selection pressure with deltamethrin. This suggests that resistance is an additive and cumulative factor, mainly in highly structured populations with limited dispersal capacity, such as T. infestans. This phenomenon was demonstrated for the first time for T. infestans in the present study. These results are very important for vector control strategies in problematic areas where high resistance ratios of T. infestans have been reported.

  15. The transcriptomes of two heritable cell types illuminate the circuit governing their differentiation.

    Brian B Tuch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of cells into distinct cell types, each of which is heritable for many generations, underlies many biological phenomena. White and opaque cells of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans are two such heritable cell types, each thought to be adapted to unique niches within their human host. To systematically investigate their differences, we performed strand-specific, massively-parallel sequencing of RNA from C. albicans white and opaque cells. With these data we first annotated the C. albicans transcriptome, finding hundreds of novel differentially-expressed transcripts. Using the new annotation, we compared differences in transcript abundance between the two cell types with the genomic regions bound by a master regulator of the white-opaque switch (Wor1. We found that the revised transcriptional landscape considerably alters our understanding of the circuit governing differentiation. In particular, we can now resolve the poor concordance between binding of a master regulator and the differential expression of adjacent genes, a discrepancy observed in several other studies of cell differentiation. More than one third of the Wor1-bound differentially-expressed transcripts were previously unannotated, which explains the formerly puzzling presence of Wor1 at these positions along the genome. Many of these newly identified Wor1-regulated genes are non-coding and transcribed antisense to coding transcripts. We also find that 5' and 3' UTRs of mRNAs in the circuit are unusually long and that 5' UTRs often differ in length between cell-types, suggesting UTRs encode important regulatory information and that use of alternative promoters is widespread. Further analysis revealed that the revised Wor1 circuit bears several striking similarities to the Oct4 circuit that specifies the pluripotency of mammalian embryonic stem cells. Additional characteristics shared with the Oct4 circuit suggest a set of general hallmarks characteristic of

  16. GENE ACTION AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS AMONG LINES DERIVED FROM VARIETAL CROSSES OF SOYBEAN

    Lukman Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of genetic action, heritability and genetic variability is useful and permits plant breeder to design efficient breeding strategies in soybean.  The objectives of this study were to determine gene action, genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of quantitative characters that could be realized through selection of segregation progenies. The F1 population and F2 progenies of six crosses among five soybean varieties were evaluated at Muneng Experimental Station, East Java during the dry season of 2014.  The lines were planted in a randomized block design with four replications.  The seeds of each F1 and F2 progenies and parents were planted in four rows of 3 m long, 40 cm x 20 cm plant spacing, one plant per hill. The result showed that pod number per plant, seed yield, plant yield and harvest index were found to be predominantly controlled by additive gene effects.  Seed size was also controlled by additive gene effects, with small seed dominant to large seed size.  Plant height was found to be controlled by both additive and nonadditive gene effects.  Similarly, days to maturity was due mainly to additive and nonadditive gene effects, with earliness dominant to lateness.  Days to maturity had the highest heritability estimates of 49.3%, followed by seed size (47.0%, harvest index (45.8%, and pod number per plant (45.5%.  Therefore, they could be used in the selection of a high yielding soybean genotype in the F3 generation. 

  17. The heritability of insomnia progression during childhood/adolescence: results from a longitudinal twin study.

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gehrman, Philip R; Gregory, Alice M; Eaves, Lindon J; Silberg, Judy L

