WorldWideScience

Sample records for herbal drug preparation

  1. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Dülger

    2014-01-01

    Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions ...

  2. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

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    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  3. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

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    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  4. BULK AND SURFACE PROPERTIES OF TIN BASED HERBAL DRUG DURING ITS PREPARATION: FINGERPRINTING OF THE ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL CONSTITUENT

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    Asit Baran Mandal et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tin based herbal drug (Vangaparpam - a Siddha system of Medicine has been widely used for the treatment of urinogenital infection and Arthritis. It was prepared by ten sequential stages of calcinations of the medicinally purified tin along with Aloe vera extract. In this study we analysed samples from various stages of preparation using analytical techniques viz., Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy, Powder X ray Diffraction, X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- ray spectroscopy , Scanning Electron Microscopy, to create fingerprints required for the optimisation of the process parameters, detection of toxic impurities and crystal morphology of the Active Pharmaceutical ingredient during the formulation of drug for which reports are not available. Upon analysis of the samples of various stages of calcinations, we found that there was a programmed heating the medicinally purified tin metal was converted to crystalline tin oxide in the tetragonal phase at the first stage of calcinations itself along with a small percentage of therapeutically important elements of Calcium, Iron, and Potassium. Further calcinations steps brought interplay of nano and sub-micro sized particles for optimum bioavailability of the drug.

  5. The politics of herbal drugs in Korea.

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    Cho, B H

    2000-08-01

    Hanbang, the Korean medical practice with origins in classical Chinese texts, is a prominent part of the Korean health care system. Hanbang physicians, called hanuisas, are looked down on by biomedical doctors, but their practice has enjoyed increasing popularity for several decades. As the market for herbal preparations has become more lucrative, biomedical pharmacists have begun to participate in it. The Pharmaceutical Act in 1993 explicitly allowed pharmacists to prescribe and dispense herbal drugs. This provoked a bitter public conflict between hanuisas and pharmacists, involving street demonstrations and strikes. The hanuisas asserted that the pharmacists were unqualified to assume their traditional practice. They also agitated for recognition in the state-sponsored system of health care and for the state's support for developing Hanbang medicine. This paper attributes the conflicts concerning Hanbang to the expanding market for herbal preparations, Korean nationalism, and to the oversupply of biomedical pharmacists.

  6. Five prevalent antiprotozoal herbal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Azadbakht; Masoud Azadbakht2

    2008-01-01

    , (Received 21 Jun, 2008 ; Accepted 12 Nov, 2008) AbstractAccording to the statistics provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of the world population nowadays uses herbal drugs for treatment of diseases. Natural products obtained from medicinal plants, serve as a great source for drug production and are the main basis of new drug compounds. Unicellular organisms (Protozoa) are the cause of deaths and sp...

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

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    K. Nishteswar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic. Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted and become resistant to previous antimicrobial agents. In view of certain side effects caused due to usage of modern antimicrobial drugs and antibiotics scientists have made some attempts to screen some of the Ayurvedic herbs, which possess broader spectrum of safety. Some selected herbs which are used by tribal and rural people for curing various infective diseases caused due to bacteria, virus and fungi have been reported to possess anti-microbial properties. In the present paper and attempt is made to review about the indigenous medicinal plant which exhibited antimicrobial properties.

  8. Five prevalent antiprotozoal herbal drugs

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    Mohammad Azadbakht1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available , (Received 21 Jun, 2008 ; Accepted 12 Nov, 2008 AbstractAccording to the statistics provided by the World Health Organization (WHO, about 80% of the world population nowadays uses herbal drugs for treatment of diseases. Natural products obtained from medicinal plants, serve as a great source for drug production and are the main basis of new drug compounds. Unicellular organisms (Protozoa are the cause of deaths and spread of diseases in various societies, especially in developing countries. There are anti-malaria herbal dugs produced from various medicinal plants, some of which are used for treatment of the disease and some under study. The first anti-malaria drug was quinine, produced from bark of the Cinchona tree. Recently, the drug artemisinin has been introduced by Chinese scientists for the treatment of malaria and is currently used extensively. Coetaneous leishmaniosis (salak is one of the endemic diseases in most parts of Iran. Common drugs used against leishmaniosis (such as glucantim, have severe side-effects and in 10 to 25% of cases, there is a recurrence of the disease. Emetine is one of the drugs obtained from a root of the plant Ipecac, which is used for treatment of the disease sub-cutaneously. Giardiasis is an acute protozoan infection usually with no clinical symptoms, however, may appear as acute or chronic diarrhea. According to the announcement of WHO, more than 2/3 of the world’s population is infected with intestinal parasites and the prevalence of giardia is higher than other intestinal parasites. Herbal drugs, such as wild garlic, eucalyptus and thyme, are some of the major plants which can annihilate the giarda cysts. Annually, 75000 to 100000 people die of amebiasis (dysentery worldwide. Due to the motility of the organism, it causes sever pathological changes and sometimes colon ulcers, and if entered into the blood stream, it may appear as liver or brain abscess. Medicinal plants such as ipecac, mango, and papaya

  9. Herbal versus synthetic drugs; beliefs and facts

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    Karimi Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal therapy is a holistic therapy, integrating emotional, mental and spiritual levels. Life style, emotional, mental and spiritual considerations are part of any naturopathic approach. The use of herbs does not generally involve "drug" actions or adverse effects. Although medicinal plants are widely used and assumed to be safe, however, they can potentially be toxic. Where poisoning from medicinal plants has been reported, it usually has been due to misidentification of the plants in the form, in which they are sold, or incorrectly preparation and administration by inadequately trained personnel. There are some "drug like" plants remedies that their actions approach that of pharmaceuticals. Herbalists use these plants in treatment strategies and in countries such as Britain their vast availability is restricted by law. Digitalis is one of these examples and the number of these plants is not a lot. The mechanisms by which the herbs generally act are not established, however, most of medicinal plants possess antioxidant activities. The plants have been shown to effective by this property is various conditions including cancer, memory deficit and Alzheimer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidant activities of herbal medicines are also effective in reducing the toxicities of toxic agents or other drugs.

  10. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

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    Harinarayan Singh Chandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds, Syzigium cumini (seeds, Trigonella foenum (seeds, Azadirachta indica (leaves, Emblica offi cinalis (fruits, Curcuma longa (rhizomes, Gymnema sylvestre (leaves, Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.

  11. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

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    Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Pathak, A. K.; Tailang, Mukul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs–Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory. PMID:21731396

  12. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

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    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  13. Recent development in novel drug delivery systems of herbal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Chaturvedi; Manish Kumar; Amit Sinhal; Alimuddin Saifi

    2011-01-01

    Novel technologies have been developed recently for drug delivery systems. The use of herbal formulations for novel drug delivery systems is more advantageous and has more benefits compared to others. The use of liposome, ethosome, phytosomes, emulsion, microsphere, solid lipid nanoparticles of herbal formulation has enhanced the therapeutic effects of plant extracts. With the use of all these, targeted delivery of the formulation is achieved, due to which the formulation demonstrates effect ...

  14. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

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    Preeti Chavan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts.

