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Sample records for herbicide application electronic

  1. Economics of site-specific and variable-dose herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Kudsk, Per; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2017-01-01

    Site-specific application of pesticides has so far focused mainly on herbicides. The purpose of precision farming technologies in relation to herbicide use is to reduce herbicide cost and environmental impact from spraying, but at the same time to achieve acceptable weed control. Another purpose...... is to increase the spraying capacity, to reduce the number of sprayer refills, and finally to minimize time spent on weed monitoring. In this chapter the relevance and profitability of four precision herbicide application technologies, two weed detection technologies and a low dose decision support system (DSS......) is analysed. With a low dose herbicide, cost can be reduced by 20–50%. It requires, however, proper monitoring of weeds, which can be a time-consuming task that again requires that the farmer is able to identify the dominant weed species. The current development of high-speed camera and software systems can...

  2. Using a Hydrological Model to Determine Environmentally Safer Windows for Herbicide Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; D.G. Neary; W.P. Fowler; D.J. Turton

    1996-01-01

    A modification of the GLEAMS model was used to determine application windows which would optimise efficacy and environmental safety for herbicide application to a forest site. Herbicide/soil partition coefficients were determined using soil samples collected from the study site for two herbicides (imazapyr, Koc=46, triclopyr ester, K

  3. Identification and discrimination of herbicide residues using a conducting polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The identification of herbicide residues on crop foliage is necessary to make crop-management decisions for weed pest control and to monitor pesticide residue levels on food crops. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were tested as a cheaper, alternative means of discriminating between herbicide residue types (compared with conventional chromatography methods), by...

  4. Using GLEAMS to Select Environmental Windows for Herbicide Application in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Smith; J.L. Michael; W.G. Koisel; D.G. Nealy

    1994-01-01

    Observed herbicide runoff and groundwater data from a pine-release herbicide application study near Gainesville, Florida were used to validate the GLEAMS model hydrology and pesticide component for forest application. The study revealed that model simulations agreed relatively well with the field data for the one-year study. Following validation, a modified version of...

  5. A study on Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench response to split application of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Sylwia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments to evaluate the split application of mesotrione + s-metolachlor, mesotrione + terbuthylazine, dicamba + prosulfuron, terbuthylazine + mesotrione + s-metolachlor, and sulcotrione in the cultivation of sorghum var. Rona 1 were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The field tests were conducted at the field experimental station in Winna Góra, Poznań, Poland. Treatments with the herbicides were performed directly after sowing (PE and at leaf stage 1–2 (AE1 or at leaf stage 3–4 (AE2 of sorghum. The treatments were carried out in a laid randomized block design with 4 replications. The results showed that the tested herbicides applied at split doses were effective in weed control. After the herbicide application weed density and weed biomass were significantly reduced compared to the infested control. The best results were achieved after the application of mesotrione tank mixture with s-metolachlor and terbuthylazine. Application of split doses of herbicides was also correlated with the density, biomass, and height of sorghum.

  6. Design and control of precision drop-on-demand herbicide application in agricultural robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Urdal, Frode; Utstumo, Trygve; Vatne, Jan Kåre; Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Ådnøy; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2014-01-01

    This is the author’s final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Drop-on-demand weed control is a field of research within Precision Agriculture, where the herbicide application is controlled down to individual droplets. This paper focuses on the fluid dynamics and electronics design of the droplet dispensing. The droplets are formed through an array of nozzles, controlled by two-way solenoid valves. A much used control circuit for opening and closing a soleno...

  7. Population dynamics of weeds in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) circle weeding area affected by herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S.; Purba, E.; Yakub, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Weed problems in oil palm field were mainly overcomed by herbicide application. The application certain herbicides may lead to rapid population dynamic of certain species due to their different response to herbicides. Some species may less susceptible to certain herbicide whereas other species more susceptible. The objective of this study was to determine the population dynamic of weed species in circle weeding of oil palm in Serdang Bedagai, North Sumatra. Six treatments using glyphosate singly and mixture compared with manual weeding were evaluated for weed control. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each treatment consisted of four circle weedings. The results showed that glyphosate 720 g a.i/ha + indaziflam 50 g a.i/hareduced seedbank and regrowth of weeds. Up to 12 weeks after application glyphosate 720 g a.i/ha + indaziflam 50 g a.i/ha is 29.46% total weeds dry weight compared to manual weeding. The effect of herbicide application on changes on the weed composition and weed seedbank are affected by the characteristic of herbicides and weed response to herbicide application.

  8. Soil microbial communities and glyphosate decay in soils with different herbicide application history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Keren Hernández; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Castellote, Martín; Figuerola, Eva L; Costa, José Luis; Erijman, Leonardo

    2018-04-11

    This study evaluates the glyphosate dissipation under field conditions in three types of soil, and aims to determine the importance of the following factors in the environmental persistence of herbicide: i) soil bacterial communities, ii) soil physicochemical properties, iii) previous exposure to the herbicide. A soil without previous record of GP application (P0) and two agricultural soils, with 5 and >10years of GP exposure (A5 and A10) were subjected to the application of glyphosate at doses of 3mg·kg -1 . The concentration of GP and AMPA was determined over time and the dynamics of soil bacterial communities was evaluated using 16S ARN ribosomal gene amplicon-sequencing. The GP exposure history affected the rate but not the extent of GP biodegradation. The herbicide was degraded rapidly, but P0 soil showed a dissipation rate significantly lower than soils with agricultural history. In P0 soil, a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was observed in response to herbicide application. More generally, all soils displayed shifts in bacterial community structure, which nevertheless could not be clearly associated to glyphosate dissipation, suggesting the presence of redundant bacteria populations of potential degraders. Yet the application of the herbicide prompted a partial disruption of the bacterial association network of unexposed soil. On the other hand, higher values of linear (Kd) and nonlinear (Kf) sorption coefficient in P0 point to the relevance of cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and organic matter to the capacity of soil to adsorb the herbicide, suggesting that bioavailability was a key factor for the persistence of GP and AMPA. These results contribute to understand the relationship between bacterial taxa exposed to the herbicide, and the importance of soil properties as predictors of the possible rate of degradation and persistence of glyphosate in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hygienic assessment of risk caused by application of graminis ke and rinkor vg herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Vasileva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to perform hygienic assessment of risks caused by Graminis KE and Rinkor VG herbicides for people working with them. We applied sanitary-hygienic and toxicological research techniques in our work in full conformity with valid technical regulatory documents and guidelines. We set the following research tasks: to analyze literature and information sources; to perform primary toxicological assessment of preparatory herbicides and study their acute toxicity together with sensitizing effects at intragastric introduction, cutaneous application, and inhalation exposure on laboratory animals; to examine herbicides cumulative effects and calculation their cumulation coefficient; to examine working conditions during a natural experiment when Graminis KE and Rinkor VG herbicides were applied and calculate risks for workers; to work out scientifically grounded recommendations on their safety application in agriculture. The examined herbicides, Graminis KE and Rinkor VG, are classified as substances with the 3rd hazard degree as per their toxicometric parameters (moderately hazardous substances. Calculated risks of complex (inhalant and dermal exposure to Gramins KE and Rinkor VG herbicides for workers (operators who refills them and those who spray plants with them when they are applied in agriculture don't exceed acceptable levels (are less than 1. Our work results allow to enrich a set of plant protectors which are applied in the country and to use such preparations in agriculture which are the least harmful for health and the environment. Application of Graminis KE and Rinkor VG herbicides will help to increase crops productivity.

  10. Cloud based, Open Source Software Application for Mitigating Herbicide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, D.; Scott, B.

    2014-12-01

    The spread of herbicide resistant weeds has resulted in the need for clearly marked fields. In response to this need, the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service launched a program named Flag the Technology in 2011. This program uses color-coded flags as a visual alert of the herbicide trait technology within a farm field. The flag based program also serves to help avoid herbicide misapplication and prevent herbicide drift damage between fields with differing crop technologies. This program has been endorsed by Southern Weed Science Society of America and is attracting interest from across the USA, Canada, and Australia. However, flags have risk of misplacement or disappearance due to mischief or severe windstorms/thunderstorms, respectively. This presentation will discuss the design and development of a cloud-based, free application utilizing open-source technologies, called Flag the Technology Cloud (FTTCloud), for allowing agricultural stakeholders to color code their farm fields for indicating herbicide resistant technologies. The developed software utilizes modern web development practices, widely used design technologies, and basic geographic information system (GIS) based interactive interfaces for representing, color-coding, searching, and visualizing fields. This program has also been made compatible for a wider usability on different size devices- smartphones, tablets, desktops and laptops.

  11. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  12. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  13. Regulation of photosynthetic electron flow in isolated chloroplasts by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes some efforts that were made to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides in chloroplasts. In the past decade a large amount of research has been devoted to get insight into the

  14. Effect of herbicides on microbiological properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms decompose herbicides and they may serve as bioindicators of soil changes following herbicide application. Certain microbial species may be used as bioherbicides. This study has shown that Azotobacter is most sensitive to herbicide application; it is, therefore, a reliable indicator of the biological value of soil. The numbers of this group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria decrease considerably in the period of 7-14 days after herbicide application. Simultaneously, the numbers of Actinomycetes and less so of fungi increase, indicating that these microorganisms use herbicides as sources of biogenous elements. Rate of herbicidal decomposition depends on the properties of the preparation applied herbicide dose as well as on the physical and chemical soil properties, soil moisture and temperature, ground cover, agrotechnical measures applied and the resident microbial population.

  15. Application of electrokinetic soil flushing to four herbicides: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E Vieira; Souza, F; Saez, C; Cañizares, P; Lanza, M R V; Martinez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-06-01

    In this work, four bench-scale plants containing soil spiked with four herbicides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), oxyfluorfen, chlorsulfuron and atrazine) undergo treatment consisting of an electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF). Results clearly demonstrate that efficiency of EKSF depends on the chemical characteristic of the pesticide used. The amount of pesticide collected in the anode well is more significant than that collected in the cathode wells, indicating that the electromigration is much more important than drainage by electro-osmotic flux for this application. After 15 d of treatment, the 2,4-D is the pesticide most efficiently removed (95% of removal), while chlorsulfuron is the pesticide more resilient to the treatment. Additionally, volatilization was found to be a process of the major significance in the application of electrokinetic techniques to soil polluted with herbicides and because of that it should always be taken into account in the future design of full-scale processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Weed management through herbicide application in direct-seeded rice and yield modeling by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Singh, U.P.; Ray, K.; Das, A.

    2016-11-01

    In direct seeded rice (DSR) cultivation, weed is the major constraint mainly due to absence of puddling in field. The yield loss due to weed interference is huge, may be up to 100%. In this perspective, the present experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of selected herbicides, and to predict the rice yield using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The dry weight and density of weeds were recorded at different growth stages and consequently herbicidal efficacy was evaluated. Experimental results revealed that pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide effectively controlled the germination of grassy weeds. Application bispyribac-sodium as post-emergence (POST) following PRE herbicides (clomazone or pendimethalin) or as tank-mixture with clomazone effectively reduced the density and biomass accumulation of diverse weed flora in DSR. Herbicidal treatments improved the plant height, yield attributes and grain yield (2.7 to 5.5 times) over weedy check. The sensitivity of the best ANN model clearly depicts that the weed control index (WCI) of herbicides was most important than their weed control efficiency (WCE). Besides, the early control of weeds is a better prescription to improve rice yield. Differences in sensitivity values of WCI and WCE across the crop growth stages also suggest that at 15, 30 and 60 days after sowing, herbicides most effectively controlled sedges, broad leaves and grasses, respectively. Based on the grain yield and herbicidal WCE, it can be concluded that the combined application of pendimethalin or clomazone as PRE followed by bispyribac-sodium as POST or tank-mixture of clomazone + bispyribac sodium can effectively control different weed flushes throughout the crop growth period in DSR. (Author)

  17. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    Full Text Available Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  18. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  19. Leaf anatomy of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. cv. IAC-12 after herbicides application to control weeds in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-morphological changes precede the appearance of visible damage after herbicide application and are essential in providing data for the safe recommendation in chemical management of weeds. Therefore, the aim of this research was to verify the anatomical changes of leaf tissue caused by application of herbicides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. cv. IAC-12. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with post-emergence herbicides treatments as follows: nicossulfuron (60 g a.i ha-1, fluazifop (250 g a.i ha-1, fomesafem (250 g a.i ha-1, metribuzin (480 g a.i ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g a.i ha-1 and the mixture fluazifop + fomesafen (200 + 250 g a.i ha-1, and an untreated control, respectively. The results obtained have allowed to affirm the cassava plants (cultivar IAC-12, exhibited changes in leaf anatomy in response to herbicide application even on cassava leaves without no visual toxicity symptoms. The products caused alterations both in tissue thickness as in tissue proportion in the leaf blade. For the fluazifop, a eudicotyledonous selective herbicide, changes were observed in tissue thickness and proportion of leaf blade, even without any visual toxicity detected. Cassava plants (IAC-12, showed structural changes in leaf anatomy in response to application of herbicides. The leaf anatomy of cassava cv. IAC-12, can be used to indicate the herbicide effect on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.cv. IAC-12 plants.

  20. Delivery of calibration workshops covering herbicide application equipment : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Proper herbicide sprayer set-up and calibration are critical to the success of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) herbicide program. Sprayer system set-up and calibration training is provided in annual continuing education herbicide wor...

  1. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arnold Bruns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L. hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI and dry matter accumulation (DMA were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesis. Crop growth rates (CRGs and relative growth rates (RGRs were calculated. Plots were later harvested, yield and yield component data collected, and kernel samples analyzed for aflatoxin and fumonisin. Leaf area index, DMA, CRG, and RGR were not different among the herbicide treated plots and from those that were cultivated. Curves for LAI and DMA were similar to those previously reported. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were relatively low in all plots. Herbicide application or the lack thereof had no negative impact on the incidence of kernel contamination by these two mycotoxins. Herbicides, especially glyphosate on resistant hybrids, have no negative effects on corn yields or kernel quality in corn produced in a humid subtropical environment.

  2. Surface plasmon resonance application for herbicide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Vladimir I.; Shirshov, Yuri M.; Piletskaya, Elena V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    1998-01-01

    The optoelectronic biosensor, based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for detection of photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides in aqueous solutions is presented. The pesticide capability to replace plastoquinone from its complex with D1 protein is used for the detection. This replacement reaction results in the changes of the optical characteristics of protein layer, immobilized on the gold surface. Monitoring of these changes with SPR-technique permit to determine 0.1 - 5.0 mkg/ml herbicide in solution within one hour.

  3. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation & Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Meichao [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wen, Yuezhong, E-mail: wenyuezhong@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation & Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-04-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. - Highlights: • It is necessary to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis. • Phytotoxicity of bromacil is investigated in an enantiomeric level. • Bromacil disturbed enantioselectively the photosystem II of Arabidopsis thaliana. • S-bromacil caused severer damage to photosynthesis of Arabidopsis than R-bromacil. • Photosynthesis should be considered for phytotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  4. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia; Li, Meichao; Wen, Yuezhong

    2016-01-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. - Highlights: • It is necessary to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis. • Phytotoxicity of bromacil is investigated in an enantiomeric level. • Bromacil disturbed enantioselectively the photosystem II of Arabidopsis thaliana. • S-bromacil caused severer damage to photosynthesis of Arabidopsis than R-bromacil. • Photosynthesis should be considered for phytotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  5. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  6. Antioxidant activity of rice plants sprayed with herbicides

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    Marcos André Nohatto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physiological defense behavior of plants subjected to herbicide application may help to identify products with higher or lower capacity to cause oxidative stress in crops. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of herbicides in the antioxidant activity of rice plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Treatments consisted of the herbicides bentazon (photosystem II inhibitor; 960 g ha-1, penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase inhibitor; 60 g ha-1, cyhalofop-butyl (acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase inhibitor; 315 g ha-1 and a control. After the herbicides application, samples of rice shoots were collected at 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after application (HAA. The components evaluated were hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Bentazon (up to 24 HAA and penoxsulam (48 and 96 HAA reduced the CAT activity. Moreover, these herbicides increased the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and SOD activity, indicating a condition of oxidative stress in rice plants. The cyhalofop-butyl herbicide did not alter the antioxidant activity, showing that it causes less stress to the crop.

  7. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  8. Weed infestation of a winter wheat canopy under the conditions of application of different herbicide doses and foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Bezek Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin. A two-factor field experiment was set up according to a randomized block design, in three replications. The experimental field was situated on medium heavy mixed rendzina developed from chalk rock with medium dusty loam granulometric composition. The soil was characterised by neutral pH, a very high content of P (342.1 and K (278.9 along with a very low level of magnesium (16.0 mg × kg-1 of soil and organic carbon (over 3.5%. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of three herbicide doses and two foliar fertilizers applied in a winter wheat canopy on weed infestation. The herbicides Mustang 306 SE 0.4 l × ha-1 and Attribut 70 WG 60 g × ha-1 were applied at full recommended doses as well as at doses reduced to 75% and 50%. Foliar fertilizers Insol 3 (1 1 × ha-1 and FoliCare (20 kg × ha-1 were applied at full recommended doses twice in the growing season BBCH* development stage 23-25* and 33-35*. The control was not treated with the herbicides and foliar fertilizers. The weed infestation level was determined by means of the quantitative gravimetric method at two dates: the first one 6 weeks after herbicide application and the second one - before harvest. The number of weed individuals was counted; species composition and air-dry biomass of aboveground parts were estimated from randomly selected areas of 1 m × 0.25 m at four sites on each plot. Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti plants were sampled for molecular analysis 6 weeks after herbicide application (the treatments with the full herbicide dose, a 50% dose and the control without herbicides. The density of weeds and weed air-dry weight were statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. It was found that the number of weeds and air-dry weight of weeds in the

  9. Changes in bacterial community after application of three different herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jéssica Aparecida Silva; Altarugio, Lucas Miguel; Andrade, Pedro Avelino; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2017-07-06

    The native soil microbiota is very important to maintain the quality of that environment, but with the intensive use of agrochemicals, changes in microbial biomass and formation of large quantities of toxic waste were observed in soil, groundwater and surface water. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the selective pressure exerted by the presence of the herbicides atrazine, diuron and 2,4-D changes the bacterial community structure of an agricultural soil, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. According to PERMANOVA analysis, a greater effect of the herbicide persistence time in the soil, the effect of the herbicide class and the effect of interaction between these two factors (persistence time and herbicide class) were observed. In conclusion, the results showed that the selective pressure exerted by the presence of these herbicides altered the composition of the local microbiota, being atrazine and diuron that most significantly affected the bacterial community in soil, and the herbicide 2,4-D was the one that less altered the microbial community and that bacterial community was reestablished first. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  11. Biotechnology approaches to developing herbicide tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbicides has revolutionized weed control in many crop production systems. However, with the increasing development of weed resistances to many popular selective herbicides, the need has arisen to rethink the application of chemical weed control. Approaches to maintain the efficiency of chemical weed ...

  12. Effect of some adjuvants application on enhancing sulfosulfuron herbicide performance on Phalaris minor- Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays environmental pollution by pesticides application is a major concern for health. Efficiency of many herbicides can be increased by adding adjuvants to the spray solution. Therefore greenhouse study was conducted during 2014 to determine the efficacy of three adjuvants (Citogate, Castor oil and Canola oil at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 (%v/v with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g a.i\\ha of sulfosulfuron herbicide on littleseed canary grass. Results showed that the adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of sulfosulfuron in decreasing the dry weights of littleseed canary grass. Performance of herbicide was increased with enhancing its concentrations. Measured ED50 and ED90 concentrations of sulfosulfuron in control were 16.74 and 32.22 g a.i\\ha, respectively. Whereas the values for Citogate 0.2 (%v\\v, was 5.86 and 13.34 g a.i\\ha, respectively. The addition of Citogate and Castor oil had the highest and lowest effect on sulfosulfuron efficacy against Littleseed canary grass. In conclusion, the study revealed that Citogate concentrations had powerful effects on herbicide efficacy followed by Canola oil.

  13. Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gómez, P; Suárez, F; Muñoz, J F; Alister, C

    2007-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth.

  14. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  15. DNA analysis of herbarium Specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides reveals herbicide resistance pre-dated herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délye, Christophe; Deulvot, Chrystel; Chauvel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) alleles carrying one point mutation that confers resistance to herbicides have been identified in arable grass weed populations where resistance has evolved under the selective pressure of herbicides. In an effort to determine whether herbicide resistance evolves from newly arisen mutations or from standing genetic variation in weed populations, we used herbarium specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides to seek mutant ACCase alleles carrying an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution at codon 1781 that endows herbicide resistance. These specimens had been collected between 1788 and 1975, i.e., prior to the commercial release of herbicides inhibiting ACCase. Among the 734 specimens investigated, 685 yielded DNA suitable for PCR. Genotyping the ACCase locus using the derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (dCAPS) technique identified one heterozygous mutant specimen that had been collected in 1888. Occurrence of a mutant codon encoding a leucine residue at codon 1781 at the heterozygous state was confirmed in this specimen by sequencing, clearly demonstrating that resistance to herbicides can pre-date herbicides in weeds. We conclude that point mutations endowing resistance to herbicides without having associated deleterious pleiotropic effects can be present in weed populations as part of their standing genetic variation, in frequencies higher than the mutation frequency, thereby facilitating their subsequent selection by herbicide applications.

  16. Agricultural herbicide transport in a first-order intermittent stream, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Linard, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of herbicides in surface waters is a function of many variables, including scale of the watershed, physical and chemical properties of the herbicide, physical and chemical properties of the soil, rainfall intensity, and time of year. In this study, the transport of 6 herbicides and 12 herbicide degradates was examined during the 2004 growing season in an intermediate-scale agricultural watershed (146 ha) that is drained by a first-order intermittent stream, and the mass load for each herbicide in the stream was estimated. The herbicide load during the first week of storm events after application ranged from 17% of annual load for trifluralin to 84% of annual load for acetochlor. The maximum weekly herbicide load in the stream was generally within the first 3 weeks after application for those compounds that were applied within the watershed during 2004, and later for herbicides not applied within the watershed during 2004 but still detected in the stream. The apparent dominant mode of herbicide transport in the stream-determined by analysis amongst herbicide and conservative ion concentrations at different points in the hydrograph and in base flow samples-was either overland runoff or shallow subsurface flow, depending on the elapsed time after application and type of herbicide. The load as a percentage of use (LAPU) for the parent compounds in this study was similar to literature values for those compounds applied by the farmer within the watershed, but smaller for those herbicides that had rainfall as their only source within the watershed.

  17. Occurrence of dichloroacetamide herbicide safeners and co-applied herbicides in midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Emily; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2018-01-01

    Dichloroacetamide safeners (e.g., AD-67, benoxacor, dichlormid, and furilazole) are co-applied with chloroacetanilide herbicides to protect crops from herbicide toxicity. While such safeners have been used since the early 1970s, there are minimal data about safener usage, occurrence in streams, or potential ecological effects. This study focused on one of these research gaps, occurrence in streams. Seven Midwestern U.S. streams (five in Iowa and two in Illinois), with extensive row-crop agriculture, were sampled at varying frequencies from spring 2016 through summer 2017. All four safeners were detected at least once; furilazole was the most frequently detected (31%), followed by benoxacor (29%), dichlormid (15%), and AD-67 (2%). The maximum concentrations ranged from 42 to 190 ng/L. Stream detections and concentrations of safeners appear to be driven by a combination of timing of application (spring following herbicide application) and precipitation events. Detected concentrations were below known toxicity levels for aquatic organisms.

  18. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  19. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  20. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  1. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  2. Clay-to-carbon ratio controls the effect of herbicide application on soil bacterial richness and diversity in a loamy field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herath, H M Lasantha I; Møldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2017-01-01

    Soil texture and soil organic carbon (OC) influence the bacterial microenvironment and also control herbicide sorption. A field-scale exploratory study was conducted to investigate the potential interaction between soil texture parameters, herbicides, and soil bacterial richness and diversity......-based coverage (ACE), Shannon diversity index, and phylogenetic diversity. In general, bacterial richness and diversity increased after bentazon application and decreased after glyphosate application. There was no significant effect for field locations with Dexter n (the ratio between clay and OC) values below 4...

  3. Persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARNON H.C. ANÉSIO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to determine the persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on tropical pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops. The herbicides were applied in an area of dystrophic red‒yellow latosol with pasture infested of weeds. At 40, 80, and 280 days after application of herbicide, the soil samples were collected at depths of 0 to 20 cm. Soil with residues of 2,4-D, 2,4-D + picloram, triclopyr, and a soil without herbicide application were analyzed with six replicates. Seven crops were cultivated in these soils: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.], pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.], alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., lablab bean [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet], corn (Zea mays L., and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench]. The plants of cucumber, pigeon pea, and alfalfa were the most susceptible to the auxinic herbicide residues. However, the lablab bean was the only one among the dicot evaluated that showed tolerance to the 2,4-D + picloram residual when cultivated in soils at 280 days after application of herbicide. Corn and sorghum showed lower chlorophyll content in soils with 2,4-D + picloram residual up to 80 days after application of herbicide.

  4. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouz P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  5. Predicting herbicidal plant mortality with mobile photosynthesis meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Snel, J.F.H.; Smutny, V.; Zhang, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide dose optimisation, i.e. maximising weed control and crop yield with herbicide dose, is an important part of integrated weed management strategies. However, the adoption of optimised dose technology and variable rate application has been limited because of the relatively long period between

  6. Herbicidal activity of pre and post emergent herbicide on control of Eleusine indica in aerobic rice system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvarajh, G.; Zain, N.M.; Aminudin, A.; Seng, C.T.

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic rice system can be an alternate way to cultivate rice in less water conditions. However, weeds are a major constrain in aerobic rice field which decline its success. Weeds are being controlled by herbicides in aerobic rice but not all herbicides are effective in controlling various types of weeds. In this study, two pre-emergent (pretilachor and pendimethalin) and two post-emergent (cyhalofop-butyl and bispyribac-sodium) herbicides were evaluated for effective control of the bioassay species, Eleusine indica. It was found that pendimethalin at a higher application rate of 1.0 kg ai ha-1 strongly inhibit the emergence and shoot growth of E. indica by >75% with negligible effect on the rice growth with stimulation on the leaf greenness. Conversely, pretilachor, cyhalofop-butyl and bispyribac-sodium gave moderate inhibition (55-60% inhibition) on weed emergence and shoot growth at higher application rates of 0.44, 0.1 and 0.035 kg ai ha-1, respectively. Significant inhibitory effects on rice root growth were noticed at highest application rates of pretilachor, cyhalofop-butyl and bispyribac-sodium (40-50% inhibition) across the growth stage of rice seedlings. Great reduction in shoot height, shoot fresh weight, and greenness of rice plant also was evident at 0 DAS across herbicides rates. However, with increasing growth stages, the rice plant became less susceptible to the applied treatments. The finding suggested that pendimethalin at 1.0 kg ai ha-1 was the most suitable application rate for inhibiting E. indica without injuring the rice seedlings. (author)

  7. A Rapid and Simple Bioassay Method for Herbicide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qing Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been used in bioassay detection of a variety of toxic compounds such as pesticides and toxic metals, but mainly using liquid culture systems. In this study, an algal lawn--agar system for semi-quantitative bioassay of herbicidal activities has been developed. Sixteen different herbicides belonging to 11 different categories were applied to paper disks and placed on green alga lawns in Petri dishes. Presence of herbicide activities was indicated by clearing zones around the paper disks on the lawn 2-3 days after application. The different groups of herbicides induced clearing zones of variable size that depended on the amount, mode of action, and chemical properties of the herbicides applied to the paper disks. This simple, paper-disk-algal system may be used to detect the presence of herbicides in water samples and act as a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative screening for assessing herbicide contamination.

  8. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  9. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2016-01-01

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resol...

  10. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  11. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. tolerance to some post-emergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjezi Nadia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. is a medicinal plant, but its cultivation is restricted by weed competition. Therefore, three rates (0.75X, 1X, and 1.25X, where X is equal to the recommended dose of haloxyfop-R (methyl ester, sethoxydim, oxadiargyl, bentazon, oxadiazon, and oxyfluorfen were applied at the 3-4 leaf stages to valerian plants. This application was done to select the herbicide type and rate for post-controlling broadleaf and grasses weeds in this species. Herbicide injury, Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD reading, number of leaves per plant, stem diameter, and fresh and dry weights were determined 10, 20, and 30 days after herbicide application. Oxyfluorfen application caused the most herbicide injury followed by bentazon. Injury increased as the rate and the days after application increased. Oxadiazon only caused significant damage 30 days after application under all three rates. Other treatments showed no marked injuries under any rate or date after application, as compared with the control. Effects on other measured traits depended on the trait, herbicide, and herbicide rate. The highest SPAD, leaf number, shoot diameter, fresh weight and dry weight, was recorded under application of 30 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil oxadiargyl and 90 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil oxadiazon, 81 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil haloxyfop-R, 37.5 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil oxadiargyl, 22.5 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil oxadiargyl, 81 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil haloxyfop-R, and 81 mg a.i. ∙ kg-1 soil haloxyfop-R, respectively. To sum up, the results showed that sethoxydim, oxadiargyl, and haloxyfop-R produced no significant symptoms of phytotoxicity or reduction of measured traits. This means that oxadiargyl, haloxyfop-R, and sethoxydim may be used safely for weed control of valerian at the rates used in this experiment under similar conditions.

  12. Winter Annual Weed Response to Nitrogen Sources and Application Timings prior to a Burndown Corn Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autumn and early preplant N applications, sources, and placement may affect winter annual weed growth. Field research evaluated (1 the effect of different nitrogen sources in autumn and early preplant on total winter annual weed growth (2006–2010, and (2 strip-till and broadcast no-till N applied in autumn and early preplant on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. growth (2008–2010 prior to a burndown herbicide application. Total winter annual weed biomass was greater than the nontreated control when applying certain N sources in autumn or early preplant for no-till corn. Anhydrous ammonia had the lowest average weed density (95 weeds m−2, though results were inconsistent over the years. Winter annual weed biomass was lowest (43 g m−2 when applying 32% urea ammonium nitrate in autumn and was similar to applying anhydrous ammonia in autumn or early preplant and the nontreated control. Henbit biomass was 28% greater when applying N in the autumn compared to an early preplant application timing. Nitrogen placement along with associated tillage with strip-till placement was important in reducing henbit biomass. Nitrogen source selection, application timing, and placement affected the impact of N on winter annual weed growth and should be considered when recommending a burndown herbicide application timing.

  13. Effect of herbicides on photosynthetic electron transport and on the growth of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hendrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of herbicides on the Hill reaction (with 2,6-dichloro-phenol-indophenol as acceptor and their influence on development of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. The following herbicides were tested: 2,4-D, Gramoxone, Afalon, Kresamone, CIPC and Simazine. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanism of action of the investigated herbicides.

  14. Exposure opportunity models for Agent Orange, dioxin, and other military herbicides used in Vietnam, 1961-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, Steven D; Stellman, Jeanne M

    2004-07-01

    Nearly 19.5 million gallons of herbicides were sprayed on the Republic of Vietnam between 1961 and 1971 for military purposes. Amounts of spray and patterns of applications are available in an electronic file called HERBS that contains records of 9141 defoliation missions, including detailed coordinates of US Air Force Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, along with chemical agent and gallonage sprayed. Two classes of models for use in epidemiological and environmental studies that utilize the HERBS data for estimating relative exposure opportunity indices are presented: a discrete "hits" model that counts instances of proximity in time and space to known herbicide applications, and a continuous exposure opportunity index, E4, that takes into account type and amount of herbicide sprayed, distance from spray application, and time interval when exposure may have occurred. Both direct spraying and indirect exposure to herbicide (or dioxin) that may have remained in the local environment are considered, using a conservative first-order model for environmental disappearance. A correction factor for dermal versus respiratory routes of entry has been incorporated. E4 has a log-normal distribution that spans six orders of magnitude, thus providing a substantial amount of discrimination between sprayed and unsprayed areas. The models improve on earlier ones by making full use of the geometry of the HERBS spray flight paths of Ranch Hand aircraft. To the extent possible so many decades after the War, the models have been qualitatively validated by comparison with recent dioxin soil and biota samples from heavily contaminated areas of Vietnam, and quantitatively validated against adipose dioxin obtained in epidemiological studies of Vietnamese. These models are incorporated within a geographic information system (GIS) that may be used, as one would expect, to identify locations such as hamlets, villages, and military installations sprayed by herbicide. In a novel application

  15. Evaluation the Effect of Corn (Zea mays L. Sowing Pattern and Nitrogen Application Method on Herbicide Optimizing and Reducing Foramsulfuron (Equip® Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Izadi Darbandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the whole agro ecosystems, weeds had existence as unwanted plant that control of them is necessary. The competition between weeds and corn for moisture, light, nutrients during the growth season is induced reducing the quality and quantity of corn yield. Although the corn is high and powerful crop but is sensitive to competition with the weed and reduction of yield has been reported over 30%. Since the weeds are adapted to conditions, they are successful to completion and reducing the yield. So weed management is important in corn production. Chemical control has not been the unique and best way to manage the weeds and it reduce the sustainability of agro ecosystems. Although developing the herbicides, reduce the pressures caused by the weeds, but by developing rapidly the weed resistance to herbicides and increasing the environmental concerns and its high cost, today need to new, more immune and sustainable techniques for weed management. The main approach for sustainable weed management in an integrated weed management program is increasing crop competitiveness with weeds to reduce herbicide use. In this regard, the planting date, crop rotation, planting density, intercropping, planting pattern, fertilizer type, rate and application method are some of the most crop management strategies. Among the nutrients necessary for plants, nitrogen is the most nutrient in plant competition. Therefore, its application management plays a key role in reducing weed interference with crops and reduced herbicide use. Foramsulfuron herbicide from ALS inhibitors is a post-emergence sulfonylurea herbicide for the control of grasses and certain broadleaf weeds in maize. Unfortunately, these herbicides are also notorious for their ability to select resistant weed populations. Now, there are more weed species that are resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides than to any other herbicide group. In several cropping systems, ALS-inhibiting herbicides were

  16. Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Jensen, Kjeld; Christiansen, Martin Peter; Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2016-11-04

    The stricter legislation within the European Union for the regulation of herbicides that are prone to leaching causes a greater economic burden on the agricultural industry through taxation. Owing to the increased economic burden, research in reducing herbicide usage has been prompted. High-resolution images from digital cameras support the studying of plant characteristics. These images can also be utilized to analyze shape and texture characteristics for weed identification. Instead of detecting weed patches, weed density can be estimated at a sub-patch level, through which even the identification of a single plant is possible. The aim of this study is to adapt the monocot and dicot coverage ratio vision (MoDiCoVi) algorithm to estimate dicotyledon leaf cover, perform grid spraying in real time, and present initial results in terms of potential herbicide savings in maize. The authors designed and executed an automated, large-scale field trial supported by the Armadillo autonomous tool carrier robot. The field trial consisted of 299 maize plots. Half of the plots (parcels) were planned with additional seeded weeds; the other half were planned with naturally occurring weeds. The in-situ evaluation showed that, compared to conventional broadcast spraying, the proposed method can reduce herbicide usage by 65% without measurable loss in biological effect.

  17. Lawn Weed Control with Herbicides. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Information and diagrams are given for identification and treatment of weed grasses and broadleaf weeds. Herbicides are suggested for use against each weed and instructions are given for proper application. Information is given for buying herbicides, and applying sprays and cleaning sprayers. (BB)

  18. Leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide associated with paraquat or glyphosate in a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luis Nunes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of desiccant and residual herbicides is a common management practice under no-tillage systems. However, the effect of desiccant herbicides and mulch on the leaching of residual herbicide is unknown. This study aimed at assessing the leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide applied to ryegrass sequentially or in association with paraquat or glyphosate. A randomized blocks design was used, with four repetitions and treatments distributed over split-plots. The desiccant herbicides paraquat (600 g ha-1 or glyphosate (720 g ha-1 were used in the main plot, while S-metolachlor (2,800 g ha-1 was applied sequentially or in association with the desiccant herbicides in the subplots. There was also a control containing only desiccant herbicide, with no application of residual herbicide. The type of desiccant did not affect the leaching of the residual herbicide. In addition, the chosen method to apply the residual herbicide, sequentially or in association with the desiccant, did not impact the S-metolachlor behavior in the soil. The bioavailable concentration in the soil, 25 days after the application, was 90 g a.i. ha-1, at a depth of 18 cm.

  19. Application of MCPA herbicide on soils amended with biostimulants: short-time effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; García-Martínez, Ana M; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we studied in the laboratory the effect of MCPA herbicide at a rate of 1.5lha(-1) (manufactures rate recommended) on biological properties of a Plagic Antrosol amended with four biostimulants (WCDS, wheat condensed distillers soluble; PA-HE, hydrolyzed poultry feathers; CGHE, carob germ enzymatic extract; and RB, rice bran extract). Seven hundred grams of soil were mixed with WCDS at a rate of 10%, CGHE at a rate of 4.7%, PA-HE at a rate of 4.3%, and RB at a rate of 4.4%, respectively, in order to applying the same amount of organic matter to the soil (16.38 g organic matter). An unamended polluted and amended non-polluted soil were used as control. For all treatments, the soil ergosterol, dehydrogenase, urease, and phosphatase activities were measured at two incubation times (0 and 60 d). The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles in all treatments were determined at the beginning and end of the incubation period. The results indicated that at the end of the incubation period and compared with the control soil, the dehydrogenase, urease and phosphatase activities and ergosterol decreased 39.3%, 20%, 15.7% and 56.5%, respectively in the non-organic amended polluted soil. The application of organic matter to unpolluted soil increased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB, followed by PA-HE, WCDS and CGHE. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol content. However, this decrease was lower than for the non-amended herbicide polluted soil. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the adsorption capacity of humic substances are responsible for less inhibition of these enzyme activities and soil ergosterol. The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles indicated that herbicide did not negatively affect soil bacterial biodiversity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D; Collier, Catherine J; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-11-30

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/F(m)') by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l(-1) (ametryn) to 132 μg l(-1) (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/F(m)'.

  1. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  2. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  3. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  4. Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Gesine; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Rastelli, Valentina; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Restrepo-Vassalli, Sara; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja; Saucy, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest; Mertens, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns. (ii) The adoption of herbicide-resistant crops has reduced crop rotation and favoured weed management that is solely based on the use of herbicides. (iii) Continuous herbicide resistance cropping and the intensive use of glyphosate over the last 20 years have led to the appearance of at least 34 glyphosate-resistant weed species worldwide. Although recommended for many years, farmers did not counter resistance development in weeds by integrated weed management, but continued to rely on herbicides as sole measure. Despite occurrence of widespread resistance in weeds to other herbicides, industry rather develops transgenic crops with additional herbicide resistance genes. (iv) Agricultural management based on broad-spectrum herbicides as in herbicide-resistant crops further decreases diversity and abundance of wild plants and impacts arthropod fauna and other farmland animals. Taken together, adverse impacts of herbicide-resistant crops on biodiversity, when widely adopted, should be expected and are indeed very hard

  5. Synthesis and characterization of LDH/Ppi composite and its application as adsorbent of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (herbicide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.S.; Oliveira, R.S.; Girotto, L.G.; Freitas, L.L. de; Amaral, F.A. do; Canobre, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    This work had as main objective the synthesis and characterization of LDH [Co-Al-Cl] method by hydrolysis of urea and then its synthesized polypyrrole coating by chemically targeting the application as adsorbent dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The x-ray diffractogram of well defined showed diffraction peaks corresponding to the planes 003, 006, 009 and 110 which allow them to rhombohedral indexes and lamellar structure. The composite LDH / Ppi had a percentage of 49% herbicide retention in aqueous solution. From the investigated adsorption isotherm models that more fit the experimental data was the Freundlich, so it could be inferred that the interaction between the LDH / Ppi and the herbicide was physical, ie an rapid, reversible adsorption and does not specify. (author)

  6. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  7. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duhoux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their

  8. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; Délye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR) in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass) to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS) pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their associated ALS

  9. Selectivity of herbicides in crambe crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of crambe can be associated with many factors, among these, the competition with weeds, which reduces the yield, harvest affects and contributes to the increase in seed moisture. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of crambe plants cv. FMS Brilhante to herbicides applied in preplant incorporated (PPI, preemergence (PRE, and postemergence (POST. The study was installed in a green-house and the treatments consisted of the herbicide application in: pre-plant incorporated ofdiclosulam, flumetsulam, metribuzin, and trifluralin;preemergence applicationof atrazine, diclosulam, diuron, flumetsulam, metribuzim, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and trifluralin; and postemergence application ofbentazon, carfentrazone-ethyl, clefoxydim, cletodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, flumioxazin, halosulfuron, imazamox, imazapic, lactofen, nicosulfuron, oxadiazon, quinclorac, and setoxydim. Visual evaluations of phytotoxicity on crambe plants were realized after applications, the seedlings were counted and the height and plant dry matter were determined in the end of the evaluation period. In conditions where the studies were conducted, we can conclude that only the trifluralin application in PRE and the application of clefoxidim+fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, quinclorac, setoxydim and clefoxydim in POST showed selectivity and potential use for FMS Brilhante crambe cultivar.

  10. Delayed degradation in soil of foliar herbicides glyphosate and sulcotrione previously absorbed by plants: Consequences on herbicide fate and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Jeremy; Mamy, Laure; Barriuso Benito, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Following application, pesticides can be intercepted and absorbed by weeds and/or crops. Plants containing pesticides residues may then reach the soil during the crop cycle or after harvest. However, the fate in soil of pesticides residues in plants is unknown. Two commonly used foliar herbicides, glyphosate and sulcotrione, 14C-labeled, were applied on leaves of oilseed rape and/or maize, translocation was studied, and then soil incubations of aerial parts of plants containing herbicides res...

  11. Determination of acetanilide herbicides in cereal crops using accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Jun; Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qingde; Yao, Li; Li, Panpan

    2011-07-01

    A method was developed to determine eight acetanilide herbicides from cereal crops based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. During the ASE process, the effect of four parameters (temperature, static time, static cycles and solvent) on the extraction efficiency was considered and compared with shake-flask extraction method. After extraction with ASE, four SPE tubes (graphitic carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA), GCB, Florisil and alumina-N) were assayed for comparison to obtain the best clean-up efficiency. The results show that GCB/PSA cartridge gave the best recoveries and cleanest chromatograms. The analytical process was validated by the analysis of spiked blank samples. Performance characteristics such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision and recovery were studied. At 0.05 mg/kg spiked level, recoveries and precision values for rice, wheat and maize were 82.3-115.8 and 1.1-13.6%, respectively. For all the herbicides, LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 μg/kg and from 2.4 to 5.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed analytical methodology was applied for the analysis of the targets in samples; only three herbicides, propyzamid, metolachlor and diflufenican, were detected in two samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Effect of Herbicides on Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of herbicides on the hydrogen peroxide generation in vacuolar extracts of red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. was investigated. Belonging to different chemical classes of herbicide compounds have been used. Herbicides differ from each other in the mechanism of effects on plants. Clopyralid (aromatic acid herbicide, derivative of picolinic acid and 2.4-D (phenoxyacetic herbicide, characterized by hormone-like effects, contributed to the formation of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Fluorodifen (nitrophenyl ether herbicide and diuron (urea herbicide also have increased contents H2O2. These compounds inhibit the electron transport, photosynthesis, and photorespiration in sensitive plants. Herbicidal effect of glyphosate (organophosphorus herbicide is due to the inhibition of amino acid synthesis in plant cells. Glyphosate did not affect the content of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Herbicide dependent H2O2-generation did not occur with oxidoreductase inhibitors, potassium cyanide and sodium azide. The results suggest that the formation of ROS in the vacuoles due to activity of oxidoreductases, which could interact with herbicides.