    2015-01-01

    To determine prevalence and heritability of insomnia during middle/late childhood and adolescence; examine longitudinal associations in insomnia over time; and assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors on insomnia remain stable, or whether new factors come into play, across this developmental period. Longitudinal twin study. Academic medical center. There were 739 complete monozygotic twin pairs (52%) and 672 complete dizygotic twin pairs (48%) initially enrolled and were followed up at three additional time points (waves). Mode ages at each wave were 8, 10, 14, and 15 y (ages ranged from 8-18 y). None. Clinical ratings of insomnia symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) by trained clinicians, and rated according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R criteria for presence of 'clinically significant insomnia', over four sequential waves. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent but significantly decreased across the four waves (ranging from 16.6% to 31.2%). 'Clinically significant insomnia' was moderately heritable at all waves (h² range = 14% to 38%), and the remaining source of variance was the nonshared environment. Multivariate models indicated that genetic influences at wave 1 contributed to insomnia at all subsequent waves, and that new genetic influences came into play at wave 2, which further contributed to stability of symptoms. Nonshared environmental influences were time-specific. Insomnia is prevalent in childhood and adolescence, and is moderately heritable. The progression of insomnia across this developmental time period is influenced by stable as well as new genetic factors that come into play at wave 2 (modal age 10 y). Molecular genetic studies should now identify genes related to insomnia progression during childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues.

    Heather E Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR < 0.1 in the DGN whole blood cohort. However, current sample sizes (n ≤ 922 do not allow us to compute distal h2. Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Model (BSLMM analysis provides strong evidence that the genetic contribution to local expression traits is dominated by a handful of genetic variants rather than by the collective contribution of a large number of variants each of modest size. In other words, the local architecture of gene expression traits is sparse rather than polygenic across all 40 tissues (from DGN and GTEx examined. This result is confirmed by the sparsity of optimal performing gene expression predictors via elastic net modeling. To further explore the tissue context specificity, we decompose the expression traits into cross-tissue and tissue-specific components using a novel Orthogonal Tissue Decomposition (OTD approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan.

  19. Effect of ATM heterozygosity on heritable DNA damage in mice following paternal F0 germline irradiation

    Baulch, Janet E.; Li, M.-W.; Raabe, Otto G.

    2007-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product maintains genome integrity and initiates cellular DNA repair pathways following exposures to genotoxic agents. ATM also plays a significant role in meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis. Fertilization with sperm carrying damaged DNA could lead to adverse effects in offspring including developmental defects or increased cancer susceptibility. Currently, there is little information regarding the effect of ATM heterozygosity on germline DNA repair and heritable effects of paternal germline-ionizing irradiation. We used neutral pH comet assays to evaluate spermatozoa 45 days after acute whole-body irradiation of male mice (0.1 Gy, attenuated 137 Cs γ rays) to determine the effect of ATM heterozygosity on delayed DNA damage effects of Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation. Using the neutral pH sperm comet assay, significant irradiation-related differences were found in comet tail length, percent tail DNA and tail extent moment, but there were no observed differences in effect between wild-type and ATM +/- mice. However, evaluation of spermatozoa from third generation descendants of irradiated male mice for heritable chromatin effects revealed significant differences in DNA electrophoretic mobility in the F 3 descendants that were based upon the irradiated F 0 sire's genotype. In this study, radiation-induced chromatin alterations to Type A/B spermatogonia, detected in mature sperm 45 days post-irradiation, led to chromatin effects in mature sperm three generations later. The early cellular response to and repair of DNA damage is critical and appears to be affected by ATM zygosity. Our results indicate that there is potential for heritable genetic or epigenetic changes following Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation and that ATM heterozygosity increases this effect

  20. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose.

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2004-01-01

    , artificial honey increased LDL-C, while honey decreased LDL-C. Honey decreased cholesterol (8%), LDL-C (11%), and CRP (75%) after 15 days. In diabetic patients, honey compared with dextrose caused a significantly lower rise of PGL. Elevation of PGL was greater after honey than after sucrose at 30 minutes, and was lower after honey than it was after sucrose at 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey caused greater elevation of insulin than sucrose did after 30, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey reduces blood lipids, homocysteine, and CRP in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Honey compared with dextrose and sucrose caused lower elevation of PGL in diabetics.

  1. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  2. The Effect of 9/11 on the Heritability of Political Trust.