  15. Safety of herbal preparations on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use and availability of herbal preparations covered by food law is increasing in the Netherlands and in other European Member States. Correspondingly, safety concerns relating to herbal preparations are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD project was therefore to review the toxicity of s

  16. Safety of herbal preparations on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use and availability of herbal preparations covered by food law is increasing in the Netherlands and in other European Member States. Correspondingly, safety concerns relating to herbal preparations are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD project was therefore to review the toxicity of

  17. Adverse drug reactions to herbal and synthetic expectorants.

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    Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R

    1995-01-01

    Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.

  18. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    OpenAIRE

    V Kusum Devi; Nimisha Jain; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in...

  19. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

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    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  20. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines.

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    Devi, V Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

  1. Herbal drug regulation and commercialization: an Indian industry perspective.

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    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-12-01

    To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries.

  2. [Multimorbidity and multi-target-therapy with herbal drugs].

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    Saller, R; Rostock, M

    2012-12-12

    The active components of herbal drugs and substances are pleiotropic multi-ingredient compounds with multitarget properties including antiinflammatory effects. A pleiotropic inhibition of inflammation could play an important role in mutlimorbide patients as an attempt of prevention or retardation of metastasis. A large number of experimental data for European and non-European herbal drugs as well as various herbal drug combinations suggest such a possibility. Despite the so far small number of clinical studies, such an experimental herbal treatment could appear to be reasonable and acceptable, provided that there are data available on quality and safety of these herbal drugs by treatments of patients with various diseases. Besides, herbal drugs and substances play a growing role the treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Many of these herbal drugs have antiinflammatory effects beside their proved symptomatic efficacy in a lot of other diseases. The specific selection of herbal drugs that are efficacious in specific indications and additionally showed antiinflammatory effects offers the possibility of simultaneous antiinflammatory and specific efficacy. St. John's Wort and milk thistle belong to the oldest and to the best experimentally and clinically examined herbal remedies. The spectrum of internal and external uses of Hypercum perforatum as a multicompound herbal drug includes functional gastro-intestinal complaint and illness, skin disease, mucosal lesion, superficial injury, depressive upset and depression, somatoform disorders, restlessness, nervosity, convalescence, exhaustion and sleep disturbances respectively. The plurivalent character of the multicompound even enables a broad spectrum of activity. This might justify to prefer St. John's Wort to other drugs in a wide range of treatments: In multimorbide patients with depression or in depressive patients with coronary heart disease the anti-inflammatory effects could mean an additional advantage

  3. Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China.

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    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Lida

    2003-12-01

    Over the centuries, Chinese herbal drugs have served as a major source of medicines for the prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus (known as 'Xiao-ke'). It is estimated that more than 200 species of plants exhibit hypoglycaemic properties, including many common plants, such as pumpkin, wheat, celery, wax guard, lotus root and bitter melon. To date, hundreds of herbs and traditional Chinese medicine formulas have been reported to have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This paper provides a brief review of the antidiabetic drugs of plant origin that have been approved by the Chinese health regulatory agency for commercial use in China. It was believed, through pharmacological studies, that medicinal herbs were meticulously organized in these antidiabetic drug formulas such that polysaccharide containing herbs restore the functions of pancreatic tissues and cause an increase in insulin output by the functional beta cells, while other ingredients enhance the microcirculation, increase the availability of insulin and facilitate the metabolism in insulin-dependent processes. Pharmacological and clinical evaluations indicated that these drugs had a mild, but significant, blood glucose lowering effect and that the long-term use of these agents may be advantageous over chemical drugs in alleviating some of the chronic diseases and complications caused by diabetes. Additionally, the use of these natural agents in conjunction with conventional drug treatments, such as a chemical agent or insulin, permits the use of lower doses of the drug and/or decreased frequency of administration which decreases the side effects most commonly observed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

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    Abida Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality

  5. Herbal drugs for diabetic treatment: an updated review of patents.

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    Wais, Mohd; Nazish, Iram; Samad, Abdus; Beg, Sarwer; Abusufyan, S; Ajaj, S Ajaz; Aqil, Mohd

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting 16 million individuals in the United States and 200 million worldwide. Despite the use of advanced synthetic drugs for the treatment, use of herbal remedies is gaining higher importance because of synthetic drugs have drawbacks and limitations. The herbal drugs with antidiabetic activity are extensively formulated commercially because of easy availability, affordability and less side effects as compared to the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. Antidiabetic herbal formulations (AHF) are considered to be more effective for the management of diabetes. There are around 600 herbal drug manufacturers in India of which almost all manufacturers are developing AHF in addition to others. Till date, no article is published to give detailed information of the patents on AHF. Thus, this review article undertake the attempt for providing updated information on the type of diabetes and patented AHF which will enhance the existing knowledge of the researchers.

  6. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

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    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Analysis of lead content in herbal preparations in Malaysia.

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    Ang, H H; Lee, E L; Matsumoto, K

    2003-08-01

    In Malaysia, the phase 3 registration for traditional medicines was implemented on 1 January 1992 under the Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulation 1984, emphasizing quality, efficacy and safety (including the detection of the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. Therefore, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, were analysed for lead content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 8% (eight products) possessed 10.64-20.72 ppm of lead, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. One of these products, M-Tongkat Ali (exhibited 10.64 +/-0.37 ppm of lead), was in fact already registered with the DCA Malaysia. The rest, Sukarno Tongkat Ali, Eurycoma Madu, Super Pill Tongkat Ali, Force Pill Tongkat Ali, Tender Pill Tongkat Ali, Super Pill Tongkat Ali Plus and Great Pill Tongkat Ali Plus have not registered with the DCA Malaysia and exhibited 12.24-20.72 ppm of lead. Although this study showed that only 92% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.

  8. Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review

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    S H Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines . Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others.

  9. Clinical Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Herbal Supplements and Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goey, A.K.L.

    2013-01-01

    In cancer treatment the response to chemotherapy is often characterized by a wide interpatient variability. The increasing popularity of herbal supplements among cancer patients may contribute to this phenomenon. Since these supplements may affect drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, pla

  10. Clinical Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Herbal Supplements and Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goey, A.K.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315030135

    2013-01-01

    In cancer treatment the response to chemotherapy is often characterized by a wide interpatient variability. The increasing popularity of herbal supplements among cancer patients may contribute to this phenomenon. Since these supplements may affect drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, pla

  11. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Heyadri; Mohammad Hashem Hashempur; Mohammad Hosein Ayati; Detlev Quintern; Majid Nimrouzi; Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; “Chinese herb”), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  12. Clinical Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Herbal Supplements and Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goey, A.K.L.