  13. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a study of the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides (with both contact and residual activity) for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). Severe competition from weeds that have not been controlled adequately by pre-emergence herbicide application is one of the commonest causes of SRC crop failure. In the study, the effects of 11 herbicide treatments currently recommendation for weed control with cereals, legumes or potatoes were compared with an untreated control. There was minimal crop death from any treatment, though most of the treatments caused varying degrees of phytotoxicity. Two commercial products, Reflex T and Impuls, gave the best overall crop safety and weed control results. The report provides growers of SRC and their advisors with some information on how to achieve improved weed control in SRC fields, and recommends that British Biogen (the trade industry body) should consider the compilation of a technical register of herbicide applications based on information supplied by growers and advisers, including field treatment details.

  14. Natural compounds as next-generation herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides with new modes of action (MOAs) are badly needed due to the rapidly evolving resistance to commercial herbicides, but a new MOA has not been introduced in over 20 years. The greatest pest management challenge for organic agriculture is the lack of effective natural product herbicides. The structural diversity and evolved biological activity of natural phytotoxins offer opportunities for the development of both directly used natural compounds and synthetic herbicides with new target sites based on the structures of natural phytotoxins. Natural phytotoxins are also a source for the discovery of new herbicide target sites that can serve as the focus of traditional herbicide discovery efforts. There are many examples of strong natural phytotoxins with MOAs other than those used by commercial herbicides, which indicates that there are molecular targets of herbicides that can be added to the current repertoire of commercial herbicide MOAs. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  16. Histopathological study on the effect of rice herbicides on grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodan idella) fingerlings were exposed to rice herbicides butachlor 1.5 kg ha-1, oxyfluorfen 0.25 kg ha-1 and thiobencarb 1.5 kg ha-1, 12 days after their application in the respective fields. To observe the impact of herbicides on the histopathology of the fish, the fingerlings were collected from the ...

  17. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  18. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  19. Multi-residues analysis of pre-emergence herbicides in fluvial sediments: application to the mid-Garonne River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devault, Damien A; Merlina, Georges; Lim, Puy; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pinelli, Eric

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of man and ecosystems by pesticides has become a major environmental concern. Whereas many studies exist on contamination from agriculture, the effects of urban sources are usually omitted. Fluvial sediment is a complex matrix of pollutants but little is known of its recent herbicide content. This study proposes a method for a fast and reliable analysis of herbicides by employing the accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). The aim of the study is to show the impact of a major town (Toulouse) on the herbicide content in the river. In this study, three herbicide families (i.e.s-triazine, substituted ureas and anilides) were analysed in fluvial sediment fractions at 11 sampling sites along the mid-Garonne River and its tributaries. River water contamination by herbicides is minor, except for at three sites located in urban areas. Among the herbicidal families studied, urban and suburban areas are distinguished from rural areas and were found to be the most contaminated sites during the study period, a winter low-water event. The herbicide content of the coarse sediment fractions is about one third of that found in the fine fractions and usually ignored. The distribution of pesticide concentrations across the whole range of particle sizes was investigated to clarify the role of plant remains on the significant accumulation in the coarse fractions.

  20. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Emmanuel Dayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl-(2E,4E-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid. However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 µM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 µM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 µM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to

  1. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the application of pre-emergent herbicides on the soil fauna of conventional sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of pre-emergent herbicides on the edaphic fauna community found in soils of conventional sugarcane plantations. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a 6x3 factorial, with six control treatments of weed plants (T1: fallow; T2: manual weeding; T3:Tebuthiuron to 1,200gia.ha-1; T4: Ametryn to 3,000gia.ha-1; T5: Tebuthiuron to 1,000gia.ha-1 + Ametryn to 1,500gia.ha-1, T6: Tebuthiuron to 1,200gia.ha-1 + Ametryn to 3,000gia.ha-1 and three evaluation times (0, 40, and 80 days after herbicide application: DAHA. The abundance, the groups of the organisms, Margalef’s richness index, Pielou´s uniformity index, Simpson’s dominance, Shannon’s diversity index, number of Collembola and above-ground dry mass were evaluated. There were no differences in the treatments for Margalef’s richness index, Pielou´s uniformity index, Simpson’s dominance and Shannon’s index. The abundance of organisms was higher at 80 DAHA in the manual weeding treatment. Tebuthiuron did not affect Collembola populations when used alone or in combination with ametryn. The treatment with the herbicide Ametryn to 3,000gia.ha-1 reduced Collembola populations in relation to the fallow treatment and manual weeding.

  3. Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Pei; Weber, Jonas Felix; Gerhards, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress.

  4. Applications of laser printing for organic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Ainsebaa, A.; Alloncle, A.-P.; Benetti, M.; Boutopoulos, C.; Cannata, D.; Di Pietrantonio, F.; Dinca, V.; Dinescu, M.; Dutroncy, J.; Eason, R.; Feinaugle, M.; Fernández-Pradas, J.-M.; Grisel, A.; Kaur, K.; Lehmann, U.; Lippert, T.; Loussert, C.; Makrygianni, M.; Manfredonia, I.; Mattle, T.; Morenza, J.-L.; Nagel, M.; Nüesch, F.; Palla-Papavlu, A.; Rapp, L.; Rizvi, N.; Rodio, G.; Sanaur, S.; Serra, P.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Sones, C. L.; Verona, E.; Zergioti, I.

    2013-03-01

    The development of organic electronic requires a non contact digital printing process. The European funded e-LIFT project investigated the possibility of using the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique to address this field of applications. This process has been optimized for the deposition of functional organic and inorganic materials in liquid and solid phase, and a set of polymer dynamic release layer (DRL) has been developed to allow a safe transfer of a large range of thin films. Then, some specific applications related to the development of heterogeneous integration in organic electronics have been addressed. We demonstrated the ability of LIFT process to print thin film of organic semiconductor and to realize Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) with mobilities as high as 4 10-2 cm2.V-1.s-1 and Ion/Ioff ratio of 2.8 105. Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (PLED) have been laser printed by transferring in a single step process a stack of thin films, leading to the fabrication of red, blue green PLEDs with luminance ranging from 145 cd.m-2 to 540 cd.m-2. Then, chemical sensors and biosensors have been fabricated by printing polymers and proteins on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices. The ability of LIFT to transfer several sensing elements on a same device with high resolution allows improving the selectivity of these sensors and biosensors. Gas sensors based on the deposition of semiconducting oxide (SnO2) and biosensors for the detection of herbicides relying on the printing of proteins have also been realized and their performances overcome those of commercial devices. At last, we successfully laser-printed thermoelectric materials and realized microgenerators for energy harvesting applications.

  5. Crops with target-site herbicide resistance for Orobanche and Striga control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    It is necessary to control root parasitic weeds before or as they attach to the crop. This can only be easily achieved chemically with herbicides that are systemic, or with herbicides that are active in soil. Long-term control can only be attained if the crops do not metabolise the herbicide, i.e. have target-site resistance. Such target-site resistances have allowed foliar applications of herbicides inhibiting enol-pyruvylshikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS) (glyphosate), acetolactate synthase (ALS) (e.g. chlorsulfuron, imazapyr) and dihydropteroate synthase (asulam) for Orobanche control in experimental conditions with various crops. Large-scale use of imazapyr as a seed dressing of imidazolinone-resistant maize has been commercialised for Striga control. Crops with two target-site resistances will be more resilient to the evolution of resistance in the parasite, if well managed.

  6. Determination of Two Sulfonylurea Herbicides Residues in Soil Environment Using HPLC and Phytotoxicity of These Herbicides by Lentil Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Alebrahim, Mohammad Taghi; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    A HPLC-UV detection system was used for determination of sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl residues from soils. The soils were fortified with sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl at rates of 26 and 15 g a.i. ha -1 respectively and samples were taken randomly on 0 (2 h), 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 days after treatment. The final extracts were prepared for analysis by HPLC. The results showed that degradation of both herbicides in the silty loam soil was faster than sandy loam soil. Half-life of sulfosulfuron was ranged from 5.37 to 10.82 days however this value for tribenuron methyl was ranged from 3.23 to 5.72 days on different soils. The residue of both herbicides at 120 days after application in wheat field had no toxicitic effect on lentil. It was concluded that HPLC analysis procedure was an appropriate method for determination of these herbicides from soils.

  7. Laboratory study on leachability of five herbicides in South Australian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    2000-03-01

    Norflurazon, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, trifluralin and simazine are herbicides widely used in the vineyards of the Barossa Valley, South Australia. The leaching behaviour of norflurazon, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and trifluralin was investigated on four key soils in the Barossa Valley. Leaching potential on packed soil columns and actual mobility using intact soil columns were investigated. On the packed soil columns, norflurazon was the most leachable herbicide. More of the herbicides were detected in the leachates from the sandy soils (Mountadam and Nuriootpa) than from the clayey soils (Lyndoch and Tanunda). Organic matter is generally low in soils in the Barossa region. Porosity and saturated conductivity significantly affect herbicide movement and in the sandy Mountadam and Nuriootpa soils, the water flux is greater than for the higher clay content Lyndoch and Tanunda soils. Increasing the time interval between herbicide application and the incidence of "rainfall" reduced the amounts of herbicides found in the leachates. The use of intact soil columns and including simazine for comparison showed that both norflurazon and simazine were present in the leachates. Simazine was the first herbicide to appear in leachates. Sectioning of the intact soil columns after leaching clearly demonstrated that norflurazon and simazine reached the bottom of the soil columns for all soils studied. Greater amounts of norflurazon were retained in the soil columns compared with simazine. The other herbicides were mostly retained in the initial sections of the soil columns.

  8. Effect of Rimsulfuron, Imazapic and Imazamox Herbicides on Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kazerooni Monfared

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments, in Petri dish and greenhouse, were carried out to investigate the efficiency of three herbicides (rimsulfuron, imazapic and imazamox in controling broomrape. In Petri dish study, herbicides were applied at 0.05, 0.25, 1.25, 6.25 and 31.25 micro-mole doses to broomrape seeds at germination stage without a host plant and adding GR24 as stimulator. In the greenhouse experiments, the efficiency of these herbicides to control broomrape in two varieties of tomato (Viva and Hyb.Petopride II was investigated. Treatments were four doses of rimsulfuron (25, 50, 75 and 100 g ai/ha, imazapic (5, 10, 15 and 20 g ai/ha and imazamox (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g ai/ha at one, two and three applications. Results of Petri-dish experiments showed that rimsulfuron and imazapic significantly reduced radicle elongation of seedlings as compared to the control, while, imazamox did not have any effect on broomrape seed. Each dose was applied for one, two and three times with in 15, 29 and 43 days after within transplanting tomato seedlings. Results of pot experiments indicated that the responses of two tomato varieties herbicides were different. Viva was responsive to herbicidal effect and produced higher biomass than Hyb.Petopride II. Rimsulfuron was a suitable herbicide in tomato to control broomrape. Rimsulfuron at doses of 25, 50 and 75 g ai/ha (three times of application were the best doses, specially in viva were the best treatments for broomrape control and producing tomato biomass. Imazapic also, at 5 g ai/ha (two times of application and 10 g ai/ha (single application was an effective treatments in variety of viva. Imazamox treatments did not appear to be suitable herbicides in this study.

  9. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 - 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim - 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soilapplied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar

  10. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on the mobilization of arsenic derived from herbicide application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzmaurice, Arthur G.; Bilgin, A. Azra; O'Day, Peggy A.; Illera, Virginia; Burris, David R.; Reisinger, H. James; Hering, Janet G.

    2009-01-01

    The fate and transport of As was examined at an industrial site where soil- and groundwater contamination are derived from the application of As 2 O 3 as a herbicide. Application of arsenical herbicides was discontinued in the 1970s and soils in the source area were partially excavated in 2003. Arsenic contamination (up to 280 mg/kg) remains in the source area soils and a plume of As-contaminated groundwater persists in the surficial aquifer downgradient of the source area with maximum observed As concentrations of 1200 μg/L near the source area. The spatial extent of As contamination as defined by the 10 μg/L contour appears to have remained relatively stable over the period 1996-2006; the boundary of the 1000 μg/L contour has retreated over the same time period indicating a decrease in total As mass in the surficial groundwater. In column experiments conducted with source area soil, the As concentrations in the column effluent were comparable to those observed in groundwater near the source area. A substantial fraction of the As could be leached from the source area soil with ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Exhaustive extraction with background groundwater removed most of the total As. These results indicate that As in the source area soils is geochemically labile. Source area soils are low in extractable Fe, Mn and Al, and characterization by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy indicated that As is present primarily as arsenate sorbed to (alumino)silicate minerals. Batch sorption experiments showed much less sorption on surficial aquifer sediments than on sediments from the Jackson Bluff Formation (JBF), a presumed confining layer. This limited capacity of the surficial aquifer sediments for As sorption is consistent with the similar As contents observed for these sediments within and upgradient of the As plume. The apparent stability of the As plume cannot be explained by sequestration of As within the surficial aquifer. Sorption

  11. Integration of Agronomic Practices with Herbicides for Sustainable Weed Management in Aerobic Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Uddin, M. K.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point. PMID:24223513

  12. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamy, Laure; Gabrielle, Benoit; Barriuso, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  13. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  14. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project evaluating the safety and efficiency of eleven herbicides for controlling weeds in newly plated willow short rotation coppices, and provides growers with information on post-emergence herbicide options, control of problem weeds, and emergency treatments. Weed germination, crop safety, and the encouraging results obtained using Reflex T and Impuls are discussed. It is suggested that a Technical Register of herbicide applications with contributions by growers and advisers should be considered by the British Biogen trade industry body.

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  16. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycerine associated molecules with herbicide for controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciganinha”, belongs to the family Bignoniaceae. The only way to control this plant species in crop fields is by the application of herbicides on the stump or directly on the stem. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of glycerine in controlling A.

  18. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  19. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  20. Effect of herbicide and soil amendment on growth and photosynthetic responses in olive crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea] and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the combined effect of these herbicides and the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from the olive oil production industry on the growth and photosynthetic apparatus of adult olive trees and to compare the results with those obtained by Redondo-Gómez et al. for two-year-old trees. For this purpose, growth rate, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in 38-year-old olive trees, after one and two months of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment. Soil co-application of OW and herbicide increases the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) and the assimilation of CO(2) in olive trees, which led to a higher relative growth rate of the branches and leaves in length. Herbicide treatment reduced the photosynthetic efficiency in olive trees after two months of soil application, while this reduction is evident from week one in younger trees.

  1. The generation of singlet oxygen (o(2)) by the nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen is independent of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, P; Hess, F D

    1988-03-01

    The mechanism of action of the p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides has remained ambiguous because of conflicting reports in the literature. The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen causes a light induced consumption of oxygen which resembles the electron acceptor reaction of paraquat. However, this reaction is not linked to the transport of electrons through photosystem I. This conclusion is based on the observation that the rate of oxygen consumption, in the presence of oxyfluorfen, does not demonstrate a first order rate dependence on light intensity. Using the bleaching of N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline as a specific detector of singlet oxygen, we demonstrate that oxyfluorfen is a potent generator of this toxic radical. The production of singlet oxygen occurs in the presence of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport (oxyfluorfen at 10(-4) molar and paraquat) and also under temperature conditions (3 degrees C) which prevent electron transport. This light induced reaction results in oxygen consumption and is the primary cause of lethality for oxyfluorfen. The production of singlet oxygen occurs rapidly and at low herbicide concentrations (10(-9) molar). The reaction occurs without photosynthetic electron transport but does require an intact thylakoid membrane.

  2. Chemically functionalized ZnS quantum dots as new optical nanosensor of herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteri-Farahani, M.; Mahdavi, S.; Khanmohammadi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Surface chemical functionalization of ZnS quantum dots (ZnS-QDs) with cysteamine hydrochloride resulted in the preparation of an optical nanosensor for detection of herbicides. Characterization of the functionalized ZnS-QDs was performed with physicochemical methods such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The optical band gap of the functionalized ZnS-QDs was determined by using Tauc plot as 4.1 eV. Addition of various herbicides resulted in the linearly fluorescence quenching of the functionalized ZnS-QDs according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The functionalized ZnS-QDs can be used as simple, rapid, and inexpensive nanosensor for practical detection and measurement of various herbicides.

  3. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    to a recharge area and (or) the stronger the hydraulic connection between an aquifer and a recharge area, the younger the ground water and the more vulnerable the aquifer will be to contamination by herbicide compounds. The weak relation between current (2001) statewide application rates of herbicides and current (2001-02) occurrence of herbicide compounds in source-water aquifers indicates that additional factors must be considered when relating herbicide-application rates to occurrence. These factors include historical application rates and the mobility and persistence of the various herbicide compounds in ground-water systems. Frequency of detection and concentrations of herbicides compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers are indicated to be highest during the spring, when crops are planted and herbicides primarily are applied. Excess nitrate (concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, higher than 3 milligrams per liter) in ground water strongly indicates the co-occurrence of herbicide compounds. However, nitrate concentrations are not a reliable indicator of herbicide-compound concentrations. The inverse relation found between current use of land for corn and soybean production and current occurrence of herbicide compounds in underlying aquifers indicates that various factors, along with current agricultural land use, contribute to herbicide occurrence. These factors include, among others, land-use history, ground-water age, ground-water-flow patterns, geology, soil microbiology, and chemistry and persistence of the herbicide compounds. Detection of agriculture-specific herbicide compounds in 71 percent of samples from urban areas with no current or recent agricultural land use near the sampled wells indicates that recharge to certain high-capacity supply wells may originate at considerable distances (up to about 10 miles) from the wells. Essentially no difference was found between the analytical results for herbicides in paired unfiltered and filtered samples,

  4. Performance of Different Herbicides in Dry-Seeded Rice in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the boro season of 2011-12 and aman season of 2012 at Jessore, Bangladesh, to evaluate the performance of sequential applications of preemergence herbicides (oxadiargyl 80 g ai ha−1, pendimethalin 850 g ai ha−1, acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl 240 g ai ha−1, and pyrazosulfuron 15 g ai ha−1) followed by a postemergence herbicide (ethoxysulfuron 18 g ai ha−1) in dry-seeded rice. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. Among herbicides, pendimethalin, oxadiargyl, and acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl performed very well against grasses; pyrazosulfuron, on the other hand, was not effective. The best herbicide for broadleaf weed control was oxadiargyl (65–85% control); pendimethalin and acetachlor + bensulfuraonmethyl were not effective for this purpose. The best combination for weed control was oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron in the boro season and oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding in the aman season. Compared with the partial weedy plots (hand weeded once), oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron (4.13 t ha−1) provided a 62% higher yield in the boro season while oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding (4.08 t ha−1) provided a 37% higher yield in the aman season. PMID:24688423

  5. Photosensitized herbicidal action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, A; Nachtigall, G W [American Cyanamid Co., Stamford, Conn.

    1975-12-01

    The herbicidal action produced by the colorless hydrocarbon fluoranthene sprayed on the leaves of growing plants did not occur when uv radiation was removed from the light to which the plants are exposed. If the uv component of the light under which the plants were grown was augmented, the herbicidal effect of fluoranthene was increased. The mechanism of this photodynamic action is discussed.

  6. Selectivity and stability of vegetation-applied herbicides in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An experiment was carried out during 2013 – 2015 in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan, with two cotton cultivars − Helius and Darmi (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Herbicides: Goal 2 E, oxyfluorfen (80 ml/da; Linuron 45 SC, linuron (200 ml/da; Wing-P, pendimethalin + dimethenamid (400 ml/da; Merlin 750 WG, isoxaflutol (5 g/da; Bazagran 480 SL, bentazone (150 ml/da were investigated. They were treated separately or combined with growth regulator Amalgerol (500 ml/da or foliar fertilizer Lactofol O (500 ml/da in the budding stage of the cotton. It was established that selectivity is the lowest in the two cotton cultivars with herbicides Linuron 45 CK and Merlin 750 WG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides and their tank mixtures on the cotton by influence of different meteorological conditions. It has been found that the highest phytotoxicity on cotton is given the vegetation-applied herbicides Merlin and Linuron. Foliar fertilizer Laktofol O reduces phytotoxicity of herbicides Goal, Wing, Merlin and Bazagran in two cotton cultivars. Herbicides Wing and Bazagran have excellent selectivity for the two cotton cultivars – Helius and Darmi. The highest yield was obtained by vegetation treatment with herbicide Bazagran, followed by herbicides Wing and Goal. Tank mixtures of Goal, Bazagran and Wing with Laktofol, followed by those with Amalgerol are technologically the most valuable. They combine high yield with high stability over the years. Аlone application of herbicides Linuron and Merlin and their tank mixtures with Amalgerol and Laktofol have low estimate.

  7. Toxicological Effects of a Post Emergent Herbicide on Spirodela polyrhiza as a Model Macrophyte: A Comparison of the Effects of Pure and Nano-capsulated Form of the Herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Torbati *; Mehdi Mahmoudian; Neda Alimirzaei

    2018-01-01

    Background: One of the main reasons of environmental contaminations is the broad application of herbicides. Controlled release technologies such as encapsulation of herbicides are as an effective tool to reduce environmental contaminations. The aim of the present study was successful nanocapsulation of Gallant Super (GS), its characterization and compare the physiological responses of Spirodela polyrhiza L. upon exposure to GS and its encapsulated form. Methods: Nanocapsulation of GS in th...

  8. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  9. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...... after spraying at BBCH 25 and 42 days after sowing, nine sensor systems scanned a spring barley and an oilseed rape field experiment sown at different densities and sprayed with increasing field rates of glyphosate and tribenuron-methyl. The objective was to compare ED50s for crops and weeds derived...... by the different sensors in relation to crop density and herbicides. Although sensors were not directly developed to detect herbicide symptoms, they all detected changes in canopy colours or height and crop density. Generally ED50s showed the same pattern in response to crop density within herbicide...

  10. Runoff of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium from oil palm plantation soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, M A; Ismail, B S; Khairiatul-Mardiana, J

    2017-10-11

    This study focused on the residue detection of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium in the runoff losses from the Tasik Chini oil palm plantation area and the Tasik Chini Lake under natural rainfall conditions in the Malaysian tropical environment. Triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium are post-emergence herbicides. Both herbicides were foliar-sprayed on 0.5 ha of oil palm plantation plots, which were individualized by an uneven slope of 10-15%. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. The concentrations of both herbicides quickly diminished from those in the analyzed sample by the time of collection. The highest residue levels found in the field surface leachate were 0.031 (single dosage, triclopyr), 0.041 (single dosage, glufosinate ammonium), 0.017 (double dosage, triclopyr), and 0.037 μg/kg (double dosage, glufosinate ammonium). The chromatographic peaks were observed at "0" day treatment (2 h after herbicide application). From the applied active ingredients, the triclopyr and glufosinate losses were 0.025 and 0.055%, respectively. The experimental results showed that both herbicides are less potent than other herbicides in polluting water systems because of their short persistence and strong adsorption onto soil clay particles.

  11. Stress-physiological reactions of the green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis to water pollution with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gyula KERESZTES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis proves to be a suitable bioindicator of water pollution with different herbicides. One of the best molecular markers of stress condition imposed by herbicides is overproduction of malondialdehyde resulting from lipid peroxidation in the damaged membranes. Methylviologen, a largely used pre-emergence herbicide which generates reactive oxygen species in the illuminated chloroplasts, triggers the accumulation of ascorbic acid and enhances the enzymatic activity of catalase, both of these substances being involved in the antioxidative protection of algal cells. Diuron, a herbicide that inhibits photosynthetic electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II, causes a decline in oxygen production and in biomass accumulation of algae. Glufosinate induces accumulation of toxic ammonia and leads to enhanced net oxygen production, associated with a low rate of carbon assimilation. Long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of herbicides results in significant changes in the rate of cell division, in hotosynthetic parameters and in the intensity of antioxidative defense. A proper bioindication of toxic effects of herbicides on algae requires a selected combination of different physiological and biochemical parameters which reflect the degree of stress exerted on living organisms by water pollution with xenobiotic organic compounds.

  12. The Generation of Singlet Oxygen (1O2) by the Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen Is Independent of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Phil; Hess, F. Dan

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides has remained ambiguous because of conflicting reports in the literature. The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen causes a light induced consumption of oxygen which resembles the electron acceptor reaction of paraquat. However, this reaction is not linked to the transport of electrons through photosystem I. This conclusion is based on the observation that the rate of oxygen consumption, in the presence of oxyfluorfen, does not demonstrate a first order rate dependence on light intensity. Using the bleaching of N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline as a specific detector of singlet oxygen, we demonstrate that oxyfluorfen is a potent generator of this toxic radical. The production of singlet oxygen occurs in the presence of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport (oxyfluorfen at 10−4 molar and paraquat) and also under temperature conditions (3°C) which prevent electron transport. This light induced reaction results in oxygen consumption and is the primary cause of lethality for oxyfluorfen. The production of singlet oxygen occurs rapidly and at low herbicide concentrations (10−9 molar). The reaction occurs without photosynthetic electron transport but does require an intact thylakoid membrane. PMID:16665968

  13. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  14. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Molecular investigations of the soil, rhizosphere and transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape and maize plants in combination with herbicide (Basta) application under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Dieter; Rosenbrock-Krestel, Hilkea; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Bieber, Evi; Giunaschwili, Nathela; Müller, Rüdiger; Fischbeck, Gerhard; Wagner, Tobias; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted during 1994 to 1998 on the Experimental Farm Roggenstein, near Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria, Germany to determine the effect of transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape in combination with the herbicide Basta [glufosinate-ammonium, phosphinothricin, ammonium (2RS)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato) butyric acid] application on soil microorganisms and the behaviour of the synthetic transgenic DNA in response to normal agricultural practice. No influence of Basta on microbial biomass could be detected. The phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil extracts showed no difference between Basta application and mechanical weed control, whereas conventional herbicide application revealed a different pattern. Basta application resulted in a changed population of weeds with a selective effect for Viola arvensis. During senescence, transgenic rape DNA was degraded similar to endogenous control DNA. After ploughing the chopped plant material in the soil, transgenic as well as endogenous control DNA sequences could be detected for up to 4 weeks for rape and up to 7 months for maize, whereas PCR analysis of composted transgenic maize revealed the presence of the transgene over a period of 22 months.

  16. Influence of tank mixtures of pre-emergence herbicides on growing leeks (Allium porrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimova Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of pre-emergence herbicides on weed infestation and yield of leek was evaluated. Three tank mixtures were applied: s-metolachlor (Dual Gold 960 EC at a dose of 80 ml/da + oxyfluorfen (Goal 2 E at a dose of 100 ml/da; s-metolachlor (Dual Gold 960 EC at a dose of 60 ml/da + oxyfluorfen (Goal 2 E at a dose of 75 ml/da; and s-metolachlor (Dual Gold 960 EC at a dose of 40 ml/da + oxyfluorfen (Goal 2 E at a dose of 50 ml/da. The number of weeds was recorded following the application of the tank mixture. It was found that treatment with a tank mixture of herbicides Dual Gold 960 EC and Goal 2 E caused a reduction in weed infestation at all three application rates as compared to the control. The lowest weed infestation was established after treatment with the highest doses of herbicides. It was suggested that the applied herbicide mixture could be used effectively at the leeks growth stage.

  17. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Deborah W., E-mail: knappd@purdue.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Purdue University Center for Cancer Research and Purdue Oncological Sciences Center, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cooper, Bruce R. [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Nita W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Lawrence T. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Murphy, Angus S. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  18. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R.; Cooper, Bruce R.; Glickman, Nita W.; Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C.; Glickman, Lawrence T.; Murphy, Angus S.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  19. REDUCTION OF HERBICIDE AND WATER STRESS IN SPRING BARLEY BY REGULATORS OF POLYAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out under artificial light of fluorescent lamps starting with 60 % full water capacity which was afterwards decreased on 40 % and finally the plants of barley were not watered. 30 plants of this cereal after plant emergence were thinned on 22 pieces. Experiment was treated by triazine herbicide, as well as its mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis: γ-aminobutyric acid, 1.3-propylenediamine dihydrochloride and salicyl acid. Solo application of triazine herbicide during water stress had negative balance on formation of root and above ground biomass. Addition of regulators of polyamine synthesis had positive effects on mentioned parameters, but not in comparison to control variant. These stress factors were eliminated most significantly only the application of GABA (100 g.ha-1 in mixture with herbicide.

  20. Vertical migration of some herbicides through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted by using three herbicides, two from dinitroaniline group and one from thiocarbamate group to know their degree of downward movement (leachability through soil columns and their contribution in ground water contamination. Soil columns were loaded with Pendimethalin, Benthiocarb and Oryzalin @ 10.0, 10.0 and 7.7 kg a.i. ha-1, respectively. After 30 days soil samples were analyzed from each segments (i.e. 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 and 24-30 cm for Benthiocarb and Pendimethalin by GLC equipped with Ni63 electron capture detector (ECD and for Oryzalin by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS detector. The results obtained in the present study reveal that the residues of the three herbicides under investigation were predominantly confined to the upper soil layer (0-6 cm. Comparatively, low mobility of these herbicides in soils could be due to strong adsorption of these chemical to soil colloids.

  1. Vertical migration of some herbicides through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Md. Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Purkait, Swarnali; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted by using three herbicides, two from dinitroaniline group and one from thiocarbamate group to know their degree of downward movement (leachability) through soil columns and their contribution in ground water contamination. Soil columns were loaded with Pendimethalin, Benthiocarb and Oryzalin at doses of 10.0, 10.0 and 7.7 kg/ha, respectively. After 30 days soil samples were analyzed from each segments (i.e. 0–6, 6–12, 12–18, 18–24 and 24–30 cm) for Benthiocarb and Pendimethalin by GLC equipped with Ni63 electron capture detector (ECD) and for Oryzalin by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS detector. The results obtained in the present study reveal that the residues of the three herbicides under investigation were predominantly confined to the upper soil layer (0–6 cm). Comparatively, low mobility of these herbicides in soils could be due to strong adsorption of these chemical to soil colloids. PMID:21218121

  2. Vertical migration of some herbicides through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted by using three herbicides, two from dinitroaniline group and one from thiocarbamate group to know their degree of downward movement (leachability through soil columns and their contribution in ground water contamination. Soil columns were loaded with Pendimethalin, Benthiocarb and Oryzalin @ 10.0, 10.0 and 7.7 kg a.i. ha-1, respectively. After 30 days soil samples were analyzed from each segments (i.e. 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, and 18-24 and 24-30 cm for Benthiocarb and Pendimethalin by GLC equipped with Ni63 electron capture detector (ECD and for Oryzalin by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS detector. The results obtained in the present study reveal that the residues of the three herbicides under investigation were predominantly confined to the upper soil layer (0-6 cm. Comparatively, low mobility of these herbicides in soils could be due to strong adsorption of these chemical to soil colloids.

  3. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene]. Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of 14 C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] for two years provided the best control of nutsedge

  4. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. ) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene). Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of /sup 14/C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) for two years provided the best control of nutsedge.

  5. Preliminary Study on Effect of Herbicides on Alfalfa Yield and Weed Community Characteristics in Yellow River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guo-liang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa(Medicago sativa is one of important legume forages worldwide. However, weed is the main factor limiting alfalfa production. Biomass quality and yield and stability of dry matter production during cultivation are directly associated with the interference of weeds which compete with alfalfa for water, light and nutrients. The use of herbicides is a good alternative for weed control. In order to control weed in alfalfa field with suitable herbicide in Yellow River delta, the effect of four herbicides(imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop-r-methyl and oxyfluorfen with different concentration on afalfal yield and weed community characteristics were studied. The results showed that both imazethapyr and haloxyfop-r-methyl treatments could increase alfalfa yield, and the best herbicide application concentration was imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 and haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2, but oxyfluorfen treatment would limit alfalfa growth significantly. Weed species numbers in the treatments of imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl and oxyfluorfen decreased significantly. Digitariasanguinalis, Portulacaoleracea and Echinochloacrusgalli were more difficult to control from specie important value in all treatments. Species diversity index decreased with higher herbicide concentration in all treatments. From this study, herbicide imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 application concentration was the best weed control method, and the second one was haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2 application concentration.

  6. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

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    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  7. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: I. Soil-Inversion, High-Residue Cover Crops and Herbicide Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil-inversion, cover crops and herbicide regimes for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. The main plots were two soil-inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. The subplots were three cover crop treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye and winter fallow; and sub subplots were four herbicide regimes: preemergence (PRE alone, postemergence (POST alone, PRE + POST and a no herbicide check (None. The PRE herbicide regime consisted of a single application of pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1. The POST herbicide regime consisted of a single application of glufosinate at 0.60 kg ai ha−1 plus S-metolachlor at 0.54 kg ai ha−1 and the PRE + POST regime combined the prior two components. At 2 weeks after planting (WAP cotton, Palmer amaranth densities, both BR and WR, were reduced ≥90% following all cover crop treatments in the IT. In the NIT, crimson clover reduced Palmer amaranth densities >65% and 50% compared to winter fallow and cereal rye covers, respectively. At 6 WAP, the PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes in both IT and NIT reduced BR and WR Palmer amaranth densities >96% over the three years. Additionally, the BR density was reduced ≥59% in no-herbicide (None following either cereal rye or crimson clover when compared to no-herbicide in the winter fallow. In IT, PRE, POST and PRE + POST herbicide regimes controlled Palmer amaranth >95% 6 WAP. In NIT, Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥79% in PRE and ≥95% in PRE + POST herbicide regimes over three years. POST herbicide regime following NIT was not very consistent. Averaged across three years, Palmer amaranth controlled ≥94% in PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes regardless of cover crop. Herbicide regime effect on cotton yield was highly significant; the maximum cotton yield was

  8. The effect of triazine - and urea - type herbicides on photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jerzykiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About a half of the herbicides used at present in agnculture inhibit the light reactions in photosynthesis. Triazines and phenylureas shut down the photosynthetic process in susceptible plants by binding to specific sites within the plants photosystem II (PS II complex. Both of them bind at the QB site on the Dl protein of PS II, and prevent the transport of electrons between the primary electron acceptor Q and the plastoquinone (PQ. Herbicides can be highly toxic to human and animal health (triazines are possible human carcinogens. Their indiscriminate use has serious environmental implications, for example pollution of soil and water. We compare two heibicides to investigate the one of lowest environmental toxicity but of high toxicity to weeds.

  9. Fate of the herbicides glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron in two Finnish arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Eronen, Liisa; Rämö, Sari; Welling, Leena; Oinonen, Seija; Mattsoff, Leona; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The fate of five herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron) was studied in two Finnish sugar beet fields for 26 months. Soil types were sandy loam and clay. Two different herbicide-tolerant sugar beet cultivars and three different herbicide application schedules were used. Meteorological data were collected throughout the study and soil properties were thoroughly analysed. An extensive data set of herbicide residue concentrations in soil was collected. Five different soil depths were sampled. The study was carried out using common Finnish agricultural practices and represents typical sugar beet cultivation conditions in Finland. The overall observed order of persistence was ethofumesate > glyphosate > phenmedipham > metamitron > glufosinate-ammonium. Only ethofumesate and glyphosate persisted until the subsequent spring. Seasonal variation in herbicide dissipation was very high and dissipation ceased almost completely during winter. During the 2 year experiment no indication of potential groundwater pollution risk was obtained, but herbicides may cause surface water pollution. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

  10. Action of rain on the efficiency of herbicides applied post-emergence in the control of Senna obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rainfall on the effectiveness of herbicides applied post-emergence on plants of Senna obtusifolia. The experiment was carried out under green-house conditions and the experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications, with treatments in a 7x8 factorial arrangement (seven herbicides treatments and eight rain intervals. The herbicides used were five formulations of glyphosate (Roundup Original, Roundup WG, Roundup Transorb, Roundup Transorb R and Roundup Ultra applied at a rate of to 1,080 g a.e. ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (Finale at 400 g a.i. ha-1 and 2,4-D (DMA 806 at 1,000 g a.e. ha-1. The rain simulation occurred at intervals of 15; 30; 60; 120; 240, 360, and 480 minutes after the herbicides application. A control treatment without herbicide application was added. Visual evaluations of control plants were taken at 7; 14; 21 and 28 days after application and at the end the dry mass of plants was determined. The rain occurrence after 15 minutes of application of glyphosate formulations Roundup Transorb, Roundup Transorb R and Roundup Ultra did not affect the control efficiency on plants of S. obtusifolia. For formulations of Roundup Original and Roundup WG and, 2,4-D it was necessary a 30 minutes period without rain for an efficient control of weed.

  11. Leaching and residual activity of imidazolinone herbicides in lowland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Refatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice (Oryza sativa L. production system have a potential for leaching. This can result in contamination of underground water resources and cause injury to not tolerant crops that are sown in a succession and/or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine the leaching potential and the residual activity of the herbicides used in the Clearfield® rice system. The experiment was conducted over a period of two years and consisted of conducting a field test to be followed by two bioassays with a year of difference between their implementation. Initially an experiment was conducted in lowland area where it was planted the cultivar of rice ‘PUITA INTA CL’. Approximately one and two years thereafter, soil samples from each plot were collected at intervals of 5cm to a depth of 30cm (B factor for the bioassay to evaluate persistence of herbicides. Factor A was composed of mixtures formulated of imazethapyr + imazapic (75 + 25g a.i. L-1, imazapyr + imazapic (525 + 175g a.i. kg-1 in two doses, imazethapyr (100g a.i. L-1 and treatment control without application. Basing on results, it was concluded that the mixtures imazethapyr + imazapic, imazapyr + imazapic and imazethapyr leached into the soil, reaching depths of up to 25cm in lowland soil. Imidazolinone herbicides used today in the irrigated rice Clearfield® system are persistent in soil, and their phytotoxic activity can be observed up to two years after application.

  12. Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. III. Influence of clay acidity, humic acid coating and herbicide structure on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-ping; Fang, Zhuo; Liu, Hui-jun; Yang, Wei-chun

    2002-04-01

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite, soil humic acid, and their mixtures was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption isotherms of acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and propachlor on Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, Al(3+)- and Fe(3+)-saturated clays were well described by the Freundlich equation. Regardless of the type of exchange cations, Kf decreased in the order of metolachlor > acetolachlor > alachlor > propachlor on the same clay. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in binding, probably via H-bond with water molecules in the clay interlayer. The type and position of substitutions around the carbonyl group may have affected the electronegativity of oxygen, thus influencing the relative adsorption of these herbicides. For the same herbicide, adsorption on clay increased in the order of Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Al3+ < or = Fe3+ which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Acidity of cations may have affected the protonation of water, and thus the strength of H-bond between the clay water and herbicide. Complexation of clay and humic acid resulted in less adsorption than that expected from independent adsorption by the individual constituents. The effect varied with herbicides, but the greatest decrease in adsorption occurred at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio for all the herbicides. Causes for the decreased adsorption need to be characterized to better understand adsorption mechanisms and predict adsorption from soil compositions.

  13. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

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    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  14. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  15. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  16. Single and Combined Effects of Pesticide Seed Dressings and Herbicides on Earthworms, Soil Microorganisms, and Litter Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoesel, Willem; Tiefenbacher, Alexandra; König, Nina; Dorn, Verena M; Hagenguth, Julia F; Prah, Urša; Widhalm, Theresia; Wiklicky, Viktoria; Koller, Robert; Bonkowski, Michael; Lagerlöf, Jan; Ratzenböck, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G

    2017-01-01

    Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. var. Capo ) with neonicotinoid insecticides and/or strobilurin and triazolinthione fungicides and an additional one-time application of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the activity of earthworms, soil microorganisms, litter decomposition, and crop growth. To further address food-web interactions, earthworms were introduced to half of the experimental units as an additional experimental factor. Seed dressings significantly reduced the surface activity of earthworms with no difference whether insecticides or fungicides were used. Moreover, seed dressing effects on earthworm activity were intensified by herbicides (significant herbicide × seed dressing interaction). Neither seed dressings nor herbicide application affected litter decomposition, soil basal respiration, microbial biomass, or specific respiration. Seed dressing did also not affect wheat growth. We conclude that interactive effects on soil biota and processes of different pesticide classes should receive more attention in ecotoxicological research.

  17. Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjune Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture. The herbicide injury resulted in 9,205 differentially methylated regions (DMRs across the genome. In total, 5,914 of these DMRs were induced in a dose-dependent manner, wherein the methylation levels were positively correlated to the severity of the herbicide injury, suggesting that plants can modulate the magnitude of methylation changes based on the severity of the stress. Of the 3,680 genes associated with glyphosate-induced DMRs, only 7% were also implicated in methylation changes following biotic or salinity stress. These results demonstrate that plants respond to herbicide stress through changes in methylation patterns that are, in general, dose-sensitive and, at least partially, stress-specific.

  18. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  19. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, Fatima, E-mail: fsopenav@irnase.csic.es [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain); Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. {yields} Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. {yields} Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. {yields} Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. {yields} EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT{sub 50} value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  20. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopena, Fatima; Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. → Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. → Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. → Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. → EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT 50 value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  1. Glyphosate, other herbicides, and transformation products in Midwestern streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples

  2. Glyphasate, other herbicides, and transformation products in midwestern streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Scribner, Elizabeth A.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples.

  3. Photosynthesis involvement in the mechanism of action of diphenyl ether herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, M P; Hess, F D

    1985-05-01

    Photosynthesis is not required for the toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides, nor are chloroplast thylakoids the primary site of diphenyl ether herbicide activity. Isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast fragments produced malonyl dialdehyde, indicating lipid peroxidation, when paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) or diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] were added to the medium, but no malonyl dialdehyde was produced when chloroplast fragments were treated with the methyl ester of acifluorfen (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid), oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], or MC15608 (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate). In most cases the toxicity of acifluorfen-methyl, oxyfluorfen, or MC15608 to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) did not decrease after simultaneous treatment with diuron. However, diuron significantly reduced cell death after paraquat treatment at all but the highest paraquat concentration tested (0.1 millimolar). These data indicate electron transport of photosynthesis is not serving the same function for diphenyl ether herbicides as for paraquat. Additional evidence for differential action of paraquat was obtained from the superoxide scavenger copper penicillamine (copper complex of 2-amino-3-mercapto-3-methylbutanoic acid). Copper penicillamine eliminated paraquat toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons but did not reduce diphenyl ether herbicide toxicity.