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, a rally effect led to a precipitous rise in political trust. However, the increase in political trust concealed a simultaneous decline among a smaller portion of the population. This paper examines the psychological mechanisms underlying these heterogeneous attitudes towards government and shows that a biosocial model best explains the observed patterns of response. The interplay of genetic and environmental factors of political trust reveals the stable but dynamic nature of heritability: genetic influences of political trust increased immediately following 9/11 but quickly decayed to pre-9/11 levels.

  3. The Heritability of Insomnia Progression during Childhood/Adolescence: Results from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    Barclay, Nicola L.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Silberg, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine prevalence and heritability of insomnia during middle/late childhood and adolescence; examine longitudinal associations in insomnia over time; and assess the extent to which genetic and environmental factors on insomnia remain stable, or whether new factors come into play, across this developmental period. Design: Longitudinal twin study. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients or Participants: There were 739 complete monozygotic twin pairs (52%) and 672 complete dizygotic twin pairs (48%) initially enrolled and were followed up at three additional time points (waves). Mode ages at each wave were 8, 10, 14, and 15 y (ages ranged from 8–18 y). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Clinical ratings of insomnia symptoms were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) by trained clinicians, and rated according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Edition—Revised criteria for presence of “clinically significant insomnia,” over four sequential waves. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent but significantly decreased across the four waves (ranging from 16.6% to 31.2%). “Clinically significant insomnia” was moderately heritable at all waves (h2 range = 14% to 38%), and the remaining source of variance was the nonshared environment. Multivariate models indicated that genetic influences at wave 1 contributed to insomnia at all subsequent waves, and that new genetic influences came into play at wave 2, which further contributed to stability of symptoms. Nonshared environmental influences were time-specific. Conclusion: Insomnia is prevalent in childhood and adolescence, and is moderately heritable. The progression of insomnia across this developmental time period is influenced by stable as well as new genetic factors that come into play at wave 2 (modal age 10 y). Molecular genetic studies should now identify genes related to insomnia progression during childhood and

  4. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    Du, Xiao; Crawford, Douglas L.; Nacci, Diane E.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  5. Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population

    Du, Xiao, E-mail: xdu@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Crawford, Douglas L. [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Nacci, Diane E. [Population Ecology Branch, Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Oleksiak, Marjorie F., E-mail: moleksiak@rsmas.miami.edu [Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laboratory reared fish from a highly polluted and clean reference population were compared. • Oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., State 3, enzymes, and proton LEAK) was quantified. • Laboratory reared F3 fish from polluted population displayed higher routine metabolism and complex II activity but lower complex I enzyme activity. • Enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance were retained in laboratory reared F3 fish from the polluted population. - Abstract: Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in King’s Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught King’s Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered by acute benzo [a] pyrene exposures. To more definitively test whether the enhanced OxPhos metabolism and toxicity resistance are heritable, we measured OxPhos metabolism in a laboratory-reared F3 generation from the Elizabeth River population versus a laboratory-reared F1 generation from the King’s Creek population and compared these results to previous data from the field-caught fish. The F3 Elizabeth River fish compared to F1 King’s Creek fish had significantly higher State 3 respiration (routine metabolism) and complex II activity, and significantly lower complex I activity. The consistently higher routine metabolism in the F3 and field-caught Elizabeth River fish versus F1 and field-caught King’s Creek fish implies a heritable change in OxPhos function. The observation that LEAK, E-State, Complex I and Complex II were different in laboratory bred

  6. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  7. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  8. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  9. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  10. Genetic variability, partial regression, Co-heritability studies and their implication in selection of high yielding potato gen