    2013-01-01

    In cancer treatment the response to chemotherapy is often characterized by a wide interpatient variability. The increasing popularity of herbal supplements among cancer patients may contribute to this phenomenon. Since these supplements may affect drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes,

  13. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  14. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika A. Myasoedova

    2016-08-01

    7.1% in placebo recipients (NS. The differences between lipid changes in the isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation and placebo recipients did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05. Nevertheless, the mean cIMT progression was significantly lower in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients as compared to the placebo group (6 μm, or <1%, versus 100 μm, or 13%; p < 0.001 for the difference. The growth of existing atherosclerotic plaques in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients was inhibited by 1.5-fold (27% versus 41% in the placebo group. The obtained results demonstrate that the use of isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation in postmenopausal women may suppress the formation of new atherosclerotic lesions and reduce the progression of existing ones, thus promising new drug for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Nevertheless, further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  15. PHYTOSOMES: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY FOR HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sravanthi* and J. Shiva Krishna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. The effectiveness of any herbal medication is dependent on the delivery of effective level of the therapeutically active compound. Severe limitation exists in their bioavailability when administered orally or topically. Phytosomes are recently introduced herbal formulations that are better absorbed and as a result produce better bioavailability and actions than the conventional phyto-molecules or botanical extracts. In the recent days, most of the prevailing diseases and nutritional disorders are treated with natural medicines. Several plant extracts and phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, resulting in poor absorption and bioavailability. So, much work has been directed towards the development of new concept in herbal delivery system i.e., “phytosomes” which are better absorbed, utilized and as a result produce better results than conventional herbal extracts owing to the presence of phosphatidylcholine which likely pushes the phytoconstituent through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream phytosomes have improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacological parameter which in result can advantageously be used in the treatment of the acute and chronic liver disease of toxic metabolic or infective origin or of degenerative nature.

  16. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuti, J R S; Lye, K A; Dhillion, S S

    2003-09-01

    We present here an inventory of the medicinal plants of Bulamogi county in Uganda, including their medicinal use, preparation and administration modes. Fieldwork for this study was conducted between June 2000 and June 2001 using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and participant observation as well as transect walks in wild herbal plant collection areas. We recorded 229 plant species belonging to 168 genera in 68 families with medicinal properties. A large proportion of these plants are herbaceous. The medicinal plants are mainly collected from the wild. Some species, such as Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce, are believed by the community to be threatened by unsustainable intensities of use and patterns of harvesting. Particularly vulnerable are said to be the woody or the slow growing species. Herbal medicines are prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders, or as ash, and are administered in a variety of ways. Other concoctions consist of juices and saps. The purported therapeutic claims await validation. Validation in our opinion can help to promote confidence among users of traditional medicine, and also to create opportunities for the marketing of herbal medicines and generate incomes for the community. The processing, packaging and storage of herbal medicines is substandard and require improvement.

  17. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.

  18. International market scenario of traditional Indian herbal drugs - India declining...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an endeavor has been made to present an overview of the comparison of Indian traditional herbal medicine in the international market. This article intends to contribute to this knowledge by giving a survey of published data regarding the microbial contamination of herbal plants, by dealing with methodological aspects and by considering the influence of different commonly used pharmaceutical preparation techniques on the microbiological status of the products. It also highlights heavy metal poisoning of these herbal products and the need for India to follow the Good Agriculture Practice (GAP guidelines. As herbal medicinal products are complex mixtures, which originate from biological sources, great efforts are necessary to guarantee a constant and adequate quality. By carefully selecting the plant material and a standardized manufacturing process, the pattern and concentration of constituents should be kept as constant as possible, as this is a prerequisite for reproducible therapeutic results. China has successfully overcome such difficulties by modernizing its traditional medicine profession with government-sponsored GAPs. The cultivation practices offer Standard Operating Procedures for use of fertilizers, irrigation systems and disease management allied with insects and pest prevention and cure. GAPs also establish standards for noxious and harmful contaminants like heavy metals, pesticide residues and microbes in plants.

  19. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases.

  20. AYURVEDIC HERBAL DRUGS WITH POSSIBLE CYTOSTATIC ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, HF; WOERDENBAG, HJ; SINGH, RH; MEULENBELD, GJ; LABADIE, RP; ZWAVING, JH

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda is considered to be the traditional science of health in India and is based on the principle of subjectivity. All matter is composed of five basic elements, which can be perceived by the five sense organs. All food and drugs are classified according to their pharmacological properties, whic

  1. AYURVEDIC HERBAL DRUGS WITH POSSIBLE CYTOSTATIC ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, HF; WOERDENBAG, HJ; SINGH, RH; MEULENBELD, GJ; LABADIE, RP; ZWAVING, JH

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda is considered to be the traditional science of health in India and is based on the principle of subjectivity. All matter is composed of five basic elements, which can be perceived by the five sense organs. All food and drugs are classified according to their pharmacological properties, whic

  2. AYURVEDIC HERBAL DRUGS WITH POSSIBLE CYTOSTATIC ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, HF; WOERDENBAG, HJ; SINGH, RH; MEULENBELD, GJ; LABADIE, RP; ZWAVING, JH

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda is considered to be the traditional science of health in India and is based on the principle of subjectivity. All matter is composed of five basic elements, which can be perceived by the five sense organs. All food and drugs are classified according to their pharmacological properties,

  3. Investigation of the influence of EPs® 7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides, on replication of a broad panel of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2011-03-15

    The Pelargonium sidoides extract EPs® 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs® 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs® 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs® 7630 at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs® 7630 in acute bronchitis patients.

  4. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  5. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  6. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  7. The Decocting Time of Herbal Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Jingyuan; Wang Xinzhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the author's view, the decocting time of herbaldrugs for cough caused by fever, common cold,bronchitis, and pneumonia is about 5 minutes afterthe water comes to a boil. This is the same asdescribed in Treatise on Differentiation andTreatment of Epidemic Febrile Diseases (温病条辩)that "The decoction can be taken when a fragrantsmell is felt. Never boil it to long in case thedecoction is too thick and the taste too strong, thedrug would go into the middle-jiao." This is possiblythat over decocting the drug can make the effectivefragrant component evaporate, thus making the drugfail to exert any therapeutic effect. In the author'sclinical treatment, usually one or two doses of theprescription for relieving the exterior syndrome canproduce satisfactory results, suggesting that theabove-mentioned decocting method for this kind ofdrug will not affect the therapeutic effects.

  8. DRUG REACTION WITH HERBAL SUPPLEMENT: A POSSIBLE CASE OF DRUG INDUCED LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZIZ NA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old lady presented with four days history of fever, non-pruritic rash, ankle pain and swelling. She had consumed herbal supplement five days before the onset of symptoms. Examinations revealed erythematous maculo-papular lesions of varying sizes on sun exposed areas. Patient was suspected to have Drug Induced Lupus Erythematosus (DILE and subsequently symptoms subsided rapidly on withholding the herbal medication.

  9. [Effect of entrainer on supercritical CO2 for extraction of tradition and herbal drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yanbin; Xia, Xiaohui; Jin, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Liqin; Tang, Shihuan

    2009-06-01

    Type, mode of affiliating, mechanism of action of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were briefly reviewed. Application of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of flavones, terpenes, sterols, and saponins in Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were recommended in particular. Some problems and directions in research of entrainer in Supercritical CO2 on extraction of Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were shown in this paper.

  10. Reflecting the Steps of Modernization of Chinese Materia Medica from the Papers in Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ze; DAN Yang; PENG Yong; XIAO Pei-gen

    2010-01-01

    The papers in the journal of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in Vol.40,2009 are briefly reviewed in thecategories of chemical constituents,preparations and technologies,analysis and quality control,pharmacologicaland clinical studies,reviews,and finally healthy principles.Some comments,especially for hot topics have beenpersonally provided.