  4. Study of herbicide ametryne degradation in HDPE packaging using the advanced oxidation process by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Debora Cristina de

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of the project with the objective to evaluate pesticides degradation for decontamination of commercial polymeric packaging of high density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture. The herbicide used to this study was the herbicide ametryne (commercial name, Gesapax 500), due to its great use, mainly on field crops and on corn. Ametryne is commercialized since 1975, and, depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application, residues may be detectable in water, soil and on the surfaces for months or years. In order to evaluate the efficiency of radiation processing on removal the pesticides contamination, HDPE packaging were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch system. The samples were irradiated with water, in various absorbed doses. Ametryne was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC Shimadzu 17A), after extraction with hexane/dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) solution. The calibration curve was obtained with a regression coefficient of 0.986, and the relative standard deviation was lower than 10%. The radiation processing yield was evaluated by the rate of ametryne degradation and by the destruction G-value (Gd). The electron beam irradiation processing, showed high efficiency in destroying ametryne in the HDPE packaging when the samples were irradiated in presence of small quantities of water. (author)

  5. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjollema, Sascha B.; MartínezGarcía, Gema; Geest, Harm G. van der; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A. Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol ® 1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. - Highlights: • The hazard of herbicides for microalgae is compound and species specific. • In general a low risk although occasional potential effect levels are reached. • Current legislation does not protect marine microalgae sufficiently. - The hazard of herbicides in the coastal waters is compound and species specific and although the general risk in the field is low, occasionally potential effect levels are reached

  6. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Herbicidal Activity of Pyrimidine-Biphenyl Hybrids as Novel Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Jian; Qu, Ren-Yu; Liu, Yu-Chao; Yang, Jing-Fang; Devendar, Ponnam; Chen, Qiong; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2018-04-18

    The issue of weed resistance to acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 2.2.1.6, AHAS) inhibitors has become one of the largest obstacles for the application of this class of herbicides. In a continuing effort to discover novel AHAS inhibitors to overcome weed resistance, a series of pyrimidine-biphenyl hybrids (4aa-bb and 5aa-ah) were designed and synthesized via a scaffold hopping strategy. Among these derivatives, compounds 4aa ( K i = 0.09 μM) and 4bb ( K i = 0.02 μM) displayed higher inhibitory activities against Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS than those of the controls bispyribac ( K i = 0.54 μM) and flumetsulam ( K i = 0.38 μM). Remarkably, compounds 4aa, 4bb, 5ah, and 5ag exhibited excellent postemergence herbicidal activity and a broad spectrum of weed control at application rates of 37.5-150 g of active ingredient (ai)/ha. Furthermore, 4aa and 4bb showed higher herbicidal activity against AHAS inhibitor-resistant Descurainia sophia, Ammannia arenaria, and the corresponding sensitive weeds than that of bispyribac at 0.94-0.235 g ai/ha. Therefore, the pyrimidine-biphenyl motif and lead compounds 4aa and 4bb have great potential for the discovery of novel AHAS inhibitors to combat AHAS-inhibiting herbicide-resistant weeds.

  8. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  9. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  11. Effects of a herbicide-insecticide mixture in freshwater microcosms: Risk assessment and ecological effect chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, Paul J. van den; Crum, Steven J.H.; Gylstra, Ronald; Bransen, Fred; Cuppen, Jan G.M.; Brock, Theo C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of chronic application of a mixture of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticide lindane were studied in indoor freshwater plankton-dominated microcosms. The macroinvertebrate community was seriously affected at all but the lowest treatment levels, the zooplankton community at the three highest treatment levels, with crustaceans, caddisflies and dipterans being the most sensitive groups. Increased abundance of the phytoplankton taxa Cyclotella sp. was found at the highest treatment level. Threshold levels for lindane, both at population and community level, corresponded well with those reported in the literature. Atrazine produced fewer effects than expected, probably due to decreased grazer stress on the algae as a result of the lindane application. The safety factors set by the Uniform Principles for individual compounds were also found to ensure protection against chronic exposure to a mixture of a herbicide and insecticide at community level, though not always at the population level. - Effects of chronic application of a herbicide-insecticide mixture were studied in indoor freshwater plankton-dominated microcosms. Effects could well be explained by the effects of the individual chemicals alone, no synergetic effects were reported

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF GLYPHOSATE AND 2.4 D AMIN HERBICIDES TO CONTROL WEEDS UNDER Shorea selanica Bl. PLANTATION IN CARITA TRIAL GARDEN, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibowo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in Carita, West Java, to identify the effectiveness of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide to control weeds under Shorea selanica Bl. plantation. The trial was conducted through the application of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide with dosages of 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 liter per ha and compared with Glyphosate herbicide 5 liter per ha, manual treatment, and control (no treatment. The result showed that Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide could be used to control weeds in order to maintaining S. selanica Bl. plantation. Minimum dosage of 6 liter/ha was effective to control weeds such as Chromolaena odorata DC, Mikania micrantha Will, Lantana camara L, Imperata cylindrica Beauv., Melastoma malabathricum L, and Boreria latifolia Bl. Furthermore, there was no symptom of poison on S. selanica Bl. plantation after herbicide application with all dosages applied.

  13. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  14. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Martínezgarcía, Gema; van der Geest, Harm G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol(®)1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Halodule uninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows

  16. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m '), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm ) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  17. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50 over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ', indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect

  18. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  19. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  20. Photosynthesis Involvement in the Mechanism of Action of Diphenyl Ether Herbicides 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Michael P.; Hess, F. Dan

    1985-01-01

    Photosynthesis is not required for the toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides, nor are chloroplast thylakoids the primary site of diphenyl ether herbicide activity. Isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast fragments produced malonyl dialdehyde, indicating lipid peroxidation, when paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium ion) or diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] were added to the medium, but no malonyl dialdehyde was produced when chloroplast fragments were treated with the methyl ester of acifluorfen (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid), oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], or MC15608 (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate). In most cases the toxicity of acifluorfen-methyl, oxyfluorfen, or MC15608 to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) did not decrease after simultaneous treatment with diuron. However, diuron significantly reduced cell death after paraquat treatment at all but the highest paraquat concentration tested (0.1 millimolar). These data indicate electron transport of photosynthesis is not serving the same function for diphenyl ether herbicides as for paraquat. Additional evidence for differential action of paraquat was obtained from the superoxide scavenger copper penicillamine (copper complex of 2-amino-3-mercapto-3-methylbutanoic acid). Copper penicillamine eliminated paraquat toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons but did not reduce diphenyl ether herbicide toxicity. PMID:16664206

  1. Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suri, C Raman

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-positive, Micrococcus sp. strain PS-1 isolated from diuron storage site was studied for its capability of biotransformation of phenylurea herbicide diuron to a secondary metabolite, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) for bioconjugation and antibody development applications. The metabolite formed associated with profound changes in bacterial cell morphology demonstrated increase in the degradation kinetics of diuron in presence of small quantity of a surfactant. The synthesized metabolite identified by chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques was conjugated with carrier protein, and used as an immunogen for antibodies production. The generated antibody was highly specific, demonstrating excellent sensitivity against diuron. The antibody was used as receptor molecules in standard fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) format showing detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in the optimum working concentration range of diuron with good signal precision (∼2%). The study presented first time the degradation pathway of herbicide by specific microorganism to synthesize hapten for bioconjugation and immunoassay development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  3. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. FLAMMABILITY OF HERBICIDE-TREATED GUAVA FOLIAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guava leaves treated with herbicide were found to be less flammable than untreated green leaves or dead leaves . Differences in flammability were...determined by small-scale laboratory fires, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The herbicide-treated leaves had a higher ash

  5. Response of Transplanted Aman Rice Varieties to Herbicides in Strip-Tilled Non-Puddled Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Zahan1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensitivity of crop cultivars may vary to commonly used herbicides resulting in potential yield loss and reduce farm profit. Transplanting of rice seedlings in strip-tilled non-puddled field is a new practice for which herbicide tolerant varieties need to select. Therefore, a study was executed at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during 2013 to evaluate the response of some popular transplanted aman rice varieties to different herbicides at their recommended rate and to select most tolerant aman rice variety or varieties for strip-tilled non-puddled transplanting. METHODOLOGY: Twelve aman rice varieties (BR11, BRRI dhan33, BRRI dhan39, BRRI dhan44, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan49, BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan52, BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, BRRI hybrid dhan-4 and BINA dhan7 were examined in the study against six herbicides (2 pre-emergence: pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and butachlor; 1 early post-emergence: orthosulfamuron and 3 late post-emergence: acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl, butachlor + propanil and 2,4-D amine along with one untreated manually weed-free control. KEY FINDINGS: The study revealed that aman rice varieties responded differentially to different herbicides. All rice varieties performed better in pyrazosulfuron-ethyl treated plots relative to the other herbicide treated plots and even than the control plots. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl increased grain yield of all aman rice varieties by 0.6-32.6% over control and butachlor + propanil provided increased grain yield in all rice varieties by 2.0-25.5% except BRRI hybrid dhan-4. The study also disclosed that BRRI dhan57 and BRRI hybrid dhan-4 gone through the yield loss by application of 2,4-D amine and BRRI dhan56 by application of butachlor and orthosulfamuron. Moreover, acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl produced shorter plants and caused yield loss by 7.8-27.1% in all aman rice varieties compared to the control and BRRI dhan39 was the most susceptible

  6. Multi photon ionization mass spectrometry of carbamate pesticides, herbicides and fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grun, Carsten; Koenig, Marcelle; Grotemeyer, Juergen

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides and herbicides are useful for a wide range of applications today. The determination of these substances either in the pure form or in complex matrices is of high analytical interest. Especially since these substances can by found in every day products. The combination of multi photon ionization (MUPI) and time of flight laser mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for achieving fast well interpretable mass spectra for analytical purposes. In this paper we will discuss the mass spectra of several pesticides and herbicides accessed by MUPI-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The influence of the laser pulse duration on the mass spectra are discussed

  7. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effects of biotechnology on biodiversity: herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Klaus

    2005-08-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by agriculture as a whole, and particularly also by traditional methods of agriculture. Knowledge-based agriculture, including GM crops, can reduce this threat in the future. The introduction of no-tillage practices, which are beneficial for soil fertility, has been encouraged by the rapid spread of herbicide-tolerant soybeans in the USA. The replacement of pesticides through Bt crops is advantageous for the non-target insect fauna in test-fields. The results of the British Farm Scale experiment are discussed. Biodiversity differences can mainly be referred to as differences in herbicide application management.

  9. Application of a method based on the measurement of radiation reflectance when estimating the sensitivity of selected grain maize hybrids to the herbicide CALLISTO 480 SC + ATPLUS 463

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vondra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of methods based on measurements of photosynthesis efficiency is now more and more popular and used not only for the evaluation of the efficiency of herbicides but also for the estimation of their phytotoxicity to the cultivated crop. These methods enable to determine also dif­fe­ren­ces in the sensitivity of cultivars and/or hybrids to individual herbicides. The advantage of these methods consists above all in the speed and accuracy of measuring.In a field experiment, the sensitivity of several selected grain maize hybrids (EDENSTAR, NK AROBASE, NK LUGAN, LG 33.30 and NK THERMO to the herbicide CALLISTO 480 SC + ATPLUS 463 was tested for a period of three years. The sensitivity to a registered dose of 0.25 l . ha−1 + 0.5 % was measured by means of the apparatus PS1 meter, which could measure the reflected radiation. Measurements of sensitivity of hybrids were performed on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 8th day after the application of the tested herbicide, i.e. in the growing stage of the 3rd–5th leaf. Plant material was harvested using a small-plot combine harvester SAMPO 2010. Samples were weighed and converted to the yield with 15 % of moisture in grain DM.The obtained three-year results did not demonstrate differences in sensitivity of tested hybrids to the registered dose of the herbicide CALLISTO 480 SC + ATPLUS 463 (i.e. 0.25 l . ha−1 + 0,5 %. Recorded results indicated that for the majority of tested hybrids the most critical were the 4th and the 5th day after the application; on these days the average PS1 values were the highest at all. In years 2005 and 2007, none of the tested hybrids exceeded the limit value 15 (which indicated a certain decrease in the efficiency of photosynthesis. Although in 2006 three of tested hybrids showed a certain decrease in photosynthetic activity (i.e. EDENSTAR and NK AROBASE on the 3rd day and NK LUGAN on the 2nd–4th day after the application, no visual symptoms

  10. Hormonal changes in spring barley after triazine herbicide treatment and its mixtures of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants adapt to abiotic stress by undergoing diverse biochemical and physiological changes that involve hormone-dependent signalling pathways. The effects of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis can be mimicked by exogenous chemical regulators such as herbicide safeners, which not only enhance stress tolerance but also confer hormetic benefits such as increased vigor and yield. The phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA and auxin (IAA play key roles in regulating stress responses in plants. Two years pot trials at Slovak University of agriculture Nitra were carried out with analyses of contents of plant hormones in spring barley grain of variety Kompakt: indolyl-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, after exposing of tested plants to herbicide stress, as well as the possible decrease of these stress factors with application of regulators of polyamine synthesis was evaluated. At 1st year in spring barley grain after application of solo triazine herbicide treatment in dose 0,5 L.ha-1 an increase of all analyzed plant hormones was observed and contrary, at 2nd year there was the decrease of their contents. From our work there is an obvious influence of herbicide stress induced by application of certain dose of triazine herbicide at 1st year. Expect of the variant with mixture of triazine herbicide (in amount of 0,5 L.ha-1 and 29,6 g.ha-1 DAB, at this year all by us applied regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the level of both plant hormones. Higher affect of stress caused by enhanced content of soluble macroelements in soil where the plants of barley were grown was observed next year. Soil with increased contents of macronutrients (mg.kg-1: N30.7 + P108.3 + K261.5 + Mg604.2 had reducing effect on contents of plant hormones in barley grain at variant treated with solo triazine herbicide (in dose at 0,5 L.ha-1 in comparison to control variant. The mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the contents of IAA only in comparison to

  11. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    ingredient in the HBA oligomers was chemically bound to the oligomer matrix and a controlled release followed in concert with the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the oligomer systems. Due to the high volatility and high water solubility of the DMA salts, significant amounts of active ingredients were predisposed to be dispersed in the environment. On the other hand, the HBA oligomers exhibit low volatility and low solubility in water, so they tend to exhibit lover migrating rates from the target site. The obtained plots suggested that in the case of the HBA oligomers the effectiveness were delayed in time when compared with the DMA salts. The integral effectiveness of the studied HBA oligomers was practically equivalent to the conventional DMA salts, but the release of the HBA herbicides was delayed in time vs. DMA salts. The mixtures of oligo (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid containing chemically bonded 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA (HBA) were proposed as carriers of active ingredients that could be released to control the sensitive weeds. The synthesized HBA oligomers could be particularly useful in a number of practical applications, because they release the herbicide to plants at a controlled rate and in amounts required over a specified period of time, their degradation products are identical to metabolites formed in plant cells, the physicochemical and operational parameters of the carrier oligomers might be optimized by fine-tuning of synthesis conditions. The decreased vapor pressure and increased lipophilicity of the studied materials could reduce the risk exposure of the operational personnel, as well as, a decrease the environmental pollution. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for supporting this work through the grant No. NN 310 303039. References [1] S. Dubey, V. Jhelum, P.K. Patanjali, Controlled release agrochemical formulations: A review, J. Scientific &Industrial Research (India) 70 (2011) 105-112. [2] W. J

  12. The Effect of Pre-emergence Application of some Common Herbicides on Weed Population, Vegetative Growth, Flower and Corm Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Saffron (Corocus sativus L. as the most expensive crop has special position among export products of Iran. Currently, Iran is the biggest saffron producer and exporter in the world. Much of saffron in Iran produced in South and Razavi provinces (6. One of the problems in saffron production of these regions is weed control. Weed competing with saffron for water, nutrients, light cause reduction of product (3, 7. Among control methods of weed, use of herbicides is not common in saffron fields. The main reason is the evidences about herbicides damage. For example, Zare Hosseini et al (14 observed application of herbicides of Iodosulfuron methyl sodium + Mesosulfuron- methyl+ Mefenpyr-diethyl destroyed grasses and broadleaf, but it destroyed saffron plant too. Haloxyfop- R methyl ester damaged grasses, but decreased stigma yield. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-emergence herbicides on weed population changes; the performance characteristics of saffron and saffron corms were implemented. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a 4-year saffron farm located in Shahn Abad village, Zaveh city in Khorasan Razavi province in 2011- 2012. It was in a completely randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments included six pre-emergence herbicides including Metribuzin 70% WP (850 g.ha-1, Oxyfluorfen24% EC (1 l.ha-1, Ioxynil 22.5% EC (1.5 l.ha-1, Etalfluorelin 33.3%EC (3 l.ha-1, Trifluoralin 48%EC (2 l.ha-1 and Chloridazon 80 %WP (5 Kg.ha-1 + Desmedipham 15.7% EC (5 l.ha-1 along with weed free and weedy check. Herbicides applied after irrigation simultaneously with crust breaking. The measurement characteristics included the number of flowers, fresh and dry weight of flower and stigma, leaf dry weight, leaf length, corm number and weight of saffron, weed type and wet and dry weight of dominant weeds. Herbicide treatments after irrigation were performed simultaneously with Crust

  13. Influence of herbicide structure, clay acidity, and humic acid coating on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying; Yates, Scott R

    2002-07-03

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption decreased in the order metolachlor > acetochlor > alachlor > propachlor on Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-saturated clays and in the order metolachlor > alachlor > acetachlor > propachlor on Al(3+)- or Fe(3+)-saturated clays. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in bonding. For the same herbicide, adsorption of alachlor, acetachlor, and metolachlor on clay followed the order Ca(2+) approximately Mg(2+) < Al(3+) < or = Fe(3+), which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Adsorption of propachlor, however, showed an opposite dependence, suggesting a different governing interaction. In clay and humic acid mixtures, herbicide adsorption was less than that expected from independent additive adsorption by the individual constituents, and the deviation was dependent on the clay-to-humic acid ratio, with the greatest deviation consistently occurring at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio.

  14. SELECTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES TO COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aires Sizenando Filho2

    2013-12-01

    1.5 = recommended rate + half the recommended rate. At the end of the experiment it was found that: the cowpea showed phytotoxicity to use herbicide among 14 and 21 AAD; the herbicides diuron and metolachlor showed a rate "middle" in control weed, while the pendimethalin wasn't efficient for those function.

  15. The Effect of Organic and Bio Fertilizers on Maize (Zea mays, and HydroMax Adjuvants Application on Optimizing of Nicosulfuron Herbicide Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Mamnoie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of adjuvant on nicosulfuron herbicide efficacy improvement in maize weed control under organic fertilizers application, field study was conducted during 2013- 2014 at research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of treatments with 16 treatments and three replications. Factors in this experiment were application of organic fertilizers (cow manure and vermicompost and bio fertilizer mycorrhiza, and a plot without fertilizer as control, nicosulfuron dose at 40, and 80 g a.i ha-1 (Cruz®,4% SC with and without the adjuvant of HydroMax™. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L., and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L were the dominant weeds in the experimental fields. Black nightshade and common purslane had the highest relative density 20 and 45 days after spraying (DAS. Results showed that application of hydromax adjuvant increased herbicide efficiency, significantly. However dry weight of common purslane, black nightshade and redroot pigweed decreased 84, 71, 86 and 71, 79, 100 %, when nicosulfuron applied at reduced dose (40 g a.i. ha-1 with adjuvant 20 and 45 DAS, respectively. On the other hand, seed yield and dry weight of maize increased 49 and 60 % respectively, when nicosulfuron applied at 40 g a.i. ha-1 with Hydromax pulse cow manure. 

  16. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Chris R [Portola Valley, CA; Scheible, Wolf [Golm, DE

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  17. Biochar soil additions impacts herbicide fate: Importance of application timing and feedstock species

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Biochar (BC), solid biomass subjected to pyrolysis, can alter the fate of pesticides in soil. We investigated the effect of soil amendment with several biochars on the sorption, persistence, leaching and bioefficacy of the herbicides clomazone (CMZ) and bispyribac sodium (BYP). RESULTS:...

  18. Growth stage of Phalaris minor Retz. and wheat determines weed control and crop tolerance of four post-emergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Rasool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phalaris minor Retz. has evolved multiple herbicide resistance in wheat growing areas in northwestern India. An understanding of the effect of growth stage on herbicide tolerance of wheat and control of P. minor will help in selecting the most appropriate herbicide for different situations. The weed control and crop safety of four commonly used wheat herbicides (sulfosulfuron, pinoxaden, fenoxaprop plus metribuzin and mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron, each applied at four different wheat growth stages was investigated in field studies for two years. P. minor plants were at 1, 2-3, 3-4 and 7-8 leaf stages when the herbicides were applied at Zadok 12-Z12, Z13, Z21 and Z23 stages of wheat, respectively. Sulfosulfuron application at Z12 and Z13 wheat stages (before first irrigation, provided >80% control of P. minor and produced wheat grain yield (4.5-4.7 t/ha similar to the weed-free check (4.9 t/ha in both years. Pinoxaden, fenoxaprop plus metribuzin and mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron application at Z12 and Z13 wheat stages recorded significantly lower wheat grain yield (3.62-3.95 t/ha due to poor weed control, crop toxicity or both. All the four herbicides were equally effective on P. minor when applied at Z21 wheat stage. At Z23 wheat stage, pinoxaden gave >90% control of P. minor and the highest wheat grain yield (4.82 t/ha. The results are expected to allow changes in the current recommendation of the timing of post-emergence herbicides for the management of P. minor in wheat.

  19. Determination of the best application time of 2,4-D 14C-labelled herbicides and 14C-labelled glyphosate for translocation to the root system of Glycyrrhiza Glabra vegetative growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fathollahi, H.; Naserian, B.; Majd, F.; Rahimian, H.; Ghanbari, A.; Minbashi, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this research work, four different growth stages of Glycyrrhiza Glabra were studied separately and under green house conditions, and in all of these stages the plants were treated by labelled herbicides 14 C-2,4-D and 14 C-Glyphosate through the ad axial surface with activity of 0.60μci up to 0.1018 μci (in each 10μLi of solution). The plants were harvested 72 hours after treatment. They were divided into treated leaf, leaves and stem above the treated leaf and leaves and stem below the treated leaf and root. The amount of radio labelled herbicides in each homo genus solution (produced from extraction of herbicides from plants samples) was quantified using liquid scintillation counter. The amount of herbicide mobility and transfer to different parts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra in each growth stage were determined. This study shows that the best application time of 2,4-D for translocation to the root system of the plant is at 6- leaf stage, and 2,4-D indicates more trans loc ability as compared with Glyphosate

  20. Uses of thaxtomin and thaxtomin compositions as herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunen, Marja; Marrone, Pamela

    2016-12-27

    There is a need for a selective, low-risk herbicide that can be used to control weeds in cereal cultures and turf. The present invention discloses that a bacterial secondary metabolite, thaxtomin and optionally another herbicide is an effective herbicide on broadleaved, sedge and grass weeds. Thaxtomin A and structurally similar compounds can be used as natural herbicides to control the germination and growth of weeds in cereal, turf grass, Timothy grass and pasture grass cultures with no phytotoxicity to these crops. As a natural, non-toxic compound, thaxtomin can be used as a safe alternative for weed control in both conventional and organic farming and gardening systems.

  1. Hydrolytic Activation Kinetics of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon in Simulated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katryn L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-06-22

    Herbicide resistance is a growing concern for weeds in California rice fields. Benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has proven successful against resistant rice field weeds in Asia. A pro-herbicide, BZB forms the active agent, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), in water; however, the transformation kinetics are not understood for aquatic systems, particularly flooded California rice fields. A quantitative experiment was performed to assess the primary mechanism and kinetics of BZB hydrolysis to BH. Complete conversion to BH was observed for all treatments. Basic conditions (pH 9) enhanced the reaction, with half-lives ranging from 5 to 28 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) hindered transformation, which is consistent with other base-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions. BH was relatively hydrolytically stable, with 18% maximum loss after 5 days. Results indicate BZB is an efficient pro-herbicide under aqueous conditions such as those of a California rice field, although application may be best suited for fields with recirculating tailwater systems.

  2. Understory Vegetative Diversity of Post-Thinned Pine Plantations Treated with Fertilizer, Fire and Herbicide in East Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, B.P.; Williams, H.M.; Farrish, K.W.; Ott, B.; Van Kley, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed biodiversity in the understory of two pine plantations where different management tools (fertilizer, prescribed burning, and herbicide application) were utilized. During three growing seasons, species, percent cover, and number of individuals, and physical characteristics were recorded. Responses to treatment were examined based on comparison of species richness, evenness, diversity, and importance. Two years after treatment, fertilized plots showed a decline in species richness, evenness, and diversity. Prescribed burning and herbicide treatments increased species richness but decreased species evenness, resulting in no change in diversity index. Herbicide treatment reduced the importance of dominant shrubs and increased the importance of disturbance-adapted species.

  3. Understory Vegetative Diversity of Post-Thinned Pine Plantations Treated with Fertilizer, Fire and Herbicide in East Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Oswald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed biodiversity in the understory of two pine plantations where different management tools (fertilizer, prescribed burning, and herbicide application were utilized. During three growing seasons, species, percent cover, and number of individuals, and physical characteristics were recorded. Responses to treatment were examined based on comparison of species richness, evenness, diversity, and importance. Two years after treatment, fertilized plots showed a decline in species richness, evenness, and diversity. Prescribed burning and herbicide treatments increased species richness but decreased species evenness, resulting in no change in diversity index. Herbicide treatment reduced the importance of dominant shrubs and increased the importance of disturbance-adapted species.

  4. Bio stimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanissery, R.G; Sims, G.K

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of herbicide-contaminated soils has been a dire environmental concern since the advent of industrial era. Although microorganisms are excellent degraders of herbicide compounds in the soil, some reparation may need to be brought about, in order to stimulate them to degrade the herbicide at a faster rate in a confined time frame. Bio stimulation through the appropriate utilization of organic amendments and nutrients can accelerate the degradation of herbicides in the soil. However, effective use of bio stimulants requires thorough comprehension of the global redox cycle during the microbial degradation of the herbicide molecules in the soil. In this paper, we present the prospects of using bio stimulation as a powerful remediation strategy for the rapid cleanup of herbicide-polluted soils.

  5. Annual Herbicide Loadings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  6. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target plant native species from Chaco forest (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia, Ferreira María; Carolina, Torres; Enzo, Bracamonte; Leonardo, Galetto

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days. A gradient of glyphosate rates (525, 1050, 2100, 4200, and 8400g ai/Ha; recommended field application rate (RFAR) = 2100g ai/Ha) was applied on four-week seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse and response variables (phytotoxicity, growth reduction, and sensitivity to the herbicide) were measured. This gradient of herbicide rates covers realistic rates of glyphosate applications in the crop field and also those that can reach vegetation of forest relicts by off-target drift and overspray. Testing was performed following guidelines for vegetative vigour (post-germination spray). All species showed lethal or sublethal effects after the application of the 25% of RFAR (50% of species showed severe phytotoxicity or death and 70% of species showed growth reduction). The results showed a gradient of sensitivity to glyphosate by which some of the studied species are very sensitive to glyphosate and seedlings died with 25% of RFAR while other species can be classified as herbicide-tolerant. Thus, the vegetation present in the forest relicts could be strongly affected by glyphosate application on crops. Lethal and sublethal effects of glyphosate on non-target plants could promote both the loss of biodiversity in native forest relicts immersed in the agroecosystems and the selection of new crop weeds considering that some biotypes are continuously exposed to low doses of glyphosate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops I. Effect at Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. . The research was conducted during 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian coriander cultivar Lozen 1 (Coriandrum sativum L.). The purpose of the investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures on the coriander. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Silba SC, Sharpen 33 EC,...

  8. ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propachlor, flufen...

  9. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; D?lye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non...

  10. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  11. Herbicidal treatments for control of Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five commercially available herbicides were evaluated for possible use to destroy illicit opium poppy crops (Papaver somniferum). In the first stage, herbicides were sprayed on poppy plants grown in containers. The following compounds killed poppy plants: (a) herbicides with typical foliar activity--amitrole, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, glyphosate, ioxynil and paraquat; and (b) herbicides with root and foliar activity--the triazines ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine and terbutryn; the substituted ureas benzthiazuron, chloroxuron, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, neburon and phenobenzuron; and the miscellaneous compounds karbutilate, methazole, oxadiazon and pyrazon. Severe but sublethal injury was caused by cycloate, EPTC, molinate, pobulate, cacodylate + MSMA, ethofumesate, perfluidone and phenmedipham. Abnormal development of vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant was induced by benefin, butralin, dinitramine, pendimethalin, trifluralin, diphenamid, napropamide, dalapon and propham. Efficient herbicides with negligible persistence in soil at the doses applied were evaluated on poppy plants in the field at various stages of growth. Small plants were severely injured by 2,4-D, killed rapidly by bromoxynil, ioxynil, paraquat (in mixture + diquat), and more slowly by glyphosate and metribuzin. The resistance to herbicides increased with the age of the poppy plant. Severe damage with partial kill of developed plants was obtained with bromoxynil, ioxynil, glyphosate, and paraquat + diquat; the last treatment produced the fastest effect.

  12. Bioremediation of herbicide velpar K® in vitro in aqueous solution with application of EM-4 (effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antônio Gomes Ramos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the bioremediation of herbicide Velpar K®, in vitro in aqueous solution, used against weeds in sugar cane in São Paulo state. The herbicide contained Hexazinone and Diuron. It was used the microbial inoculant denominated Effective Microorganisms (EM-4, pool of microorganisms from soil that contained lactic and photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, yeasts and actinomycetes for bioremediation. Results for the depth of cultivation on agar-agar inoculated with EM-4 showed the microorganisms growth in the concentrations between 0.2% and 1.0% of the Velpar K®in the gel. The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC showed that the EM-4 was effective for the bioremediation of the herbicide, which reached the values of 80% for diuron and 70% for hexazinone after 21 days in solution of 2:1 of Velpar K®/EM-4 ratio. These results could be useful for planning the bioremediation of contaminated areas with Velpar K®.

  13. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  14. Herbicides: A new threat to the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Stephen E.; Brodie, Jon E.; Bainbridge, Zoe T.; Rohde, Ken W.; Davis, Aaron M.; Masters, Bronwyn L.; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change. - Herbicide residues have been detected in Great Barrier Reef catchment waterways and river water plumes which may affect marine ecosystems.

  15. Application of electron beam irradiation, (1). Development and application of electron beam processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with characteristics, equipment (principle and kinds), present conditions, and future issues in the application of electron beam irradiation. Characteristics of electron beams are described in terms of the following: chemical and biological effects of radiation; energy and penetrating power of electron beams; and principle and kinds of electron beam accelerator. Industrial application of electron beam irradiation has advantages of high speed procedure and producibility, less energy, avoidance of poisonous gas, and extreme reduction of organic solvents to be used. The present application of electron beam irradiation cen be divided into the following: (1) hardening of resin or coated membrane; (2) improvement of macromolecular materials; (3) environmental protection; (4) sterilization; (5) food sterilization. The present equipment for electron beam irradiation is introduced according to low energy, medium energy, and high energy equipment. Finally, future issues focuses on (1) the improvement of traceability system and development of electron dosimetric techniques and (2) food sterilization. (N.K.)

  16. Weed control in distress – can all weeds still be controlled with herbicides in future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobny, Hans G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and availability of highly active and selective herbicides in all important field crops, in the last decades, enabled the simplification and money saving in crop rotations and agronomic measures. This resulted in respective specialized and adapted weed populations, and consequently an increasing selection of resistant populations. Since the introduction of the ALS-inhibitors (starting 1985 and the 4-HPPD-inhibitors (2001, no new MoA-Classes were registered, and there are none in the registration process. Several established herbicides were not registered or re-registered in the EU, or were severely restricted in their application. The cost and the risk to develop and register a new selective herbicide in the EU are hardly justified, in relation to their market potential. The only solution on problem fields, with resistant populations, is to change the agronomic practices, like crop rotation, soil tillage, seeding time, etc., as a precautionary principle also on still „normal“ fields. The different advising institutions have to integrate these aspects into their recommendations, besides the proper herbicide management.

  17. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES IN CONTAMINATED SUBSTRATE BY LEACHABLE HERBICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca de Araújo Fiore

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecosystems contamination by residues of pesticides requires special attention to the herbicides subject to leaching. The objective was to select tree species to rhizodegradation contaminated by residues of 2,4-D and atrazine and to recompose riparian areas to agricultural fields, then reducing the risk of contamination of water courses. A total of 36 treatments consisted of the combinations of forest species were evaluated [Inga marginata (Inga, Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu, Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo, Jacaranda puberula (carobinha, Cedrela fissilis (cedro, Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin, Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha, Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira, Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro, Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna, Terminalia argêntea (capitão and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna] and three solutions simulating leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control, with four replicates each. The characteristics measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry biomass, and foliar nutrition. Forest species survived the herbicide application, and most showed an increase in macronutrients even under an herbicide application, and the Inga had the highest tolerance regarding growth analysis. It is recommended to use species that are more tolerant to Atrazine and 2,4-D in field experiments to confirm previous results of this simulation.

  18. Sorption, desorption and leaching potential of sulfonylurea herbicides in Argentinean soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Mariela P; Montoya, Jorgelina C; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    The sulfonylurea (SUs) herbicides are used to control broadleaf weeds and some grasses in a variety of crops. They have become popular because of their low application rates, low mammalian toxicity and an outstanding herbicidal activity. Sorption is a major process influencing the fate of pesticides in soil. The objective of this study was to characterize sorption-desorption of four sulfonylurea herbicides: metsulfuron-methyl (methyl 2-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl)]benzoate), sulfometuron-methyl (methyl 2-[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]benzoate), rimsulfuron (1-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-(3-ethylsulfonyl-2-pyridylsulfonyl)urea) and nicosulfuron (2-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]-N,N-dimethylnicotinamide) from different soil horizons of different landscape positions. Sorption was studied in the laboratory by batch equilibration method. Sorption coefficients (K(d-SE)) showed that rimsulfuron (K(d-SE) = 1.18 to 2.08 L kg(-1)) and nicosulfuron (K(d-SE) = 0.02 to 0.47 L kg(-1)) were more highly sorbed than metsulfuron-methyl (K(d-SE) = 0.00 to 0.05 L kg(-1)) and sulfometuron-methyl (K(d-SE) = 0.00 to 0.05 L kg(-1)). Sorption coefficients (K(d-SE)) were correlated with pH and organic carbon content. All four herbicides exhibited desorption hysteresis where the desorption coefficients (K(d-D)) > K(d-SE). To estimate the leaching potential, K(oc) and ground-water ubiquity score (GUS) were used to calculate the half-life (t1/2) required to be classified as "leacher" or "nonleacher". According to the results, rimsulfuron and nicosulfuron herbicides would be classified as leachers, but factors such as landscape position, soil depth and the rate of decomposition in surface and subsurface soils could change the classification. In contrast, these factors do not affect classification of sulfometuron-methyl and metsulfuron-methyl; they would rank as leachers.

  19. Growth, production and quality of pineapple in response to herbicide use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvalho Brant Maia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In pineapple fields, weed competition is exacerbated by the fact that the crop is small and has a very slow vegetative development. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of herbicides on growth, yield and quality of pineapple, cultivar 'Pérola'. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of weeding by hoe and the herbicides diuron; fluazifop-p-butyl and atrazine + S-metolachlor applied in post-emergence. The characteristics evaluated monthly during the vegetative stage were stem diameter, D-leaf length, number of leaves, number of emitted leaves and percentage of natural floral induction. In the reproductive phase, evaluations were made of average fruit weight (g with and without crown, fruits length and diameter, number of slip, slip-sucker and sucker type seedlings, determination of soluble solids and pH in the pulp. There was no effect of herbicide treatment on the vegetative growth characteristics. Stem diameter increased until 330 days after planting, showing a decrease after this period. The D-leaf grew over time in all treatments, although phytotoxicity symptoms were observed after the first application of herbicides. The traits evaluated on the reproductive phase showed no significant differences in response to treatments. Therefore, the use of diuron fluazifop-p-butyl and atrazine + S-metolachlor did not affect growth, yield and fruit quality of pineapple, cultivar 'Pérola'.

  20. Use of image analysis to assess color response on plants caused by herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Duus, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    by herbicides. The range of color components of green and nongreen parts of the plants and soil in Hue, Saturation, and Brightness (HSB) color space were used for segmentation. The canopy color changes of barley, winter wheat, red fescue, and brome fescue caused by doses of a glyphosate and diflufenican mixture...... for the green and nongreen parts of the plants and soil were different. The relative potencies were not significantly different from one, indicating that visual and image analysis estimations were about the same. The comparison results suggest that image analysis can be used to assess color changes of plants......In herbicide-selectivity experiments, response can be measured by visual inspection, stand counts, plant mortality, and biomass. Some response types are relative to nontreated control. We developed a nondestructive method by analyzing digital color images to quantify color changes in leaves caused...

  1. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  2. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    characteristics of the herbicide and its current and future use; accounts for herbicide-tolerant varieties belonging to other species, liable to be farmed in French agriculture in the short term; targets, if applicable, the selection of crop/herbicide combinations according to the constraints associated with French agriculture; coordinates the evaluations conducted on herbicide-tolerant crops and those conducted on herbicides; implements a biovigilance system and its associated resources whenever herbicide-tolerant crop farming is envisaged. Our report highlights the need for the management of any herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops. Such a management plan must account for the diverse cropping situations, including crop rotations and farming practices. Management should be based on the prior evaluation of situations encountered, the development of measures commensurate with the risks, and a validation of their efficacy through biovigilance. The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the indirect environmental and agronomic impacts associated with current management practices employed for herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape crops can only be determined, in addition to the knowledge acquired, by continuing ongoing experimental studies initiated. Mathematical and computer models – by formalizing complex scenarios that incorporate the functioning of different oilseed rape populations (farmed, spontaneous, volunteer plants under specific farming practices – enables the simulation of potential impacts and the identification of suitable management measures. Nevertheless, at the present time, the introduction of more extensive farming than that currently practised, or managed progressive introduction, would make it possible to progress in the study of impacts and develop and validate management procedures enabling the limitation of adverse impacts. In the specific case of imports, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that herbicidetolerant GM oilseed rape

  3. Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Gates, Paul M.; Werner, S.L.; Battaglin, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), imidazolinone (IMI), and sulfonamide (SA) herbicides are new classes of low-application-rate herbicides increasingly used by farmers. Some of these herbicides affect both weed and crop species at low dosages and must be carefully used. Less is known about the effect of these compounds on non-crop plant species, but a concentration of 100 ng/l in water has been proposed as the threshold for possible plant toxicity for most of these herbicides. Hence, analytical methods must be capable of detecting SUs, IMIs, and SAs at concentrations less than 100 ng/l in ambient water samples. The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) to identify and quantify these herbicides to 10 ng/l. This method was used to analyze 196 surface- and ground-water samples collected from May to August 1998 throughout the Midwestern United States, and more than 100 quality-assurance and quality-control samples. During the 16 weeks of the study, the HPLC/ESI-MS maintained excellent calibration linearity across the calibration range from 5 to 500 ng/l, with correlation coefficients of 0.9975 or greater. Continuing calibration verification standards at 100-ng/l concentration were analyzed throughout the study, and the average measured concentrations for individual herbicides ranged from 93 to 100 ng/l. Recovery of herbicides from 27 reagent-water samples spiked at 50 and 100 ng/l ranged from 39 to 92%, and averaged 73%. The standard deviation of recoveries ranged from 14 to 26%, and averaged 20%. This variability reflects multiple instruments, operators, and the use of automated and manual sample preparation. Spiked environmental water samples had similar recoveries, although for some herbicides, the sample matrix enhanced recoveries by as much as 200% greater than the spiked concentration. This matrix

  4. Fluridone: a combination germination stimulant and herbicide for problem fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Problem weeds in agriculture, such as Lolium rigidum Gaud., owe some of their success to their large and dormant seed banks, which permit germination throughout a crop-growing season. Dormant weed seed banks could be greatly depleted by application of a chemical that stimulates early-season germination and then kills the young seedlings. Fluridone, a phytoene desaturase-inhibiting herbicide that can also break seed dormancy, was assessed for its efficacy in this regard. The germination of fluridone-treated Lolium rigidum seeds was stimulated on soils with low organic matter, and almost 100% seedling mortality was observed, while the treatment was only moderately effective on a high-organic-matter potting mix. Seedlings from wheat, canola, common bean and chickpea seeds sown on fluridone-treated sandy loam were bleached and did not survive, but lupins and field peas grew normally. This proof-of-concept study with fluridone suggests that it may be possible to design safe and effective molecules that act as germination stimulants plus herbicides in a range of crop and soil types: a potentially novel way of utilising herbicides to stimulate seed bank germination and a valuable addition to an integrated weed management system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie; Stellman, Andrew B; Christian, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively limited epidemiologic and environmental research has been carried out on the distribution and health effects of this contamination. As part of a response to a National Academy of Sciences' request for development of exposure methodologies for carrying out epidemiologic research, a conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed. The GIS is based on a relational database system that integrates extensive data resources on dispersal of herbicides (e.g., HERBS records of Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, gallonage, and chemical agent), locations of military units and bases, dynamic movement of combat troops in Vietnam, and locations of civilian population centers. The GIS can provide a variety of proximity counts for exposure to 9,141 herbicide application missions. In addition, the GIS can be used to generate a quantitative exposure opportunity index that accounts for quantity of herbicide sprayed, distance, and environmental decay of a toxic factor such as dioxin, and is flexible enough to permit substitution of other mathematical exposure models by the user. The GIS thus provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies. To facilitate widespread use of the GIS, a user-friendly software package was developed to permit researchers to assign exposure opportunity indexes to troops, locations, or individuals.

  6. Discovery of new herbicide modes of action with natural phytotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 20 modes of action (MOAs) are utilized by commercial herbicides, and almost 30 years have passed since the last new MOA was introduced. Rapidly increasing evolution of resistance to herbicides with these MOAs has greatly increased the need for herbicides with new MOAs. Combinatorial chemistry ...