    Iqbal, Z.M.; Khan, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Partial regression coefficient, genotypic and phenotypic variabilities, heritability co-heritability and genetic advance were studied in 15 Potato varieties of exotic and local origin. Both genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations were high for scab and rhizoctonia incidence percentage. Significant partial regression coefficient for emergence percentage indicated its relative importance in tuber yield. High heritability (broadsense) estimates coupled with high genetic advance for plant height, number of stems per plant and scab percentage revealed substantial contribution of additive genetic variance in the expression of these traits. Hence, the selection based on these characters could play a significant role in their improvement the dominance and epistatic variance was more important for character expression of yield ha/sup -1/, emergence and rhizoctonia percentage. This phenomenon is mainly due to the accumulative effects of low heritability and low to moderate genetic advance. The high co-heritability coupled with negative genotypic and phenotypic covariance revealed that selection of varieties having low scab and rhizoctonia percentage resulted in more potato yield. (author)

  11. Heritability and mortality risk of insomnia-related symptoms: a genetic epidemiologic study in a population-based twin cohort.

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to estimate heritability in phenotypic insomnia and the association between insomnia and mortality. Representative follow-up study. 1990 survey of the Finnish Twin Cohort (N = 12502 adults; 1554 monozygotic and 2991 dizygotic twin pairs). Current insomnia-related symptoms (insomnia in general, difficulty in initiating sleep, sleep latency, nocturnal awakening, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep assessed in the morning and during the day) were asked. Latent class analysis was used to classify subjects into different sleep quality classes. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate heritability. Mortality data was obtained from national registers until end of April 2009. The heritability estimates of each symptom were similar in both genders varying from 34% (early morning awakening) to 45% (nocturnal awakening). The most parsimonious latent class analysis produced 3 classes: good sleepers (48%), average sleepers (up to weekly symptoms, 40%), and poor sleepers (symptoms daily or almost daily, 12%). The heritability estimate for the cluster was 46% (95% confidence interval 41% to 50%). In a model adjusted for smoking, BMI, and depressive symptoms, the all-cause mortality of poor sleepers was elevated (excess mortality 55% in men and 51% in women). Further adjustment for sleep length, use of sleep promoting medications, and sleep apnea-related symptoms did not change the results. Insomnia-related symptoms were common in both genders. The symptoms and their clusters showed moderate heritability estimates. A significant association was found between poor sleep and risk of mortality, especially in those with somatic disease.

  12. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  13. Variability, heritability, character association, path analysis and morphological diversity in snake gourd

    A.S.M. Mahbubur Rahman Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 21 genotypes of snake gourd. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for the fruit yield, number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. High heritability coupled with high-to-moderate genetic advance was estimated for all characters studied. Correlation studies revealed that the fruit yield had a significant, positive correlation with the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. Importantly, more than 90% of the genotypic total variation was contributed by the characters included in the path analysis. The highest, direct, positive effect was recorded for the number of fruits per vine. The divergence value for cluster analysis indicated that the genotypes from clusters II and III had the highest inter-cluster distance and were expected to provide high heterosis in hybridization and to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight.

  14. Interplay between heritability of smoking and environmental conditions? A comparison of two birth cohorts

    Vink Jacqueline M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attitudes and policy towards smoking changed over the past years in many countries including the Netherlands. Generally, this led to a decrease in smoking prevalence. As demonstrated in twin and family studies, individual differences in smoking behavior are partly influenced by genetic factors. We explore whether the current change in environmental conditions has influenced the genetic architecture of smoking. This would constitute evidence for Gene × Environment (G×E interaction. Methods Data on smoking were available from 2 cohorts of young adult twins (18-25 year registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The first cohort completed a survey in 1993-1995 (n = 2669 and the second in 2009-2010 (n = 2339. Prevalence and genetic architecture of smoking were compared across cohorts using structural equation models in MX. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 40-51% to 22-23% between 1993-1995 and 2009-2010. Genetic analyses, making use of the different genetic resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, showed that the heritability was the same in both cohorts. Conclusions The change in policy and smoking attitudes that led to a decrease in prevalence of smoking did not change the heritability of smoking and thus no evidence was found for GxE interaction.