  11. Clinical herbal interactions with conventional drugs: from molecules to maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X-W; Serag, E S; Sneed, K B; Liang, J; Chew, H; Pan, S-Y; Zhou, S-F

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies and case reports have identified a number of herb-drug interactions potentiated by the concurrent use of herbal medicines with prescription drugs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the mechanisms and clinical implications of such herb-drug interactions by reviewing published human studies. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic components may be involved in herbdrug interactions, although metabolic induction or inhibition is a common underlying mechanism for many herb-drug interactions. Drugs that have a high potential to interact with herbal medicines usually have a narrow therapeutic index, including warfarin, digoxin, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, midazolam, indinavir, and irinotecan. Many of them are substrates of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Herbal medicines that are reported to interact with drugs include garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax ginseng), and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). For example, garlic has been shown to increase the clotting time and international normalized ratio (INR) of warfarin, cause hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide, and reduce the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration of saquinavir in humans. Similarly, case reports have demonstrated that ginkgo may potentiate bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin, increases blood pressure when combined with thiazide diuretics, and has even led to a coma when combined with trazodone, a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression. Furthermore, ginseng reduced the blood levels of warfarin and alcohol as well as induced mania if taken concomitantly with phenelzine, a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent. Lastly, multiple herb-drug interactions have been identified with St. John's wort that involve significantly reduced AUC

  12. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: focus on drug metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used for thousands of years, and now are gaining continued popularity worldwide as a complementary or alternative treatment for a variety of diseases, rehabilitation and health care. Since herbal medicines contain more than one pharmacologically active ingredient and are commonly used with many prescribed drugs, there are potential herb-drug interactions. A variety of reported herb-drug interactions are of pharmacokinetic origin, arising from the effects of herbal medicines on metabolic enzymes and/or transporters. Such an alteration in metabolism or transport can result in changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (e.g., induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes, and modulation of uptake and efflux transporters), leading to changed pharmacokinetics of the concomitantly prescribed drugs. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions have more clinical significance as pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) or the elimination half-life (t1/2) of the concomitant drug alter. This review summarizes the mechanism underlying herb-drug interactions and the approaches to identify the interactions, and discusses pharmacokinetic interactions of eight widely used herbal medicines (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, garlic, black cohosh, Echinacea, milk thistle, kava, and St. John's wort) with conventional drugs, using various in vitro, animal in vivo, and clinical studies. The increasing understanding of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions will make health care professionals and patients pay more attention to the potential interactions.

  13. Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Wielen, van der J.C.A.; Rietjens, I.; Klerx, W.N.M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for therap

  14. Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Wielen, van der J.C.A.; Rietjens, I.; Klerx, W.N.M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for

  15. Stability Testing of Herbal Drugs: Challenges, Regulatory Compliance and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gulshan; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Jain, Astha

    2016-07-01

    Stability testing is an important component of herbal drugs and products (HDPs) development process. Drugs regulatory agencies across the globe have recommended guidelines for the conduct of stability studies on HDPs, which require that stability data should be included in the product registration dossier. From the scientific viewpoint, numerous chemical constituents in an herbal drug are liable to varied chemical reactions under the influence of different conditions during its shelf life. These reactions can lead to altered chemical composition of HDP and consequently altered therapeutic profile. Many reports on stability testing of HDPs have appeared in literature since the last 10 years. A review of these reports reveals that there is wide variability in temperature (-80 to 100 °C), humidity (0-100%) and duration (a few hours-36 months) for stability assessment of HDPs. Of these, only 1% studies are conducted in compliance with the regulatory guidelines for stability testing. The present review is aimed at compiling all stability testing reports, understanding key challenges in stability testing of HDPs and suggesting possible solutions for these. The key challenges are classified as chemical complexity and biochemical composition variability in raw material, selection of marker(s) and influences of enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of mercury contamination in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng

    2007-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented phase 3 registration of traditional medicines in January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety of all dosage forms of these medicines. For this reason, a total of 100 herbal products containing Smilax myosotiflora were purchased in the Malaysian market and analyzed for mercury content, as mercury is a recognized reproductive toxicant. The products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that 89% of the above products do not exceed 0.5 ppm of mercury. Heavy metal poisoning such as mercury has been associated with traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important that doctors and health care practitioners are aware of these risks and finding ways to minimize them, including questions pertaining to the use of these remedies during the routine taking of a patient's history.

  17. [Significance of re-evaluation and development of Chinese herbal drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli

    2012-01-01

    The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.

  18. MIRACULOUS THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF HERBAL DRUGS USING NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Kumar; Rai, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are nature’s remedies and have been used by human beings on earth since ancient times for food and medicine. Today there are global movements towards finding of herbal medicaments in plants on lab scale and after successive preclinical and clinical trial to bring them in market via a suitable drug delivery system for mankind. The basic thought behind it is treatment of each disease is hidden in nature. However, delivery of herbal drugs also requires modifications with the purpose to ac...

  19. Herbal and polymeric approaches for liver-targeting drug delivery: novel strategies and their significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohilla, Raman; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates, which performs many functions including detoxification, protein synthesis and production of various bio-chemicals which are very important for digestion. A large number of serious liver disorders affect millions of people worldwide which are very difficult to treat properly despite many efforts. There are several factors which are responsible for liver injuries, include plants (Crotalaria Senecio Heliotropium Symphytum officinale), drugs (analgesic and antibiotics), industrial toxins (mercury and lead), water, alcohol and so on. Herbal medicinal preparations can be used for the treatment of a large number of human liver disorders like cirrhosis, hepatitis, carcinomas, etc. Indian Medicinal Practitioner's Co-operative pharmacy and Stores (IMPCPS) approved herbal-based systems (Unani, Siddha and Ayurveda) for the treatment of various chronic liver disorders. Different types of the receptors are found on the surface of hepatocytes, Kupffer cell, hepatic stellate cell and sinusoidal endothelial cells, etc., which can be used for achieving liver targeting. These receptors bind to different types of ligands (galactosylated, lactobionic acid, asialofetuin, etc.) which can be used in the formulation to achieve targeted delivery of the drug. Various novel particulate approaches (liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, micelles, nanosuspensions, etc.) can be used to enhance the targeting efficiency of systems to receptors found on the surface of different cells present in the liver. In this review, we focused on the status of liver targeting via herbal and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches.

  20. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2008-04-01

    Herbal supplements can affect concentrations of therapeutic drugs measured in biological fluids by different mechanisms. Herbal products can either directly interfere with the methodology used in the measurement of drugs or indirectly interfere by altering the pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. The active components of Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, Asian and Siberian ginseng, oleander containing supplements, and Ashwagandha interfere with digoxin measurements by immunoassays, especially the polyclonal antibody-based immunoassays. Herbal supplements are sometimes contaminated with Western drugs causing drug toxicity. A therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service is very helpful for diagnosis of drug toxicity in such patients. Herbal products such as St. John's wort, a popular herbal antidepressant, increase the clearance of certain drugs either by increasing the activity of liver or intestinal cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase or through modulation of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Significantly reduced concentrations of various therapeutic drugs such as digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic antidepressants, warfarin, and protease inhibitors can be observed due to interaction of these drugs with St. John's wort, causing treatment failure. On the other hand, a few drugs such as carbamazepine, mycophenolic acid, and procainamide do not show any interaction with St. John's wort. Understanding the effect of herbal products on TDM methodologies and identification of interactions between herbal products and drugs by TDM are very important clinically.