  7. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  8. Development and characterization of mutant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions resistant to the herbicide quizalofop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Michael; Haley, Scott D; Anderson, Victoria; Shaner, Dale; Manmathan, Harish; Beil, Craig; Westra, Phillip

    2015-02-01

    New herbicide resistance traits in wheat were produced through the use of induced mutagenesis. While herbicide-resistant crops have become common in many agricultural systems, wheat has seen few introductions of herbicide resistance traits. A population of Hatcher winter wheat treated with ethyl methanesulfonate was screened with quizalofop to identify herbicide-resistant plants. Initial testing identified plants that survived multiple quizalofop applications. A series of experiments were designed to characterize this trait. In greenhouse studies the mutants exhibited high levels of quizalofop resistance compared to non-mutant wheat. Sequencing ACC1 revealed a novel missense mutation causing an alanine to valine change at position 2004 (Alopecurus myosuroides reference sequence). Plants carrying single mutations in wheat's three genomes (A, B, D) were identified. Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase in resistant plants was 4- to 10-fold more tolerant to quizalofop. Populations of segregating backcross progenies were developed by crossing each of the three individual mutants with wild-type wheat. Experiments conducted with these populations confirmed largely normal segregation, with each mutant allele conferring an additive level of resistance. Further tests showed that the A genome mutation conferred the greatest resistance and the B genome mutation conferred the least resistance to quizalofop. The non-transgenic herbicide resistance trait identified will enhance weed control strategies in wheat.

  9. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Questions concerning the potential impact of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential impacts of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The impact on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  11. High-yield production of herbicidal thaxtomins and analogs in a nonpathogenic Streptomyces strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangde; Zhang, Yucheng; Powell, Magan M; Zhang, Peilan; Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Kallifidas, Dimitrios; Tieu, Albert M; Luesch, Hendrik; Loria, Rosemary; Ding, Yousong

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are virulence factors of most plant pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Due to their potent herbicidal activity, attractive environmental compatibility and inherent biodegradability, thaxtomins are key active ingredients of bioherbicides approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the low yield of thaxtomins in native Streptomyces producers limits their wide agricultural applications. Here, we describe the high-yield production of thaxtomins in a heterologous host. The thaxtomin gene cluster from S. scabiei 87.22 was cloned and expressed in S. albus J1074 after chromosomal integration. The production of thaxtomins and nitro-tryptophan analogs were observed using LC-MS analysis. When culturing the engineered S. albus J1074 in the minimal medium TMDc, the yield of the most abundant and herbicidal analog, thaxtomin A, was 10 times higher than S. scabiei 87.22, and optimization of the medium resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomin analogs at about 222 mg/L. Further engineering of the thaxtomin biosynthetic gene cluster through gene deletion led to the production of multiple biosynthetic intermediates important to the chemical synthesis of new analogs. Additionally, the versatility of the thaxtomin biosynthetic system in S. albus J1074 was capitalized to produce one unnatural fluorinated analog 5-F-thaxtomin A, whose structure was elucidated by a combination of MS and 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Natural and unnatural thaxtomins demonstrated potent herbicidal activity in radish seedling assays. These results indicated that S. albus J1074 has the potential to produce thaxtomins and thereof with high yield, fostering their agricultural applications. IMPORTANCE Thaxtomins are agriculturally valuable herbicidal natural products but the productivity of native producers is limiting. Heterologous expression of thaxtomin gene cluster in S. albus J1074 resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomins ever reported, representing a significant leap

  12. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... concentrations of the test chemical at 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The percentage growth rate ... production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of ... Herbicides commonly known as weed-killers are.

  13. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Work plan for determining the occurrence of glyphosate, its transformation product AMPA, other herbicide compounds, and antibiotics in midwestern United States streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in herbicide use in the Midwestern United States have been substantial over the last 5 years. Most significant is a tripling in the use of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycin). Over this same time period (1997­2001), atrazine use increased by 20 percent and acetochlor use increased by 10 percent, while cyanazine use decreased by 99 percent, alachlor use decreased by 70 percent, and metolachlor use decreased by 55 percent. Previous studies have documented that herbicide flushes occur in midwestern streams during runoff events for several weeks to several months following application, and that herbicide concentrations in midwestern streams during flushing events are related to rates of herbicide use.

  15. Progress in herbicide determination with the thylakoid bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapmann, S; Etxebarria, N; Schnabl, H; Grobecker, K H

    1998-01-01

    Chloroplast thylakoids are used as biological units to determine herbicides in different kinds of water samples as well as in aqueous extracts of compost, soil or food samples. The thylakoid bioassay shows clearly inhibition of fluorescence yield in the presence of photosystem II specific herbicides. Due to this method the ecotoxicological effect of samples with unknown pollutants can be tested fast and cost effective. It has been proven that all photosynthetic active compounds are recorded at the same time because only additive interactions occur. Therefore, the contamination level can be expressed as cumulative parameter for photosystem II active substances. Application was improved clearly by the addition of the radical scavenger sodium ascorbate to the isolation media and by a higher concentration of the measuring medium. A new data evaluation method is described yielding in a lower detection limit of 0.4 microg diuron/1. The guidelines for the quality of water for human consumption with an allowable concentration of pesticides in groups is 0,5 microg/1 and can be controlled with the thylakoid bioassay without performing any preconcentration steps.

  16. Fate of 2,4-D herbicide in soil-plant ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1983-01-01

    Herbicide was applied to wheat, barley and oat plants grown under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions and the fate of the herbicide was investigated using carbon 14 radioisotope. Results of the investigation indicate that (1) under laboratory condition degradation of the herbicide was faster in the soil, rich in organic matter and was not influenced by humidity; (2) the absorption of the herbicide by the plants was low under greenhouse conditions and (3) the uptake of the chemical by the plants grown in the field was higher in the presence of fertilizer (diammonium phosphate)

  17. Vasogenic edema in striatum following ingestion of glufosinate-containing herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Song, Seo-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seo-Young; Kim, Sung-Hun; Ryu, Sook-Won

    2009-10-01

    Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used worldwide. We report a patient who attempted suicide by ingesting a liquid herbicide containing GLA. A diffusion-weighted MRI showed cytotoxic edema in the hippocampus as well as vasogenic edema in the striata. To our knowledge, vasogenic edema caused by GLA-containing herbicide involving the striatum has not been reported in association with cytotoxic edema in the hippocampus. We assume that this herbicide affected the central nervous system via different mechanisms to produce both cytotoxic and vasogenic edema in the same patient.

  18. Physiological aspects and growth of sunflower after application of pre-emergent herbicides = Aspectos fisiológicos e crescimento do girassol após aplicação de herbicidas em pré-emergência.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Matias Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available - Studies aim to evaluate effects of different herbicides applied pre-emergence on the characteristics related to sunflower plants growth and physiology. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with five replications and the treatments consisted of application, sunflower pre-emergence, following herbicides: flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, s-metolachlor, linuron and pendimethalin, and an untreated control. The gas exchange was evaluated at 27 days after herbicide application (DAAs, while the analysis of growth and visual intoxication culture were measured at 50 DAAs. Evaluated the physiological characteristics were not altered by herbicides application. However, these products interfered variously related to growth of sunflower plants characteristics. While sunflower recovered from poisoning caused by the oxadiazon was noted slower growth in culture by application of flumioxazin. We conclude that at the doses evaluated in this study, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, s-metolachlor, linuron, oxadiazon and pendimethalin have potential for application in sunflower pre-emergence. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência sobre as características relacionadas ao crescimento e à fisiologia das plantas de girassol. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação, em pré-emergência do girassol, dos seguintes herbicidas: flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, s-metolachlor, linuron e pendimethalin, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação. As avaliações das trocas gasosas foram realizadas aos 27 dias após a aplicação (DAAs dos herbicidas, enquanto as análises de crescimento e intoxicação visual da cultura foram mensuradas aos 50 DAAs. As características fisiológicas avaliadas n

  19. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  20. Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

    2000-10-11

    Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  1. Comparative analysis of miRNAs of two rapeseed genotypes in response to acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicides by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Hu

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, also called acetolactate synthase, is a key enzyme involved in the first step of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine. Acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicides (AHAS herbicides are five chemical families of herbicides that inhibit AHAS enzymes, including imidazolinones (IMI, sulfonylureas (SU, pyrimidinylthiobenzoates, triazolinones and triazolopyrimidines. Five AHAS genes have been identified in rapeseed, but little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to AHAS herbicides. In this study, an AHAS herbicides tolerant genotype and a sensitive genotype were used for miRNA comparative analysis. A total of 20 small RNA libraries were obtained of these two genotypes at three time points (0h, 24 h and 48 h after spraying SU and IMI herbicides with two replicates. We identified 940 conserved miRNAs and 1515 novel candidate miRNAs in Brassica napus using high-throughput sequencing methods combined with computing analysis. A total of 3284 genes were predicted to be targets of these miRNAs, and their functions were shown using GO, KOG and KEGG annotations. The differentiation expression results of miRNAs showed almost twice as many differentiated miRNAs were found in tolerant genotype M342 (309 miRNAs after SU herbicide application than in sensitive genotype N131 (164 miRNAs. In additiond 177 and 296 miRNAs defined as differentiated in sensitive genotype and tolerant genotype in response to SU herbicides. The miR398 family was observed to be associated with AHAS herbicide tolerance because their expression increased in the tolerant genotype but decreased in the sensitive genotype. Moreover, 50 novel miRNAs from 39 precursors were predicted. There were 8 conserved miRNAs, 4 novel miRNAs and 3 target genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR experiment. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of AHAS herbicides

  2. [Determination of acetanilide herbicide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijian; Xu, Jinzhong; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Ding, Tao; Wu, Bin

    2007-09-01

    An analytical method of solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques was established for simultaneous determination of 12 acetanilide herbicide residues in tea-leaves. Herbicides were extracted from tea-leaf samples with ethyl acetate. The extract was cleaned-up on an active carbon SPE column connected to a Florisil SPE column. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with either electron impact ionization (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI). It is reliable and stable that the recoveries of all herbicides were in the range from 50% to 110% at three spiked levels, 10 microg/kg, 20 microg/kg and 40 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 10.9%. The two different ionization techniques are complementary as more ion fragmentation information can be obtained from the EI mode while more molecular ion information from the NCI mode. By comparison of the two techniques, the selectivity of NCI-SIM was much better than that of EI-SIM method. The sensitivities of the both techniques were high, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) for each herbicide was no more than 2.0 microg/kg, and the limit of detection (LOD) with NCI-SIM technique was much lower than that of EI-SIM when analyzing herbicides with several halogen atoms in the molecule.

  3. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identi...

  4. Pricing of environmental friendly herbicides appropriate for sustainable agriculture, A case study: wheat farmers in Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghorbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of wheat farmers’ personal preferences towards environmental issues and weed types is important in pricing bioherbicides for sustainable weed management and could consequently be a fundamental guide to agricultural authorities and policy-makers. In the present study, a survey was carried out by using data collected from 180 wheat farmers of Korasan Razavi province during 2008, together with hedonic pricing method. The role of environmental qualitative factors and weed type on pricing environmental-friendly herbicides on the basis of “willingness to pay” was studied. Results from the estimation of hedonic pricing method indicated that reduction of water pollution, human health risk, farmers information about negative effects of chemical herbicides and the virtual variable of weed type had significant effects on pricing environmental friendly herbicides. Variables of soil pollution and weed perenniality had no significant effects on pricing herbicide applicable to sustainable agricultural systems. Based on the results of this study, possibilities of using bioherbicide or less pollutant herbicides and also the rate of farmers willingness to pay for alternatives in the region are important factors recommended for additional studies

  5. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Urea Fertilizer and pH Influence on Sorption Process of Flumetsulam and MCPA Acidic Herbicides in a Volcanic Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Graciela; Jorquera, Milko; Demanet, Rolando; Elgueta, Sebastian; Briceño, Gabriela; de la Luz Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urea fertilizer and pH on the sorption process of two acidic herbicides, flumetsulam (2',6'-difluoro-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide) and MCPA (4-chloro--tolyloxyacetic acid), on an Andisol. Urea reduced the adsorption of MCPA but not that of flumetsulam. The Freundlich parameter of MCPA decreased from 8.5 to 5.1 mg L kg. This finding could be attributed to an increase in dissolved organic C due to an initial increase in soil pH for urea application. The higher acidic character of MCPA compared with that of flumetsulam produced a greater hydrolysis of urea, leading to a further pH increase. A marked effect of pH on the adsorption of both herbicides was observed. The organic C distribution coefficient () values for flumetsulam were in the range of 74 to 10 L kg, while those of MCPA were in the range of 208 to 45 L kg. In the kinetic studies, the pseudo-second-order model appeared to fit the data best ( > 0.994). The initial adsorption rates () ranged from 20.00 to 4.59 mg kg h for flumetsulam and from 125.00 to 25.60 mg kg hfor MCPA. Both herbicides were adsorbed rapidly during the first stage of the sorption process, and the rates of sorption were dependent on pH. The application of the Elovich and Weber-Morris models led us to conclude that mass transfer through the boundary layer and, to a lesser degree, intraparticle diffusion were influenced by the chemical character of the herbicide. These results suggest that urea application could increase leaching of acid herbicides in soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  8. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  9. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  10. Using compound-specific isotope analysis to assess the degradation of chloroacetanilide herbicides in lab-scale wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, O F; Maillard, E; Vuilleumier, S; Nijenhuis, I; Richnow, H H; Imfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a promising tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants including pesticides. In this study, a novel CSIA method was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of widely used chloroacetanilide herbicides. The developed method was applied in combination with herbicide concentration and hydrochemical analyses to investigate in situ biodegradation of metolachlor, acetochlor and alachlor during their transport in lab-scale wetlands. Two distinct redox zones were identified in the wetlands. Oxic conditions prevailed close to the inlet of the four wetlands (oxygen concentration of 212±24μM), and anoxic conditions (oxygen concentrations of 28±41μM) prevailed towards the outlet, where dissipation of herbicides mainly occurred. Removal of acetochlor and alachlor from inlet to outlet of wetlands was 56% and 51%, whereas metolachlor was more persistent (23% of load dissipation). CSIA of chloroacetanilides at the inlet and outlet of the wetlands revealed carbon isotope fractionation of alachlor (εbulk=-2.0±0.3‰) and acetochlor (εbulk=-3.4±0.5‰), indicating that biodegradation contributes to the dissipation of both herbicides. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to evaluate the transport and degradation of chloroacetanilide herbicides in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Herbicide and pesticide occurrence in the soils of children's playgrounds in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Imamovic, Belma; Salihovic, Mirsada; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Jancan, Gordan

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide pollution in Sarajevo public playgrounds is an important health and environmental issue, and the lack of information about it is causing concerns amongst the general population as well as researchers. Since children are in direct contact with surface soils on children's playgrounds, such soils should be much more carefully examined. Furthermore, herbicides and pesticides get transmitted from soil surfaces brought from outside the urban areas, or they get dispersed following their direct applications in urban areas. Infants' and children's health can be directly affected by polluted soils because of the inherent toxicity and widespread use of the different pesticides in urban environments such as playgrounds. In addition to that, the presence of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative pesticide found as soil pollutant in playing equipment was also documented. Soil samples from playgrounds were collected and analyzed for triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, phenolic herbicides and organochlorine pesticides. Samples for the determination of heavy metals Cu, Cr and As were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion, and the findings were determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, chlorphenoxy compounds, phenolic herbicides, organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were detected in playground soils and their determined concentrations (mg/kg) were respectively found as follows: herbicides and pesticides on human health, which strengthens the case for a more preventative and protective approach to the uncontrolled presence of herbicides and pesticides in Sarajevo's playground soils.

  12. 75 FR 17857 - Removal of Obsolete References to Herbicides Containing Dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Herbicides Containing Dioxin AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and radiation to remove the obsolete references to herbicides containing dioxin. This final rule reflects changes made by the Agent Orange Act of...

  13. Bioactivity of Several Herbicides on the Nanogram Level Under Different Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S C; Kuk, Y I; Senseman, S A; Ahn, H G; Seong, C N; Lee, D J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a double-tube centrifuge method was employed to determine the effects of soil moisture on the bioactivity of cafenstrole, pretilachlor, benfuresate, oxyfluorfen and simetryn. In general, the available herbicide concentration in soil solution (ACSS) showed little change as soil moisture increased for herbicides. The total available herbicide in soil solution (TASS) typically increased as soil moisture increased for all herbicides. The relationship between TASS and % growth rate based on dry weight showed strong linear relationships for both cafenstrole and pretilachlor, with r2 values of 0.95 and 0.84, respectively. Increasing TASS values were consistent with increasing herbicide water solubility, with the exception of the ionizable herbicide simetryn. Plant absorption and % growth rate exhibited a strong linear relationship with TASS. According to the results suggested that TASS was a better predictor of herbicidal bioactivity than ACSS for all herbicides under unsaturated soil moisture conditions.

  14. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance in a multiple-resistant Lolium rigidum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyi; Yu, Qin; Owen, Mechelle; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    The pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicides (such as trifluralin and pendimethalin) are vital to Australian no-till farming systems. A Lolium rigidum population collected from the Western Australian grain belt with a 12-year trifluralin use history was characterised for resistance to dinitroaniline, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Target-site resistance mechanisms were investigated. This L. rigidum population exhibited 32-fold resistance to trifluralin, as compared with the susceptible population. It also displayed 12- to 30-fold cross-resistance to other dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin, ethalfluralin and oryzalin). In addition, this population showed multiple resistance to commonly used post-emergence ACCase- and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Two target-site α-tubulin gene mutations (Val-202-Phe and Thr-239-Ile) previously documented in other dinitroaniline-resistant weed species were identified, and some known target-site mutations in ACCase (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg) and ALS (Pro-197-Gln/Ser) were found in the same population. An agar-based Petri dish screening method was established for the rapid diagnosis of resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. Evolution of target-site resistance to both pre- and post-emergence herbicides was confirmed in a single L. rigidum population. The α-tubulin mutations Val-202-Phe and Thr-239-Ile, documented here for the first time in L. rigidum, are likely to be responsible for dinitroaniline resistance in this population. Early detection of dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and integrated weed management strategies are needed to maintain the effectiveness of dinitroaniline herbicides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Oxidative stress caused by the use of preemergent herbicides in rice crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Langaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the methods of weed control, stands out chemical control. However, even selective, herbicides can trigger the production of reactive species of oxygen and cause oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in photosynthetic parameters, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activity and altered metabolism of rice plants after applying pre-emergent herbicides. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and herbicides used were oxadiazon, pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen, beyond the control without herbicide. There was a reduction of photosynthetic rate and efficiency of carboxylation, compared to the control, when applied herbicides oxyfluorfen and pendimethalin. The major lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation was observed for the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon herbicides also resulted in increased activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to control. When evaluated ascorbate peroxidase activity, there was a higher enzyme activity in plants treated with oxadiazon and pendimethalin. Even selective herbicides registered for weed control in rice crops cause phytotoxicity, reduce height and alter the metabolism of plants, generating reactive oxygen species, which activate enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems and result in the degradation of photosynthetic pigments and in reduced protein content.

  16. Phorate can reverse P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Gaines, Todd Adam; Powles, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Organophosphate insecticides can inhibit specific cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in metabolic herbicide resistance mechanisms, leading to synergistic interactions between the insecticide and the herbicide. In this study we report synergistic versus antagonistic interactions between the organophosphate insecticide phorate and five different herbicides observed in a population of multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum. Phorate synergised with three different herbicide modes of action, enhancing the activity of the ALS inhibitor chlorsulfuron (60% LD 50 reduction), the VLCFAE inhibitor pyroxasulfone (45% LD 50 reduction) and the mitosis inhibitor trifluralin (70% LD 50 reduction). Conversely, phorate antagonised the two thiocarbamate herbicides prosulfocarb and triallate with a 12-fold LD 50 increase. We report the selective reversal of P450-mediated metabolic multiple resistance to chlorsulfuron and trifluralin in the grass weed L. rigidum by synergistic interaction with the insecticide phorate, and discuss the putative mechanistic basis. This research should encourage diversity in herbicide use patterns for weed control as part of a long-term integrated management effort to reduce the risk of selection of metabolism-based multiple herbicide resistance in L. rigidum. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Research methods in weed science: herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants is a key component in the study of herbicide physiology, mode of action, selectivity, resistance mechanisms, and in the registration process. Radioactive herbicides have been in use for over half-a-century in the research and study of herbicide absorp...

  18. Inheritance and molecular characterization of broad range tolerance to herbicides targeting acetohydroxyacid synthase in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano

    2012-02-01

    Ahasl1 is a multilallelic locus where all the induced and natural mutations for herbicide tolerance were described thus far in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The allele Ahasl1-1 confers moderate tolerance to imidazolinone (IMI), Ahasl1-2, and Ahasl1-3 provides high levels of tolerance solely to sulfonylurea (SU) and IMI, respectively. An Argentinean wild sunflower population showing plants with high level of tolerance to either an IMI and a SU herbicide was discovered and used to develop an inbred line designated RW-B. The objectives of this work were to determine the relative level and pattern of cross-tolerance to different AHAS-inhibiting herbicides, the mode of inheritance, and the molecular basis of herbicide tolerance in this line. Slight or no symptoms observed after application of different herbicides indicated that RW-B possesses a completely new pattern of tolerance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in sunflower. Biomass response to increasing doses of metsulfuron or imazapyr demonstrated a higher level of tolerance in RW-B with respect to Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1 and Ahasl1-2/Ahasl1-2 lines. On the basis of genetic analyses and cosegregation test, it was concluded that tolerance to imazapyr in the original population is inherited as a single, partially dominant nuclear gene and that this gene is controlling the tolerance to four different AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. Pseudo-allelism test permitted us to conclude that the tolerant allele present in RW-B is an allelic variant of Ahasl1-1 and was designated as Ahasl1-4. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the Ahasl1-4 allele sequence of RW-B has a leucine codon (TTG) at position 574 (relative to the Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS sequence), whereas the enzyme from susceptible lines has a tryptophan residue (TGG) at this position. The utilization of this new allele in the framework of weed control and crop rotation is discussed.

  19. Oxidative stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) induced by glyphosate: Is the mitochondrial electron transport chain a target of this herbicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the physiological responses of Lemna minor plants exposed to glyphosate. The deleterious effects of this herbicide on photosynthesis, respiration, and pigment concentrations were related to glyphosate-induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation. By using photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitors we located the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants exposed to 500 mg glyphosate l -1 . Inhibition of mitochondrial ETC Complex I by rotenone reduced H 2 O 2 concentrations in glyphosate-treated plants. Complex III activity was very sensitive to glyphosate which appears to act much like antimycin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial ETC Complex III) by shunting electrons from semiquinone to oxygen, with resulting ROS formation. Confocal evaluations for ROS localization showed that ROS are initially produced outside of the chloroplasts upon initial glyphosate exposure. Our results indicate that in addition to interfering with the shikimate pathway, glyphosate can induce oxidative stress in plants through H 2 O 2 formation by targeting the mitochondrial ETC, which would explain its observed effects on non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. studies on transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    derivative of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, atrazine (ATZ) --- a well known herbicide has ... development while the other is the metal ion associated degradation or deactivation of the herbicides .... Colour M.p./decomp.

  1. Integrated Effect of Seeding Rate, Herbicide Dosage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield reductions of 26 to 63% across four bread wheat cultivars at 90 weed seedlings m-2 in. Ethiopia. Before herbicides were widely available, farmers employed cultural measures to manage weed population. Wild oat management systems have evolved to the point that producers rely on herbicides to the virtual exclusion ...

  2. Relationship between weed dormancy and herbicide rotations: implications in resistance evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Colbach, Nathalie; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    It is suggested that selection for late germinating seed cohorts is significantly associated with herbicide resistance in some cropping systems. In turn, it is conceivable that rotating herbicide modes of action selects for populations with mutations for increased secondary dormancy, thus partially overcoming the delaying effect of rotation on resistance evolution. Modified seed dormancy could affect management strategies - like herbicide rotation - that are used to prevent or control herbicide resistance. Here, we review the literature for data on seed dormancy and germination dynamics of herbicide-resistant versus susceptible plants. Few studies use plant material with similar genetic backgrounds, so there are few really comparative data. Increased dormancy and delayed germination may co-occur with resistance to ACCase inhibitors, but there is no clear-cut link with resistance to other herbicide classes. Population shifts are due in part to pleiotropic effects of the resistance genes, but interaction with the cropping system is also possible. We provide an example of a model simulation that accounts for genetic diversity in the dormancy trait, and subsequent consequences for various cropping systems. We strongly recommend adding more accurate and detailed mechanistic modelling to the current tools used today to predict the efficiency of prevention and management of herbicide resistance. These models should be validated through long-term experimental designs including mono-herbicide versus chemical rotation in the field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  4. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  5. Eficiência fotossintética e consumo de água de Ipomoea triloba após aplicação de herbicidas Photosynthetic efficiency and water consumption of Ipomoea triloba after herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Araldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a fluorescência através da taxa de transporte de elétrons, consumo de água e intoxicação de plantas de Ipomoea triloba após aplicação de quatro herbicidas de diferentes mecanismos de ação. Os herbicidas aplicados foram: glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, diuron e amicarbazone. A aplicação foi feita com auxílio de um pulverizador estacionário instalado em laboratório; após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as plantas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação. Foi avaliada a taxa de transporte de elétrons (ETR, o consumo de água e a intoxicação das plantas em vários períodos após o início do experimento. Os dados de ETR e fitointoxicação foram expressos em porcentagem da testemunha e submetidos à análise de variância e à comparação das médias. Quanto ao consumo de água, os dados foram acumulados e ajustados por modelos de regressão. Assim, pode-se dizer que o fluorômetro é uma ferramenta adequada para verificar a intoxicação antecipada em plantas de I. triloba tratadas com os herbicidas amicarbazone e diuron, visto que a inibição da ETR foi verificada antes de qualquer intoxicação visual sofrida por essas plantas; o consumo de água está relacionado diretamente com o transporte de elétrons, com exceção das plantas submetidas ao haloxyfop-methyl, que não sofreram interferência no transporte de elétrons, mas reduziram o consumo de água.This work was carried out to evaluate fluorescence through electron transport rate (ETR, water consumption and intoxication of Ipomoea triloba after application of four herbicides with different mechanisms of action. The herbicides glyphosate, haloxyfop-methyl, diuron, and amicarbazone were applied using a stationary sprayer installed in the laboratory. After application, the plants were kept under greenhouse conditions. Electron transport rate, water consumption and plant intoxication were evaluated at various periods

  6. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.L.; Cotterman, J.C.; Primiani, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Selection of kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes resistant to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron has occurred through the continued use of this herbicide in monoculture cereal-growing areas in the United States. The apparent sulfonylurea resistance observed in kochia was confirmed in greenhouse tests. Fresh and dry weight accumulation in the resistance kochia was 2- to >350-fold higher in the presence of four sulfonylurea herbicides as compared to the susceptible biotype. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity isolated from sulfonylurea-resistant kochia was less sensitive to inhibition by three classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonanilides. The decrease in ALS sensitivity to inhibition (as measured by the ratio of resistant I 50 to susceptible I 50 ) was 5- to 28-fold, 2- to 6-fold, and 20-fold for sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, and a sulfonanilide herbicide, respectively. No differences were observed in the ALS-specific activities or the rates of [ 14 C]chlorsulfuron uptake, translocation, and metabolism between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes. The K m values for pyruvate using ALS from susceptible and resistant kochia were 2.13 and 1.74 mM, respectively. Based on these results, the mechanism of sulfonylurea resistance in this kochia biotype is due solely to a less sulfonylurea-sensitive ALS enzyme

  7. Resistance risk assessment within herbicide authorisation--a call for sensitivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulber, Lena; Nordmeyer, Henning; Zwerger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In most European countries, the risk of herbicide resistance is assessed as part of the authorisation of herbicides in accordance with EPPO Standard PP 1/213(2). Because the susceptibility of weed populations to a certain herbicide may vary greatly, one part of resistance risk assessment is the testing for sensitivity variation among different populations of target weed species with a high resistance risk. This paper emphasises the importance of sensitivity data provision with regard to the recent EU Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and outlines the main technical requirements for sensitivity data. A useful principle is that sensitivity data should be provided for all herbicides with a high resistance risk regardless of whether resistance has already evolved against the herbicidal substance. Methodical details regarding the generation of sensitivity data are discussed, together with remaining questions that will need to be addressed if a harmonised assessment of herbicide resistance risk is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Prediction of gas chromatography/electron capture detector retention times of chlorinated pesticides, herbicides, and organohalides by multivariate chemometrics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Asadpour, Saeid; Abdolmaleki, Azizeh

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) study, has been carried out on the gas chromatograph/electron capture detector (GC/ECD) system retention times (t R s) of 38 diverse chlorinated pesticides, herbicides, and organohalides by using molecular structural descriptors. Modeling of retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The stepwise regression using SPSS was used for the selection of the variables that resulted in the best-fitted models. Appropriate models with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients were obtained. Three types of molecular descriptors including electronic, steric and thermodynamic were used to develop a quantitative relationship between the retention times and structural properties. MLR and PLS analysis has been carried out to derive the best QSRR models. After variables selection, MLR and PLS methods used with leave-one-out cross validation for building the regression models. The predictive quality of the QSRR models were tested for an external prediction set of 12 compounds randomly chosen from 38 compounds. The PLS regression method was used to model the structure-retention relationships, more accurately. However, the results surprisingly showed more or less the same quality for MLR and PLS modeling according to squared regression coefficients R 2 which were 0.951 and 0.948 for MLR and PLS, respectively

  9. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Chronic >0.5 Daphnia Repeat exposure Chronic >0.2 reproduction 0 NOTE; Fluridone was not found to cause genetic mutations or cancer in tested lab...persists. REGISTERED HERBICIDES 95 REGISTERED HERBICIDES GLYPHOSATE A. Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine Formulation...RODEO (53.5% ai, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate , liquid) B. Mode of Action: Not definite. However, investigators have postulated that

  10. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous determination of five amide herbicides in fish samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhipeng; Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-03-01

    An efficient sample extraction and clean-up method was developed for simultaneous determination of five amide herbicides (alachlor, acetochlor, propisochlor, metazachlor, and butachlor) in fish samples. The protocol consisted of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up. In detail, aliquots of homogenized fish flesh were thoroughly mixed with 20 mL of n-hexane and then extracted with ultrasonication for 40 min. Each sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected for the subsequent clean-up. For the sample preparation, the above supernatant was processed with a C 18 column with 3 mL of dichloromethane/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) as the eluant. Then the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The correlation coefficients of the five calibration curves were 0.9976-0.9998 (n = 3). The limits of detection (S/N = 3, n = 11) and limits of quantification (S/N = 10, n = 11) were 0.19-0.42 and 0.63-1.39 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of this method were 71.2-92.6% with good precision (<4.7% relative standard deviations, n = 6). The developed method was successfully applied to monitor the five amide herbicides in fish samples collected from different cities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Degradation of Herbicides in the Tropical Marine Environment: Influence of Light and Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F; Eaglesham, Geoff; O'Brien, Jake; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Widespread contamination of nearshore marine systems, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon, with agricultural herbicides has long been recognised. The fate of these contaminants in the marine environment is poorly understood but the detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides in the GBR year-round suggests very slow degradation rates. Here, we evaluated the persistence of a range of commonly detected herbicides in marine water under field-relevant concentrations and conditions. Twelve-month degradation experiments were conducted in large open tanks, under different light scenarios and in the presence and absence of natural sediments. All PSII herbicides were persistent under control conditions (dark, no sediments) with half-lives of 300 d for atrazine, 499 d diuron, 1994 d hexazinone, 1766 d tebuthiuron, while the non-PSII herbicides were less persistent at 147 d for metolachlor and 59 d for 2,4-D. The degradation of herbicides was 2-10 fold more rapid in the presence of a diurnal light cycle and coastal sediments; apart from 2,4-D which degraded more slowly in the presence of light. Despite the more rapid degradation observed for most herbicides in the presence of light and sediments, the half-lives remained > 100 d for the PS II herbicides. The effects of light and sediments on herbicide persistence were likely due to their influence on microbial community composition and its ability to utilise the herbicides as a carbon source. These results help explain the year-round presence of PSII herbicides in marine systems, including the GBR, but more research on the transport, degradation and toxicity on a wider range of pesticides and their transformation products is needed to improve their regulation in sensitive environments.

  13. Herbicide volatilization trumps runoff losses, a multi-year investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface runoff and volatilization are two processes critical to herbicide off-site transport. To determine the relevance of these off-site transport mechanisms, runoff and turbulent vapor fluxes were simultaneously monitored on the same site for eight years. Site location, herbicide formulations, ...

  14. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  15. Viabilidade econômica dos sistemas manual e mecanizado de aplicação de herbicidas em ferrovias Economical viability of manual and mechanized application of herbicides in railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses R. Antuniassi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação mecanizada de herbicidas em ferrovias tem como principal vantagem a grande capacidade operacional, cobrindo trechos extensos em curtos espaços de tempo. Entretanto em função das características dos equipamentos utilizados, quase sempre ocorre grande desperdício de herbicida. A aplicação manual, através de pulverizadores costais, tem como principal vantagem a possibilidade da pulverização dirigida às áreas infestadas, diminuindo a quantidade de herbicida aplicado. Por outro lado, sua reduzida capacidade operacional faz com que a aplicação de longos trechos seja demorada, tornando-a, assim, mais dependente dos problemas climáticos e operacionais da ferrovia. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar uma análise comparativa das características operacionais e econômicas destes sistemas de aplicação, apontando os fatores mais importantes a serem avaliados para a sua implantação. Para tanto, foram realizadas simulações em computador, baseando-se em diversas equações matemáticas e dados levantados no campo. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação manual apresentou-se mais econômica apenas para trechos com baixas infestações (até 10%, e média. Na composição de custos, os gastos com herbicidas corresponderam a cerca de 80% do total para a aplicação mecanizada e apenas 8% na manual. Levando-se em conta os fatores operacionais e de mão-de-obra, em apenas um dos trechos avaliados houve vantagem econômica do uso da aplicação manual.Mechanized and manual systems of herbicide application in railway present either advantages or disadvantages. The main advantage of mechanized application is related to its wide operational capacity which covers large distances in short time. However, in function of the equipment characteristics, an excessive waste of herbicide usually occurs. The main advantage of manual application is the direct spraying in the infested area, decreasing the quantity of herbicide applied. On the

  16. Gas chromatographic determination of acid herbicides in surface water samples with electron-capture detection and mass spectrometric confirmation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.; Poll, J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    The development of a multi-residue method for the determination of eight polar acidic herbicides (MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, bentazone, dicamba and dikegulac) in surface water is described. The method involves an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure prior to instrumental

  17. Analysis of the metabolic resistance of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. to the herbicides action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lykholat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Action and aftereffect of the herbicides with different modes of action on the common ragweed population were studied in the field and greenhouse experiments. Activation of glutathione S-transferase has been detected due to the action of herbicides Harness and Guardian-Tetra both in leaves of juvenile plants and in ragweed seeds, which indicates intensive detoxification of herbicides during weed ontogenesis. Electrophoretic analysis showed that four components in protein spectra of ragweed seeds were inherent in seeds collected from herbicides-treated plants only. Using the method of isoelectric focusing, three specific peroxidase isoforms associated with a certain mechanism of herbicidal action on the parent plants were found in leaves of the next generation plants. The results confirm the intensive adaptive changes in A. artemisiifolia population that could provide the metabolic resistance to different modes of the herbicide action. Keywords: Common ragweed, Metabolic resistance, Herbicide, Mode of action, Isoforms, Isoelectric

  18. In vitro screening of selected herbicides on rhizosphere mycoflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of five selected herbicides at different concentrations on rhizosphere mycoflora from yellow pepper (capsicum annum L var. Nsukka yellow) seedlings at Nsukka were investigated. The herbicides employed for this study were Paraquat, Glyphosate, Primextra, Atrazine and Linuron. The isolated rhizosphere ...

  19. Effects of acetochlor (herbicide) on the survival and avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... These results suggested that acetochlor residues had negligible effects on P. birmanica and L. terrestris. Michalkova and Pekar (2009) and Yardim and Edwards (1998) also reported negligible effects of herbicide (glyphosate) on Pardosa agrestis. Although, we also observed negligible effects of herbicide.

  20. Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on biomass and essential oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanis, Anestis; Lykas, Christos; Liava, Vasiliki; Bezou, Anna; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71-92%, 63-74% and 86-95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth. Considering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Evaluating the impact of synthetic herbicides on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil in an agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, J O; Ofori, E S K; Yeboah, S; Marri, D; Offei, B K; Apaatah, F; Sintim, J O; Ofori-Ayeh, E; Osae, M

    2018-07-30

    This study evaluated three herbicides active ingredients: Paraquat, Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine in commercial formulations as Frankoquat, Roundup and Agriherb respectively under field conditions to determine their influence on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil. Herbicides were serially diluted to three treatment concentrations for each plus three controls. Herbicide concentrations were applied to the demarcated field on three consecutive occasions in splits. Macrobes extraction from soil was done under a stereo microscope at 20 × magnification. The Simpson's diversity index was used to calculate the soil macrobes diversity. Soil water content, bulk density and total porosity of sampled soils were determined. The study revealed that both herbicides and non-herbicides treatment had no statistical significance (p > 0.05) on the soil dwelling macrobes. Also, a Simpson's index of diversity, estimated as 53.46%, showed how the experimental area is lowly diverse in the specific soil dwelling macrobes identified. Significant correlations existed between the soil water content, bulk density, total porosity and number of soil macrobes at p dwelling macrobes decreased with increasing soil physical conditions. Thus, the dynamics in soil physical properties affected macrobes abundance in soil, with the slightest influence coming from the herbicides concentrations used in the experiment. The study recommended that Frankoquat and Roundup herbicides could be used to control weeds on farmer's field because, their influence were slightly felt on the soil macrobes and also, quite a number soil dwelling macrobes recovered after application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    OpenAIRE

    H. Arnold Bruns; Hamed K. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation (DMA) were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesi...

  3. Joint action of some usable important broadleaf herbicides in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliAsghar Chitband

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the effect of mixtures could be based on various concepts whether we work within toxicology, pharmacology or weed control. Combinations of certain herbicides can give better weed control than use of the individual herbicide alone and/or loss of weed control when use of certain other herbicides in combination. Predicting the joint action of mixtures is extremely difficult, unless the compounds are known to interact at the same site of action. These most common methods to analyze the joint action of herbicide mixtures are the Additive Dose Model (ADM or the Multiplicative Survival Model (MSM. The ADM assumes the two compounds have similar modes of action (do not interact in the receiver plant, i.e. effective doses of each component will not change by mixing. ADM has been widely accepted as a valid method to estimate joint action of mixtures sharing the same or similar action mechanisms in the receiver plant. MSM has been reported to yield more accurate results for mixture toxicity than ADM do when the components exhibited different or dissimilar modes of action in the receiver plant. ADM or Concentration Addition (CA is used here to test for deviation of additivity of doses using the ADM isoboles as reference; any deviation from the ADM is characterized by antagonism when the efficacy of a mixture is lower than predicted by the reference model and synergistic when the efficacy is higher than predicted. Materials and Methods: In order to determine joint action of some usable important broadleaf herbicides in sugar beet, six experiments were conducted at the research glasshouse in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The plants were sprayed with seven doses of commercial formulation of desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate (Betanal Progress- OF®, 427 g a.i. L-1, Tragusa, Spain, chloridazon (Pyramin®, 1361 g a.i. L-1, BASF, Germany, clopyralid (Lontrel®, 149 g a.i. L-1, Golsam, Gorgan

  4. Effects of the herbicides linuron and S-metolachlor on Perez's frog embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S

    2018-03-01

    Presence of pesticides in the environment and their possible effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern worldwide. The extensive use of herbicides in agricultural areas are one of the factors contributing to the known decline of amphibian populations. Thus, as non-target species, amphibians can be exposed in early life stages to herbicides in aquatic systems. In this context, this study aims to evaluate effects of increasing concentrations of two maize herbicides, linuron and S-metolachlor on embryos of the Perez' frog (Pelophylax perezi) during 192 h. Apical endpoints were determined for each herbicide: mortality, hatching rate, malformations and length. Frog embryos presented a LC 50 of 21 mg/l linuron and 37.5 mg/l S-metolachlor. Furthermore, sub-lethal concentrations of both herbicides affected normal embryonic development, delaying hatching, decreasing larvae length and causing several malformations. Length of larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of each herbicide, even at the lower concentrations tested. Malformations observed in larvae exposed to both herbicides were oedemas, spinal curvature and deformation, blistering and microphtalmia. Overall, these results highlight the need to assess adverse effects of xenobiotics to early life stages of amphibians regarding beside mortality the embryonic development, which could result in impairments at later stages. However, to unravel mechanisms involved in toxicity of these herbicides further studies regarding lower levels of biological organisation such as biochemical and genomic level should be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    F THIS PAGE Availabilit o this r is sp f o.n" the reverse of fo cove* . - .’.r. 717 CSAT CO ES ’SU JEC TE MS Coninu onrevrseif ece~ar an idntiy b...of Hardstand 7 and Surface Water Drainages ......... 4 3 Hardstand 7 Herbicide Oran&e Storage Locations .............. 5 4 Concentrations (in ppb) of...insoluble in water . The formula contained an approximate 50/50 mixture of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,-D) and 2,4,5

  6. Three-parameter modeling of the soil sorption of acetanilide and triazine herbicide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mirlaine R; Matias, Stella V B G; Macedo, Renato L G; Freitas, Matheus P; Venturin, Nelson

    2014-02-01

    Herbicides have widely variable toxicity and many of them are persistent soil contaminants. Acetanilide and triazine family of herbicides have widespread use, but increasing interest for the development of new herbicides has been rising to increase their effectiveness and to diminish environmental hazard. The environmental risk of new herbicides can be accessed by estimating their soil sorption (logKoc), which is usually correlated to the octanol/water partition coefficient (logKow). However, earlier findings have shown that this correlation is not valid for some acetanilide and triazine herbicides. Thus, easily accessible quantitative structure-property relationship models are required to predict logKoc of analogues of the these compounds. Octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular weight and volume were calculated and then regressed against logKoc for two series of acetanilide and triazine herbicides using multiple linear regression, resulting in predictive and validated models.