  15. Phylogenetic heritability of geographic range size in haematophagous ectoparasites: time of divergence and variation among continents.

    Krasnov, Boris R; Shenbrot, Georgy I; van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2018-04-12

    To understand existence, patterns and mechanisms behind phylogenetic heritability in the geographic range size (GRS) of parasites, we measured phylogenetic signal (PS) in the sizes of both regional (within a region) and continental (within a continent) geographic ranges of fleas in five regions. We asked whether (a) GRS is phylogenetically heritable and (b) the manifestation of PS varies between regions. We also asked whether geographic variation in PS reflects the effects of the environment's spatiotemporal stability (e.g. glaciation disrupting geographic ranges) or is associated with time since divergence (accumulation differences among species over time). Support for the former hypothesis would be indicated by stronger PS in southern than in northern regions, whereas support for the latter hypothesis would be shown by stronger PS in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the derived lineages than in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the basal lineages. We detected significant PS in both regional and continental GRSs of fleas from Canada and in continental GRS of fleas from Mongolia. No PS was found in the GRS of fleas from Australia and Southern Africa. Venezuelan fleas demonstrated significant PS in regional GRS only. Local Indicators of Phylogenetic Association detected significant local positive autocorrelations of GRS in some clades even in regions in which PS has not been detected across the entire phylogeny. This was mainly characteristic of younger taxa.

  16. Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. Probability and heritability estimates on primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to total hip arthroplasty

    Skousgaard, Søren Glud; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk and heritab......INTRODUCTION: Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk...... and heritability of primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to a total hip arthroplasty, and if this heritability increased with increasing age. METHODS: In a nationwide population-based follow-up study 118,788 twins from the Danish Twin Register and 90,007 individuals from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register...... not have had a total hip arthroplasty at the time of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 94,063 twins eligible for analyses, comprising 835 cases of 36 concordant and 763 discordant twin pairs. The probability increased particularly from 50 years of age. After sex and age adjustment a significant additive...

  18. Heritability of Intraindividual Mean and Variability of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom ( N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual's daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual's average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional.

  19. Experimental tests for heritable morphological color plasticity in non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta populations.

    Peter A H Westley

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature.

  20. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  1. The capture of heritable variation for genetic quality through social competition.

    Wolf, Jason B; Harris, W Edwin; Royle, Nick J

    2008-09-01

    In theory, females of many species choose mates based on traits that are indicators of male genetic quality. A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is why genetic variation for such indicator traits persists despite strong persistent selection imposed by female preference, which is known as the lek paradox. One potential solution to the lek paradox suggests that the traits that are targets of mate choice should evolve condition-dependent expression and that condition should have a large genetic variance. Condition is expected to exhibit high genetic variance because it is affected by a large number of physiological processes and hence, condition-dependent traits should 'capture' variation contributed by a large number of loci. We suggest that a potentially important cause of variation in condition is competition for limited resources. Here, we discuss a pair of models to analyze the evolutionary genetics of traits affected by success in social competition for resources. We show that competition can contribute to genetic variation of 'competition-dependent' traits that have fundamentally different evolutionary properties than other sources of variation. Competition dependence can make traits honest indicators of genetic quality by revealing the relative competitive ability of males, can provide a component of heritable variation that does not contribute to trait evolution, and can help maintain heritable variation under directional selection. Here we provide a general introduction to the concept of competition dependence and briefly introduce two models to demonstrate the potential evolutionary consequences of competition-dependent trait expression.