  1. Optimization and validation of post-column assay for screening of radical scavengers in herbal raw materials and herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Bumblauskiene, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2010-12-03

    On-line method, which combines HPLC distribution and post-column reaction, was designed for the search of individual antioxidants. Optimization of the assay was performed evaluating optimal ABTS(+) radical cation concentration in the reactor, reaction time, impact of flow rate, reaction coil length. HPLC-ABTS assay validation in this work was performed by assessing reference antioxidant negative peak areas in radical scavenging chromatogram. Sample free radical scavenging activity is expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Optimized and validated method was applied in detection of compounds possessing free radical scavenging ability in complex mixtures. Antioxidant compounds were studied in perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. crispa f. viridis) herbal raw material and its preparations. The HPLC-separated antioxidant compounds were identified using HPLC-photodiode array coupled to mass spectrometer, using a reference mass for determining accurate masses. Radical scavenging characteristics of rosmarinic acid, which is the dominant phenolic compound in medicinal herbal raw material of perilla and its preparations, were confirmed by the calculated TEAC values. Compounds responsible for antioxidant effect in herbal raw materials and herbal preparations were identified, evaluated and compared.

  2. PROPOSAL OF GUIDELINE FOR CLINICAL TRIAL PROTOCOLS WITH HERBAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdacelys Arboláez Estrada.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYCuba has extensive experience about herbal drugs, however only a few products get to the clinical phase of drug development. Our objective was to design new guidelines for clinical trials with herbal drugs.A detailed bibliographic search about regulatory aspects about clinical trials in Cuba and the world was done for development of the guideline. The guideline's proposed format includes: 1 Index, including the classification of the content. 2 Summary, 3 Fifteen chapters, related to the clinical trials. The guideline also propose the inclusion of annexes.A new guideline containing 15 chapters allows for writing more clear and detailed clinical trial protocols. The guideline contains the information required to guide the research staff who is interested in the validation of herbal drugs pharmacological activations from the perspective of clinical trials. RESUMEN Cuba tiene experiencia extensa sobre plantas medicinales, aunque solo algunos productos llegan a una fase clínica del desarrollo. Nuestro objetivo fué diseñar una nueva guía para ensayos clínicos con plantas medicinales.Hemos realizado una detallada búsqueda bibliográfica sobre aspectos reguladores de ensayos clínicos en Cuba y el resto del mundo para el desarrollo de la guía. El formato propuesto de la guia incluye: 1 Índice, incluyendo la clasificación de los contenidos. 2 Resumen, 3 Quince capítulos, relacionados con los ensayos clínicos. La guía también propone la inclusión de anexos.La nueva guía que contiene 15 capítulos que orientan la redacción de protocolos de ensayos clínicos más claros y más detallados. La guía contiene la información requerida para orientar al personal investigador interesado en la validación de la actividad farmacológica de las plantas medicinales desde la perspectiva de los ensayos clínicos.

  3. Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds - A review

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    Ramya Putturu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance and use of herbal remedies (turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera etc. has been reviewed systematically. Turmeric (curcumin, acts as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial agent and protect liver against a variety of toxicants. Tulsi (eugenol have anticancer properties, reduced blood glucose levels, total cholesterol levels and promotes immune system function. Amla, richest source of vitamin-c and it's active tannoid principles have antimicrobial, antidiabetics, anticarcinogenic properties and enhances immune property. Aloe vera contains phytochemicals (Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols, which is an indication of cosmetic and medicinal value. Turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera preparations increased the body weight gain, feed efficiency and decreased the feed intake. These preparations decreased the mortality rates and the cost of feed has been decreased from 6.2% to 13.5%. They have reduced the fat accumulation, increased dressing percentage, liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblet weights. Significant reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and increased the humoral response against RD vaccine. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 172-179

  4. [Acute hepatitis after use of a herbal preparation with greater celandine (Chelidonium majus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, A P G; de Smet, P A G M; van den Heuvel, M; Schot, B W; Haagsma, E B

    2002-01-19

    A 42-year-old woman developed jaundice due to acute hepatitis several weeks after ingestion of a herbal preparation containing greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) and curcuma root, which had been prescribed by an alternative therapist due to a skin complaint. After the medication had been withdrawn, clinical recovery was rapid and the hepatic functions returned to normal within 2 months. The hepatitis was ascribed to the known hepatotoxic effects of C. majus. In view of the increasing popularity of herbal remedies, greater awareness of side effects, such as hepatotoxicity, is needed. Quite a number of herbal preparations carry the risk of liver damage. The supposed clinical effectiveness of herbal remedies does not seem to always outweigh the potential risks. In the event of non-clarified liver function disturbances the ingestion of supposedly harmless, but potentially hepatotoxic, herbal products should be considered.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4) using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4)as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) an...

  6. Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Khushbu; Dwivedi, Manjari; Kumar, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve. Materials and Methods: Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods) Results: The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka. Conclusion: Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home. PMID:20532094

  7. Efficacy of a herbal drug and Minoxidil 2% solution for treating Telogen effluvium infection

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    shahla Enshaieh

    2006-11-01

    Material and methods: This study was a double – blind prospective study. 24 patients with telogen effluvium were allocated randomly in two groups and were treated with minoxidil and the herbal drug. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: The mean duration of telogen effluvium in the minoxidil group was 17 weeks and in the herbal drug group was 7 weeks. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: From this study, it is condoled that this herbal drug is effective in telogen effluvium although more studies are recommended in this field.

  8. Direct and simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Tang, Xu-dong; Zhang, Jing-zhao; Zhou, Qun

    2016-08-01

    Herbal powder preparation is a kind of widely-used herbal product in the form of powder mixture of herbal ingredients. Identification of herbal ingredients is the first and foremost step in assuring the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal powder preparations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic identification method is proposed for the direct and simultaneous recognition of multiple organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations. First, the reference spectrum of characteristic particles of each herbal ingredient is assigned according to FT-IR results and other available information. Next, a statistical correlation threshold is determined as the lower limit of correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and a larger number of calibration characteristic particles. After validation, the reference spectrum and correlation threshold can be used to identify herbal ingredient in mixture preparations. A herbal ingredient is supposed to be present if correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and some sample particles are above the threshold. Using this method, all kinds of herbal materials in powder preparation Kouqiang Kuiyang San are identified successfully. This research shows the potential of FT-IR microspectroscopic identification method for the accurate and quick identification of ingredients in herbal powder preparations.