  7. Comparative sensitivity of Selenastrum capricornutum and Lemna minor to sixteen herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Ruessler, D.S.; Haverland, P.S.; Carlson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic plant toxicity tests are frequently conducted in environmental risk assessments to determine the potential impacts of contaminants on primary producers. An examination of published plant toxicity data demonstrates that wide differences in sensitivity can occur across phylogenetic groups of plants. Yet relatively few studies have been conducted with the specific intent to compare the relative sensitivity of various aquatic plant species to contaminants. We compared the relative sensitivity of the algae Selenestrum capricornutum and the floating vascular plant Lemna minor to 16 herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, cyanazine, alachlor, metolachlor, chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, triallate, EPTC, trifluralin, diquat, paraquat, dicamba, bromoxynil, and 2,4-D). The herbicides studied represented nine chemical classes and several modes of action and were chosen to represent major current uses in the United States. Both plant species were generally sensitive to the triazines (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, and cyanazine), sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron), pyridines (diquat and paraquat), dinitroaniline (trifluralin), and acetanilide (alachlor and metolachlor) herbicides. Neither plant species was uniformly more sensitive than the other across the broad range of herbicides tested. Lemna was more sensitive to the sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron) and the pyridines (diquat and parequat) than Selenastrum. However Selenastrum was more sensitive than Lemna to one of two thiocarbamates (triallate) and one of the triazines (cyanazine). Neither species was sensitive to selective broadleaf herbicides including bromoxynil, EPTC, dicamba, or 2,4-D. Results were not always predictable in spite of obvious differences in herbicide modes of action and plant phylogeny. Major departures in sensitivity of Selenastrum occurred between chemicals within individual classes of the triazine, acetanilide, and thiocarbamate herbicides. Results indicate that neither

  8. Selectivity and weed control efficacy of some herbicides applied to sprinkler irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavero, J; Zaragoza, C; Cirujeda, A; Anzalone, A; Faci, J M; Blanco, O

    2011-07-01

    Sprinkler irrigation can reduce the irrigation water needed to grow rice. However, most available information on weed control with herbicides is related to flood irrigated rice because this is the main growing method. Field experiments were conducted at Zaragoza (Spain) during two years to study weed control and tolerance of sprinkler irrigated rice to several herbicides. The main weeds were Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC., Cyperus rotundus L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Rice cv Guadiamar was tolerant to preemergence (PRE) application of clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 and oxadiazon at 0.5 kg ha{sup -}1. PRE application of pendimethalin at 1.32 kg ha{sup -}1 combined with clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 decreased rice yield. Postemergence (POST) application of bentazon at 1.6 kg ha{sup -}1 + MCPA at 0.25 kg ha{sup -}1 did not injure rice but POST application of azimsulfuron at 0.025 kg ha{sup -}1 produced visual crop injury. Only treatments that controlled grassy weeds since rice was planted and by more than 80% at harvest time lead to acceptable rice yield (> 5,000 kg ha{sup -}1). Clomazone applied PRE at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 provided good control of grassy weeds (> 80%) and the highest rice yield, so it is recommended as a selective and efficacious PRE treatment for weed control of annual weeds in sprinkler irrigated rice. The perennial purple nutsedge was difficult to control at high plant densities (> 150 plants m{sup -}2) and the recommended herbicide is azimsulfuron applied at POST at 0.02 kg ha{sup -}1. (Author) 37 refs.

  9. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  10. Determining the Optimum Concentration of Pretilachlor and Sunrice plus Herbicides for Weed control in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebrahimpour Lish

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the optimal rates of Pertilachlor and Sunrice­-plus herbicides for weed control of rice (Oryza sativa Var.Tarom Hashemi, a factorial experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design with four replications in Rice Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, northern Iran. The first factor was weed control treatment which   consisted of lower than, equal, and more than recommended levels of Pertilachlor (i.e. 0.5, 0.75, 1 kg a.i ha-1 and Sun­rice plus (0.45, 0.9, 1.35 kg a.i ha-1 herbicides, along with unweeded and twice hand-weeded controls. The second factor consisted of two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (N application (i.e. 0 and 90 kg ha-1 of N. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotandus L. were the most dominant weeds of the experimental plots. The highest number of filled panicles per plant, number of grains per panicle, and grain yield were found in recommended rate of Pertilachlor, Sun­rice plus and more than recommended rate of Sun­rice plus due to adequate weed control (>70% at the presence of 90 kg ha-1 of N. The lowest number of grains per panicle, number of panicles per plant and grain yield were observed in unweeded treatment, at both levels of nitrogen fertilizer application.  It was concluded that application of N is effective in increasing grain yield of the examined rice genotype only if weeds are effectively controlled by herbicides. Hence, application of N in the unweeded conditions does not lead to an increase in grain yield of rice, because the consumption of N by weeds decreased the effect of nitrogen on rice grain production.

  11. Electron beam simulation applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A system for simulating electron beam treatment portals using low-temperature melting point alloy is described. Special frames having the same physical dimensions as the electron beam applicators used on the Varian Clinac 20 linear accelerator were designed and constructed

  12. economics of herbicide weed management in wheat in ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effective use of herbicides for the control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was not a reality in Ethiopia, until in recent years. This study aimed at evaluating different post-emergence herbicides against annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in wheat for selection and incorporation into an ...

  13. Polymers for electronic & photonic application

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C P

    2013-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of polymeric materials by the electronic industry can be found in Polymers for Electronic and Photonic Applications. This bookprovides in-depth coverage of photoresis for micro-lithography, microelectronic encapsulants and packaging, insulators, dielectrics for multichip packaging,electronic and photonic applications of polymeric materials, among many other topics. Intended for engineers and scientists who design, process, and manufacturemicroelectronic components, this book will also prove useful for hybrid and systems packaging managers who want to be info

  14. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  16. Quantitative Fractal Evaluation of Herbicide Effects on the Water-Absorbing Capacity of Superabsorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renkuan Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water absorption capacity of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs is important for agricultural drought resistance. However, herbicides may leach into the soil and affect water absorption by damaging the SAP three-dimensional membrane structures. We used 100-mesh sieves, electron microscopy, and fractal theory to study swelling and water absorption in SAPs in the presence of three common herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and tribenuron-methyl at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L. In the sieve experiments it was found that 2.0 mg/L atrazine reduces the capacity by 9.64–23.3% at different swelling points; no significant diminution was observed for the other herbicides or for lower atrazine concentrations. We found that the hydrogel membrane pore distributions have fractal characteristics in both deionized water and atrazine solution. The 2.0 mg/L atrazine destroyed the water-retaining polymer membrane pores and reduced the water-absorbing mass by modifying its three-dimensional membrane structure. A linear correlation was observed between the fractal analysis and the water-absorbing mass. Multifractal analysis characterized the membrane pore distribution by using the range of singularity indexes Δα (relative distinguishing range of 16.54–23.44%, which is superior to single-fractal analysis that uses the fractal dimension D (relative distinguishing range of 2.5–4.0%.

  17. A comparison of the herbicide tolerances of rare and common plants in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J Franklin; Graham, Ian M; Mortensen, David A

    2014-03-01

    Declining plant biodiversity in agroecosystems has often been attributed to escalating use of chemical herbicides, but other changes in farming systems, including the clearing of seminatural habitat fragments, confound the influence of herbicides. The present study introduces a new approach to evaluate the impacts of herbicide pollution on plant communities at landscape or regional scales. If herbicides are in fact a key factor shaping agricultural plant diversity, one would expect to see the signal of past herbicide impacts in the current plant community composition of an intensively farmed region, with common, successful species more tolerant to widely used herbicides than rare or declining species. Data from an extensive field survey of plant diversity in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA, were compared with herbicide bioassay experiments in a greenhouse to test the hypothesis that common species possess higher herbicide tolerances than rare species. Five congeneric pairs of rare and common species were treated with 3 commonly used herbicide modes of action in bioassay experiments, and few significant differences were found in the tolerances of rare species relative to common species. These preliminary results suggest that other factors beyond herbicide exposure may be more important in shaping the distribution and abundance of plant species diversity across an agricultural landscape. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Phytotoxicity of four herbicides on Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiyun; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Xiaohua; Gao, Shixiang

    2009-01-01

    The physiological effects of 4 herbicides (butachlor, quinclorac, bensulfuron-methyl and atrazine) on 3 submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii) were tested in laboratory. The variables of the relative growth rate and the photosynthetic pigment content showed that all of the tested herbicides affected the growth of the plants obviously, even at the lowest concentration (0.0001 mg/L). Except for the C. demersum treated with quinclorac at 0.005 and 0.01 mg/L, the relative growth rates of the plants were inhibited significantly (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) contents was carried out with both the t-test and one-way ANOVA to determine the difference between the treatment and control. The results showed that Chl-a contents of the plants in all treatment groups were affected by herbicides significantly, except for the C. demersum treated with bensulfuron-methyl at 0.0005 mg/L. The decrease in Chl-a content was positively correlated to the dosage of the herbicides in most treatment groups. It was suggested that herbicides in water bodies might potentially affect the growth of aquatic macrophytes. Since the Chl-a content of submerged macrophytes responded to the stress of herbicides sensitively and directly, it could be used as a biomaker in environmental monitoring or in the ecological risk assessment of herbicide contamination.

  19. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of high-energy radiation with organic systems produces very reactive, short-lived, ionic and free-radical species. The chemical changes brought about by these species are very useful in several systems, and are the basis of the growth of the electron processing industry. Some typical areas of the industrial use of electron accelerators are crosslinking wire and cable insulation, manufacturing heat shrink plastic items, curing coatings, and partially curing rubber products. Electron accelerators are also being considered in other areas such as sewage treatment, sterilizing medical disposables, and food irradiation. An emerging application of industrial electron accelerators is the production of advanced composites for the aerospace and other industries. Traditionally, the carbon-, aramid- and glass-fibre-reinforced composites with epoxy matrices are produced by thermal curing. However, equivalent composites with acrylated-epoxy matrices can be made by electron curing. Cost estimates suggest that electron curing could be more economical than thermal curing. Food irradiation has traditionally been an application for 60 Co γ-radiation. With the increasing demand for food irradiation in various countries, it may become necessary to use electron accelerators for this purpose. Since the dose rate during gamma and electron irradiation are generally very different, a review of the relevant work on the effect of dose rates has been done. This paper presents an overview of the industrial applications of electron accelerator for radiation processing, emphasises the electron curing of advanced composites and, briefly reviews the dose-rate effects in radiation processing of advanced composites and food irradiation. (author). 84 refs., 8 tabs

  20. Controlling herbicide-susceptible, -tolerant and -resistant weeds with microbial bioherbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of weeds is a necessary but expensive challenge. Public concerns of health, safety, and sustainability have increased interest in reducing the use of synthetic chemicals for weed control. Alternatives to chemical herbicides, such as bioherbicides, may offer an alternative to herbicide...

  1. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, M.A.; Nadeem, M.A.; Sarwar, M.A.; Naseer-ud-Din, G.M.; Ilahi, F.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat during a Rabi season 2008-09. Experiment comprised of six treatments, i.e. weed-infested control, pyroxasulfone at 50 g a.i ha/sup -1/, metribuzin at 250 g a.i ha/sup -1/, isoproturon at 1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/, clodinafop propargyl at 240 g a.i ha/sup -1/ and as post-emergence herbicides. Results revealed that Post-emergence application of bromoxynil + MCPA at 247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha) proved to be best for obtaining maximum grain plus straw yield up to the level of weed-free -1 -1 control. Bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha) and clodinafop propargyl (240 g a.i ha/sup -1/) also gave maximum spike bearing tillers, number of grains spike and 1000-grain weight. Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) strictly reduced the weeds population as well as biomass as compared to weed-infested control. Poor weed control was achieved by using pyroxasulfone and metribuzin treatments. Hence, post-emergence Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ ) was provide to be the most effective herbicide against weeds and resulted in maximum wheat yield. (author)

  2. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, M.A.; Nadeem, M.A.; Sarwar, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat during a Rabi season 2008-09. Experiment comprised of six treatments, i.e. weed-infested control, pyroxasulfone at 50 g a.i ha/sup -1/, metribuzin at 250 g a.i ha/sup -1/, isoproturon at 1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/, clodinafop propargyl at 240 g a.i ha/sup -1/ and bromoxynil+MCPA at 247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence herbicides. Results revealed that Post-emergence application of isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha-1) proved to be best for obtaining maximum grain plus straw yield up to the level of weed-free control. Bromoxynil+MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/) and clodinafop propargyl (240 g a.i ha-1) also gave maximum spike bearing tillers, number of grains spike-1 and 1000-grain weight. Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) strictly reduced the weeds population as well as biomass as compared to weed-infested control. Poor weed control was achieved by using pyroxasulfone and metribuzin treatments. Hence, post-emergence Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/) was provide to be the most effective herbicide against weeds and resulted in maximum wheat yield. (author)

  3. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A 3D-Printed, Portable, Optical-Sensing Platform for Smartphones Capable of Detecting the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yijia [School; College; Zeinhom, Mohamed M. A. [School; Food; Yang, Mingming [School; Sun, Rongrong [School; Wang, Shengfu [College; Smith, Jordan N. [Health; amp, Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Timchalk, Charles [Health; amp, Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Li, Lei [School; Lin, Yuehe [School; Du, Dan [School

    2017-08-14

    Onsite rapid detection of herbicide and herbicide residuals in environmental and biological specimens is important for agriculture, environment, food safety, and health care. Traditional method for herbicide detection requires expensive laboratory equipment and a long turn-round time. In this work, we developed a single-stripe microliter plate smartphone colorimetric device for rapid and low-cost in-field test. This portable smartphone platform is capable of screening 8 samples in a microplate single-stripe. The device combined the advantages of small size (50×100×160 mm3) and low cost ($10). The platform was calibrated by using two different dye solutions, i.e. methyl blue (MB) and Rhodamine B, for green and red channels. The results showed good correlation with results attained from a traditional laboratory reader. We demonstrated the application of this platform for an herbicide, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid detection in the range of 1 ppb to 80 ppb. Spiked samples of tap water, rat serum, plasma and human serum were tested by our device. Recoveries obtained varied from 95.6% to 105.2% for all spiked samples using the microplate reader and from 93.7% to 106.9% using the smartphone device. This work validated that the smartphone optical sensing platform is comparable to the commercial microplate reader, it is eligible for onsite rapid and low-cost detection of herbicide for environmental evaluation and biological monitoring.

  5. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  6. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, John D.; Chen Xuedong; Johnson, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  7. Phytoplankton growth and PSII efficiency sensitivity to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedbol, Élise; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agriculture has increased steadily since the mid 90's and there is now evidence of glyphosate leaching and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540 ® ) on growth and photosynthetic capacity of algae and cyanobacteria. Six algal and three cyanobacterial species/strains, of three different taxonomic groups, were exposed to five glyphosate concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000μgl -1 ) during 48h. All species have significant growth inhibition at concentrations varying between 50 and 500μgl -1 . The photosynthetic response, after glyphosate exposure, varied among species, but a general pattern has emerged. There was an increase in the amount of photons absorbed (ABS/RC), in dissipated (DI O /RC) and trapped (TR O /RC) energy in the photosystem II reaction centers, along with a decreased of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F V /F M ) and electron transport per reaction center (ET O /RC). The EC 50 and LOEC values for growth and photosynthesis were calculated and established that growth was the most affected parameter by glyphosate-based herbicide, while parameter TR O /RC was the least affected. All species showed reduced growth at glyphosate concentrations lower than the Canadian standard for the protection of aquatic life, set at 800μgl -1 or the American aquatic life benchmark for acute toxicity in non vascular plants of 12 100μgl -1 questioning the validity of these thresholds in assessing the risks related to the presence of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides in aquatic systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  9. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobi, M.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg -1 , 0.5150 mg/ kg -1 , and 2.5750 mg/ kg -1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  10. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  11. APPLICATION OF QuEChERS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHENYLUREA HERBICIDES IN BEETROOT BY HPLC WITH UV-VIS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Surma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylurea herbicides are an important group of herbicides utilized in weed control. They have been on sale since the 1950s and are still in common use throughout the world from pre- and post-emergence control of many annual and perennial broad-leaved weeds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of the QuEChERS method for the determination of phenylurea pesticides (chlortoluron, isoproturon, linuron, metobromuron, metoxuron, monolinuron in beetroot by HPLC with UV/Vis detection. Different types of sorbents (PSA, C18, SAX and NH2 and solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate were applied. The obtained results showed that the best recovery ratios were received for the method with PSA and GCB sorbents and using acetonitrile as an extraction solvent with RSD lower than 15% for most compounds. The linearity of calibration curves was higher than 0.98 for all target analytes. The results show that the QuEChERS method can be successfully applied for the determination of phenylurea herbicides in beetroot.

  12. Herbicide effects on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of Cassiopea maremetens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, David J; Templeman, Michelle A; Kingsford, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Herbicides from agricultural run-off have been measured in coastal systems of the Great Barrier Reef over many years. Non-target herbicide exposure, especially photosystem II herbicides has the potential to affect seagrasses and other marine species. The symbiotic benthic jellyfish Cassiopea maremetens is present in tropical/sub-tropical estuarine and marine environments. Jellyfish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to four separate concentrations of agricultural formulations of diuron or hexazinone to determine their sensitivity and potential for recovery to pulsed herbicide exposure. Jellyfish growth, symbiont photosynthetic activity and zooxanthellae density were analysed for herbicide-induced changes for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period. Both the jellyfish and endosymbiont were more sensitive to diuron than hexazinone. The 7-day EC 50 for jellyfish growth was 0.35 μg L -1 for Diuron and 17.5 μg L -1 for Hexazinone respectively. Diuron exposure caused a significant decrease (p diuron and hexazinone caused significant decreases in photosynthetic efficiency (effective quantum yield) in all treatment concentrations (0.1 μg L -1 and above) and this effect continued in the post-exposure period. As this species is frequently found in near-shore environments, they may be particularly vulnerable to herbicide run-off. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  14. Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Fantroussi, S; Verschuere, L; Verstraete, W; Top, E M

    1999-03-01

    The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.

  15. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  16. Herbicide effects on cuticle ultrastructure in Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpassi, Rosana N

    2006-04-01

    Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea are two common weeds in peanut crops in southern Córdoba. Two chemicals are frequently used to control them, quizalofop for grasses and lactofen for dicots. The objective is to study the effects of quizalofop and lactofen on cuticle ultrastructure in E. indica and P. oleracea, respectively. In the lab, quizalofop was applied on E. indica and lactofen on P. oleracea. Three plant categories were analyzed in each species: 3, 1-2, and no tiller in E. indica, and 8, 6, and 2 nomophylls in P. oleracea. Leaf samples from both species were collected at 7 and 16 days post-application and were treated for scanning electron microscopy. E. indica cuticle treated with lethal dose shows areas where epicuticular waxes disappear, specially in the youngest individuals. These areas are located predominantly on periclinal walls of typical epidermic cells and subsidiary cells. On the other hand, P. oleracea shows cuticle discontinuities that may be caused by lactofen entry. They are smaller and less frequent in plants having 8 or more nomophylls. The remaining waxes act as a herbicide accumulation compartment and, therefore, would partially prevent the active ingredient entry to epidermic cells.

  17. A herbicide structure-activity analysis of the antimalarial lead compound MMV007978 against Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Maxime G; Leroux, Julie; Tresch, Stefan; Newton, Trevor; Stubbs, Keith A; Mylne, Joshua S

    2018-07-01

    To fight herbicide-resistant weeds, new herbicides are needed; particularly ones with new modes of action. Building on the revelation that many antimalarial drugs are herbicidal, here we focus on the Medicines for Malaria Venture antimalarial lead compound MMV007978 that has herbicidal activity against the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Twenty-two variations of the lead compound thiophenyl motif revealed that change was tolerated provided ring size and charge were retained. MMV007978 was active against select monocot and dicot weeds, and physiological profiling indicated that its mode of action is related to germination and cell division. Of interest is the fact that the compound has a profile that is currently not found among known herbicides. We demonstrate that the antimalarial compound MMV007978 is also herbicidal and that exploiting lead compounds that are often understudied could lead to the identification of interesting herbicidal scaffolds. Further structural investigation of MMV007978 could provide improved herbicidal chemistries with a potential new mode of action. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four herbicides (atrazine, primeextra, paraquat and glyphosate) on soil microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity was assessed over a period of six weeks. Soil samples from cassava farms were treated with herbicides at company recommended rates. Soil dehydrogenase activity was ...

  19. Herbicides effect on the nitrogen fertilizer assimilation by sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, V.F.; Samojlov, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    It has been established in studying the effect of herbicides on pea plants that the penetration of the preparations into the tissues of leaves and stems results in a slight increase of the rate of formation of dry substance in the leaves of the treated plants within 24 hours after treatment as compared with control, whereas in the last period of the analysis the herbicides strongly inhibit the formation of dry substance in leaves. The applied herbicide doses have resulted in drastic changes of the distribution of the plant-assimilated nitrogen between the protein and non-protein fractions in the leaves and stems of pea. When affected by the studied herbicides, the fertilizer nitrogen supply to the pea plants changes and the rate of the fertilizer nitrogen assimilation by the plants varies noticeably. The regularities of the fertilizer nitrogen inclusion in the protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds of the above-ground pea organs have been studied

  20. Plant Community Diversity After Herbicide Control of Spotted Knapweed

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Herbicides were applied to four west-central Montana sites with light to moderate spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infestations. Althought knapweed suppression was high, 2 years after the spraying the communities were not converted to grass monocultures. No large declines in plant diversity were caused by the herbicides, and small depressions were probably transitory. By the third year, diversity had increased.

  1. Transcript markers of herbicide stress in Arabidopsis and their cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low concentrations and short environmental persistence times of some herbicides make it difficult to develop analytical methods to detect herbicide residues in plants or soils. In contrast, genomics may provide tools to identify herbicide exposure to plants in field settings. Usi...

  2. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  3. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  4. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  5. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Filì

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  6. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic rice system, the most promising irrigation water saving rice production technology, is highly impeded by severe weed pressure. Weed control through the use of same herbicide causes development of herbicide resistant weed biotypes and serious problem in weed management. This study was aimed at finding out ...

  7. Screening and selection of most potent diazotrophic cyanobacterial isolate exhibiting natural tolerance to rice field herbicides for exploitation as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Datta, Pallavi

    2006-01-01

    Periodic applications of heavy dosages of herbicides in modern rice-agriculture are a necessary evil for obtaining high crop productivity. Such herbicides are not only detrimental to weeds but biofertilizer strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria also. It is therefore, essential to screen and select such biofertilizer strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria exhibiting natural tolerance to common rice-field herbicides that can be further improved by mutational techniques to make biofertilizer technology a viable one. Therefore, efforts have been made to screen five dominant diazotrophic cyanobacterial forms e.g. filamentous heterocystous Nostoc punctiforme , Nostoc calcicola , Anabaena variabilis and unicellular Gloeocapsa sp. and Aphanocapsa sp. along with standard laboratory strain Nostoc muscorum ISU against increasing concentrations (0-100 mg l(-1) of four commercial grade common rice-field herbicides i.e. Arozin, Butachlor, Alachlor and 2,4-D under diazotrophic growth conditions. The lethal and IGC(50) concentrations for all four herbicides tested were found highest for A. variabilis as compared to other test cyanobacteria. The lowest reduction in chlorophyll a content, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and N(2)-fixation was found in A. variabilis as compared to other rice field isolates and standard laboratory strain N. muscorum ISU. On the basis of prolong survival potential and lowest reductions in vital metabolic activities tested at IGC(50) concentration of four herbicides, it is concluded that A. variabilis is the most potent and promising cyanobacterial isolate as compared with other forms. This could be further improved by mutational techniques for exploitation as most potential and viable biofertilizer strain.

  8. A note on the effective evaluation height for flux-gradient relationships and its application to herbicide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization represents a significant loss pathway for many pesticides, herbicides and other agrochemicals. One common method for measuring the volatilization of agrochemicals is the flux-gradient method. Using this method, the chemical flux is estimated as the product of the vertical concentratio...

  9. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  10. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: 1 before chemical herbicide spray; 2 after spray but before ploughing; 3 after ploughing but before reseeding; and 4 after one year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favoured those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After one year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  11. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L.; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  12. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  13. Weed emergence on long years’ not herbicide treated fields - duration of the after-effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a long-term field trial plots were not treated with herbicides for 12 years (from 1996 to 2007. Two different crop rotations with 50% or 66% of cereals in the rotation were tested. At the same time in each crop rotation two different plant protection strategies were established. Since autumn 2007 the former controls not sprayed with any herbicide have been treated with herbicides. The crop rotation was unified. In that long-term field trial plots always treated with herbicides exist also. Weeds were counted by number and species before herbicide treatments. The comparison of these two different plots (treated and untreated shows what after-effect exists on the formerly untreated plots even after eight years. The emergence of weeds is still higher. Also the different crop rotations are still perceptible. For the plant protection strategy with the lower herbicide amounts the differences blur now.

  14. Crystal structure of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase, the target for several commercial herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mario Daniel; Wang, Jian-Guo; Lonhienne, Thierry; Guddat, Luke William

    2017-07-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6) is the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. Five of the most widely used commercial herbicides (i.e. sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, triazolopyrimidines, pyrimidinyl-benzoates and sulfonylamino-cabonyl-triazolinones) target this enzyme. Here we have determined the first crystal structure of a plant AHAS in the absence of any inhibitor (2.9 Å resolution) and it shows that the herbicide-binding site adopts a folded state even in the absence of an inhibitor. This is unexpected because the equivalent regions for herbicide binding in uninhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae AHAS crystal structures are either disordered, or adopt a different fold when the herbicide is not present. In addition, the structure provides an explanation as to why some herbicides are more potent inhibitors of Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS compared to AHASs from other species (e.g. S. cerevisiae). The elucidation of the native structure of plant AHAS provides a new platform for future rational structure-based herbicide design efforts. The coordinates and structure factors for uninhibited AtAHAS have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (www.pdb.org) with the PDB ID code 5K6Q. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Photochemical oxidation processes for the elimination of phenyl-urea herbicides in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Acero, Juan L.; Garcia, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Four phenyl-urea herbicides (linuron, chlorotoluron, diuron, and isoproturon) were individually photooxidized by monochromatic UV radiation in ultra-pure aqueous solutions. The influence of pH and temperature on the photodegradation process was established, and the first-order rate constants and quantum yields were evaluated. The sequence of photodecomposition rates was: linuron > chlorotoluron > diuron > isoproturon. The simultaneous photooxidation of mixtures of the selected herbicides in several types of waters was then performed by means of UV radiation alone, and by UV radiation combined with hydrogen peroxide. The types of waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater, and a lake water. The influence of the independent variables in these processes - the presence or absence of tert-butyl alcohol, types of herbicide and waters, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide - were established and discussed. A kinetic study was performed using a competitive kinetic model that allowed various rate constants to be evaluated for each herbicide. This kinetic model allows one to predict the elimination of these phenyl-urea herbicides in contaminated waters by the oxidation systems used (UV alone and combined UV/H 2 O 2 ). The herbicide concentrations predicted by this model agree well with the experimental results that were obtained

  16. Photochemical oxidation processes for the elimination of phenyl-urea herbicides in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, F. Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: javben@unex.es; Real, Francisco J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia, Carolina [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-11-16

    Four phenyl-urea herbicides (linuron, chlorotoluron, diuron, and isoproturon) were individually photooxidized by monochromatic UV radiation in ultra-pure aqueous solutions. The influence of pH and temperature on the photodegradation process was established, and the first-order rate constants and quantum yields were evaluated. The sequence of photodecomposition rates was: linuron > chlorotoluron > diuron > isoproturon. The simultaneous photooxidation of mixtures of the selected herbicides in several types of waters was then performed by means of UV radiation alone, and by UV radiation combined with hydrogen peroxide. The types of waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater, and a lake water. The influence of the independent variables in these processes - the presence or absence of tert-butyl alcohol, types of herbicide and waters, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide - were established and discussed. A kinetic study was performed using a competitive kinetic model that allowed various rate constants to be evaluated for each herbicide. This kinetic model allows one to predict the elimination of these phenyl-urea herbicides in contaminated waters by the oxidation systems used (UV alone and combined UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The herbicide concentrations predicted by this model agree well with the experimental results that were obtained.

  17. Dynamics of herbicide transport and partitioning under event flow conditions in the lower Burdekin region, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Aaron M.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Glendenning, Lionel; Turner, Ryan D.R.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the temporal variability in herbicide delivery to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) from one of the GBR catchment’s major sugarcane growing regions. Annual loads of measured herbicides were consistently in the order of 200+ kg. Atrazine, it’s degradate desethylatrazine, and diuron contributed approximately 90% of annual herbicide load, with early ‘first-flush’ events accounting for the majority of herbicide loads leaving the catchment. Assessment of herbicide water–sediment partitioning in flood runoff highlighted the majority of herbicides were transported in predominantly dissolved form, although a considerable fraction of diuron was transported in particulate-bound form (ca. 33%). Diuron was also the herbicide demonstrating the highest concentrations and frequency of detection in sediments collected from catchment waterways and adjacent estuarine–marine environments, an outcome aligning with previous research. Herbicide physico-chemical properties appear to play a crucial role in partitioning between water column and sediment habitat types in GBR receiving ecosystems.

  18. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  19. Electron accelerators: History, applications, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. N.; Silva, T. F.

    2014-02-01

    This paper will present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. We will review advances that were important for the development of particle accelerators, concentrating on those that led to modern electron accelerators. Electron accelerators are multipurpose machines that deliver beams with energies spanning five orders of magnitude, and are used in applications that range from fundamental studies of particle interactions to cross-linking polymer chains in industrial plants. Each accelerator type presents specific characteristics that make it more suitable for certain applications. Our work will focus on radiation sources for medical applications, dominated by electron linacs (linear accelerators), and those used for research, field where electron rings dominate. We will outline the main technological advances that occurred in the past decades, which made possible the construction of machines fit for clinical environments. Their compactness, efficiency and reliability have been key to their acceptance in clinical applications. This outline will include advances that allowed for the construction of brighter synchrotron light sources, where the relevant beam characteristics are good optical quality and high beam current. The development of insertion devices will also be discussed, as well the development of Free Electron Lasers (FEL). We conclude the review with an outline of the new developments of electron accelerators and the expectations for Energy Recovery Linacs.

  20. Electron accelerators: History, applications, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.N.; Silva, T.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. We will review advances that were important for the development of particle accelerators, concentrating on those that led to modern electron accelerators. Electron accelerators are multipurpose machines that deliver beams with energies spanning five orders of magnitude, and are used in applications that range from fundamental studies of particle interactions to cross-linking polymer chains in industrial plants. Each accelerator type presents specific characteristics that make it more suitable for certain applications. Our work will focus on radiation sources for medical applications, dominated by electron linacs (linear accelerators), and those used for research, field where electron rings dominate. We will outline the main technological advances that occurred in the past decades, which made possible the construction of machines fit for clinical environments. Their compactness, efficiency and reliability have been key to their acceptance in clinical applications. This outline will include advances that allowed for the construction of brighter synchrotron light sources, where the relevant beam characteristics are good optical quality and high beam current. The development of insertion devices will also be discussed, as well the development of Free Electron Lasers (FEL). We conclude the review with an outline of the new developments of electron accelerators and the expectations for Energy Recovery Linacs. - Highlights: ► We present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. ► We review important advances for the development of modern electron accelerators. ► We outline advances that allowed for brighter synchrotron light sources. ► We describe the history of the development of electron accelerators in Brazil

  1. Sensitivity to Glufosinate-ammonium herbicide in plants of Glycine max cultivar INCASoy-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Liusvert Pérez Pérez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to define the minimum concentration of herbicide Glufosinate-ammonium that inhibits the growth of the soybean plants in greenhouse condition. The soybean plants were tried with different concentrations of herbicide (5; 10; 1 5; 20; 25; 30 mg L-1 and a control without herbicide. The increase of the concentrations increased the necrosis of the plants and the use of 20 mgL-1 Glufosinato de amonio herbicide was sufficient to inhibit the plant growth. These results allow using this method of selection in programs of genetic improvement and selection of transgenic soybean plants

  2. Herbicides in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.

    1997-01-01

    Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)

  3. Photosynthetic Performance of the Imidazolinone Resistant Sunflower Exposed to Single and Combined Treatment by the Herbicide Imazamox and an Amino Acid Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka Anastasova Balabanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The herbicide imazamox may provoke temporary yellowing and growth retardation in IMI-R sunflower hybrids, more often under stressful environmental conditions. Although photosynthetic processes are not the primary sites of imazamox action, they might be influenced; therefore, more information about the photosynthetic performance of the herbicide-treated plants could be valuable for a further improvement of the Clearfield technology. Plant biostimulants have been shown to ameliorate damages caused by different stress factors on plants, but very limited information exists about their effects on herbicide-stressed plants. In order to characterize photosynthetic performance of imazamox-treated sunflower IMI-R plants, we carried out experiments including both single and combined treatments by imazamox and a plant biostimulants containing amino acid extract. We found that imazamox application in a rate of 132 μg per plant (equivalent of 40 g active ingredient ha-1 induced negative effects on both light-light dependent photosynthetic redox reactions and leaf gas exchange processes, which was much less pronounced after the combined application of imazamox and amino acid extract.

  4. Screening of photosynthetic pigments for herbicidal activity with a new computational molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Chandran, Saravanan; Pal, Parimal; Berchmans, Sheela

    2013-12-01

    There is an immense interest among the researchers to identify new herbicides which are effective against the herbs without affecting the environment. In this work, photosynthetic pigments are used as the ligands to predict their herbicidal activity. The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is a good target for the herbicides. Homology modeling of the target enzyme is done using Modeler 9.11 and the model is validated. Docking studies were performed with AutoDock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to the target. β-carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin have higher binding energies indicating the herbicidal activity of the pigments. This work reports a procedure to screen herbicides with computational molecular approach. These pigments will serve as potential bioherbicides in the future.

  5. A 3D-Printed, Portable, Optical-Sensing Platform for Smartphones Capable of Detecting the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijia; Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Yang, Mingming; Sun, Rongrong; Wang, Shengfu; Smith, Jordan N; Timchalk, Charles; Li, Lei; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2017-09-05

    Onsite rapid detection of herbicides and herbicide residuals in environmental and biological specimens are important for agriculture, environmental concerns, food safety, and health care. The traditional method for herbicide detection requires expensive laboratory equipment and a long turnaround time. In this work, we developed a single-stripe microliter plate smartphone-based colorimetric device for rapid and low-cost in-field tests. This portable smartphone platform is capable of screening eight samples in a single-stripe microplate. The device combined the advantages of small size (50 × 100 × 160 mm 3 ) and low cost ($10). The platform was calibrated by using two different dye solutions, i.e. methyl blue (MB) and rhodamine B, for the red and green channels. The results showed good correlation with results attained from a traditional laboratory reader. We demonstrated the application of this platform for detection of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the range of 1 to 80 ppb. Spiked samples of tap water, rat serum, plasma, and human serum were tested by our device. Recoveries obtained varied from 95.6% to 105.2% for all of the spiked samples using the microplate reader and from 93.7% to 106.9% for all of the samples using the smartphone device. This work validated that the smartphone optical-sensing platform is comparable to the commercial microplate reader; it is eligible for onsite, rapid, and low-cost detection of herbicides for environmental evaluation and biological monitoring.

  6. Phytotoxicity induced in isolated zooxanthellae by herbicides extracted from Great Barrier Reef flood waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C M; Brodie, J; Mueller, J F

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been limited evidence anthropogenically sourced pollution from catchments reaching corals of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In this study, freshly isolated zooxanthellae were exposed to polar chemicals (chiefly herbicides) extracted from water samples collected in a flood plume in the GBR lagoon. Photosynthetic potential of the isolated zooxanthellae declined after exposure to concentrated extracts (10 times) from all but one of the sampling sites. Photosynthetic potential demonstrated a significant positive relationship with the concentration of diuron in the concentrated extracts and a significant inverse relationship with salinity measured at the sampling site. This study demonstrates that runoff from land based application of herbicides may reduce photosynthetic efficiency in corals of inshore reefs in the GBR. The ecological impacts of the chemicals in combination with other potential stressors on corals remain unclear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACENTANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propa...

  8. Techniques Used in the Application of a {sup 14}C-Labelled Herbicide; Tecnicas Utilizadas en la Aplicacion de un Herbicida Marcado con {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J. J.; Ghelfi, R. A.; Brenzoni, E. O. [Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria (Centro de Radiobiologia) Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1966-05-15

    The butylic ester of 2.4-D-2{sup 14}C was used to apply the herbicide in the chemical form adopted for field spraying. Esterification of the acid was carried out in the Labelled Molecules Division of the National Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Scientific Research. For purposes of the experiment the ester was prepared in the form of two emulsions of different concentrations ('concentrated' and 'dilute'), the first being based on the average amount used in field application in Argentina. The remaining components of the emulsions, i.e. the emulsifier and the solvent, were these normally used in Argentina, since in this country the import of herbicides based on 2,4-D is not permitted. The tests were carried out on specimens of quinoa (Chenopodium spp.), Datura ferox and Cyperus (Cyperus rotundus), kept in greenhouses. The duration of the treatment was three days in all cases except in that of Cyperus, where it was twelve days. The distribution of the radioisotope in the plants following application of the labelled substance was always limited, as was shown by the autoradiographs. All the doses used proved to be suitable for obtaining autoradiographs, including the lowest dose, containing 0.118 {mu}Ci of activity in the least of the volumes used (10 A). Quantitative determination of the percentage of the dose (amount of radioactivity) localized in a quinoa plant gave a figure of 16.3%. (author)

  9. Genetically transformed tobacco plants expressing synthetic EPSPS gene confer tolerance against glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Asad, Shaheen; Barboza, Andre Luiz; Galeano, Esteban; Carrer, Helaine; Mukhtar, Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate quashes the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme which intercedes the functioning of shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids. Herbicide resistant crops are developed using glyphosate insensitive EPSPS gene isolated from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, which give farmers a sustainable weed control option. Intentions behind this study were to design and characterize the synthetic herbicide resistant CP4 - EPSPS gene in a model plant system and check the effectiveness of transformed tobacco against application of glyphosate. Putative transgenic plants were obtained from independent transformation events, and stable plant transformation, transgene expression and integration were demonstrated respectively by PCR, qRT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Gene transcript level and gene copy number (1-4) varied among the tested transgenic tobacco lines. Herbicide assays showed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate after 12 days of spraying with glyphosate, and EPSPS activity remained at sufficient level to withstand the spray at 1000 ppm of the chemical. T 1 plants analyzed through immunoblot strips and PCR showed that the gene was being translated into protein and transmitted to the next generation successfully. This codon optimized synthetic CP4 - EPSPS gene is functionally equivalent to the gene for glyphosate resistance available in the commercial crops and hence we recommend this gene for transformation into commercial crops.

  10. Herbicide contamination and the potential impact to seagrass meadows in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; Bengtson Nash, Susan; Eaglesham, Geoff; Müller, Jochen F; Duke, Norman C; Winderlich, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of herbicides (up to 70 ng l(-1)), chiefly diuron (up to 50 ng l(-1)) were detected in surface waters associated with inter-tidal seagrass meadows of Zostera muelleri in Hervey Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Diuron and atrazine (up to 1.1 ng g(-1) dry weight of sediment) were detected in the sediments of these seagrass meadows. Concentration of the herbicides diuron, simazine and atrazine increased in surface waters associated with seagrass meadows during moderate river flow events indicating herbicides were washed from the catchment to the marine environment. Maximum herbicide concentration (sum of eight herbicides) in the Mary River during a moderate river flow event was 4260 ng l(-1). No photosynthetic stress was detected in seagrass in this study during low river flow. However, with moderate river flow events, nearshore seagrasses are at risk of being exposed to concentrations of herbicides that are known to inhibit photosynthesis.

  11. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  12. Spatial variation in herbicide leaching from a marine clay soil via subsurface drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro M; Larsbo, Mats; Kreuger, Jenny K; Svanbäck, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsurface transport via tile drains can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination of surface waters. The spatial variation in subsurface leaching of normally applied herbicides was examined together with phosphorus losses in 24 experimental plots with water sampled flow-proportionally. The study site was a flat, tile-drained area with 60% marine clay in the topsoil in southeast Sweden. The objectives were to quantify the leaching of frequently used herbicides from a tile drained cracking clay soil and to evaluate the variation in leaching within the experimental area and relate this to topsoil management practices (tillage method and structure liming). Results In summer 2009, 0.14, 0.22 and 1.62%, respectively, of simultaneously applied amounts of MCPA, fluroxypyr and clopyralid were leached by heavy rain five days after spraying. In summer 2011, on average 0.70% of applied bentazone was leached by short bursts of intensive rain 12 days after application. Peak flow concentrations for 50% of the treated area for MCPA and 33% for bentazone exceeded the Swedish no-effect guideline values for aquatic ecosystems. Approximately 0.08% of the glyphosate applied was leached in dissolved form in the winters of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Based on measurements of glyphosate in particulate form, total glyphosate losses were twice as high (0.16%) in the second winter. The spatial inter-plot variation was large (72–115%) for all five herbicides studied, despite small variations (25%) in water discharge. Conclusions The study shows the importance of local scale soil transport properties for herbicide leaching in cracking clay soils. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23658148

  13. An innovative bovine odorant binding protein-based filtering cartridge for the removal of triazine herbicides from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Federica; Basini, Giuseppina; Grolli, Stefano; Conti, Virna; Bianchi, Francesco; Grasselli, Francesca; Careri, Maria; Ramoni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Odorant binding protein (OBP) is a multi-functional scavenger for small hydrophobic molecules dissolved in the mucus lining the nasal epithelia of mammals, characterized by broad ligand binding specificity towards a large number of structurally unrelated natural and synthetic molecules of different chemical classes. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of OBP as the active element of an innovative filtering matrix for the removal of environmental pollutants such as triazine herbicides from water samples. The filtering device, obtained by coupling histidine-tagged bovine OBP to a nickel nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, was characterized in terms of retention capacity for the herbicides atrazine, simazine, and propazine. Analysis of these herbicides at trace levels with solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the selected ion monitoring mode proved the capabilities of the proposed device for the decontamination of surface and groundwater samples in the 0.2-2,300 μg/L concentration range, obtaining a reduction in the triazine content greater than 97 %, thus suggesting its possible use for the potabilization of water.

  14. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to herbicides have been widely grown in the USA since 1996. The rapid and widespread adoption of this technology reflects the important economic and environmental benefits that farmers have derived from its use (equal to $21.7 billion additional farm income and a 225 million kg reduction in herbicide active ingredient use 1996-2012). During this time, weed control practices in these crops relative to the 'conventional alternative' have evolved to reflect experience of using the technology, the challenges that have arisen and the increasing focus in recent years on developing sustainable production systems. This paper examines the evidence on the changing nature of herbicides used with these crops and in particular how farmers addressed the challenge of weed resistance. The evidence shows that use of the technology has resulted in a net reduction in both the amount of herbicide used and the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator when compared to what can reasonably be expected if the area planted to GM HT crops reverted to conventional production methods. It also facilitated many farmers being able to derive the economic and environmental benefits associated with switching from a plough-based to a no tillage or conservation tillage production system. In terms of herbicide use, the technology has also contributed to a change the profile of herbicides used. A broad range of, mostly selective herbicides has been replaced by one or 2 broad-spectrum herbicides (mostly glyphosate) used in conjunction with one or 2 other (complementary) herbicides. Since the mid-2000s, the average amount of herbicide applied and the associated environmental load, as measured by the EIQ indicator, have increased on both GM HT and conventional crops. A primary reason for these changes has been increasing incidence of weed species developing populations resistant to herbicides and increased awareness of

  15. The role of herbicides in the erosion of salt marshes in eastern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.; Underwood, G.J.C.; Baker, N.R.; Davey, P.A.; Davidson, I.; Hanlon, A.; Long, S.P.; Oxborough, K.; Paterson, D.M.; Watson, A.