  2. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2012-06-01

    Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heritability and variance components of some morphological and agronomic in alfalfa

    Ates, E.; Tekeli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Four alfalfa cultivars were investigated using randomized complete-block design with three replications. Variance components, variance coefficients and heritability values of some morphological characters, herbage yield, dry matter yield and seed yield were determined. Maximum main stem height (78.69 cm), main stem diameter (4.85 mm), leaflet width (0.93 cm), seeds/pod (6.57), herbage yield (75.64 t ha/sub -1/), dry matter yield (20.06 t ha/sub -1/) and seed yield (0.49 t ha/sub -1/) were obtained from cv. Marina. Leaflet length varied from 1.65 to 2.08 cm. The raceme length measured 3.15 to 4.38 cm in alfalfa cultivars. The highest 1000-seeds weight values (2.42-2.49 g) were found from Marina and Sitel cultivars. Heritability values of various traits were: 91.0% for main stem height, 97.6% for main stem diameter, 81.8% for leaflet length, 88.8% for leaflet width, 90.4% for leaf/stem ratio, 28.3% for racemes/main stem, 99.0% for raceme length, 99.2% for seeds/pod, 88.0% for 1000-seeds weight, 97.2% for herbage yield, 99.6% for dry matter yield and 95.4% for seed yield. (author)

  4. Heritable Variation in Quinone-Induced Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Triphysaria1

    Jamison, Denneal S.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    We are using the facultative hemiparasite, Triphysaria, as a model for studying host-parasite signaling in the Scrophulariaceae. Parasitic members of this family form subterranean connections, or haustoria, on neighboring host roots to access host water and nutrients. These parasitic organs develop in response to haustorial-inducing factors contained in host root exudates. A well-characterized inducing factor, 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (DMBQ), can be used to trigger in vitro haustorium formation in the roots of Triphysaria. We have assayed three species, Triphysaria eriantha (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, Triphysaria pusilla (Benth.) Chuang and Heckard, and Triphysaria versicolor Fischer and C. Meyer, for haustorium development in response to DMBQ. There were significant differences between the species in their ability to recognize and respond to this quinone. Ninety percent of T. versicolor individuals responded, whereas only 40% of T. pusilla and less than 10% of T. eriantha formed haustoria. Within field collections of self-pollinating T. pusilla, differential responsiveness to DMBQ was seen in distinct maternal families. Assaying haustorium development in subsequent generations of self-pollinated T. pusilla showed that DMBQ responsiveness was heritable. Reciprocal crosses between T. eriantha and T. versicolor demonstrated that DMBQ responsiveness was influenced by maternal factors. These results demonstrate heritable, natural variation in the recognition of a haustorial-inducing factor by a parasitic member of the Scrophulariaceae. PMID:11299366

  5. Assessment of heritability and genetic advance for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    HASSAN NIKKHAHKOUCHAKSARAEI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the amount of heritability for desirable agronomic characteristics and the genetic progress associated with grain yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., a split plot experiment was carried out with four replications during three cropping seasons (2009-2012. Three sowing dates (as environmental factor and six durum wheat varieties (as genotypic factor were considered as main and sub factors respectively. Analysis of variance showed interaction effects between genotypes and environments in days to ripening, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, number of spikes per unit area, grain mass and grain yield. The grain yield showed the highest positive correlation with number of grains per spike also grain mass (91 % and 85 %, respectively. A relatively high heritability of these traits (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively suggests that their genetic improvement is possible. The maximum genetic gain (19.6 % was observed for grain mass, indicating this trait should be a very important indicator for durum wheat breeders, although the climatic effects should not be ignored.

  6. Repeatability and heritability of reproductive traits in free-ranging snakes.

    Brown, G P; Shine, R

    2007-03-01

    The underlying genetic basis of life-history traits in free-ranging animals is critical to the effects of selection on such traits, but logistical constraints mean that such data are rarely available. Our long-term ecological studies on free-ranging oviparous snakes (keelbacks, Tropidonophis mairii (Gray, 1841), Colubridae) on an Australian floodplain provide the first such data for any tropical reptile. All size-corrected reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch size, clutch mass and post-partum maternal mass) were moderately repeatable between pairs of clutches produced by 69 female snakes after intervals of 49-1152 days, perhaps because maternal body condition was similar between clutches. Parent-offspring regression of reproductive traits of 59 pairs of mothers and daughters revealed high heritability for egg mass (h2= 0.73, SE=0.24), whereas heritability for the other three traits was low (snakes occurs because each female snake must allocate a finite amount of energy into eggs of a genetically determined size.