  9. Positive Drug Screen for Benzodiazepine Due to a Chinese Herbal Product

    OpenAIRE

    Eachus, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    A female athlete tested positive for benzodiazepine on a random drug screen. She denied taking any illicit or prescription drugs. The positive screen was found to be caused by undeclared addiction of diazepam to a Chinese herbal product, “Miracle Herb.” Some foreign vitamins, health care products, or herbal tea may contain banned or dangerous additives unknown to the consumer. These additives may include ingredients such as benzodiazepine, mefenamic acid, or corticosteroids. Possible physical...

  10. EFFECT OF SOME HERBAL DRUGS ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILES OF RATS

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    Madhuri S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of oestrogen or ethinyl oestradiol (EO, a semisynthetic 17b-oestradiol as highly potent oestrogen can cause many detrimental effects, including cancer in humans as well as in animals. On the other hand, many herbal drugs are beneficial for the treatment of toxicity and cancer. Likewise, ProImmu and its plant-ingredients have been reported to possess immunomodulatory effect and restore the normal histoarchitecture of the damaged tissues. In the present study, the beneficial effects of ProImmu, and its two ingredients, viz., Tinospora cordifolia and Withania somnifera have been observed against EO altered haematological profiles in the female albino rats. The haematological study showed that EO (@ 250 μg/kg, orally, thrice a week altered levels of haemoglobin (Hb, total leucocyte count (TLC and differential leucocyte count (DLC- lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil could be significantly normalized by ProImmu (@ 150 mg/kg, orally, daily for 8 weeks; however, the normalization of these parameters brought up by T. cordifolia (@ 250 mg/kg, orally, daily for 8 weeks and W. somnifera (@ 250 mg/kg, orally, daily for 8 weeks was found to be of lesser degree. ProImmu (@150 mg/kg, orally, daily for 12 weeks, T. cordifolia (@250 mg/kg, orally, daily for 12 weeks and W. somnifera (@ 250 mg/kg, orally, daily for 12 weeks also caused the normalcy of these parameters, but to less extent than observed on the 8 weeks.

  11. Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients

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    Tian Jiaher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property.

  12. Assessment of herbal drugs for promising anti-Candida activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh S M; Semreen, Mohammad H; El-Keblawy, Ali A; Abdullah, Arbab; Uppuluri, Priya; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2017-05-08

    Microbial infections are diverse and cause serious human diseases. Candida albicans infections are serious healthcare-related infections that are complicated by its morphological switching from yeast to hyphae, resistant biofilm formation and mixed infections with bacteria. Due to the increase in drug resistance to currently used antimicrobial agents and the presence of undesirable side effects, the need for safe and effective novel therapies is important. Compounds derived from plants are known for their medicinal properties including antimicrobial activities. The purpose of the study was to compare and evaluate the anti-Candida activities of several medicinal plants in order for the selection of a herbal drug for human use as effective antimicrobial. The selection was taking into considerations two important parameters; parameters related to the selected drug including activity, stability, solubility and toxicity and parameters related to the pathogen including its different dynamic growth and its accompanied secondary bacterial infections. Seven different plants including Avicennia marina (Qurm), Fagonia indica (Shoka'a), Lawsania inermis (Henna), Portulaca oleracea (Baq'lah), Salvadora persica (Souwak), Ziziphus spina- Christi (Sidr) and Asphodelus tenuifolius (Kufer) were ground and extracted with ethanol. The ethanol extracts were evaporated and the residual extract dissolved in water prior to testing against Candida albicans in its different morphologies. The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of the plants extracts were also tested. Out of the seven tested plants, L. inermis and P. oleracea showed significant anti-Candida activity with MIC ~10 μg/mL. Furthermore, both plant extracts were able to inhibit C. albicans growth at its dynamic growth phases including biofilm formation and age resistance. Accompanied secondary bacterial infections can complicate Candida pathogenesis. L. inermis and P. oleracea extracts showed effective antibacterial activities

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Preparation (Hp-4 against Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

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    P. Padmanabhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals include both Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS.When free radicals are produced in a regulated manner in a healthy human body it is scavenged efficiently by antioxidant defense system. But excess generation of pro-oxidants by continuous chain reaction in the form of ROS and RNS cause several human diseases. The shift of the balance in the favour of pro-oxidants results in a condition called “oxidative stress”. Alcohol is primarily metabolized in the liver to generate ROS and RNS, leading to diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis. Alcohol induced damage is associated with oxidative stress. The excess generation of prooxidants and reduced antioxidant levels provide an effective model of Hepatotoxicity which is noteworthy. Recent trend is to discover polyherbal formulation of medicinal plants which have hepatoprotective function. In the present study 80% alcoholic extract of leaves of Aloe vera, Bacopa monniera, Moringa oleifera and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were utilized to prepare Herbal Preparation or HP-4.Further the hepatoprotective effects of HP-4 was tested in alcohol induced Hepatotoxicity in mice. Silymarin is a well known hepatoprotective drug was used as a standard for comparison. Biochemical and histopathological studies provided ample evidence that HP-4 provided a hepatoprotective role in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity which was comparable to drug Silymarin. The presence of phytochemicals in HP-4 provided a synergistic, supra-additive and co-operative effects in the hepatoprotective function in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity mice model.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of the herbal preparation indicated for prevention and treatment of alopecia

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    Galkin AY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Yu Galkin,1,2 Valentine F Solovjova,3 Alex M Dugan11Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, National Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", Kyiv, Ukraine; 2Research and Development Department, PRO-PHARMA Company, LLC, Kyiv, Ukraine; 3Laboratory of Hygiene Expertise, Ukrainian Research Institute of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Pharmacy, Kyiv, UkraineBackground: Alopecia is a chronic inflammatory disease, in which the hair follicles become damaged. The etiology of the disease is still little known; the most common cause of alopecia is likely an autoimmune mechanism. Medicinal herbs (Arctium lappa roots, Sophora japonica fruits, Acorus calamus roots, Urtica dioica leaves, Humulus lupulus fruits are promising remedies for the prevention and treatment of alopecia.Methods: Anti-inflammatory properties of the phytopreparation were investigated using the following models: "rigid" inflammatory model and model of adrenalin pulmonary edema (anti-exudative activity, as well as the "cotton granuloma" model (influence on proliferative effects. Immunomodulatory properties were studied by analyzing the metabolic activity of macrophages exposed to herbal preparation as well as the secretion of monocyte-derived cytokines.Results: Intragastric administration of the herbal preparation reduced severity of the exudation phase of inflammation in the limbs of animals (37.3% and inhibited pulmonary edema (21.0%. It was demonstrated that the phytopreparation reduced the weight of the granulation-fibrous tissue by 50.6%. The phytopreparation activated macrophages (50–400 µg/mL, decreased the number of flattened cells, increased the number of rounded cells and increased the production of oxidative metabolites (by 26% compared with intact cells. The herbal drug (0–300 µg/mL increased cytokines secretion by human blood cells (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ.Conclusion: The phytopreparation

  15. Concurrent use of prescription drugs and herbal medicinal products in older adults: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat; Wider, Barbara; Watson, Leala Kay; Goodman, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been a global increase in the use of herbal medicinal products (HMPs). About a quarter of UK adults use HMPs, bought over the counter by self-prescription and often not disclosed to healthcare professionals. Potential herb-drug interaction is a clinical concern, with older people at greater risk because of co-morbidities and slower clearance of pharmacologically active compounds. While there is a good understanding of general herbal medicine use by older people, less is k...