    2003-01-01

    Herbicide run-off stresses saltmarsh diatoms and higher plants and may increase erosion. - Laboratory studies and field trials were conducted to investigate the role of herbicides on saltmarsh vegetation, and their possible significance to saltmarsh erosion. Herbicide concentrations within the ranges present in the aquatic environment were found to reduce the photosynthetic efficiency and growth of both epipelic diatoms and higher saltmarsh plants in the laboratory and in situ. The addition of sublethal concentrations of herbicides resulted in decreased growth rates and photosynthetic efficiency of diatoms and photosynthetic efficiency of higher plants. Sediment stability also decreased due to a reduction in diatom EPS production. There was qualitative evidence that diatoms migrated deeper into the sediment when the surface was exposed to simazine, reducing surface sediment stability by the absence of a cohesive biofilm. Sediment loads on leaves severely reduced photosynthesis in Limonium vulgare. This, coupled with reduced carbon assimilation from the effects of herbicides, could have large negative consequences for plant productivity and over winter survival of saltmarsh plants. The data support the hypothesis that sublethal herbicide concentrations could be playing a role in the increased erosion of salt marshes that has occurred over the past 40 years

  16. Variações nos métodos de aplicação dos herbicidas Diuron e Tripluralin na cultura do algodoeiro Methods of application of the herbicides Diuron and Trifluralin in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alves

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos das variações nos métodos de aplicação dos herbicidas Diuron e Trifluralin na cultura algodoeira, para verificar sua eficiência no combate às ervas daninhas. O tratamento Trifluralin aplicado em pré-plantio incorporado, provocou excelente combate às ervas daninhas gramíneas, porém irrisória redução da população das dicotiledôneas. A aplicação de Trifluralin em pré-plantio incorporado e a de Diuron em pré-emergência, aumentaram consideravelmente a área de contrôle nos dois grupos de ervas más. O tratamento Diuron aplicado em pré-emergência foi bastante efetivo no combate às ervas de "fôlhas largas", enquanto que no combate às gramineas não foi tão eficiente. O incorporação do Diuron, aplicado em pré-plantio, não aumentou a eficiência do produto químico. A redução da dose de Diuron em pré-plantio incorporado ou em pré-emergência não proporcionou combate adequado às ervas más.1 - An experiment to study the various modalities of the application of the herbicides diuron and trifluralin in cotton plantings was carried out in purple latosol soil, Chapadão series. The two herbicides were applied in various doses and at different times. The most common weeds in the trial area were capim pé-de-galinha (goosegrass, capim carrapicho (sandbur, capim colchão (crabgrass, beldroega (purslane, carraplcho de carneiro, and poaia. 2 - The effectiveness of diuron (1.60 kg/ha, applied pre-planting, was not increased by incorporation into the soil. The control of weeds was efficient, but the yield was inferior to that of plots without incorporation. Of the weeds that survived the treatment, a predominance of grass species was noted. Some of the cotton leaves turned yellow in plots that received this herbicide, but this chlorosis was temporary and the plants regained their normal color within a few weeks. The tolerance of cotton for the treatments did not appear to be affected by the method of

  17. Synthesis and characterization of LDH/Ppi composite and its application as adsorbent of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (herbicide); Sintese e caracterizacao do composito HDL/Ppi e sua aplicacao como adsorvente do 2,4-diclorofenoxiacetico (herbicida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, I.S.; Oliveira, R.S.; Girotto, L.G.; Freitas, L.L. de; Amaral, F.A. do; Canobre, S.C., E-mail: ingrid_1194@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    This work had as main objective the synthesis and characterization of LDH [Co-Al-Cl] method by hydrolysis of urea and then its synthesized polypyrrole coating by chemically targeting the application as adsorbent dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The x-ray diffractogram of well defined showed diffraction peaks corresponding to the planes 003, 006, 009 and 110 which allow them to rhombohedral indexes and lamellar structure. The composite LDH / Ppi had a percentage of 49% herbicide retention in aqueous solution. From the investigated adsorption isotherm models that more fit the experimental data was the Freundlich, so it could be inferred that the interaction between the LDH / Ppi and the herbicide was physical, ie an rapid, reversible adsorption and does not specify. (author)

  18. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-12-01

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO 2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C 0  = 16.9 mg L -1 ) decreased up to 0.6 mg L -1 when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77 A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ± 16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Integrated Management Weed Control on Corn Field by Using Reduced Dose of Foramsulfuron and Nicosulfuron Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matinfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of integrated weed management on weed control by using reduced herbicide dose, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 in Qazvin. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with 24 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: different planting patterns at three levels (single row, square double rows and zigzag double row  plantings and doses of  Nicosulfuron and Foramsulfuron application at four levels (1, 1/5, 2 and 2/5 liters per hectare, The results showed that among the different planting patterns, zigzag planting reduced weed populations and their dry weights significantly. Foramsulfuron herbicide could control weeds better than Nicosulfuron. Among the herbicide dosages, 2/5 litter dose per hectare highly reduced weed density its dry weight as compared to one litter dose.

  20. Are herbicide-resistant crops the answer to controlling Cuscuta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Shaner, Dale L; Nissen, Scott; Westra, Phill; Rubin, Baruch

    2009-07-01

    Herbicide-resistant crop technology could provide new management strategies for the control of parasitic plants. Three herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes were used to examine the response of attached Cuscuta campestris Yuncker to glyphosate, imazamox and glufosinate. Cuscata campestris was allowed to establish on all oilseed rape genotypes before herbicides were applied. Unattached seedlings of C. campestris, C. subinclusa Durand & Hilg. and C. gronovii Willd. were resistant to imazamox and glyphosate and sensitive to glufosinate, indicating that resistance initially discovered in C. campestris is universal to all Cuscuta species. Glufosinate applied to C. campestris attached to glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape had little impact on the parasite, while imazamox completely inhibited C. campestris growth on the imidazolinone-resistant host. The growth of C. campestris on glyphosate-resistant host was initially inhibited by glyphosate, but the parasite recovered and resumed growth within 3-4 weeks. The ability of C. campestris to recover was related to the quality of interaction between the host and parasite and to the resistance mechanism of the host. The parasite was less likely to recover when it had low compatibility with the host, indicating that parasite-resistant crops coupled with herbicide resistance could be highly effective in controlling Cuscuta. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J.W. van; Uthicke, S.; Beltran, V.H.; Mueller, J.F.; Negri, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. - Highlights: • Water quality influences thermal stress thresholds in different Symbiodinium types. • Photosystem of clade D tested more sensitive than C1 to a common herbicide. • Increased thermal tolerance quickly countered in presence of herbicide. • Mixture toxicity approach demonstrated response additivity for combined stressors. • Symbiotic partnership may be compromised in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. - Thermal-tolerant Symbiodinium type D tested especially vulnerable to a common herbicide, emphasizing the significance of cumulative stressors in ecological risk management

  2. Characterization of acetanilide herbicides degrading bacteria isolated from tea garden soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yei-Shung; Liu, Jian-Chang; Chen, Wen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2008-04-01

    Three different green manures were added to the tea garden soils separately and incubated for 40 days. After, incubation, acetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor were spiked into the soils, separately, followed by the isolation of bacteria in each soil at designed intervals. Several bacterial strains were isolated from the soils and identified as Bacillus silvestris, B. niacini, B. pseudomycoides, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. simplex, B. megaterium, and two other Bacillus sp. (Met1 and Met2). Three unique strains with different morphologies were chosen for further investigation. They were B. megaterium, B. niacini, and B. silvestris. The isolated herbicide-degrading bacteria showed optimal performance among three incubation temperatures of 30 degrees C and the best activity in the 10 to 50 microg/ml concentration of the herbicide. Each bacterial strain was able to degrade more than one kind of test herbicides. After incubation for 119 days, B. cereus showed the highest activity to degrade alachlor and propachlor, and B. thuringiensis to degrade metolachlor.

  3. Rate and Timing Effects of Growth Regulating Herbicides Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry E. Besançon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicamba and 2,4-D are among the most common and inexpensive herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds. However, different studies have pointed the risk of crop injury and grain sorghum yield reduction with postemergence applications of 2,4-D. No research data on grain sorghum response to 2,4-D or dicamba exists in the Southeastern United States. Consequently, a study was conducted to investigate crop growth and yield response to 2,4-D (100, 220, and 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba (280 g acid equivalent ha−1 applied on 20 to 65 cm tall sorghum. Greater stunting resulted from 2,4-D applied at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 or below 45 cm tall sorghum whereas lodging prevailed with 2,4-D at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba applied beyond 35 cm tall crop. Regardless of local environmental conditions, 2,4-D applied up to 35 cm tall did not negatively impact grain yield. There was a trend for yields to be somewhat lower when 2,4-D was applied on 45 or 55 cm tall sorghum whereas application on 65 cm tall sorghum systematically decreased yields. More caution should be taken with dicamba since yield reduction has been reported as early as applications made on 35 cm tall sorghum for a potentially dicamba sensitive cultivar.

  4. Is hormesis an underestimated factor in the development of herbicide resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belz, Regina G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing impact of herbicide resistant weeds increasingly affects weed management and the delay of resistance evolution has become a major task of chemical weed control. Hormesis and, thus, the phenomenon that low doses of herbicides can boost weed growth could be of importance in this regard since the recommended field rate may represent a low dose for weeds that have evolved resistance to the applied herbicide and, thus, a potential hormetic dose. Applying the field rate may thus not only directly select resistant biotypes, it may also indirectly promote the success and spread of resistant biotypes via hormesis. Nevertheless, hormetic effects in resistant weeds are hitherto merely randomly observed and, thus, a clear quantitative basis to judge the significance of hormesis for resistance evolution is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at quantifying the degree and frequency of herbicide hormesis in sensitive and resistant weed species in order to provide a first indication of whether the phenomenon deserves consideration as a potential factor contributing to the development of herbicide resistance. In germination assays complete dose-response experiments were conducted with sensitive and resistant biotypes of Matricaria inodora (ALS-target-site resistant; treated with iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium/mesosulfuron-methyl, Eleusine indica (glyphosateresistant; treated with glyphosate, and Chenopodium album (triazine/triazinone-target-site resistant; treated with terbuthylazine. After 10 days of cultivation under controlled conditions plant growth was analyzed by measuring shoot/root length and mass. Results indicated that herbicide hormesis occurred on average with a total frequency of 29% in sensitive/resistant biotypes with an average growth increase of 53% occurring typically within a dose zone exceeding 350fold. Hormetic effects occurred, however, very variable and only for specific endpoints and not plant growth in general. If such a

  5. Plant reproduction is altered by simulated herbicide drift to constructed plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting structure and function of plant communities. However, these potential effects have been rarely studied or quantified. To determine potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, we construct...

  6. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  7. Adsorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat on polyurethane foam: Kinetic, equilibrium and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Nege, Kassem K; Lage, Mateus R; de M Carneiro, José Walkimar; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2017-11-01

    This work reports a study about the adsorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat from aqueous medium employing polyurethane foam (PUF) as the adsorbent and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as the counter ion. The adsorption efficiency was shown to be dependent on the concentration of SDS in solution, since the formation of an ion-associate between cationic herbicides (diquat and difenzoquat) and anionic dodecylsulfate is a fundamental step of the process. A computational study was carried out to identify the possible structure of the ion-associates that are formed in solution. They are probably formed by three units of dodecylsulfate bound to one unit of diquat, and two units of dodecylsulfate bound to one unit of difenzoquat. The results obtained also showed that 95% of both herbicides present in 45mL of a solution containing 5.5mgL -1 could be retained by 300mg of PUF. The experimental data were well adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm (r 2 ≥ 0.95) and to the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Also, the application of Morris-Weber and Reichenberg equations indicated that an intraparticle diffusion process is active in the control of adsorption kinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Chih; Simcik, M.F.; Capel, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the ambient levels of glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the United States, and its major degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in air and rain. Concurrent, weekly integrated air particle and rain samples were collected during two growing seasons in agricultural areas in Mississippi and Iowa. Rain was also collected in Indiana in a preliminary phase of the study. The frequency of glyphosate detection ranged from 60 to 100% in both air and rain. The concentrations of glyphosate ranged from 3 and from <0.1 to 2.5 µg/L in air and rain samples, respectively. The frequency of detection and median and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in air were similar or greater to those of the other high-use herbicides observed in the Mississippi River basin, whereas its concentration in rain was greater than the other herbicides. It is not known what percentage of the applied glyphosate is introduced into the air, but it was estimated that up to 0.7% of application is removed from the air in rainfall. Glyphosate is efficiently removed from the air; it is estimated that an average of 97% of the glyphosate in the air is removed by a weekly rainfall ≥30 mm.

  9. Efeitos de parâmetros de aplicação na ação dessecante do herbicida sulfosate sobre plantas de arroz Effects of application parameters on desiccation action of herbicide sulfosate on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson G. Fleck

    1999-04-01

    tillage systems, requiring efficient herbicide application. In this sense, application parameters like spray volume, dropplet size, and herbicide concentration may exert great influence on activity of these products. The objective of this research was to investigate the interaction effects of herbicide rate,herbicide concentration, and diluent volume, on sulfosate efficiency, using rice as test plant. The experiment was conducted during the 1994/95 growing season at the IRGA Rice Experimental Station, in Cachoeirinha, RS, Brazil. Eighteen treatments were tested, performed by five sulfosate rates (1.7; 2.3; 3.0; 4.0; and 4.7 l/ha of formulated product, five diluent volumes (85; 115; 150; 200; and 235 l/ha, and five product concentrations in spray solution (1.2; 1.5; 2.0; 2.6; and 3.3 % v/v. In each condition, one of these parameters was fixed, whereas the other two varied. When maintained spray volume constant, there was no difference, at the last evaluation, among sulfosate rates of 3.0; 4.0; and 4.7 l/ha, when all these reached rice control around 90%. When herbicide concentration was maintained constant, the responses to herbicide rates were not significant.In the third condition, when herbicide rate was fixed, it was observed that sulfosate action increased at higher concentrations. Control levels around 90% were reached with herbicide concentration of 2% or higher. This demonstrates that application parameters of sulfosate may be modified in order to obtain greater efficiency in its action.

  10. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas Weed resistance to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas ocorre em função de um processo evolutivo. O desenvolvimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes é imposto pela agricultura moderna, através da pressão de seleção causada pelo uso intensivo dos herbicidas. O conhecimento dos mecanismos e fatores que favorecem o aparecimento de biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes é fundamental para que técnicas de manejo sejam utilizadas no sentido de evitar ou retardar o aparecimento de plantas resistentes em uma área. São poucos os relatos ou citações de literatura no Brasil. Sendo assim, este trabalho de revisão procura relatar os principais avanços e descobertas na área de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas.Weed herbicide resistance has evolved from weed evolution. The modern agriculture is responsible for this evolution because of the intensive use of herbicides. The knowledge of mechanisms and factors that influence the weed herbicide resistance play an important role in the weed manegement techniques used to avoid or delay herbicide resistance appearence. There are not many report or scientific papers about herbi cide resistance in Brasil. Therefore, this literature review aims to provide information about the main advances and discoveries in the field of weed herbicide resistance.

  11. Manejo de herbicidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® Herbicide management in Roundup Ready® soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Petter

    2007-09-01

    entre os sistemas de aplicação de herbicidas, porém todos resultaram em produtividade superior ao da testemunha. O cultivar TMG 108 apresentou maior produtividade de grãos em todos os sistemas de aplicação de herbicidas, inclusive nas parcelas da testemunha, mas não diferindo do cultivar P98R91, nos "sistemas 1, 3 e 4" de aplicação de herbicidas e na testemunha, e do cultivar M-SOY 8585, no "sistema 3".This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of different herbicide management systems in weed control and the development and yield of different Roundup Ready® soybean cultivars. A randomized block experimental design with four replicates was used under a 5x5 factorial scheme, using five herbicide application systems: [(1 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2.4-D (241.8 g ha-1 at 14 days before sowing (DAS, paraquat + diuron (400 + 200 g ha-1 at the sowing day, and glyphosate (960 g ha-1 at 35 days after crop emergence (DAE; (2 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2.4-D (241.8 g ha-1 at 14 DAS, paraquat + diuron (400 + 200 g ha-1 at the sowing day, and glyphosate (480 g ha-1 17 at DAE; (3 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2.4-D (241.8 g ha-1 at 14 DAS, and glyphosate (960 g ha-1 at 35 DAE; (4 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2.4-D (241.8 g ha-1 at 14 DAS and glyphosate (480 g ha-1 at 17 days after plant emergence; and (5 control - glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2.4-D (241.8 g ha-1 at 14 DAS, without herbicide application at post-emergence] combined with five RR® soybean varieties (M-SOY 8585, P98R91, Valiosa, CD 219 and TMG 108,comprising 25 treatments. All herbicide application systems controlled the weed species Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla, Spermacoce latifolia and Tridax procumbens. This control was superior to that without herbicide application at post-emergence, being thus efficient in controlling those species. "System 3" showed a lower control level of the species Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens and Chamaesyce hirta, the last one

  12. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  13. Sorption of Pharmaceuticals, Heavy Metals, and Herbicides to Biochar in the Presence of Biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Daniel A; Mukome, Fungai N D; Popova, Inna E; Ogunyoku, Temitope A; Jefferson, Allie; Wang, Daoyuan; Hafner, Sarah C; Young, Thomas M; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural practices are increasingly incorporating recycled waste materials, such as biosolids, to provide plant nutrients and enhance soil functions. Although biosolids provide benefits to soil, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive pharmaceuticals and heavy metals that can accumulate in biosolids, and land application of biosolids can transfer these contaminants to the soil. Environmental exposure of these contaminants may adversely affect wildlife, disrupt microbial communities, detrimentally affect human health through long-term exposure, and cause the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study considers the use of biochar co-amendments as sorbents for contaminants from biosolids. The sorption of pharmaceuticals (ciprofloxacin, triclocarban, triclosan), and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) to biochars and biochar-biosolids-soil mixtures was examined. Phenylurea herbicide (monuron, diuron, linuron) sorption was also studied to determine the potential effect of biochar on soil-applied herbicides. A softwood (SW) biochar (510°C) and a walnut shell (WN) biochar (900°C) were used as contrasting biochars to highlight potential differences in biochar reactivity. Kaolinite and activated carbon served as mineral and organic controls. Greater sorption for almost all contaminants was observed with WN biochar over SW biochar. The addition of biosolids decreased sorption of herbicides to SW biochar, whereas there was no observable change with WN biochar. The WN biochar showed potential for reducing agrochemical and contaminant transport but may inhibit the efficacy of soil-applied herbicides. This study provides support for minimizing contaminant mobility from biosolids using biochar as a co-amendment and highlights the importance of tailoring biochars for specific characteristics through feedstock selection and pyrolysis-gasification conditions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science

  14. Degradation and movement in soil of the herbicide isoproturon analyzed by a Photosystem II-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malý, J; Klem, K; Lukavská, A; Masojídek, J

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the persistence and movement of a urea-type herbicide, isoproturon [IPU; 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1'-dimethylurea], in soil using a novel herbicide-detection device, the prototype of a portable electrochemical biosensor based on Photosystem II particles immobilized on printed electrodes, and evaluated its results against two other methods: (i) chlorophyll-fluorescence bioassay based on polyphasic induction curves, and (ii) standard analysis represented by liquid chromatography. The data of the herbicide's content determined in soil extracts from field experiments correlated in all three methods. The biosensor assay was effective in determining the herbicide's concentration to as low as 10(-7) M. The results of our experiments also showed the kinetics of movement, degradation, and persistence of isoproturon in various depths of soil. After 6 to 9 wk, almost half of the isoproturon was still actively present in the upper soil layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) and only 5 to 10% of biological activity was inhibited in the deeper soil layer tested (20-30 cm). Thus, inhibition within the limit of detection of both bioassays could be observed up to 9 wk after application in all profiles (0-30 cm), whereas inhibition persisted for up to 11 wk in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm). The use of the biosensor demonstrated its possibility for making rapid and cheap phytotoxicity tests. Our biosensor can give preliminary information about the biological activity of isoproturon in hours--much faster than growth biotests that may take several days or more.

  15. Microevolution of ALS inhibitor herbicide resistance in loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babineau, Marielle

    , the ALS resistant biotypes have a fitness advantage over the susceptible biotype in time to germination and time to flowering and seed production growth stages. This study increased the understanding of the spatial, phenotypic, genetic and ecological processes and consequences in ALS herbicide resistance......-neighborhood experiments were conducted with ALS resistant and susceptible populations with a randomized genetic background, vegetative and reproductive growth stages were compared. The results show a large variation in the response of neighboring populations to ALS herbicide. Multiple resistance is observed between ALS...... from known metabolic herbicide resistance pathways, such as cytochrome P450s, ABC-transporters, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase, are identified and quantified. Different gene families are up-regulated at different times after herbicide treatment. In low competition conditions...

  16. Histopathological study on the effect of rice herbicides on grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... observe the impact of herbicides on the histopathology of the fish, the fingerlings were collected from the field trenches ... is almost non-existent in India; the reasons being that increasing ... intensive rice-cum-fish culture offered the opportunity for ..... Toxicity of herbicides to Malaysian rice field fish. In: Proc.

  17. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shahgholi

    2016-09-01

    emergence increased significantly with increasing herbicide dose. The maximum emergence (Emax value and clover shoot dry matter was obtained with inoculation by mycorrhiza species in all levels of herbicide doses than non-inoculation treatments (figures 1 and 3. Inoculation of clover with G. intraradices increased root length by 34 and 57% at the herbicide doses of 1000 and 1500 ml ha-1 than non-inoculation treatments, respectively (figure 2. Results showed that, the root colonization percentage improved in low rate of Treflan by inoculation of mycorrhizal than non-inoculation treatment significantly (figure 4. These results are in agreement with the results reported by Garcia-Romeria et al. (14. They reported that shoot dry weights of AM fungi infected pea plants, were higher when the cyanazine was applied at the rate of 0.05mg ml -1 than applied at the rate of 0.1 ml per pot (14. Busse et al. (6, reported that triclorpyr, imazapyr and sulfometuron methyl herbicides did not alter the capability of mycorrhizal fungi to infect roots, even at concentrations detrimental to seedling growth. Makarian et al., (21 reported that herbicide application significantly decreased the growth (dry matter, chlorophyll content and height of maize and barley plants but mycorrhizal colonization increased plant growth at low levels of herbicide concentration. It seems that, one of the main reasons that enable the mycorrhizal plant to partially or completely overcome the stress of herbicides as compared with non-mycorrhizal plant is the enhanced nutrient uptake (6. Enhanced nutrients uptake is due, in part, to the hyphal extension into the soil and subsequent transfer of them back to the root (30. Recent researches have established that AM fungi are able to absorb organic compounds, macro and micro nutrients from the soil and transfer them to plants (29. Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi. This may be due to a reduction or elimination of

  18. Technology and applications of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, M.

    1998-01-01

    Technology of electron accelerator have been developed so fast in advanced countries. It was applied in the research and development (R and D) and comercially in various industries. The industries applying electron accelerator includes polymers industry, sterilization of medical tools, material surface modification, and environmental management. The radiation process using electron beam is an ionization radiation process. Two facilities of electron accelerator have been established in pilot scale at the Centre for the Application of Isotope and Radiation CAIR-BATAN, Jakarta, for the RandD of radiation process technology and in demonstrating the electron accelerator application in industry in Indonesia. The first has low energy specification of 300 keV, 50 mA, EPS-300 type and the second has medium energy specification of 2 MeV, 10 mA dynamitron model GJ-2 type. Both the electron accelerators have an electron penetration depth capability of 0.6 and 12 mm, respectively, for the double side irradiation in the materials with density of 1 g/cm 3 . They also highly capacity production and electron beam cross-section of 120 cm length and 10 cm width. The beam will go through the atmosphere for irradiation samples or industrial products. The radiation dose can be selected precisely by adjusting the electron beam current and conveyor speed. Both of these facilities were applied in many aspects RandD, for examples dosimetry, wood surface coating, cross-linking of polymer, heatshrincable tube, polymer grafting, plastic degradation, food preservation, sterilization and so on. Engineering factors of radiation design process and general observation of electron accelerator application in RandD for various industries in Indonesia are briefly discussed

  19. A Simple Vortex-Assisted Magnetic Dispersive Solid Phase Microextraction System for Preconcentration and Separation of Triazine Herbicides from Environmental Water and Vegetable Samples Using Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahpour, Atefe; Moradi, Seyyed Ershad

    2018-04-04

    A vortex-assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the extraction and determination of triazine herbicides by using magnetic metal organic frameworks [Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe)] in environmental water and vegetable samples. The Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) composite has been characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, thermogravimetric measurement, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The method is based on the sorption of triazine herbicides on Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) because of the complex formation between iron oxide nanoparticles and triazine herbicides beside π-π interactions between organic parts of Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) and triazine herbicides. The experimental parameters for the preconcentration of triazine herbicides, such as the type and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, and the amount of the sorbent, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method was linear over the concentration range of 0.0061 to 70 ng/mL for each triazine herbicide, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9988 to 0.9997. The limit of detection of the method at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 2.0 to 5.3 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations for inter- and intraday assays were in the range of 5.8 to 10.2% and 3.8 to 6.3%, respectively.

  20. ArylexTM active – new herbicide active and base for new cereals herbicides: ZyparTM and Pixxaro™ EC to control wide range of broadleaf weeds in cereals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arylex™ active is a new auxinic herbicide for postemergence control of a range of important broadleaf weeds in cereals. It has been discovered and developed by Dow AgroSciences globally as a first member of the new ‘arylpicolinate‘ structural class. Arylex applied together with safener brings excellent crop safety and due to the rapid degradation in soil and plant tissue it does not limit the following crop choice. In Europe the first two herbicides containing this active are Zypar™ and Pixxaro™ EC. Zypar is a premix of Arylex and florasulam, delivering at the 1 L/ha maximum use rate 6 g ae/ha of Arylex and 5 g/ha of florasulam. It can be applied to all cereals, apart from oats, in autumn and spring. Spring application is allowed from BBCH 13 till BBCH 45, however the best performance is reached up to BBCH 32. Zypar’s spectrum of controlled weeds is very wide. Pixxaro EC is a combination of Arylex and fluroxypyr and at 0.5 l/ha dose rate delivers 6 g ae/ha of Arylex and 140 g ae/ha of fluroxypyr. It can be applied in all cereals, apart from oats, in spring from BBCH 13 till BBCH 45, while the best performance is observed between BBCH 30 and 45. Pixxaro EC shows excellent efficacy against key weeds, especially Galium aparine and at all growth stages. This herbicide brings a novel non-ALS solution and will be a key component of anti-resistance strategies for broadleaf weeds in cereals.

  1. Investigation of 10 herbicides in surface waters of a horticultural production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, Graeme; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Wightwick, Adam M; Allinson, Mayumi; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Herbicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the levels and potential ecotoxicological impact of herbicides in horticultural catchments in southern Australia. This study investigated the presence of 10 herbicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period in horticulturally important areas of the Yarra Valley in southeastern Australia. Seven of the 10 herbicides were detected in the streams, in 39 % of spot water samples, in 25 % of surface sediment samples, and in >70 % of the passive sampler systems deployed. Few samples contained residues of ≥2 herbicides. Simazine was the herbicide most frequently detected in water, sediment, and passive sampler samples and had the highest concentrations in water (0.67 μg/L) and sediment (260 μg/kg dry weight). Generally the concentrations of the herbicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, including those for aquatic plants and algae, suggesting that concentrations of individual chemicals in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, little is known about the combined effects of simultaneous, low-level exposure of multiple herbicides of the same mode of action on Australian aquatic organisms nor their contribution when found in mixtures with other pesticides. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of pesticides in Victorian aquatic environments.

  2. Seasonal variability in irradiance affects herbicide toxicity to the marine flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eSjollema

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR of the solar spectrum affect microalgae directly and modify the toxicity of phytotoxic compounds present in water. As a consequence seasonal variable PAR and UVR levels are likely to modulate the toxic pressure of contaminants in the field. Therefore the present study aimed to determine the toxicity of two model contaminants, the herbicides diuron and Irgarol®1051, under simulated irradiance conditions mimicking different seasons. Irradiance conditions of spring and autumn were simulated with a set of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs. Toxicity of both herbicides was measured individually and in a mixture by determining the inhibition of photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII of the marine flagellate Dunaliella teriolecta using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM fluorometry. Toxicity of the single herbicides was higher under simulated spring irradiance than under autumn irradiance and this effect was also observed for mixtures of the herbicides. This irradiance dependent toxicity indicates that herbicide toxicity in the field is seasonally variable. Consequently toxicity tests under standard light conditions may overestimate or underestimate the toxic effect of phytotoxic compounds.

  3. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide use has increased dramatically around the world over the past 6 decades (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). Few herbicides were in use in the 1950s. However, by 2001 approximately 1.14 billion kilograms of herbicides were applied globally for the control of undesireable vegetation in agricultural, silvicultural, lawncare, aquacultural, and irrigation/recreational water management activities (Kiely et al., 2004). Twenty-eight percent of the total mass of herbicides is applied in the United States, with the remaining 72 percent being applied elsewhere around the globe (Kiely et al., 2004). Herbicides represent 36% of global pesticide use, followed by insecticides (25%), fungicides (10%) and other chemical classes (Kiely et al., 2004). Agricultural production accounts for approximately 90% of herbicide use in the U.S. (Kiely et al., 2004). Gianessi and Reigner (2007) indicated that herbicides are routinely used on more than 90% of the area designated for large commercial crops including corn, soybeans, cotton, sugar beets, peanuts, and rice. Increased farm mechanization, technological advancements in production of inexpensive sources of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., anhydrous ammonia), and conversion of forest, grassland, and wetland habitats to cropland has led to a tremendous increase in global food production over the past half-century. Herbicides have augmented advances in large-scale agricultural systems and have largely replaced mechanical and hand-weeding control mechanisms (Gianessi and Reigner, 2007). The wide-spread use of herbicides in agriculture has resulted in frequent chemical detections in surface and groundwaters (Gilliom, 2007). The majority of herbicides used are highly water soluble and are therefore prone to runoff from terrestrial environments. In additon, spray drift and atmospheric deposition can contribute to herbicide contamination of aquatic environments. Lastly, selected herbicides are deliberately applied to aquatic environments

  4. Practical lesson of Photosynthesis: A demonstration of Hill reaction in chloroplasts with energy dissipation by fluorescence upon photosystems uncoupling or inhibition by Diuron herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ravara Viviani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During photosynthesis, the photochemical electron transfer process is easily demonstrated by the Hill reaction, where artificial electron acceptors are reduced by active chloroplasts suspensions in the presence of light.  However, the destiny of luminous energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in uncoupled or damaged photosystems is not usually demonstrated. Here we provide an adaptation of the classical Hill reaction using intact spinach chloroplasts, which includes the visualization of energy dissipation by fluorescence in lysed chloroplasts, and a dose/effect response in photosystems inhibited by the herbicide DCMU. This laboratory lesson, which is aimed to biochemistry and biophysics for undergraduate courses of Chemistry, Biological, Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, provides the basic photochemical principles using the classical Hill reaction, and photophysical principles through the visualization of energy dissipation by chlorophyll fluorescence,  improving the understanding of the photosynthetic process, and introducing the concept of fluorescence and its applications as bioanalytical tool to monitor photosynthesis in plants and vegetal ecosystems.

  5. Evaluation of herbicides photodegradation by photo-Fenton process using multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterlini, W.C.; Nogueira, R.F.P. [Inst. of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State Univ., R. Prof. Francisco Degni s/n, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The photodegradation of herbicides in aqueous medium by photo-Fenton process using ferrioxalate complex (FeOx) as a source of Fe{sup 2+} was evaluated under blacklight irradiation. The commercial products of the herbicides tebuthiuron, 2,4-D and diuron were used. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the role of two variables in the photodegradation process, FeOx and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, and to define the concentration ranges that result in the most efficient photodegradation of the herbicides. The photodegradation of the herbicides was followed by monitoring the decrease of the original compounds concentration by HPLC, by the determination of remaining total organic carbon content (TOC), and by the chloride ion release. Under optimised conditions, 20 minutes irradiation was enough to remove 92.7% of TOC for 2,4 D and 89.5% for diuron. Complete dechlorination of these compounds was achieved after 10 minutes of irradiation. It was observed that the initial concentration of these compounds and tebuthiuron was reduced to less than 15% after only 1 minute of irradiation. (orig.)

  6. Advanced oxidation of commercial herbicides mixture: experimental design and phytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Coll, Andrea; Lescano, Maia; Zalazar, Cristina

    2017-05-05

    In this work, the suitability of the UV/H 2 O 2 process for commercial herbicides mixture degradation was studied. Glyphosate, the herbicide most widely used in the world, was mixed with other herbicides that have residual activity as 2,4-D and atrazine. Modeling of the process response related to specific operating conditions like initial pH and initial H 2 O 2 to total organic carbon molar ratio was assessed by the response surface methodology (RSM). Results have shown that second-order polynomial regression model could well describe and predict the system behavior within the tested experimental region. It also correctly explained the variability in the experimental data. Experimental values were in good agreement with the modeled ones confirming the significance of the model and highlighting the success of RSM for UV/H 2 O 2 process modeling. Phytotoxicity evolution throughout the photolytic degradation process was checked through germination tests indicating that the phytotoxicity of the herbicides mixture was significantly reduced after the treatment. The end point for the treatment at the operating conditions for maximum TOC conversion was also identified.

  7. A glutathione s-transferase confers herbicide tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhang Hu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs have been a focus of attention due to their role in herbicide detoxification. OsGSTL2 is a glutathione S-transferase, lambda class gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsGSTL2 were generated from rice calli by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system, and were screened by a combination of hygromycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot analysis. In the vegetative tissues of transgenic rice plants, the over-expression of OsGSTL2 not only increased levels of OsGSTL2 transcripts, but also GST and GPX expression, while reduced superoxide. Transgenic rice plants also showed higher tolerance to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, which often contaminate agricultural fields. The findings demonstrate the detoxification role of OsGSTL2 in the growth and development of rice plants. It should be possible to apply the present results to crops for developing herbicide tolerance and for limiting herbicide contamination in the food chain.

  8. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  9. The role of herbicides for enhancing productivity and conserving land for biodiversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wagner; Michael Newton; Elizabeth C. Cole; James H. Miller; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Herbicide technology has evolved with forest management in North America over the past 60 years and has become an integral part of modern forestry practice. Forest managers have prescribed herbicides to increase reforestation success and long-term timber yields. Wildlife managers and others interested in conserving biodi- versity, however, have often viewed herbicide...

  10. Electron-molecule interactions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christophorou, L G

    1984-01-01

    Electron-Molecule Interactions and Their Applications, Volume 2 provides a balanced and comprehensive account of electron-molecule interactions in dilute and dense gases and liquid media. This book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 deals with electron transfer reactions, while Chapter 2 discusses electron-molecular positive-ion recombination. The electron motion in high-pressure gases and electron-molecule interactions from single- to multiple-collision conditions is deliberated in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, knowledge on electron-molecule interactions in gases is linked to that on similar proc

  11. Glufosinate herbicide intoxication causing unconsciousness, convulsion, and 6th cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-yong

    2013-11-01

    Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on sixth cranial nerve palsy. Our observation suggests that neurologic manifestations after ingestion of a "low-grade toxicity herbicide" are variable and more complex than that was previously considered.

  12. An evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides, with both contact and residual activity, for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). This report provides growers and advisers of short rotation coppice with important (but still limited) information on how to achieve improved weed control of problem weeds increasingly prevalent in SRC fields. This may provide guidance towards often-essential emergency treatments when the crop establishment is under considerable pressure and the potential safety, or otherwise, of certain weed-specific herbicides. (author)

  13. Biological Efficacy of Herbicides for Weed Control in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing problem facing agricultural producers is the invasion of weeds, perennial in particular, so that implementation of industrial technologies is impossible without their highly efficient and rational control. For the purpose of studying efficient herbicides for weed control in noncropped areas (stubbles, a biological study of five total systemic herbicides was conducted in areas under natural weed infestation and pressure from othersurrounding weeds at the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven in 2005-2007. The trials were carried out in field conditions using the block method with plot size of 20 m². Treatment was conducted at the predominant stage of budding of perennial dicotyledonous weeds and earing of monocotyledonous weeds. Herbicidal efficacy was recorded on the EWRS 9-score scale (0-100% killed weeds = score 9-1. It was found that treatment of noncropped areas (stubbles with the total systemic herbicides Touchdown System 4 (360 g/l glyphosate; Cosmic (360 g/l glyphosate; Roundup Plus (441 g/l glyphosate potassium salt; Leon 36 SL (360 g/l glyphosate and Glyphos Super 45 SL (450 g/l glyphosate was highly efficient, so that it was a successful element of a strategy for controlling weeds of different biological groups, and was especially effective against perennial weeds.

  14. Weed control based on real time patchy application of herbicides using image analysis as a non-destructive estimation method for weed infestation and herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali

    There is an increasing concern about excessive use of herbicides for weed control in arable lands. Usually the whole field is sprayed uniformly, while the distribution of weeds often is non-uniform. Often there are spots in a field where weed pressure is very low and has no significant effect...... on crop yield. The excessive use of spraying can potentially be reduced by spraying only those parts of the field where it has economic importance. The competition relation between weeds and crop was ana-lyzed in context of real time patch spray. A non-destructive image analysis method was developed...

  15. Impacts of agricultural irrigation on nearby freshwater ecosystems: the seasonal influence of triazine herbicides in benthic algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Carmen; Causapé, Jesús; Glud, Ronnie N; Hancke, Kasper; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Val, Jonatan; Navarro, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    A small hydrological basin (Lerma, NE Spain), transformed from its natural state (steppe) to rain-fed agriculture and recently to irrigation agriculture, has been monitored across four seasons of an agricultural year. The goal of this study was to assess how and whether agricultural activities impacted the nearby freshwater ecosystems via runoff. Specifically, we assessed the toxicity of three triazine herbicides, terbuthylazine, atrazine and simazine on the photosynthetic efficiency and structure of algal benthic biofilms (i.e., phototropic periphyton) in the small creek draining the basin. It was expected that the seasonal runoff of the herbicides in the creek affected the sensitivity of the periphyton in accord with the rationale of the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT): the exposure of the community to pollutants result in the replacement of sensitive species by more tolerant ones. In this way, PICT can serve to establish causal linkages between pollutants and the observed biological impacts. The periphyton presented significantly different sensitivities against terbuthylazine through the year in accord with the seasonal application of this herbicide in the crops nowadays. The sensitivity of already banned herbicides, atrazine and simazine does not display a clear seasonality. The different sensitivities to herbicides were in agreement with the expected exposures scenarios, according to the agricultural calendar, but not with the concentrations measured in water, which altogether indicates that the use of PICT approach may serve for long-term monitoring purposes. That will provide not only causal links between the occurrence of chemicals and their impacts on natural communities, but also information about the occurrence of chemicals that may escape from traditional sampling methods (water analysis). In addition, the EC50 and EC10 of periphyton for terbuthylazine or simazine are the first to be published and can be used for impact assessments

  16. A new approach for weed control in a cucurbit field employing an attenuated potyvirus-vector for herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiboleth, Y M; Arazi, T; Wang, Y; Gal-On, A

    2001-12-14

    Expression of bar, a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, in plant tissues, leads to resistance of these plants to glufosinate ammonium based herbicides. We have created a bar expressing, attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus-vector, AGII-Bar, to enable herbicide use in cucurbit fields. The parental vector, ZYMV-AGII, has been rendered environmentally safe by both disease-symptom attenuation and aphid-assisted virus transmission abolishment. The recombinant AGII-Bar virus-encoding cDNA, when inoculated on diverse cucurbits was highly infectious, accumulated to similar levels as AGII, and elicited attenuated AGII-like symptoms. Potted cucurbits inoculated with AGII-Bar became herbicide resistant about a week post-inoculation. Herbicide resistance was sustained in squash over a period of at least 26 days and for at least 60 days in cucumber grown in a net-house under commercial conditions. To test the applicability of AGII-Bar use in a weed-infested field, a controlled experiment including more than 450 plants inoculated with this construct, was performed. Different dosages of glufosinate ammonium were sprayed, 2 weeks after planting, on the foliage of melons, cucumbers, squash, and watermelons. AGII-Bar provided protection to all inoculated plants, of every variety tested, at each dosage applied, including the highest doses that totally eradicated weeds. This study demonstrates that AGII-Bar can be utilized to facilitate weed control in cucurbits and exemplifies the practical potential of attenuated virus-vector use in agriculture.

  17. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Baietto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man.

  18. Response of soil microbiota to selected herbicide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslycky, E B

    1977-04-01

    Recommended concentrations of paraquat alone and its combination with each of linuron, diuron, atrazine, simazine, and simazine plus diuron exerted little effect on total populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in Fox sandy loam under laboratory and simulated field conditions in 66 and 77 days, respectively. Respiration of the total microbiota in soil suspension was afeected by the combinations as well as individual herbicides in various concentrations. Yet, the inhibition of the O2 uptake by any of these herbicides, including some extreme concentrations, was not permanent, indicating adaptation, or suppression of specific organisms. Only linuron in concentrations up to 20 microng/ml stimulated respiration of the soil.