  7. The heritability of aptitude and exceptional talent across different domains in adolescents and young adults.

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-07-01

    The origin of individual differences in aptitude, defined as a domain-specific skill within the normal ability range, and talent, defined as a domain specific skill of exceptional quality, is under debate. The nature of the variation in aptitudes and exceptional talents across different domains was investigated in a population based twin sample. Self-report data from 1,685 twin pairs (12-24 years) were analyzed for Music, Arts, Writing, Language, Chess, Mathematics, Sports, Memory, and Knowledge. The influence of shared environment was small for both aptitude and talent. Additive and non-additive genetic effects explained the major part of the substantial familial clustering in the aptitude measures with heritability estimates ranging between .32 and .71. Heritability estimates for talents were higher and ranged between .50 and .92. In general, the genetic architecture for aptitude and talent was similar in men and women. Genetic factors contribute to a large extent to variation in aptitude and talent across different domains of intellectual, creative, and sports abilities.

  8. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT, photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20% was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60% was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r=0.23–0.56 at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  9. Morphological evolution and heritability estimates for some biometric traits in the Murgese horse breed.

    Dario, C; Carnicella, D; Dario, M; Bufano, G

    2006-06-30

    A data set concerning 1,816 subjects entered in the Italian Horse Registry from 1925 to 2002 was analyzed to investigate the morphological evolution of the Murgese horse and to obtain useful elements to enhance breeding practices. Three basic body measurements (height at withers, chest girth, and cannon bone circumference) were considered for each subject. Heritabilities were calculated for each parameter to infer the growth and development traits of this breed. Over the past 20 years the Murgese horse has undergone considerable changes, passing from a typical mesomorphic structure (height at withers: 156.30 and 151.04 cm; chest girth: 185.80 and 176.11 cm; cannon bone: 21.10 and 19.82 cm for males and females, respectively) to a mesodolichomorphic structure (height at withers: 160.31 and 156.44 cm; chest girth: 187.89 and 182.48 cm; cannon bone: 21.07 and 20.37 cm, for males and females, respectively). Due to these changes and to its characteristic strength and power, the Murgese, which was once used in agriculture and for meat production (at the end of its life), is now involved in sports, mainly in trekking and equestrian tourism. The heritability estimates for the three body measurements were found to be 0.24, 0.39 and 0.44.

  10. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women.

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic influence on intake of white bread was moderate (24-31%), while the genetic influence on intake of rye bread was higher in men (41-45%) than in women (24-33%). Environmental influences shared by the twins were not significant. Consumption of bread as well as choice of bread is influenced by genetic predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.

  11. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  12. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  13. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  14. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  15. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  16. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  17. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  18. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  19. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  20. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  1. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  2. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  3. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  4. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  5. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  6. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  7. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  8. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  9. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  10. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  11. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  12. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  13. Identification and characterization of porcine mannan-binding lectin A (pMBL-A), and determination of serum concentration heritability

    Juul-Madsen, Helle R.; Krogh-Meibom, Thomas; Heryon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    antibodies to this protein and established an immunoassay to quantify pMBL-A in serum. Using this assay, we found breed differences in pMBL-A concentration distributions and heritability estimates. In the Duroc breed (n=588), pMBL-A concentrations show a unimodal distribution with a mean of 9,125 ng....../ml. In contrast, the pMBL-A concentration distributions in the Landrace breed (n=533) show three distinct mean values: 301, 2,385, and 11,507 ng/ml. Furthermore, heritability calculations based on an additive genetic variance model with no fixed effects indicate that serum pMBL-A concentration is highly heritable...