  16. PHYTO SOMES: A NOVEL PHYTO-PHOSPHOLIPID CARRIERS FOR HERBAL DRUG DELIVERY

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    Thurapati Pandu Raju

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biochemical and pre-clinical studies have proved the potential of plant flavonoids, polyphenolics and other hydrophilic natural compounds for the treatment of skin disorders, different types of carcinoma, anti-aging and many other areas of therapeutics and preventive medicine. The hydrophilic nature and unique chemical structure of these compounds pose major challenge because of their poor bioavailability through the skin or gut. The bioavailability can be improved by the use of delivery systems, which can enhance the rate and the extent of drug solubilizing into aqueous intestinal fluids as well as the capacity to cross the lipid rich biomembranes. Phospholipid based drug delivery systems have been found promising for the effective and efficacious herbal drug delivery. Complexing the polyphenolic phytoconstituents in molar ratio with phosphatidylcholine results into a new herbal drug delivery system- "Phytosome". Phytosomes show better pharmacokinetic and therapeutic profile than conventional herbal extracts.

  17. Systematic review on safety and drug interaction of herbal therapy in hyperlipidemia: a guide for internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Saeed; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-09-14

    Because of reporting high side effects related to biosynthetic drugs, recent attention has been paid to the use of herbs instead of chemical drugs to balance serum lipids. The present systematic review aimed to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines and also to assess drug interaction in herbal therapy in treating hyperlipidemia. The international research databases including MEDLINE; Google scholar, Web of Science SciVerse Scopus (SCOPUS); EBSCO Academic Search; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched from their respective inceptions up to September 2014 with the search terms of "hyperlipidemia", "herbal medicine", "medicine traditional", "extract plant", "Traditional Medicine" and "Chinese Herbal Medicine" without narrowing or limiting search elements. A total of 85 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) studies were finally assessed on human subjects. A notable number of herbal drugs that are commonly used as an anti-hyperlipidemia agent may be interacted with a variety of biosynthetic drugs. In this regard, the most common reported herb-drug reactions were related to anticoagulants, antidepressants, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, and/or even antihypertension and anti-lipidemic drugs. Also, a considerable number of anti-lipidemic drugs of plants origin may be accompanied with metabolic disturbances and serious complications within pregnancy and breast feeding. The main fundamental principles for administration of these drugs include physicians' complete awareness of the effects and interactions of these drugs, educating people not taking these drugs arbitrarily, and closely monitoring the verification and distribution of the drugs in the society.

  18. Antipityrosporum Ovale Activity Of A Herbal Drug Combination Of Wrightia Tinctoria And Hisbiscus Rosasinensis

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    Kirshnamoorthy J R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipityosporum activity of a herbal drug combination of Wrighria tinctoria and Hibiscus rosasinensis was tested in vitro against the isolates of Pityrosporum ovale recovered from dandruff. The drug combination exhibited fungicidal activity at a concentration ranging between 500 to1000 pg/ml.

  19. [Acute hepatitis after use of a herbal preparation with greater celandine (Chelidonium majus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns, A.P.G.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Heuvel, M. van den; Schot, B.W.; Haagsma, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman developed jaundice due to acute hepatitis several weeks after ingestion of a herbal preparation containing greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) and curcuma root, which had been prescribed by an alternative therapist due to a skin complaint. After the medication had been

  20. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  1. HPLC identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in herbal drugs

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    Svetlana Kulevanova

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A new and rapid HPLC method for identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in ten herbal drugs of Macedonian origin is presented. Preparation of samples (Uvae ursi folim, Pruni spinosae flos, Sambuci flos, Betulae folim, Primulae flos, Herniariae herba, Centaurii herba, Tiliae flos, Robiniae pseudoacaciae flos, Bursae pastoris herba included hydrolysis of glycosides and extraction of total aglycones with ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis with UV-diode array detection was carried out on RP C18 column, using 5% acetic acid and acetonitrile in agradient elution mode and column temperature of 30 o C. The monitoring of the elution is performed in the whole UV-range and the acquisition of data for quantitative analysis at 367 nm. Screening of the extracts showed presence of quercetin in nine, kaempferol in seven and myricetin in only one sample. The quantitative analysis showed that the content of quercetin ranged from 0.026-0.506 % (m/m, while for kaempferol it was from traces to 1.246 %. Uvaeursi folium and Pruni spinosae flos were rich in content of quercetin (0.482 % and 0.506 %, respectively, while Pruni spinosae flos and Robiniae pseudoaccaciae flos contained the highest amounts of kaempferol (1.246 % and 0.892 %, respectively. Myricetin was identified and determined only in Betulae folium (0.102 %. The content of total flavonoids in the investigated samples expressed in terms of quercetin ranged from 0.040 to 1.680 %. The proposed HPLC method is convenient for use in routine analysis of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, as well as for estimation of total flavonoids content in herbal drugs.

  2. HERBAL LIPSTICK FORMULATION: A NEW APPROACH

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    Meher Deepali Avinash

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coloring skin particularly skin of face and lips is an ancient practice going back to prehistoric period. In present days the use of such product has increased and choice of shades of color, texture and luster have been changed and become wider. This can be observed from the fact that lipsticks are marked in hundreds of shades of colors to satisfy the demand of women. The present investigation was done to formulate herbal lipstick, since lipsticks are one of the key cosmetics to be used by the women. Attempt was also made to evaluate the formulated herbal lipstick. The word herbal is a symbol of safety in contrast to the synthetic one which has adverse effects on human health. Herbal preparations viz., herbal tablets, herbal tonics, herbal paste, herbal shampoo, herbal sindhur, herbal contraceptives and herbal lipstick has become popular among the consumer herbal medicines represent the fastest growing segment to heal the various ailments. Human being have been using herbs for different purpose like food, medicine, beatifying with advancement of science & technology use of natural things including plant has been reduced except for food, vegetarian takes plant& plant only. However there is resurgence of use of herbs both as drug and cosmetics. Due to various adverse effects of available synthetic preparation the present work was conceived by us to formulate a herbal lipstick having minimal or no side effects which will extensively used by the women of our communities with great surety and satisfaction.

  3. New Progress in Modern Research on Chinese Herbal Medicines Published in Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010: Annual Highlights and Comments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chun-nian; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Pei-gen

    2011-01-01

    As a series of and continuous publication,the papers published on Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010 were selectively and briefly highlighted to reflect the new progress on modern research of Chinese herbal medicines.Within 617 articles,chemical constituents (127),pharmaceutics and technology (149),pharmacological studies and clinical observation,and medicinal materials are still major categories.Some comments have also been personally provided.

  4. Positive drug screen for benzodiazepine due to a chinese herbal product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, P L

    1996-04-01

    A female athlete tested positive for benzodiazepine on a random drug screen. She denied taking any illicit or prescription drugs. The positive screen was found to be caused by undeclared addiction of diazepam to a Chinese herbal product, "Miracle Herb." Some foreign vitamins, health care products, or herbal tea may contain banned or dangerous additives unknown to the consumer. These additives may include ingredients such as benzodiazepine, mefenamic acid, or corticosteroids. Possible physical harm may result when using products containing these undeclared additives. Team physicians and athletic trainers should educate athletes about the purchase and use of vitamins, herbal teas, and substances that are perceived to be performance-enhancing products, especially those manufactured outside the United States.