  19. Cross-resistance to prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor and pyroxasulfone selected by either herbicide in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-09-01

    Weeds can be a greater constraint to crop production than animal pests and pathogens. Pre-emergence herbicides are crucial in many cropping systems to control weeds that have evolved resistance to selective post-emergence herbicides. In this study we assessed the potential to evolve resistance to the pre-emergence herbicides prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor or pyroxasulfone in 50 individual field Lolium rigidum populations collected in a random survey in Western Australia prior to commercialisation of these pre-emergence herbicides. This study shows for the first time that in randomly collected L. rigidum field populations the selection with either prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor or pyroxasulfone can result in concomitant evolution of resistance to both prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor and pyroxasulfone after three generations. In the major weed L. rigidum, traits conferring resistance to new herbicides can be present before herbicide commercialisation. Proactive and multidisciplinary research (evolutionary ecology, modelling and molecular biology) is required to detect and analyse resistant populations before they can appear in the field. Several studies show that evolved cross-resistance in weeds is complex and often unpredictable. Thus, long-term management of cross-resistant weeds must be achieved through heterogeneity of selection by effective chemical, cultural and physical weed control strategies that can delay herbicide resistance evolution. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Using Bioassays and Species Sensitivity Distributions to Assess Herbicide Toxicity towards Benthic Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Bouchez, Agnès; Rimet, Frédéric; Montuelle, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD) could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC5) and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC5) and 50 (HC50). Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII) herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and “motile” guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and “low profile” guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron. PMID:22952981

  1. Using bioassays and species sensitivity distributions to assess herbicide toxicity towards benthic diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Larras

    Full Text Available Although benthic diatoms are widely used in ecological studies of aquatic systems, there is still a dearth of data concerning species sensitivities towards several contaminants. Within the same community, different species may respond differently depending on their physiological and ecological characteristics. This lack of knowledge makes specific appropriate risk assessment impossible. To find out whether species sensitivity distribution (SSD could be used to estimate the risk of herbicide toxicity for diatoms, we need to know whether their sensitivity depends on their physiological and ecological characteristics. We carried out single-species bioassays on 11 diatom species exposed to 8 herbicides. Dose-responses relationships were used to extrapolate the Effective Concentration 5 (EC(5 and the Effective Concentration 50 (EC(50 for each exposure. These data were used to fit a SSD curve for each herbicide, and to determine the Hazardous concentration 5 (HC(5 and 50 (HC(50. Our results revealed a high level of variability of the sensitivity in the set of species tested. For photosystem-II inhibitor (PSII herbicides, diatoms species displayed a typical grouping of sensitivity levels consistent with their trophic mode and their ecological guild. N-heterotroph and "motile" guild species were more tolerant of PSII inhibitors, while N-autotroph and "low profile" guild species were more sensitive. Comprehensive SSD curves were obtained for 5 herbicides, but not for sulfonylurea herbicides or for dimetachlor, which had toxicity levels that were below the range of concentration tested. The SSD curves provided the following ranking of toxicity: diuron> terbutryn> isoproturon> atrazine> metolachlor. The HC that affected 5% of the species revealed that, even at the usual environmental concentrations of herbicides, diatom assemblages could be affected, especially by isoproturon, terbutryn, and diuron.

  2. Optimization of typical diffuse herbicide pollution control by soil amendment configurations under four levels of rainfall intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Wei, Peng; Hao, Fanghua; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-06-15

    Herbicides are a main source of agricultural diffuse pollution due to their wide application in tillage practices. The aim of this study is to optimize the control efficiency of the herbicide atrazine with the aid of modified soil amendments. The soil amendments were composed of a combination of biochar and gravel. The biochar was created from corn straw with a catalytic pyrolysis of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The leaching experiments under four rainfall conditions were measured for the following designs: raw soil, soil amended with gravel, biochar individually and together with gravel. The control efficiency of each design was also identified. With the designed equipment, the atrazine content in the contaminant load layer, gravel substrate layer, biochar amendment layer and soil layer was measured under four types of rainfall intensities (1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h and 10.00 mm/h). Furthermore, the vertical distribution of atrazine in the soil sections was also monitored. The results showed that the herbicide leaching load increased under the highest rainfall intensity in all designs. The soil with the combination of gravel and biochar provided the highest control efficiency of 87.85% on atrazine when the additional proportion of biochar was 3.0%. The performance assessment under the four kinds of rainfall intensity conditions provided the guideline for the soil amendment configuration. The combination of gravel and biochar is recommended as an efficient method for controlling diffuse herbicide pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid response for invasive waterweeds at the arctic invasion front: Assessment of collateral impacts from herbicide treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Carey, Michael P.; Morton, John M.; Guerron-Orejuela, Edgar; Decino, Robert; Willette, Mark; Boersma, James; Jablonski, Jillian; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The remoteness of subarctic and arctic ecosystems no longer protects against invasive species introductions. Rather, the mix of urban hubs surrounded by undeveloped expanses creates a ratchet process whereby anthropogenic activity is sufficient to introduce and spread invaders, but for which the costs of monitoring and managing remote ecosystems is prohibitive. Elodea spp. is the first aquatic invasive plant to become established in Alaska and has potential for widespread deleterious ecological and economic impacts. A rapid eradication response with herbicides has been identified as a priority invasion control strategy. We conducted a multi-lake monitoring effort to assess collateral impacts from herbicide treatment for Elodea in high latitude systems. Variability in data was driven by seasonal dynamics and natural lake-to-lake differences typical of high latitude waterbodies, indicating lack of evidence for systematic impacts to water quality or plankton communities associated with herbicide treatment of Elodea. Impacts on native macrophytes were benign with the exception of some evidence for earlier onset of leaf senescence for lily pads(Nuphar spp.) in treated lakes. We observed a substantial increase in detected native flora richness after Elodea was eradicated from the most heavily infested lake, indicating potential for retention of native macrophyte communities if infestations are addressed quickly. While avoiding introductions through prevention may be the most desirable outcome, these applications indicated low risks of non-target impacts associated with herbicide treatment as a rapid response option for Elodea in high latitude systems.

  4. Assessment of the Environmental Fate of the Herbicides Flufenacet and Metazachlor with the SWAT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrer, Nicola; Dietrich, Antje; Kolychalow, Olga; Ulrich, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the environmental fate of the commonly used herbicides flufenacet and metazachlor in the Northern German Lowlands with the ecohydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) and to test the sensitivity of pesticide-related input parameters on the modeled transport dynamics. The river discharge of the Kielstau watershed was calibrated (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE], 0.83; = 0.84) and validated (NSE, 0.76; = 0.77) for a daily time step. The environmental fate of metazachlor (NSE, 0.68; = 0.62) and flufenacet (NSE, 0.13; = 0.51) was simulated adequately. In comparison to metazachlor, the simulated flufenacet concentration and loads show a lower model efficiency due to the weaker simulation of the stream flow. The in-stream herbicide loads were less than 0.01% of the applied amount in the observed time period and thus not in conflict with European Environmental Legislation. The sensitivity analysis showed that, besides the accurate simulation of stream flow, the parameterization of the temporal and spatial distribution of the herbicide application throughout the watershed is the key factor for appropriate modeling results, whereas the physicochemical properties of the pesticides play a minor role in the modeling process. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Applications and advances in electronic-nose technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Wilson; M. Baietto

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software...

  6. Comparison of two detection methods in thin layer chromatographic analysis of herbicides in a coastal savannah soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afful, S.; Yeboah, P.O.; Dogbe, S.A.; Akpabli, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    o-tolidine + potassium iodide and photosynthesis inhibition detection methods, were investigated for the analysis of three triazine herbicides (atrazine, ametryne, simazine), and two urea herbicides (diuron, metobromuron) in a coastal savannah soil using thin layer chromatographic methodology to compare the suitability of the two methods for the study of the herbicides. This was done by spiking 5 g of the soil sample with specific amount of the herbicides standard to generate herbicide-soil concentration of 40.23, 40.28, 41.46, 39.90 and 40.64 μ g/g for atrazine, ametryne, simazine, diuron and metobromuron respectively. Extraction was performed with acetone/hexane mixture (4:1) and the detection limit of each herbicide was then determined. In all, the photosynthesis inhibition method performed better for both the triazine and the urea herbicides, while the o-tolidine + potassium iodide method was suitable for only the triazine herbicides. With the photosynthesis inhibition method, detectability in the range of 0.004 - 0.008±0.02 μ g/g was attained for the herbicides using the unclean extracts. In the case of o-tolidine ± potassium iodide method, detectability of 0.008 - 0.40 0.02 ± g/g was obtained. With the clean up extracts, detectability in the range of 0.025 - 0.162±0.004 μ g/g was obtained using the photosynthesis inhibition method, however, metobromuron was not detected with the clean up extracts with the o-tolidine + KI method. (au)

  7. Inheritance and mechanism of resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase in Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsalis, P; Powles, S B

    1995-07-01

    A biotype of Sonchus oleraceus L. (Compositae) has developed resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) following field selection with chlorsulfuron for 8 consecutive years. The aim of this study was to determine the inheritance and mechanism of resistance in this biotype. Determination of ALS activity and inhibition kinetics revealed that Km and Vmax did not vary greatly between the resistant and susceptible biotypes. ALS extracted from the resistant biotype was resistant to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides in an in vitro assay. ALS activity from the resistant biotype was 14 19, 2, 3 and 3 times more resistant to inhibition by chlorsulfuron, sulfometuron, imazethapyr, imazapyr and flumetsulam, respectively, than the susceptible biotype. Hybrids between the resistant and a susceptible biotype were produced, and inheritance was followed through the F1, F2 and F3 generations. F1 hybrids displayed a uniform intermediate level of resistance between resistant and susceptible parents. Three distinct phenotypes, resistant, intermediate and susceptible, were identified in the F2 generation following chlorsulfuron application. A segregation ratio of 1∶2∶1 was observed, indicative of the action of a single, nuclear, incompletely dominant gene. F3 families, derived from intermediate F2 individuals, segregated in a similar manner. Resistance to herbicides inhibiting ALS in this biotype of S. oleraceus is due to the effect of a single gene coding for a resistant form of the target enzyme, ALS.

  8. Industrial applications of electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam technology was first introduced in Malaysia in 1989 with the conclusion of the bilateral cooperation between the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) and Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) on Radiation Application Projects. Two electron beam accelerators with energy of 3.0 MeV and 200 keV were installed at MINT. These two accelerators pave the way for R and D to be carried out in radiation processing of polymers for cross-linking and surface curing. In 1994, another electron beam accelerator was installed in the private sector for cross-linking of home appliance wires. Since then, two more accelerators were installed in the private sector for cross-linking of heat shrinkable plastic films. Recently, a local company has acquired a low energy electron beam machine for cross-linking of plastic film. Within a period of 7 years, industrial applications of electron beam technology in Malaysia have increased significantly

  9. Herbicidal cyanoacrylates with antimicrotubule mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, Stefan; Plath, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus

    2005-11-01

    The herbicidal mode of action of the new synthetic cyanoacrylates ethyl (2Z)-3-amino-2-cyano-4-ethylhex-2-enoate (CA1) and its isopropyl ester derivative CA2 was investigated. For initial characterization, a series of bioassays was used indicating a mode of action similar to that of mitotic disrupter herbicides such as the dinitroaniline pendimethalin. Cytochemical fluorescence studies including monoclonal antibodies against polymerized and depolymerized tubulin and a cellulose-binding domain of a bacterial cellulase conjugated to a fluorescent dye were applied to elucidate effects on cell division processes including mitosis and microtubule and cell wall formation in maize roots. When seedlings were root treated with 10 microM of CA1 or CA2, cell division activity in meristematic root tip cells decreased within 4 h. The chromosomes proceeded to a condensed state of prometaphase, but were unable to progress further in the mitotic cycle. The compounds caused a complete loss of microtubular structures, including preprophase, spindle, phragmoplast and cortical microtubules. Concomitantly, in the cytoplasm, an increase in labelling of free tubulin was observed. This suggests that the herbicides disrupt polymerization and microtubule stability, whereas tubulin synthesis or degradation appeared not to be affected. In addition, cellulose labelling in cell walls of root tip cells was not influenced. The effects of CA1 and CA2 were comparable with those caused by pendimethalin. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, labelled arrays of cortical microtubules in living epidermal cells of hypocotyls collapsed within 160 min after exposure to 10 microM CA1 or pendimethalin. Moreover, a dinitroaniline-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn) with a point mutation in alpha-tubulin showed cross-resistance against CA1 and CA2. The results strongly indicate that the cyanoacrylates are

  10. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  11. Perspectives on transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in the United States almost 20 years after introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O

    2015-05-01

    Herbicide-resistant crops have had a profound impact on weed management. Most of the impact has been by glyphosate-resistant maize, cotton, soybean and canola. Significant economic savings, yield increases and more efficacious and simplified weed management have resulted in widespread adoption of the technology. Initially, glyphosate-resistant crops enabled significantly reduced tillage and reduced the environmental impact of weed management. Continuous use of glyphosate with glyphosate-resistant crops over broad areas facilitated the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds, which have resulted in increases in the use of tillage and other herbicides with glyphosate, reducing some of the initial environmental benefits of glyphosate-resistant crops. Transgenic crops with resistance to auxinic herbicides, as well as to herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, stacked with glyphosate and/or glufosinate resistance, will become available in the next few years. These technologies will provide additional weed management options for farmers, but will not have all of the positive effects (reduced cost, simplified weed management, lowered environmental impact and reduced tillage) that glyphosate-resistant crops had initially. In the more distant future, other herbicide-resistant crops (including non-transgenic ones), herbicides with new modes of action and technologies that are currently in their infancy (e.g. bioherbicides, sprayable herbicidal RNAi and/or robotic weeding) may affect the role of transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops in weed management. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Seletividade de herbicidas a genótipos de cana-de-açúcar Herbicide selectivity to sugarcane genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Galon

    2009-12-01

    a variation between sugarcane genotypes regarding herbicide tolerance. This work evaluated the tolerance of three genotypes to the herbicides ametryn, trifloxysulfuron-sodium and their commercial formulated mixture in 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 times the recommended commercial dose. The experiment was conducted under protected environmental conditions. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications. The treatments were composed by genotypes SP80-1816, RB855113, RB867515 associated to herbicides ametryn, trifloxysulfuron-sodium and sodium-ametryn + trifloxysulfuron, at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 times the recommended commercial dose. Intoxication of the plants (% was assessed at 14, 28 and 42 days after application of the herbicides (DAT. The other variables measured at 80 days after crop emergence were leaf area and shoot dry matter. In general, the genotypes SP80-1816 and RB855113 were less tolerant to the herbicides ametryn, trifloxysulfuron- sodium and the mixture ametryn + trifloxysulfuron-sodium than the RB867515 at all tested doses. They showed high intoxication levels at 14, 28 and 42 days after herbicide application. It was concluded that genotype RB855113 was the most sensitive to the herbicides, followed by SP80-1816, with RB867515 being the most tolerant.

  13. Fate of herbicides in deep subsurface limestone and sandy aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander

    afgørende for at vurdere herbiciders skæbne i underjord og grundvandsmagasiner. PhD-projektet har undersøgt sorption og nedbrydning af fire model-herbicider (atrazin, acetochlor, mecoprop og isoproturon) i kalksten og sandede grundvands¬magasiner. Desuden er den rumlige småskala-variation af herbicidernes...... tydelig selv inden for få cm afstand over dybden, og betydningen af denne variation afhænger af den samlede udbredelse af lag med forhøjet sorption eller nedbrydning; 2) at kalk/kalksten yder ringe beskyttelse mod grundvands¬forurening med mecoprop, atrazin, isoproturon og acetochlor, da sorptionen er lav...... og mineraliseringen meget langsom for isoproturon, acetochlor og mecoprop, og atrazin ikke er nedbrydeligt; 3) at i sandede grundvands¬magasiner er sorptionen af de fire herbicider generelt lav, men kan under reducerede forhold være kraftig for især isoproturon og acetochlor. Mecoprop, isoproturon og...

  14. Developing a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Nazarpoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust among costumers of Day bank in KhoramAbad city. A sample of 150 people was selected based on stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were used for the investigation. Results indicate that technology-based factors, user-based factors, and trust had negative relationships with perceived risk types including financial, functional, personal, and private. Moreover, trust including trust in system and trust in bank had a positive relationship with tendency to use and real application of electronic banking.

  15. Efficacy of Maister OD (Foramsulfuron + Idosulfuron a New Herbicide in Controlling Weeds of Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of a new herbicide Foramsulfuron +Idosulfuron (Maister OD against other herbicides in corn fields, this experiment was fulfielld in 2010 at Mahidasht, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah, Iran. It was concucted in randomized complete block design with four replications and 11 treatments. In this experiment, three doses of herbicides (38.75, 46.5 and 54.25 g/ha including foramsulfuron + idosulfuron along with Nicusulfuron, ForamSulfuron, Rimsulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Rimsulfuron , Bromicid + hand weeding narrow leaf weeds, Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and U46 + hand weeding of narrow leaf weeds and a complete weeding as the control treatments were investigated. Weeds present in the field were Xanthium stromarium,Chenopedium album, Portulaca oleracea, Sorgum halepense and Setaria virdis. The results of this study showed that doses 38.75 and 46.5 g/ha of herbicide foramsulfuron + idosulfuron after treatments of Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and, Bromicid + narrow leaf weed, hand weeding respectively could control 90 and 86 % of weeds in corn field and increase its yields significantly. Because there are presently few registered herbicide available in Iran, necessity of finding proper herbicides to control weeds in corn field and based on the results oblained from this experiment it seems using 46.5 and 38-75 grams per hectare respectively of foramsulfuron + idosulfuron could be a better option than other herbicides to control weeds in corn fields and increase its seed yield.

  16. Radiation leakage from linac electron applicator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The electron beam applicator system currently in use on the linear accelerator is constructed of light-weight fiberglass and aluminum. With an applicator in place on the accelerator, the photon collimator jaws are automatically set several centimeters greater than the electron field size projected at the patient's surface. To ensure that no regions of high dose levels exist outside the useful beam, ionization and film measurements were made to quantitate the amount of leakage radiation through the 10 cm x 10 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm applicators. In most regions, the ionization levels at the patient's surface were below 5% of the central axis dose. In one area for the 25 cm applicator, the percentage ionization was 8.5%, which could be reduced by the addition of a small piece of 1/8 inch thick lead. However, ionization levels on the outside surface of the applicator were found to be considerably higher at certain locations for the 25 cm applicator. Results for 6, 9, 12 and 20 MeV electrons are reported here

  17. Industrial application of electron sources with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Belyuk, S I; Rempe, N G

    2001-01-01

    Paper contains a description, operation, design and parameters of electron sources with plasma emitters. One presents examples of application of these sources as part of automated electron-beam welding lines. Paper describes application of such sources for electron-beam deposition of composite powders. Electron-beam deposition is used to rebuild worn out part and to increase strength of new parts of machines and tools. Paper presents some examples of rebuilding part and the advantages gained in this case

  18. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  19. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1993-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  20. Linking fluorescence induction curve and biomass in herbicide screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin G; Teicher, Harald B; Streibig, Jens C

    2003-12-01

    A suite of dose-response bioassays with white mustard (Sinapis alba L) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) in the greenhouse and with three herbicides was used to analyse how the fluorescence induction curves (Kautsky curves) were affected by the herbicides. Bentazone, a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor, completely blocked the normal fluorescence decay after the P-step. In contrast, fluorescence decay was still obvious for flurochloridone, a PDS inhibitor, and glyphosate, an EPSP inhibitor, which indicated that PSII inhibition was incomplete. From the numerous parameters that can be derived from OJIP-steps of the Kautsky curve the relative changes at the J-step [Fvj = (Fm - Fj)/Fm] was selected to be a common response parameter for the herbicides and yielded consistent dose-response relationships. Four hours after treatment, the response Fvj on the doses of bentazone and flurochloridone could be measured. For glyphosate, the changes of the Kautsky curve could similarly be detected 4 h after treatment in sugar beet, but only after 24 hs in S alba. The best prediction of biomass in relation to Fvj was found for bentazone. The experiments were conducted between May and August 2002 and showed that the ambient temperature and solar radiation in the greenhouse could affect dose-response relationships. If the Kautsky curve parameters should be used to predict the outcome of herbicide screening experiments in the greenhouse, where ambient radiation and temperature can only partly be controlled, it is imperative that the chosen fluorescence parameters can be used to predict accurately the resulting biomass used in classical bioassays.

  1. Grassland response to herbicides and seeding of native grasses 6 years posttreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Endress; Catherine G. Parks; Bridgett J. Naylor; Steven R. Radosevich; Mark. Porter

    2012-01-01

    Herbicides are the primary method used to control exotic, invasive plants. This study evaluated restoration efforts applied to grasslands dominated by an invasive plant, sulfur cinquefoil, 6 yr after treatments. Of the five herbicides we evaluated, picloram continued to provide the best control of sulfur cinquefoil over 6 yr. We found the timing of picloram...

  2. Split application of glyphosate in herbicide-tolerant maize provides efficient weed control and favors beneficial epigeic arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Holec, J.; Holec, M.; Boháč, J.; Jursík, M.; Soukup, J.; Sehnal, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 251, JAN 01 (2018), s. 171-179 ISSN 0167-8809 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) L200961652 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : herbicide-tolerant maize * weed management * conventional tillage Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880917304188

  3. Effects of a phosphinothricin based herbicide on selected groups of soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampulha, M E; Ferreira, M A S S; Oliveira, A

    2007-08-01

    The effects of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium on soil microbial populations and activity were observed in a laboratory microcosms over a 40 day period. Culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, the fundamental groups of heterotrophic microorganisms, were studied. Nitrifiers, considered a very sensitive group to these compounds were also evaluated. Since herbicides have been found to inhibit decomposition of cellulose in the soil, the effects of glufosinate on cellulolytic bacteria and fungi were determined. Dehydrogenase activity as a measure of microbial activity was another parameter considered. Both stimulating and inhibitory effects on microbial populations were observed, depending on concentration of the herbicide and the period of incubation. A severe inhibiting effect of glufosinate on dehydrogenase activity was found. We concluded that the widespread use of this herbicide may have possible injurious effects on soil microorganisms and their activities. The toxicity exerted by glufosinate may lead to a shift in microbial community structure tending toward a significant loss in functional diversity. Dehydrogenase activity was shown to be an important indicator of glufosinate side-effects.

  4. Effects of selected herbicides and fungicides on growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celar, Franci A; Kos, Katarina

    2016-11-01

    The in vitro fungicidal effects of six commonly used fungicides, namely fluazinam, propineb, copper(II) hydroxide, metiram, chlorothalonil and mancozeb, and herbicides, namely isoxaflutole, fluazifop-P-butyl, flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb, on mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 74040) were investigated. Mycelial growth rates and sporulation at 15 and 25 °C were evaluated on PDA plates containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 0% of the recommended application rate of each pesticide. The tested pesticides were classified in four scoring categories based on reduction in mycelial growth and sporulation. All pesticides, herbicides and fungicides tested had fungistatic effects of varying intensity, depending on their rate in the medium, on B. bassiana. The most inhibitory herbicides were flurochloridone and prosulfocarb, and fluazinam and copper(II) hydroxide were most inhibitory among the fungicides, while the least inhibitory were isoxaflutole and chlorothalonil. Sporulation and conidial germination of B. bassiana were significantly inhibited by all tested pesticides compared with the control treatment. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, prosulfocarb and copper(II) hydroxide inhibited sporulation entirely at 100% rate (99-100% inhibition), and the lowest inhibition was shown by fluazifop-P-butyl (22%) and metiram (33%). At 100% dosage, all herbicides in the test showed a high inhibitory effect on conidial germination. Conidial germination inhibition ranged from 82% with isoxaflutole to 100% with fluorochloridone, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb. At 200% dosage, inhibition rates even increased (96-100%). All 12 pesticides tested had a fungistatic effect on B. bassiana of varying intensity, depending on the pesticide and its concentration. B. bassiana is highly affected by some herbicides and fungicides even at very low rates. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron

  5. NOVEL CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND CARBON SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six acetanilide herbicides are currently registered for use in the U.S. Over the past several years, ethanesufonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OA) degradatoin products of these acetanilide herbicides have been found in U.S. ground waters and surface waters. "Alachlor ESA and ...

  6. Thirteen Year Loblolly Pine Growth Following Machine Application of Cut-Stump Treament Herbicides For Hardwood Stump-Sprout Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde G. Vidrine; John C. Adams

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen year growth results of 1-0 out-planted loblolly pine seedlings on nonintensively prepared up-land mixed pine-hardwood sites receiving machine applied cut-stump treatment (CST) herbicides onto hardwood stumps at the time of harvesting is presented. Plantation pine growth shows significantly higher growth for pine in the CST treated plots compared to non-CST...

  7. Application of natural attenuation to ground water contaminated by phenoxy acid herbicides at an old landfill in Sjoelund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Ejlskov, P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of geology, hydrogeology, and ground water chemistry in the aquifer downgradient from Sjoelund Landfill, Denmark, formed the basis for an evaluation of natural attenuation as a remediation technology for phenoxy acid herbicides at the site. Concentrations of phenoxy acids were up......, such as specific metabolites, changes in enantiomeric fractions, compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios, or microbial fingerprints....

  8. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops II. Effect at milk thistle (Silybum Marianum Gaertn.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. During 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type was conducted a field experiment. Under investigation was Bulgarian milk thistle cultivar Silmar (Silybum marianum Gaertn.). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC, Eagle 75 DF and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Granstar super 50 SG, Starane 250 ...

  9. Limited fitness costs of herbicide-resistance traits in Amaranthus tuberculatus facilitate resistance evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fitness cost of herbicide resistance (HR) in the absence of herbicide selection plays a key role in HR evolution. Quantifying the fitness cost of resistance, however, is challenging, and there exists a knowledge gap in this area. A synthetic Amaranthus tuberculatus population segregating for fiv...

  10. Predictive value of species sensitivity distributions for effects of herbicides in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Blake, N.; Brock, T.C.M.; Maltby, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a review of the laboratory and field toxicity of herbicides to aquatic ecosystems. Single-species acute toxicity data and ( micro) mesocosm data were collated for nine herbicides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test species selection in constructing

  11. Evaluation Effect of Adjuvant on Mesosulfuron+Iodosulfuron Herbicide Performance on Littleseed Canarygrass Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. kargar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adjuvant application is one of the most important ways to increase herbicide efficacy and decrease environmental damaging effects of herbicides. In general, It has displayed that a very few of the spray droplets retained on the surface of leaf plants and the majority of them bounce off the leaf surface. Therefore, in spraying processes, adjuvant designed to enhance the absorbing, emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, sticking, wetting, or penetrating properties of pesticides. Adjuvant are most often used with herbicides to help a pesticide spread over a leaf surface and penetrate the waxy cuticle of a leaf or to penetrate through the small hairs present on a leaf surface. Surfactants and crop oils are two types of adjuvant that are used for increasing efficacy of herbicides. In many cases, significant increases have been observed in biological activity with the addition of surfactants or crop oils. For example, the performance of specific graminicides and some sulfonylureas is usually increased by the addition of tank-mix oils. It is generally accepted that the benefit of oils is related to their ability to increase the drying period of droplets during their fly time before their impact on the plants, to improve the spreading of the deposit on difficult-to-wet targets (mainly Graminaceae, to act as solubilizing agents, and above all to enhance the penetration of herbicides into the plants. Among commercially available adjuvants, emulsified vegetable oils have been shown to increase droplet retention and spreading, and enhance absorption and translocation of active ingredients. It has been reported that efficacy of atrazine, bentazone, phenmedipham and rimsulfuron on various weeds were increased by the addition of rapeseed oils to solution spray. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvant concentrations on surface tension of aqueous solutions, an experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with 4

  12. Quantification of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl herbicide in soil and vegetable samples by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and HPLC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.U.N.; Shah, J.; Jan, M.R.; Muhammad, M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl herbicide in environmental samples is described. The chromatographic analysis was carried out by HPLC, on a C18 packed capillary column (4x4 mm,4.6 X 150 mm, 5mm particle size) with 20 macro l injection volume and UV detector at 280 nm. HPLC-grade acetonitrile and methanol were used as mobile phase with flow rate of 1mL min-1. Samples were spiked with amount between 5 - 20 micro g g-1 of herbicide and were isolated from samples by applying microwave assisted extraction (MASE) at ambient temperature. Percent recoveries were improved by optimizing solvent types, solvent volume, extraction temperature and time. Calibration curve range determined by HPLC was 0.5-16 micro g mL-1. The interaction of different variables for maximum % recovery response was checked by applying factorial design and was found to be in range of 91.22+-0.01-99.32+-0.01 with good precision (< 5% ). Application of this procedure to the analysis of herbicide in ester and acid form showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)

  13. Drazepinone, a trisubstituted tetrahydronaphthofuroazepinone with herbicidal activity produced by Drechslera siccans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Vurro, Maurizio; Fracchiolla, Mariano; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Motta, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    When grown in a minimal-defined medium, a strain of Drechslera siccans, a pathogenic fungus isolated from seeds of Lolium perenne, produced phytotoxic metabolites. This strain is one of the best toxin producers among several grass pathogenic fungal strains collected and tested to find phytotoxins to be used as natural herbicides of monocot weeds. From the culture filtrates of D. siccans, we isolated a new phytotoxic trisubstituted naphthofuroazepinone, named drazepinone, and characterised it as a 3,5,12a-trimethyl-2,5,5a,12a-tetrahydro-1H-naphtho[2',3':4,5]furo[2,3-b]azepin-2-one. Assayed at 2 microg microl(-1) solution the novel metabolite proved to have broad-spectrum herbicidal properties, without antibacterial and antifungal activities, and low zootoxic activity. Its original chemical structure and the interesting biological properties make drazepinone a potential natural herbicide.

  14. Non-target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in a Sagittaria trifolia L. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bochui; Fu, Danni; Yu, Yang; Huang, Chengtian; Yan, Kecheng; Li, Pingsheng; Shafi, Jamil; Zhu, He; Wei, Songhong; Ji, Mingshan

    2017-08-01

    Sagittaria trifolia L. is one of the most competitive weeds in rice fields in northeastern China. The continuous use of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors has led to the evolution of herbicide resistant S. trifolia. A subpopulation BC1, which was derived from the L1 population, was analyzed using DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme activity assays and levels of resistance to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides was determined. DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme assays revealed no amino acid substitutions and no significant differences in enzyme sensitivity between susceptible and resistant populations. Whole-plant dose-response experiments showed that the BC1 population exhibited different levels of resistance (resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 51.53) to five ALS herbicides, and the addition of malathion (P450 inhibitor) to bensulfuron-methyl, penoxsulam and bispyribac-sodium strongly reduced the dry weight accumulation of the BC1 population compared with the effects of the three herbicides alone. The results of the present study demonstrated that the BC1 population has evolved non-target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nano crystals for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.; Cloutier, S.G.; Ivanov, I; Knappenberger Jr, K.L.; Robel, I.; Zhang, F

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, from computers and smart cell phones to solar cells, have become a part of our life. Currently, devices with featured circuits of 45 nm in size can be fabricated for commercial use. However, further development based on traditional semiconductor is hindered by the increasing thermal issues and the manufacturing cost. During the last decade, nano crystals have been widely adopted in various electronic and optoelectronic applications. They provide alternative options in terms of ease of processing, low cost, better flexibility, and superior electronic/optoelectronic properties. By taking advantage of solution-processing, self-assembly, and surface engineering, nano crystals could serve as new building blocks for low-cost manufacturing of flexible and large area devices. Tunable electronic structures combined with small exciton binding energy, high luminescence efficiency, and low thermal conductivity make nano crystals extremely attractive for FET, memory device, solar cell, solid-state lighting/display, photodetector, and lasing applications. Efforts to harness the nano crystal quantum tunability have led to the successful demonstration of many prototype devices, raising the public awareness to the wide range of solutions that nano technology can provide for an efficient energy economy. This special issue aims to provide the readers with the latest achievements of nano crystals in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including the synthesis and engineering of nano crystals towards the applications and the corresponding device fabrication, characterization and computer modeling.

  16. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk; Bertelsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount......, whereasmulching with paper wool reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to herbicide treatment. Cover cropas tagetes and weed harrowing had similar yield as herbicide treatment, whereas cover crops as grassand hop medick and weed cutting reduced first-quality yield compared to herbicide treatment. Earth......-worms thrived under rape straw contrary to under black polypropylene and plots with weed harrowing.Treatments had significant effects on species numbers of plants both years, and total vegetation covergenerally increased in the second year. Rape straw supported a high production of apples and a largestock...

  17. Effect of buctril super (Bromoxynil herbicide on soil microbial biomass and bacterial population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of bromoxynil herbicide on soil microorganisms, with the hypothesis that this herbicide caused suppression in microbial activity and biomass by exerting toxic effect on them. Nine sites of Punjab province (Pakistan those had been exposed to bromoxynil herbicide for about last ten years designated as soil 'A' were surveyed in 2011 and samples were collected and analyzed for Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC, Biomass Nitrogen (MBN, Biomass Phosphorus (MBP and bacterial population. Simultaneously, soil samples from the same areas those were not exposed to herbicide designated as soil 'B' were taken. At all the sites MBC, MBN and MBP ranged from 131 to 457, 1.22 to 13.1 and 0.59 to 3.70 µg g-1 in the contaminated soils (Soil A, which was 187 to 573, 1.70 to 14.4 and 0.72 to 4.12 µg g-1 in the soils without contamination (soil B. Bacterial population ranged from 0.67 to 1.84x10(8 and 0.87 to 2.37x10(8 cfu g-1 soil in the soils A and B, respectively. Bromoxynil residues ranged from 0.09 to 0.24 mg kg-1 at all the sites in soil A. But no residues were detected in the soil B. Due to lethal effect of bromoxynil residues on the above parameters, considerable decline in these parameters was observed in the contaminated soils. Results depicted that the herbicide had left toxic effects on soil microbial parameters, thus confirmed that continuous use of this herbicide affected the quality of soil and sustainable crop production.

  18. Discovery of Putative Herbicide Resistance Genes and Its Regulatory Network in Chickpea Using Transcriptome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir A. Iquebal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable. Since large variability in tolerance limit of herbicide already exists in chickpea varieties, thus the genes offering herbicide tolerance can be introgressed in variety improvement programme. Transcriptome studies can discover such associated key genes with herbicide tolerance in chickpea.Results: This is first transcriptomic studies of chickpea or even any legume crop using two herbicide susceptible and tolerant genotypes exposed to imidazoline (Imazethapyr. Approximately 90 million paired-end reads generated from four samples were processed and assembled into 30,803 contigs using reference based assembly. We report 6,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 3,037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1,528 transcription factors associated with 897 DEGs, 47 Hub proteins, 3,540 putative Simple Sequence Repeat-Functional Domain Marker (SSR-FDM, 13,778 genic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP putative markers and 1,174 Indels. Randomly selected 20 DEGs were validated using qPCR. Pathway analysis suggested that xenobiotic degradation related gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST were only up-regulated in presence of herbicide. Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals

  19. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  20. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  1. Primisulfuron herbicide-resistant tobacco plants: mutant selection in vitro by adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, C.T.; DiMaio, J.J.; Jayne, S.M.; Middlesteadt, L.A.; Negrotto, D.V.; Thompson-Taylor, H.; Montoya, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple procedure has been developed for the rapid and direct selection of herbicide-resistant mutant plants. The procedure uses adventitious shoot formation from suitable explants, such as leaf discs, on a shoot-inducing culture medium containing a toxic herbicide concentration. Resistant green shoots were thus isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf explants cultured on medium containing 100 μg 1−1 primisulfuron, a new sulfonylurea herbicide. Resistant shoots were recovered from both haploid and diploid explants after UV mutagenesis, as well as without mutagenic treatment. Three mutant plants of separate origin were further analyzed biochemically and genetically. Their acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) enzyme activity was less inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides than that of unselected, sensitive wild type plants. The extent of inhibition of the AHAS enzyme among the three mutants was different for different sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides suggesting different sites were affected by each mutation. Herbicide tolerance was scored for germinating seedling populations and was found to be inherited as a single dominant nuclear gene. Adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs was used to determine the cross tolerance of mutant plants to various herbicidal AHAS inhibitors. The usefulness of this rapid and direct scheme for mutant selection based on adventitious shoot formation or embryogenesis is discussed. (author)

  2. Herbicide contamination in carrot grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, M.; Ahmad, T.; Jahangir, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Food safety and security is a burning issue of the time whereas vegetable production is an important aspect of agriculture. Use of herbicides for vegetable production is very common in Pakistan but no proper procedure has been planned to keep optimal level of doses of herbicide under permissible limit. To estimate the pesticide residues, samples from the leading carrot producing sites were collected along with the samples from the market. The samples were processed using standard procedures and qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was concluded that all the samples were contaminated with S-metolachlor in the range of 0.45 to 0.73 mg kg-1 which was above the permissible limit (0.40 mg kg-1). (author)

  3. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  4. Assessment of Envi-Carb™ as a passive sampler binding phase for acid herbicides without pH adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seen, Andrew; Bizeau, Oceane; Sadler, Lachlan; Jordan, Timothy; Nichols, David

    2014-05-01

    The graphitised carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent Envi-Carb has been used to fabricate glass fibre filter- Envi-Carb "sandwich" disks for use as a passive sampler for acid herbicides. Passive sampler uptake of a suite of herbicides, including the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides 4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba), was achieved without pH adjustment, demonstrating for the first time a suitable binding phase for passive sampling of acid herbicides at neutral pH. Passive sampling experiments with Duck River (Tasmania, Australia) water spiked at 0.5 μg L(-1) herbicide concentration over a 7 d deployment period showed that sampling rates in Duck River water decreased for seven out of eight herbicides, and in the cases of 3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Clopyralid) and Dicamba no accumulation of the herbicides occurred in the Envi-Carb over the deployment period. Sampling rates for 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Picloram), 2,4-D and MCPA decreased to approximately 30% of the sampling rates in ultrapure water, whilst sampling rates for 2-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoylsulfamoyl) benzoic acid, methyl ester (Sulfometuron-methyl) and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid (Triclopyr) were approximately 60% of the ultrapure water sampling rate. For methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-D-alaninate (Metalaxyl-M) there was little variation in sampling rate between passive sampling experiments in ultrapure water and Duck River water. SPE experiments undertaken with Envi-Carb disks using ultrapure water and filtered and unfiltered Duck River water showed that not only is adsorption onto particulate matter in Duck River water responsible for a reduction in herbicide sampling rate, but interactions of herbicides with dissolved or colloidal matter (matter able to pass through a 0.2 μm membrane filter) also reduces the herbicide sampling

  5. Morphoanatomical and physiological changes in Bauhinia variegata L. as indicators of herbicide diuron action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Dêmily Andrômeda de; Müller, Caroline; Costa, Alan Carlos; Batista, Priscila Ferreira; Dalvi, Valdnéa Casagrande; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-07-01

    The wide use of the herbicide diuron has compromised surrounding uncultivated areas, resulting in acute and/or chronic damage to non-target plants. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate physiological and morphoanatomical responses in Bauhinia variegata L. plants to different doses of diuron. Seedlings of 90-day-old B. variegata were transplanted into 10liter pots. After an acclimation period (about 30 days), treatments consisting of different diuron doses were applied: 0 (control), 400, 800, 1600, and 2400g ai ha -1 . The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in a 5×5 factorial scheme with five doses of diuron five evaluation times, and five replicates per treatment. Anatomical and physiological injuries were observed in leaves of Bauhina variegata 10h after diuron application. Disruption of waxes was observed on both sides of the leaves of plants exposed since the lowest dose. Plasmolysis in cells were observed in treated leaves; more severe damage was observed in plants exposed to higher doses, resulting in rupture of epidermis. The diuron herbicide also caused gradual reduction in the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence variables. Among the morphoanatomical and physiological variables analyzed, the non-invasive ones (e.g., ETR, Y II , and F v /F m ) may be used as biomarkers of diuron action in association with visible symptoms. In addition, changes in leaf blade waxes and chlorophyll parenchyma damage may also be considered additional leaf biomarkers of diuron herbicide action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Industrial applications of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs

  7. Study on absorption and translocation amounts of 2,4-D on perennial weed( Glycyrrhiza glabra) by 19 C- labelled herbicides tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fatholahi, H.; Naserian, B.

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra a perennial broad leaf weed, is very difficult to control due to it's powerful root system. The best chemical treatment to perennial weeds control is the application of systemic herbicides and their effect is related to amount of permeability and mobility

  8. Biodegradation of the acetanilide herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, D M; Tuovinen, O H

    1998-01-01

    Alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor are detoxified in biological systems by the formation of glutathione-acetanilide conjugates. This conjugation is mediated by glutathione-S-transferase, which is present in microorganisms, plants, and mammals. Other organic sulfides and inorganic sulfide also react through a nucleophilic attack on the 2-chloro group of acetanilide herbicides, but the products are only partially characterized. Sorption in soils and sediments is an important factor controlling the migration and bioavailability of these herbicides, while microbial degradation is the most important factor in determining their overall fate in the environment. The biodegradation of alachlor and metolachlor is proposed to be only partial and primarily cometabolic, and the ring cleavage seems to be slow or insignificant. Propachlor biodegradation has been reported to proceed to substantial (> 50%) mineralization of the ring structure. Reductive dechlorination may be one of the initial breakdown mechanisms under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic and anaerobic transformation products vary in their polarity and therefore in soil binding coefficient. A catabolic pathway for chloroacetanilide herbicides has not been presented in the literature because of the lack of mineralization data under defined cultural conditions.

  9. Generation and characterization of tribenuron-methyl herbicide-resistant rapeseed (Brasscia napus) for hybrid seed production using chemically induced male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Li, Juanjuan; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jing; Yi, Licong; Liu, Chao; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-01-01

    Identification and molecular analysis of four tribenuron-methyl resistant mutants in Brassica napus , which would be very useful in hybrid production using a Chemically induced male sterility system. Chemically induced male sterility (CIMS) systems dependent on chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) like tribenuron-methyl (TBM) represent an important approach for practical utilization of heterosis in rapeseed. However, when spraying the female parents with TBM to induce male sterility the male parents must be protected with a shield to avoid injury to the stamens, which would otherwise complicate the seed production protocol and increase the cost of hybrid seed production. Here we report the first proposed application of a herbicide-resistant cultivar in hybrid production, using a CIMS system based on identifying four TBM-resistant mutants in Brassica napus. Genetic analysis indicated that the TBM resistance was controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. An in vitro enzyme activity assay for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) suggested that the herbicide resistance is caused by a gain-of-function mutation in a copy of AHAS genes. Comparative sequencing of the mutants and wild type BnaA.AHAS.a coding sequences identified a C-to-T transition at either position 535 or 536 from the translation start site, which resulted in a substitution of proline with serine or leucine at position 197 according to the Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence. An allele-specific dCAPS marker developed from the C536T variation co-segregated with the herbicide resistance. Transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing BnaA.ahas3.a conferred herbicide resistance, which confirmed that the P197 substitution in BnaA.AHAS.a was responsible for the herbicide resistance. Moreover, the TBM-resistant lines maintain normal male fertility under TBM treatment and can be of practical value in hybrid seed production using CIMS.

  10. Adsorption of imidazolinone herbicides on smectite-humic acid and smectite-ferrihydrite associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, P; Nègre, M; Gennari, M; Boero, V; Celis, R; Cornejo, J

    2002-01-16

    Adsorption of imazapyr (IMZ), imazethapyr (IMZT), and imazaquin (IMZQ) was studied on two smectite-humic acid and two smectite-ferrihydrite binary systems prepared by treating a Wyoming smectite with a humic acid extracted from soil (4 and 8% w/w of the smectite) and with just-precipitated synthetic ferrihydrite (8 and 16% w/w of the smectite). Adsorption of the three herbicides on the smectite was not measurable at pH >4.5, presumably because of negative charges on the surface of the smectite. Adsorption on the smectite-humic acid systems was also not measurable, presumably because of negative charges on the surface, despite the high affinity of the three herbicides for humic acid, the adsorption order of which was IMZ smectite-ferrihydrite systems and IMZQ smectite cannot adsorb herbicides, it modifies the adsorption capacity of ferrihydrite. The mutual interaction of active phases such as humic acid, ferrihydrite, and smectite alters the characteristics of the resulting surface and hence the adsorption process. Investigations of herbicide adsorption have been seen to produce more reliable results if conducted on polyphasic systems rather than on single soil components.