  14. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined...... with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell...... lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic...

  15. Study of the heritability of some agronomic characters in sulla (Hedysarum spinosissimum subsp. Capitatum (Desf.) Asch. And Gr)

    Hemissi, Imen

    2007-01-01

    In order to safeguard and to improve the fodder species Hedysarum spinosissimum L subsp.capitatum (desf.) asch. et Gr., we estimated the heritability of certain morphological natures. The model used requires, as a preliminary, the analysis of the variance for the estimate of its components. Families of plants half-sibs, resulting from natural pollination, were analysed. The test of ANOVA shows that the familiy effect is significant for five agronomic characters: l ength of the principal axis ( LO); N umber of the secondary branches ( NTP); (length of the longest secondary branch ( LPL); Date of flowering ( DF); N umber of inflorescences ( NIF). To support the idea of use of these variables in a breeding program, we estimated their heritability. The analysis of the significance of this genetic parameter shows that ultimately three characters only are significantly heritable. They are morphological markers NTP, LPL and which can be retained for any project of family's selection's at H. capitatum.

  16. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  17. Heritability, parental transmission and environment correlation of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits.

    Miranda-Lora, América L; Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the heritability, parental transmission and environmental contributions to the phenotypic variation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits in families of Mexican children and adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study of 184 tri-generational pedigrees with a total of 1160 individuals (99 families with a type 2 diabetes mellitus proband before age 19). The family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus in three generations was obtained by interview. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and lifestyle information was corroborated in parents and offspring. We obtained correlations for metabolic traits between relative pairs, and variance component methods were used to determine the heritability and environmental components. The heritability of early-onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 0.50 (p1.0e-7). The heritability was greater than 0.5 for hypertension, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, 2-h insulin, and cholesterol (p1). In contrast, we observed a high environmental correlation (>0.50) for blood pressure, HbA1c and HDL-cholesterol after multivariate adjustment (ptype 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, were significantly correlated only through the mother and others, such as hypertriglyceridemia, were significantly correlated only through the father. This study demonstrates that type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits are highly heritable among Mexican children and adolescents. Furthermore, several cardiometabolic factors have strong heritability and/or high environmental contributions that highlight the complex architecture of these alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissecting HIV Virulence: Heritability of Setpoint Viral Load, CD4+ T-Cell Decline, and Per-Parasite Pathogenicity.

    Bertels, Frederic; Marzel, Alex; Leventhal, Gabriel; Mitov, Venelin; Fellay, Jacques; Günthard, Huldrych F; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Battegay, Manuel; Rauch, Andri; Cavassini, Matthias; Calmy, Alexandra; Bernasconi, Enos; Schmid, Patrick; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Müller, Viktor; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Kouyos, Roger; Regoes, Roland R

    2018-01-01

    Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as "per-parasite pathogenicity". Using viral load and CD4+ T-cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence-measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells-and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient. We estimated heritability by donor-recipient regressions applied to 196 previously identified transmission pairs, and by phylogenetic mixed models applied to a phylogenetic tree inferred from HIV pol sequences. Regressing the CD4+ T-cell declines and per-parasite pathogenicities of the transmission pairs did not yield heritability estimates significantly different from zero. With the phylogenetic mixed model, however, our best estimate for the heritability of the CD4+ T-cell decline is 17% (5-30%), and that of the per-parasite pathogenicity is 17% (4-29%). Further, we confirm that the set-point viral load is heritable, and estimate a heritability of 29% (12-46%). Interestingly, the pattern of evolution of all these traits differs significantly from neutrality, and is most consistent with stabilizing selection for the set-point viral load, and with directional selection for the CD4+ T-cell decline and the per-parasite pathogenicity. Our analysis shows that the viral genotype affects virulence mainly by modulating the per-parasite pathogenicity, while the indirect effect via the set-point viral load is minor. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  20. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We