  11. Atrazine is not readily mineralised in 24 temperate soils regardless of pre-exposure to triazine herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaesner, Nadia; Baelum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2010-01-01

    Mineralisation of atrazine in soil has been shown to depend on previous exposure of the herbicide. In this study, 24 Danish soils were collected and screened for potential to mineralise atrazine. Six soils were chosen, because they had never been exposed to atrazine, whereas 18 soils were chosen because of their history of application of atrazine or the related compound terbuthylazine. None of the 24 soils revealed a mineralisation potential of more than 4% of the added atrazine within a 60 day timeframe. In an atrazine adapted French soil, we found 60% mineralisation of atrazine in 30 days. Cattle manure was applied in order to boost the microbial activity, and a 2-3% increase in the atrazine mineralisation was found in some of the temperate soils, while in the highly adapted French soil it caused a 5% reduction. - The study highlights that pre-exposure of soils to triazine herbicides do not result in rapid mineralization in temperate soils.

  12. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  13. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  14. Selectable tolerance to herbicides by mutated acetolactate synthase genes integrated into the chloroplast genome of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masanori; Goto, Maki; Hanai, Moeko; Shimizu, Tsutomu; Izawa, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi; Yokota, Akiho; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2008-08-01

    Strategies employed for the production of genetically modified (GM) crops are premised on (1) the avoidance of gene transfer in the field; (2) the use of genes derived from edible organisms such as plants; (3) preventing the appearance of herbicide-resistant weeds; and (4) maintaining transgenes without obstructing plant cell propagation. To this end, we developed a novel vector system for chloroplast transformation with acetolactate synthase (ALS). ALS catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched amino acids, and its enzymatic activity is inhibited by certain classes of herbicides. We generated a series of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutated ALS (mALS) genes and introduced constructs with mALS and the aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase gene (aadA) into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplast genome by particle bombardment. Transplastomic plants were selected using their resistance to spectinomycin. The effects of herbicides on transplastomic mALS activity were examined by a colorimetric assay using the leaves of transplastomic plants. We found that transplastomic G121A, A122V, and P197S plants were specifically tolerant to pyrimidinylcarboxylate, imidazolinon, and sulfonylurea/pyrimidinylcarboxylate herbicides, respectively. Transplastomic plants possessing mALSs were able to grow in the presence of various herbicides, thus affirming the relationship between mALSs and the associated resistance to herbicides. Our results show that mALS genes integrated into the chloroplast genome are useful sustainable markers that function to exclude plants other than those that are GM while maintaining transplastomic crops. This investigation suggests that the resistance management of weeds in the field amid growing GM crops is possible using (1) a series of mALSs that confer specific resistance to herbicides and (2) a strategy that employs herbicide rotation.

  15. Using fluorescent dyes as proxies to study herbicide removal by sorption in buffer zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Jeanne; Dagès, Cécile; Voltz, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The performance of buffer zones for removing pesticides from runoff water varies greatly according to landscape settings, hydraulic regime, and system design. Evaluating the performance of buffers for a range of pesticides and environmental conditions can be very expensive. Recent studies suggested that the fluorescent dyes uranine and sulforhodamine B could be used as cost-effective surrogates of herbicides to evaluate buffer performance. However, while transformation mechanisms in buffers have been extensively documented, sorption processes of both dyes have rarely been investigated. In this study, we measured the adsorption, desorption, and kinetic sorption coefficients of uranine and sulforhodamine B for a diverse range of buffer zone materials (soils, litters, plants) and compared the adsorption coefficients (Kd) to those of selected herbicides. We also compared the global sorption capacity of 6 ditches, characterized by varying proportions of the aforementioned materials, between both dyes and a set of four herbicides using the sorption-induced pesticide retention indicator (SPRI). We found that both the individual Kd of uranine for the diverse buffer materials and the global sorption capacity of the ditches are equivalent to those of the herbicides diuron, isoproturon, and metolachlor. The Kd of sulforhodamine B on plants and soils are equivalent to those of glyphosate, and the global sorption capacities of the ditches are equivalent for both molecules. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that uranine can be used as a proxy of moderately hydrophobic herbicides to evaluate the performance of buffer systems, whereas sulforhodamine B can serve as a proxy for more strongly sorbing herbicides.

  16. Herbicide on Weed Composition, Diversity and Density in Silage Corn (cv. Sc 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of plant density, planting pattern and herbicide dosage of nicosulfuron, a field experiment was arranged in a factorial split plot treatments based on RCBD with three replications in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi, in 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of a factorial plant density (100000, 120000 and 140000 plants ha-1 in the planting pattern (single and double row as main plot and herbicide dosage of nicousulforon in four levels (0, 1, 1/5 and 2, l.ha-1 as sub-plot. Samplings were made at in five stages (37days after the emergence of corn and it was repeated once per 20 days. The results indicated reducing the weed density and dry matter of weeds in the first stage after the herbicide treatment. Moreover, it was observed a significant interaction effect between plant density with planting pattern and between planting pattern with herbicides dosages during growth season on reducing weed density and dry matter. Also results indicated that in between of this experiment's treatments, nicosulfuron herbicide reduced weed density at the beginning of growth season and double row planting pattern suppressed weed density during growing season, and resulted in lowest Jacard similarity index (Sj of weed species. Results also indicated that with increasing of plant density and herbicide dosage especially in composition of double row planting pattern, according to Shannon- Wiener index, sensitive population such as common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculareL., black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. and Johnson grass (Sorghum halepens L. was reduced in during growing season. Simpson dominance index, showed that some low populated weeds such as redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and Canada thistle (Circum arvensis L. persisted their growth up to the end of

  17. Resistance to the photosystem II herbicide diuron is dominant to sensitivity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942

    OpenAIRE

    Brusslan, Judy; Haselkorn, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The transformable cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, was used to study the genetics of resistance to the herbicide diuron. In wild-type cells, diuron binds to one of the core proteins, called D1, of photosystem II reaction centres. This binding prevents the transfer of electrons from QA, the primary quinone acceptor, to QB, which is necessary to create the charge separation that drives ATP synthesis. A single amino acid substitution in the D1 protein reduces diuron binding and confers...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDE TREATMENT IN ONION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan OROIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed concerning the action of three herbicides (Pantera 40 CE, Fusilade Super and Agil 100 EC on onion culture. The Amstrong onion hybrid was used on clay - aluviovertic chernosem, with NPK fertilization (N80P80K80 during the preparation of the germinative bed. The unfavorable climatic conditions infl uence the effi cacy of the post-emergent applied herbicides, but signifi cant differences were recorded between variants treated with different products. When Pantera 40 CE was used, phytotoxicity phenomena materialized by temporary discoloration of the plants were not recorded, compared to the results obtained when the other herbicides were used. The use of Pantera 40 CE led to the most important production gain, with 9.8% compared to Fusilade super and 4.8% with Agil 100 EC.

  19. The response of parental components of ZP maize hybrids to effects of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of four inbred lines, parental components of ZP maize hybrids, to effects of six herbicides applied after emergence of both, maize and weeds, was observed in the present study. The following herbicides were applied in the 2-3-leaf stage of maize: isoxaflutole (Merlin 750-WG in the amount of 0.135 kg ha-1, nicosulfuron (Motivell in the amount of 1.25 l ha-1, foramsulfuron (Equip in the amount of 2.0 l ha-1, dicamba + rimsulfuron (Tarot plus in the amount of 0.3 kg ha-1, mezotrion (Callisto in the amount of 0.25 l ha-1 and thifensulfuron-methyl (Grid in the amount of 0.02 kg ha-1. The phytotoxic effect of herbicides on the maize grain yield was evaluated according to the 1-9 EWRC scale. Maize inbreds showed different susceptibility depending on the applied herbicide. The least favourable effects in both years for all genotypes were obtained in the treatments with Tarot plus and Grid, in which the lowest values of maize grain yield were recorded.

  20. Metabolism of nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides by dioxin-degrading bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii RW1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Young Soo; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2008-10-08

    Nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides, including chlomethoxyfen, nitrofen, and oxyfluorfen are potent herbicides. Some metabolites and parent compounds are considered as possible mutagens and endocrine disruptors. Both properties pose serious hygienic and environmental risks. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a well-known degrader of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers. However, no detailed research of its metabolic activity has been performed against pesticides with a diphenyl ether scaffold. In this study, we report S. wittichii RW1 as a very potent diphenyl ether herbicide-metabolizing bacterium with broad substrate specificity. The structures of metabolites were determined by instrumental analysis and synthetic standards. Most pesticides were rapidly removed from the culture medium in the order of nitrofen > oxyfluorfen > chlomethoxyfen. In general, herbicides were degraded through the initial reduction and N-acetylation of nitro groups, followed by ether bond cleavage. Relatively low concentrations of phenolic and catecholic metabolites throughout the study suggested that these metabolites were rapidly metabolized and incorporated into primary metabolism. These results indicate that strain RW1 has very versatile metabolic activities over a wide range of environmental contaminants.

  1. The effect of the herbicide diuron on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, A G; Airoldi, C

    2001-07-01

    The inhibitory effect of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] on microbial activity in red Latosol soil was followed using microcalorimetry. The activity of the micro-organisms in 1.50 g of soil sample was stimulated by addition of 6.0 mg of glucose and 6.0 mg of ammonium sulfate under 35% controlled humidity at 298.15 (+/- 0.02) K. This activity was determined by power-time curves that were recorded for increasing amounts of diuron, varying from zero to 333.33 micrograms g-1 soil. An increase in the amount of diuron in soil caused a decrease of the original thermal effect, to reach a null value above 333.33 micrograms g-1 of herbicide. The power-time curve showed that the lag-phase period and peak time increased with added herbicide. The decrease of the thermal effect evolved by micro-organisms and the increase of the lag-phase period are associated with the death of microbial populations caused by diuron, which strongly affects soil microbial communities.

  2. Impact of some herbicides on the biomass activity in biological treatment plants and biodegradability enhancement by a photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquén, T B; Benzzo, M T; Isla, M A; Alfano, O M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of agrochemicals has increased because they are essential for profitable agricultural production. Herbicides are heavily demanded compounds and among these, the most marketed are 2,4-D, atrazine and acetochlor. They have characteristics that can cause problems to humans and the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to design systems that can reduce these compounds to harmless molecules. This work aims at evaluating the possibility of incorporating these herbicides into degradable effluents in a biological treatment system, without reducing its efficiency. For this purpose, studies of organic matter degradability in the presence of these agrochemicals were performed. A synthetic effluent based on glucose and mineral salts was inoculated with microorganisms. Glucose consumption and biomass concentration were assessed. Subsequently, preliminary studies were performed to test the viability of degradation of the most harmful compound with an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The results showed that the incorporation of these herbicides into degradable effluents in a biological treatment system has a negative impact on microorganisms. Therefore, the application of an AOP, such as the Fenton or photo-Fenton processes, prior to a biological treatment was found to degrade these substances to simpler and less toxic molecules.

  3. Industrial applications or electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial use of electron beams began in the 1950's with the crosslinking of polyethylene film and wire insulation. Today the number of electron beam Processing Systems installed for industrial applications throughout the world has grown to more than six hundred stations in over 35 countries. Total installed power is now approaching 40 megawatts (over 8 million tons of products per year). Electron beam is now utilized by many major industries including plastics, automotive, rubber goods, wire and cable, electrical insulation, semiconductor, medical, packaging, or pollution control. The principal effect of high-energy electrons is to produce ions in the materials treated, resulting in the liberation of orbital electrons. As a result, the original molecule is modified and the ree radicals combine to form new molecules with new chemical reactions or dis organisation od the DNA chains of living organisms (insects, fungus, microorganisms, etc.). (Author) 8 refs

  4. Determinação da carga física de trabalho na atividade de aplicação manual de herbicida / Determination of demanded physical effort in herbicide application activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo determinar a carga física de trabalho e avaliar o esforço físico na atividade de aplicação manual de herbicida em plantios florestais, visando propor a melhoria das condições de conforto, segurança e saúde dos trabalhadores. A carga física de trabalho foi obtida por meio do levantamento da frequência cardíaca dos trabalhadores na execução das diversas fases do ciclo de trabalho e a atividade classificada conforme metodologia proposta por Apud (1989. Os resultados indicaram que a atividade de aplicação manual de herbicida foi classificada como moderadamente pesada, apresentando carga cardiovascular abaixo do limite máximo recomendado de 40% e não sendo necessário o estabelecimento de pausas adicionais de repouso.AbstractThe objective of this research was to determine and evaluate the demanded physical effort in the activity of herbicide manual application in forest plantations, proposing an ergonomic reorganization to improve the workers’ comfort, security, safety and health. The demanded physical effort was gotten in a survey of the workers’ cardiac frequency while executing the work stages, and classified according to methodology proposed by Apud (1989. The results indicated that the activity of herbicide manual application was classified as moderately heavy, featuring cardiovascular load below the recommended limit of 40% and there is no need to establish additional break in the work.

  5. Efeito de alguns herbicidas na cultura do quiabeiro, em testes efetuados em casa de vegetação Effect of some herbicides on okra crop in trials performed in the greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alves

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas variedades de quiabeiro foram testadas, em condições de casa de vegetação, com solo de textura areno-barrenta, na sua tolerância para 16 herbicidas, cada qual aplicado em uma única dose. Dentre os herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado o triflu-ralin destacou-se no combate às ervas daninhas gramíneas e não causou nenhum dano para a planta do quiabeiro. Os herbicidas cloroxuron, linuron, norea e propachlor mostraram ótimos resultados no cambate às ervas más e quanto à tolerância dessa malvácea. Do grupo das triazinas, todos os herbicidas usados nas condições do teste provocaram danos para o quiabeiro.Two okra (Hibiscus esculentus L. varieties were tested for their tolerance to sixteen herbicides at one rate each, as a pre-planting and as a pre-emergence applications in greenhouse trials. The results with the incorporated herbicides showed that only tri-fluralin at 0,75 kg/ha active ingredient was promising to this crop. Different results were obtained with the pre-emergence applications of the group of urea and anilide herbicides. While no symptoms of injury were observed with chloroxuron, norea, linuron, and propachlor, injury symptoms were evident with diuron, fluometuron, metobromuron and siduron. The four triazine herbicides were very damaging to the okra plants. Under the conditions of these tests, only the herbicides trifluralin, chloroxuron, norea, and linuron were promising to the okra crop.

  6. Delayed fluorescence as an indicator of the influence of the herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on hard coral Acropora digitifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2017-11-30

    We examined the effect of two herbicides (Irgarol 1051 and Diuron) on symbiotic dinoflagellates in the hard coral Acropora digitifera using delayed fluorescence (DF), specifically assessing changes in molecular membrane transport, i.e. inflow and outflow rates, and the binding of the herbicides to target proteins in photosystem II. The DF approach is rapid (e.g. measurement time, 60 s) and non-invasive, and can provide data on the extent of a photosynthetic system and the activity of its electron carriers. The DF of A. digitifera is inhibited 2 h after exposure to 1 μg/L of either Irgarol or Diuron. Analysis of DF inhibition over time by a compartment model suggests that Irgarol exposure results in a relatively higher inflow rate and lower outflow rate than does Diuron exposure. This suggests that Irgarol exposure more strongly inhibits photosynthesis and that the coral symbiotic dinoflagellates recover less from inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tubulin-isotype analysis of two grass species-resistant to dinitroaniline herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldin, T R; Ellis, J R; Hussey, P J

    1992-09-01

    Trifluralin-resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (goosegrass) and Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (green foxtail) exhibit cross-resistance to other dinitroaniline herbicides. Since microtubules are considered the primary target site for dinitroaniline herbicides we investigated whether the differential sensitivity of resistant and susceptible biotypes of these species results from modified tubulin polypeptides. One-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with immunoblotting using well-characterised anti-tubulin monoclonal antibodies were used to display the family of tubulin isotypes in each species. Seedlings of E. indica exhibited four β-tubulin isotypes and one α-tubulin isotype, whereas those of S. viridis exhibited two β-tubulin and two α-tubulin isotypes. Comparison of the susceptible and resistant biotypes within each species revealed no differences in electrophoretic properties of the multiple tubulin isotypes. These results provide no evidence that resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides is associated with a modified tubulin polypeptide in these biotypes of E. indica or S. viridis.

  8. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2014-01-01

    Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO...... as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited...

  9. Stretchable electronics for wearable and high-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, Daniel; Shannon, Lesley; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in the development of novel materials and fabrication processes are resulting in an increased number of flexible and stretchable electronics applications. This evolving technology enables new devices that are not readily fabricated using traditional silicon processes, and has the potential to transform many industries, including personalized healthcare, consumer electronics, and communication. Fabrication of stretchable devices is typically achieved through the use of stretchable polymer-based conductors, or more rigid conductors, such as metals, with patterned geometries that can accommodate stretching. Although the application space for stretchable electronics is extensive, the practicality of these devices can be severely limited by power consumption and cost. Moreover, strict process flows can impede innovation that would otherwise enable new applications. In an effort to overcome these impediments, we present two modified approaches and applications based on a newly developed process for stretchable and flexible electronics fabrication. This includes the development of a metallization pattern stamping process allowing for 1) stretchable interconnects to be directly integrated with stretchable/wearable fabrics, and 2) a process variation enabling aligned multi-layer devices with integrated ferromagnetic nanocomposite polymer components enabling a fully-flexible electromagnetic microactuator for large-magnitude magnetic field generation. The wearable interconnects are measured, showing high conductivity, and can accommodate over 20% strain before experiencing conductive failure. The electromagnetic actuators have been fabricated and initial measurements show well-aligned, highly conductive, isolated metal layers. These two applications demonstrate the versatility of the newly developed process and suggest potential for its furthered use in stretchable electronics and MEMS applications.

  10. Plasmon enhanced fluoro-immunoassay using egg yolk antibodies for ultra-sensitive detection of herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kukkar, Manil; Ganguli, Ashok K; Bhasin, Aman; Suri, C Raman

    2013-08-07

    Plasmon enhanced fluorescence immunoassay (PEFI) format has been reported in developing a sensitive heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay for monitoring the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Computer-assisted molecular modeling was carried out to study the conformational and electrostatic effects of synthesized hapten for producing highly specific egg yolk antibody against a phenyl urea herbicide diuron. The generated antibodies were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate at different molar ratios and used as tracer in the developed fluorescence based immunoassay. The sensitivity of the assay format was enhanced by using silver nanoparticles tagged with bovine serum albumin as a new blocking reagent in the developed PEFI format. Enhancer treatment on the developed immunoassay showed a significant improvement of fluorescence signal intensity with approximately 10 fold increase in assay sensitivity. The immunoassay has a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) with good signal precision (~2%) in the optimum working concentration range between 1 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) of diuron. These findings facilitate high throughput fluorescence-based processes that could be useful in biology, drug discovery and compound screening applications.

  11. Applications of Organic and Printed Electronics A Technology-Enabled Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Organic and printed electronics can enable a revolution in the applications of electronics and this book offers readers an overview of the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving domain.  The potentially low cost, compatibility with flexible substrates and the wealth of devices that characterize organic and printed electronics will make possible applications that go far beyond the well-known displays made with large-area silicon electronics. Since organic electronics are still in their early stage, undergoing transition from lab-scale and prototype activities to production, this book serves as a valuable snapshot of the current landscape of the different devices enabled by this technology, reviewing all applications that are developing and those can be foreseen.   Provides a complete roadmap for organic and printed electronics research and development for the next several years; Includes an overview of the printing processes for organic electronics, along with state of the art applications, such as solar ...

  12. Content Of 2,4-D-14C Herbicide Residue In Water And Soil Of Irrigated Rice Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, Sofnie M.; Djabir, Elida; Magdalena, Nelly

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of 2,4-D exp.-14C herbicide residue in water and soil of irrigated rice field system was carried out. Rice plant and weeds (Monochoria vaginalis Burn. F. Presl) were planted in 101 buckets using two kinds of soil condition, I.e. normal soil and 30 % above normal compact soil. After one week planting, the plants were sprayed with 1 u Ci of 2,4-D exp.-14C and 0,4 mg non labeled 2,4-D. The herbicide residue content was determined 0, 2, 4, 8 and 10 weeks after spraying with 2,4-D herbicide. The analysis was done using Combustion Biological Oxidizer merk Harvey ox-400, and counted with Liquid Scintillation Counter merk Beckman model LS-1801. The results indicates that the herbicide contents in water and soil decrease from the first spraying with herbicide until harvest herbicide Residue content in water after harvest was 0.87 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition, and 0.59 x 10 exp.-6 pm for the soil 30 % up normal condition, while herbicide content in soil was 1.54 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition and 1.48 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in rice after harvest was 0.27 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for normal soil condition and 0.25 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for the soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in roots and leaves of weeds after harvest were respectively 0.29 x 10 exp.-6 ppm and 0.18 x 10 exp.-6 for normal soil condition, while for 30 % up normal soil were 0.25 x 10 exp.-5 ppm and 0.63 x 10 exp.-7 ppm. This result indicates that there is no effect pollution to surrounding area, because the herbicide content is still bellow the allowed detection limit, 0.05 ppm

  13. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  14. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  15. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Bourne, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  16. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, O.F. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France); Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie (GMGM), UMR 7156 University of Strasbourg/CNRS (France); Maillard, E. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France); Vuilleumier, S. [Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie (GMGM), UMR 7156 University of Strasbourg/CNRS (France); Imfeld, G., E-mail: imfeld@unistra.fr [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France)

    2014-11-15

    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold{sup ®} contaminated water (960 g L{sup −1} of the herbicide S-metolachlor, > 80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was > 40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93–97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p = 0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems. - Highlights: • We evaluated the bacterial composition in wetlands treating S-metolachlor • Hydraulic regime impacted biogeochemical processes and S-metolachlor removal

  17. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, O.F.; Maillard, E.; Vuilleumier, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold ® contaminated water (960 g L −1 of the herbicide S-metolachlor, > 80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was > 40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93–97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p = 0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems. - Highlights: • We evaluated the bacterial composition in wetlands treating S-metolachlor • Hydraulic regime impacted biogeochemical processes and S-metolachlor removal

  18. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. Assessing the extent and effects of herbicide drift into Danish hedgerows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Andersen, H. V.; Strandberg, M. T.

    Very low dosages of herbicides are known to cause effects on bird cherry (Prunus avium) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). It is not yet known whether other hedgerow trees and shrubs are equally sensitive to herbicide drift, to which extent spray drift into hedges and other habitats close to fiel...... were assessed. Metsulfuron methyl effects on Sambucus nigra (elder) and Sorbus intermedia were studied in separate experiments and will include second year effects. Methods and preliminary results are presented and discussed in relation to pesticide regulation....

  1. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  2. Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2014 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  3. Materials and applications of bioresorbable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Bioresorbable electronics is a new type of electronics technology that can potentially lead to biodegradable and dissolvable electronic devices to replace current built-to-last circuits predominantly used in implantable devices and consumer electronics. Such devices dissolve in an aqueous environment in time periods from seconds to months, and generate biological safe products. This paper reviews materials, fabrication techniques, and applications of bioresorbable electronics, and aims to inspire more revolutionary bioresorbable systems that can generate broader social and economic impact. Existing challenges and potential solutions in developing bioresorbable electronics have also been presented to arouse more joint research efforts in this field to build systematic technology framework. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61604108) and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (No. 16JCYBJC40600).

  4. Glufosinate Herbicide Intoxication Causing Unconsciousness, Convulsion, and 6th Cranial Nerve Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-yong

    2013-01-01

    Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on six...

  5. Chromatographic determination of herbicide residues in various matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2004), s. 350-359 ISSN 0269-3879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : herbicide residues * extraction methods * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.069, year: 2004

  6. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Glyphosate is a compound used as herbicide in the control and/or killing of grasses and herbaceous plants. ... Because of its toxicity to non-target organisms, there is need to decontaminate.

  7. The application of electron paramagnetic resonance in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Ximei; Wang Liqin; Zhang Wenyi; Liu Zhongchao; Cui Songye; Feng Xin; Jiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance technique has been found more than half a century, for free radicals detection application, it has been applied to various research studies, and promotes the development of the biomedicine. This article summarized the various free radicals measurement by the electron paramagnetic resonance in biology tissue, and the application of the spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging technology in biomedicine. (authors)

  8. Environmental determinants of the urinary concentrations of herbicides during pregnancy: the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Serrano, Tania; Lecerf, Rémi; Limon, Gwendolina; Petit, Claire; Monfort, Christine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-02-01

    Herbicides are generally the most extensively used of the pesticides applied to agricultural crops. However, the literature contains little evidence useful in assessing the potential sources of the general population's exposure to herbicides, including by residential proximity to crops. The objective of this study was to take advantage of data from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort to identify the main determinants of the body burden of exposure to the chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides commonly used on corn crops in Brittany, France, before 2006. Urine samples from a randomly selected subcohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy (n=579) were assayed for herbicide metabolites. The residential exposure resulting from proximity to corn crops was assessed with satellite-image-based scores combined with meteorological data. Data on diet, drinking tap water (from the public water supply), occupations, and household herbicide use were collected by questionnaires. Herbicides were quantified in 5.3% to 39.7% of urine samples. Alachlor and acetochlor were found most frequently in the urine of women living in rural areas. The presence of dealkylated triazine metabolites in urine samples was positively associated with residential proximity to corn crops (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Urinary metabolites of both atrazine and dealkylated triazine were correlated with tap water consumption (OR=2.94, 1.09-7.90, and OR=1.82, 1.10-3.03, respectively); hydroxylated triazine metabolites were correlated with fish intake (OR=1.48, 1.09-1.99). This study reinforces previous results that suggest that environmental contamination resulting from agricultural activities may contribute to the general population's exposure to herbicides. © 2013.

  9. Structure effect on the interaction of phenylurea herbicides with model biomembrane as an environmental mobility parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Forte, Stefano; Sarpietro, Maria G

    2004-01-15

    During recent years, intensive use of herbicides has raised increasing concern mainly due to their massive pollution of the environment. As these herbicides are directly or indirectly toxic to a wide range of organisms, their potential for contaminating soil, surface water, and groundwater makes these xenobiotics of special interest from a health and environmental point of view. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which they exert their toxic effects is becoming a need. Because of the herbicides' lipophilicity, a possible site of interaction in the cell is represented by biomembranes. The interaction of four herbicides, difenoxuron, diuron, linuron, and metoxuron, with model membranes constituted of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles was investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry technique. The aim was to study the effects exerted by an increasing amount of the examined compounds on thermotropic behavior of the model phospholipid membranes and to correlate the obtained results with structural features of the herbicides due to their environmental mobility. Among the herbicides studied, linuron is the most effective in perturbing the ordinate structure of vesicles forming phospholipids, whereas metoxuron is the least effective and the others exert an intermediate effect. Linuron exerts its effect both on the transition temperature of the gel to the liquid crystalline phase and on the enthalpy change. Difenoxuron, diuron, and metoxuron cause a change in the transition temperature but have an insignificant effect on the enthalpy change. The calorimetric results, correlated with the structural features of the herbicides, are consistent with their partition coefficient, log K(ow), suggesting that the more hydrophobic compound character causes a greater liposolubility and consequential cellular absorption with more effectiveness on the membrane order.

  10. [Determination of biphenyl ether herbicides in water using HPLC with cloud-point extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Yan; Li, Yuan-Qian; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Ouyang, Hua-Xue; Zheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    To determine residues of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with cloud-point extraction. The residues of eight biphenyl ether herbicides (including bentazone, fomesafen, acifluorfen, aclonifen, bifenox, fluoroglycofenethy, nitrofen, oxyfluorfen) in water samples were extracted with cloud-point extraction of Triton X-114. The analytes were separated and determined using reverse phase HPLC with ultraviolet detector at 300 nm. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment of water samples and the parameters of chromatographic separation applied. There was a good linear correlation between the concentration and the peak area of the analytes in the range of 0.05-2.00 mg/L (r = 0.9991-0.9998). Except bentazone, the spiked recoveries of the biphenyl ether herbicides in the water samples ranged from 80.1% to 100.9%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.70% to 6.40%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.10 microg/L to 0.50 microg/L. The proposed method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and can meet the requirements of determination of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in natural waters.

  11. Effects of herbicides on non-target plants: How do effects in standard plant tests relate to effects in natural habitats?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Beate; Bruus, Marianne; Kjær, Christian

    areas where risk assessment seems to be insufficient. The most extensive conclusion is that seed production is a more sensible end-point for risk assessment of herbicides than the currently used end-point biomass. Crop species, in general, were not less sensitive to herbicides than non-target species......The report presents the results on effects of herbicides on plants found in natural habitats within the agricultural land. Furthermore, it evaluates whether the current risk assessment of herbicides represents an adequate safeguard for protection of these species and habitats. We found several....... Finally, we found that interactions between species are important for their responses to herbicides....

  12. Inducible hydroxylation and demethylation of the herbicide isoproturon by Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangler, Martin; Jensen, Bo; Rønhede, Stig; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2007-03-01

    A screening of 27 fungal strains for degradation of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon was performed and yielded 15 strains capable of converting the herbicide to polar metabolites. The zygomycete fungus Cunninghamella elegans strain JS/2 isolated from an agricultural soil converted isoproturon to several known hydroxylated metabolites. In addition, unknown metabolites were produced in minor amounts. Inducible degradation was indicated by comparing resting cells pregrown with or without isoproturon. This shows that strain JS/2 is capable of partially degrading isoproturon and that one or more of the enzymes involved are inducible upon isoproturon exposure.

  13. Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Isoproturon by Fungi Isolated from Agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønhede, S.; Jensen, Bo; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Several asco-, basidio-, and zygomycetes isolated from an agricultural field were shown to be able to hydroxylate the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon [N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea] to N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea and N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N......Several asco-, basidio-, and zygomycetes isolated from an agricultural field were shown to be able to hydroxylate the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon [N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea] to N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea and N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl...

  14. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  15. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  16. New Technologies for Insect-Resistant and Herbicide-Tolerant Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Coppola, Gerardo; Zelasco, Samanta

    2016-01-01

    The advent of modern molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of insect-resistant (IR) and herbicide-tolerant (HT) plant varieties, with great economic benefits for farmers. Nevertheless, the high selection pressure generated by control strategies for weed and insect populations has led to the evolution of herbicide and pesticide resistance. In the short term, the development of new techniques or the improvement of existing ones will provide further instruments to counter the appearance of resistant weeds and insects and to reduce the use of agrochemicals. In this review, we examine some of the most promising new technologies for developing IR and HT plants, such as genome editing and antisense technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of herbicide BASTA 15 on the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, D; Bystriansky, J; Burkuš, J; Rehák, P; Legáth, J; Koppel, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of maternal poisoning by BASTA-15 on developmental capacities and quality of preimplantation embryos in a mouse model. During in vivo tests, fertilized mice were fed with various doses of BASTA-15 for several days. During in vitro tests, isolated embryos were cultured in a medium with the addition of herbicide or its main compound glufosinate ammonium. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of embryonic pools obtained from treated dams showed that BASTA-15 at dose 58 μl/kg bw negatively affected their ability to reach the blastocyst stage. Moreover, as shown by morphological evaluation, based on cell counting and cell death assay, even the application of herbicide at the lowest dose (approx. 1/100 LD50) had a negative effect on obtained embryo quality. In vitro tests proved the direct ability of BASTA-15 to negatively affect embryo growth and quality. On the other hand, the addition of glufosinate ammonium at equivalent concentrations (from 0.015 to 15 μg/ml) had almost no damaging effect on embryos. It was harmful only at very high doses. Results show that maternal intoxication with BASTA-15 might affect the development of preimplantation embryos and suggest that the responsibility for this effect lies probably not solely with glufosinate ammonium, but in combination with the herbicide's secondary compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  19. Regulation of Microbial Herbicide Transformation by Coupled Moisture and Oxygen Dynamics in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschmann, G.; Pagel, H.; Uksa, M.; Streck, T.; Milojevic, T.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The key processes of herbicide fate in agricultural soils are well-characterized. However, most of these studies are from batch experiments that were conducted under optimal aerobic conditions. In order to delineate the processes controlling herbicide (i.e., phenoxy herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA) turnover in soil under variable moisture conditions, we conducted a state-of-the-art soil column experiment, with a highly instrumented automated soil column system, under constant and oscillating water table regimes. In this system, the position of the water table was imposed using a computer-controlled, multi-channel pump connected to a hydrostatic equilibrium reservoir and a water storage reservoir. The soil samples were collected from a fertilized, arable and carbon-limited agricultural field site in Germany. The efflux of CO2 was determined from headspace gas measurements as an integrated signal of microbial respiration activity. Moisture and oxygen profiles along the soil column were monitored continuously using high-resolution moisture content probes and luminescence-based Multi Fiber Optode (MuFO) microsensors, respectively. Pore water and solid-phase samples were collected periodically at 8 depths and analyzed for MCPA, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon concentrations as well as the abundance of specific MCPA-degrading bacteria. The results indicated a clear effect of the water table fluctuations on CO2 fluxes, with lower fluxes during imbibition periods and enhanced CO2 fluxes after drainage. In this presentation, we focus on the results of temporal changes in the vertical distribution of herbicide, specific herbicide degraders, organic carbon concentration, moisture content and oxygen. We expect that the high spatial and temporal resolution of measurements from this experiment will allow robust calibration of a reactive transport model for the soil columns, with subsequent identification and quantification of rate limiting processes of

  20. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume I: 1997 Follow-up Examination Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalek, J

    2000-01-01

    ... attributable to exposure to herbicides exist in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand Operation. Ranch Hand was the unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides, including Herbicide Orange, in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971...

  1. Herbicide micropollutants in surface, ground and drinking waters within and near the area of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Sanja; Mendaš, G; Dvoršćak, M; Stipičević, S; Vasilić, Ž; Drevenkar, V

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and mass concentrations of 13 herbicide micropollutants (triazines, phenylureas, chloroacetanilides and trifluralin) were investigated during 2014 in surface, ground and drinking waters in the area of the city of Zagreb and its suburbs. Herbicide compounds were accumulated from water by solid-phase extraction using either octadecylsilica or styrene-divinylbenzene sorbent cartridges and analysed either by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detector or gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide in drinking (84 % of samples) and ground (61 % of samples) waters in mass concentrations of 5 to 68 ng L -1 . It was followed by metolachlor and terbuthylazine, the former being detected in 54 % of drinking (up to 15 ng L -1 ) and 23 % of ground (up to 100 ng L -1 ) waters, and the latter in 45 % of drinking (up to 20 ng L -1 ) and 26 % of ground (up to 25 ng L -1 ) water samples. Acetochlor was the fourth most abundant herbicide in drinking waters, detected in 32 % of samples. Its mass concentrations of 107 to 117 ng L -1 in three tap water samples were the highest of all herbicides measured in the drinking waters. The most frequently (62 % of samples) and highly (up to 887 ng L -1 ) detected herbicide in surface waters was metolachlor, followed by terbuthylazine detected in 49 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 690 ng L -1 , and atrazine detected in 30 % of samples in mass concentrations of up to 18 ng L -1 . The seasonal variations in herbicide concentrations in surface waters were observed for terbuthylazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, chlortoluron and isoproturon with the highest concentrations measured from April to August.

  2. Clearfield®-Clentiga® and Clearfield® Kombi-Pack: Two new herbicides for targeted weed control in winter- and spring oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönhammer, Alfons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Clearfield® Production System in winter oilseed rape in Germany is based on the herbicide Clearfield®-Vantiga® , a combination product consisting of the active ingredients metazachlor, quinmerac and imazamox, sold as Clearfield-Vantiga D together with the adjuvant Dash® E.C.. Clearfield-Vantiga D was introduced in autumn 2012 and has since proved superior performance on more than 10 000 ha of heavily weedy fields due to the very broad spectrum of activity, reliable foliar and soil activity and excellent crop safety in Clearfield oilseed rape hybrids. Although the authorized application period is very long (BBCH 10-18, it is mostly used relatively early, as soon as the majority of the important weeds is emerged. Metazachlor which is active mainly by cotyledon, hypocotyl and root uptake, is favoured by early applications. Clearfield-Clentiga is a suspension concentrate (SC, consisting of 250 g/l quinmerac and 12.5 g/l imazamox . The application rate is 1.0 l/ha + 1.0 l/ha of the adjuvant Dash E.C.. Approval is sought for use in winter oilseed rape in autumn (BBCH 10-18 and spring (BBCH 30-50 and in spring oilseed rape (BBCH 10-18. Results are presented for the autumn application in winter oilseed rape. A prerequisite for the application of both Clearfield-Clentiga and Clearfield-Vantiga D is the use of imazamox tolerant oilseed rape (Clearfield varieties. The amounts of active ingredient per hectare of quinmerac and imazamox are identical in Clearfield-Clentiga and Clearfield-Vantiga D, as well as the amount of adjuvant Dash E.C.. Clearfield-Clentiga, as a consequence of the absence of metazachlor, compared to Clearfield-Vantiga D has a slightly more limited spectrum of activity and a less pronounced soil activity, but provides greater flexibility in the choice of the application dates and of combinations with soil and foliar herbicides. Very effective, even at high weed pressure and in difficult soil conditions, are sequential

  3. Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joanne; Monteiro, Marta S; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the toxicities of four pesticides (the herbicides atrazine, terbuthylazine, metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos) previously detected in the Alqueva reservoir/dam (south of Portugal) were evaluated individually and in binary combinations of the herbicides and the insecticide using fourth-instar larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. Chlorpyrifos induced toxicity to midges in all the 48 h toxicity bioassays performed. The swimming behaviour of the larvae was impaired, with EC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.17 μg/L. However, neither s-triazine (atrazine and terbuthylazine) herbicides nor metolachlor alone at concentrations up to 200 μg/L caused significant toxicity to C. riparius. When combined with both s-triazine herbicides, chlorpyrifos toxicity was enhanced by approximately 2-fold when tested in a binary mixture experimental setup, at the 50% effective concentration levels. To evaluate how chlorpyrifos toxicity was being increased, the cholinesterases (ChE) were characterized biochemically using different substrates and selective inhibitors. The results obtained suggested that the main enzyme present in this species is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and therefore it was assayed upon C. riparius exposures to all pesticides individually and as binary mixtures. Although atrazine and terbuthylazine are not effective inhibitors of AChE, the potentiation of chlorpyrifos toxicity by the two s-triazine herbicides was associated with a potentiation in the inhibition of AChE in midges; both s-triazine herbicides at 200 μg/L increased the inhibition of the AChE activity by 7 and 8-fold, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between swimming behaviour disturbances of larvae and the inhibition of the AChE activity. In contrast, metolachlor did not affect chlorpyrifos toxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Therefore, the herbicides atrazine and terbuthylazine can act as synergists in the presence of chlorpyrifos, increasing

  4. Assessment of the levels of N- (Phosphonomethyl) glycine glyphosate in selected glyphosate-based herbicides on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddrisu, Adisatu

    2016-07-01

    Sixty one (61) samples of Glyphosate based herbicides were collected from the central commercial hub of Kumasi (Kejetia) and ware houses of importers in Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Information about the efficacy of the numerous Glyphosate herbicides on the market was also collected by way of questionnaire. Results of the analysis indicated that only ten (16.4 %) out of the sixty one samples met the Environmental Protection Agency’s requirement of ±5 % of the stated active ingredient concentration and 51 samples representing 83.6 % were all out of the acceptable range. Active ingredient was either understated or overstated. About 21.6 % of the samples that failed to meet requirements were overstated and 78.4 % were understated. Apart from a few of the samples that had concentrations higher than stated label claims with 69 g/L (19.2 %) highest, most samples were generally lower than stated label claims. Some (G09, G18 and G44) samples contained virtually no active ingredient with shortfalls as high as 98.6%. Some of these shortfalls explained findings from the field investigations where some respondents complained of Glyphosate not being efficacious. Farmers may follow the application and safety instructions but this only holds true as long as the herbicides provide efficient control of weed. This can only be achieved with products of consistently high quality. This study also discovered that, there was no possibility of adulteration of the herbicide along the value chain as results for products picked from ware houses of importers did not differ much from those picked from the open market. Results from the other method employed in Glyphosate determination was UV/VIV spectroscopy, this method is simpler and faster and readily available in most laboratories in Ghana. Results from UV/VIS were comparable to that of the HPLC with generally lower values for UV/VIS readings. It is therefore

  5. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen degradation under two irrigation conditions over four years application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alister, Claudio A; Gomez, Patricio A; Rojas, Sandra; Kogan, Marcelo

    2009-05-01

    A four-year field study was conducted to determine the effect of pluviometric conditions on pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen soil dynamics. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a sandy loam soil from 2003 to 2007. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were applied every year on August at 1.33 and 0.75 kg ha(-1), respectively. Herbicide soil concentrations were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40, 90 and 340 days after application (DAA), under two pluviometric regimens, natural rainfall and irrigated (30 mm every 15 days during the first 90 DAA). More than 74% of the herbicide applied was detected at the top 2.5 cm layer for both herbicides, and none was detected at 10 cm or deeper. Pendimethalin soil half-life ranged from 10.5 to 31.5 days, and was affected mainly by the time interval between application and the first rain event. Pendimethalin soil residues at 90 DAA fluctuated from 2.5 to 13.8% of the initial amount applied, and it decreased to 2.4 and 8.6% at 340 DAA. Oxyfluorfen was more persistent than pendimethalin as indicated by its soil half-life which ranged from 34.3 to 52.3 days, affected primarily by the rain amount at the first rainfall after application. Oxyfluorfen soil residues at 90 DAA ranged from 16.7 to 34.8% and it decreased to 3.3 and 17.9% at 340 DAA. Based on half-life values, herbicide soil residues after one year, and soil depth reached by the herbicides, we conclude that both herbicides should be considered as low risk to contaminate groundwater. However, herbicide concentration at the top 2.5 cm layer should be considered in cases where runoff or soil erosion could occur, because of the potential for surface water contamination.

  6. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Blumberg, Bruce; Antoniou, Michael N; Benbrook, Charles M; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Myers, John Peterson

    2017-06-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs. We conclude that current safety standards for GBHs are outdated and may fail to protect public health or the environment. To improve safety standards, the following are urgently needed: (1) human biomonitoring for glyphosate and its metabolites; (2) prioritisation of glyphosate and GBHs for hazard assessments, including toxicological studies that use state-of-the-art approaches; (3) epidemiological studies, especially of occupationally exposed agricultural workers, pregnant women and their children and (4) evaluations of GBHs in commercially used formulations, recognising that herbicide mixtures likely have effects that are not predicted by studying glyphosate alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Herbicidal and antioxidant responses of transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunyo; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed the herbicidal and antioxidant defense responses of transgenic rice plants that overexpressed the Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene. Leaf squares of the wild-type incubated with oxyfluorfen were characterized by necrotic leaf lesions and increases in conductivity and malonyldialdehyde levels, whereas tra