  5. Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Determination of toxic metals in some herbal drugs through atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, Bushra; Rizwani, Ghazala Hafeez; Naseem, Shahid

    2011-07-01

    This study presents a picture of occurrence of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni, Zn) in some selected valuable herbal drugs (G. glabra, O. bracteatum, V. odorata , F. vulgare, C. cyminum, C. sativum, and Z. officinalis) purchased from three different zones (southern, eastern, and western) of Karachi city using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metal concentrations in these drugs were found in the range of: 3.26-30.46 for Pb, 1.6-4.91 for Cd, 0.65-120.21 for Cu, 83.74-433.76 for Zn, 1.61-186.75 for Cr, 0.48-76.97 for Ni, 5.54-77.97 for Co and 65.68-1652.89 µg/g for Fe. Percentage of heavy metals that were found beyond the permissible limits were: 71.4% for Pb, 28.51% for Cd, 14.2% for Cu, and 9.5 % for Cr. Significant difference was noticed for each heavy metal among herbal drugs as well as their zones of collection using two way ANOVA followed by least significant (LSD) test at p<0.05.Purpose of this research is to detect each type of heavy metal contaminant of herbal drugs by environmental pollution, as well as to highlight the health risks associated with the use of such herbal drugs that contain high levels of toxic heavy metals.

  7. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Prieto, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

  8. Chemometrics: A new scenario in herbal drug standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Bansal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromatography and spectroscopy techniques are the most commonly used methods in standardization of herbal medicines but the herbal system is not easy to analyze because of their complexity of chemical composition. Many cutting-edge analytical technologies have been introduced to evaluate the quality of medicinal plants and significant amount of measurement data has been produced. Chemometric techniques provide a good opportunity for mining more useful chemical information from the original data. Then, the application of chemometrics in the field of medicinal plants is spontaneous and necessary. Comprehensive methods and hyphenated techniques associated with chemometrics used for extracting useful information and supplying various methods of data processing are now more and more widely used in medicinal plants, among which chemometrics resolution methods and principal component analysis (PCA are most commonly used techniques. This review focuses on the recent various important analytical techniques, important chemometrics tools and interpretation of results by PCA, and applications of chemometrics in quality evaluation of medicinal plants in the authenticity, efficacy and consistency.

  9. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L G

    1998-11-09

    Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankapulshpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice

  10. Spasmolytic activity of a herbal drug isolated from Tephrosia purpurea in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kapil K; Khare, M L; Saxena, R C

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.

  11. Novel drug designing rationale againstBrugia malayi microfilariae using herbal extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharmaRD; PetareS; ShindeGB; KalyanGoswami; ReddyMVR

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of herbal polyphenolics on filariasisin vitro.Methods: Two herbal extracts, methanolic extracts of roots ofVitex negundo Linn. (Nirgundi) and leaves ofAegle marmelos Juss. (Beal) in different concentrations ranging from40-80ng/mL were tested for their antifilarial activity either alone or in combination with diethyl carbonate (DEC)(300μg/mL) and/orH2O2 (0.5 mM).Results:Combination of DEC and each extract had significant anti-filarial effect. And fractions of both extracts were not effective as crude herbal extract.Conclusions:Such unique pharmacodynamics reported in this study might provide new drug development stratagem against filariasis.

  12. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M; Levine, A Adar; Kol-Degani, H; Kav-Venaki, L

    2010-11-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. University-affiliated tertiary medical center. 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD, meeting DSM-IV criteria. Random assignment to the herbal treatment group (n = 80) or control group (placebo; n = 40); 73 patients in the treatment group (91%) and 19 in the control group (48%) completed the 4-month trial. Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) administered before and after the treatment period; overall score and 4 subscales. The treatment group showed substantial, statistically significant improvement in the 4 subscales and overall TOVA scores, compared with no improvement in the control group, which persisted in an intention-to-treat analysis. The well-tolerated CHP demonstrated improved attention, cognition, and impulse control in the intervention group, indicating promise for ADHD treatment in children.

  13. Preparation of hydrogels for atopic dermatitis containing natural herbal extracts by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; An, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hae-Kyoung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong Jeongeup-si Jellabuk-do, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-Hye [AMOTECH Co., Ltd., Kimpo-City, Kyungki-do (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Min-Ho; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Shin, Junhwa [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong Jeongeup-si Jellabuk-do, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong Jeongeup-si Jellabuk-do, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a familial and chronic inflammatory pruritic skin disease that affects a large number of children and adults in industrialized countries. It is known that one of the prominent features of AD and chronic pruritus is partially due to the histamine released from mast cell. In this work, hydrogel patches with natural herbal extracts were prepared by 'freezing and thawing', and a gamma irradiation. It showed eminent healing results as a consequence of long-term moisturizing effects and natural herbal extracts on atopic wounds. Besides its non-toxicity and human harmlessness, it can be easily attached to or detached from the skin without any trace and help patients to feel refreshment when attached. Based on this work, the hydrogel patches we made can be potentially used as an alternative remedy for not only pruritus in AD, but other dermatitis.

  14. Integrated LC-MS/MS Analytical Systems and Physical Inspection for the Analysis of a Botanical Herbal Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ming Lai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The herbal decoction process is generally inconvenient and unpleasant. To avoid using herbal medicine decoctions, various high-quality industrial and pharmaceutical herbal decoction products have been used in clinical applications for more than ten years in Taiwan. However, the consistency and standardization of the quality of these herbal medicines are goals that remain to be achieved. The aim of study was to develop a validated liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method to determine the biomarkers astragaloside I, astragaloside IV, formononetin, cinnamic acid, paeoniflorin and gingerol in the herbal preparation known as Huangqi-Guizhi-Wuwu (HGW. To investigate the physical quality of HGW, methods such as scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy with Congo red and potassium iodine staining, solubility measurements, swelling power tests, and crude fiber analysis were used to identify additives in commercial pharmaceutical products. The optimal LC-MS/MS multiple reaction-monitoring system included a gradient program using 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer with 0.05% formic acid/methanol. The results demonstrate deviations in biomarker content across different brands. In addition to the herbal extract, starch and excipients in the pharmaceutical granule, and crushed crude herb powder was added to the pharmaceutical products to increase their herbal ingredient content. In conclusion, a rigorous examination should be performed to certify the quality of the herbal products.

  15. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; März, R; Sieder, C

    1997-12-01

    Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.

  16. "Herbal incense": designer drug blends as cannabimimetics and their assessment by drug discrimination and other in vivo bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Gifford, Roger S

    2014-02-27

    Recently, synthetic cannabinoids originally designed for testing in the laboratory only have found use recreationally in designer herbal blends, originally called "Spice". The myriad of compounds found are for the most part potent full agonists of the cannabinoid receptor 1, producing effects similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and marijuana. Drug discrimination of these compounds offers a specific behavioral test that can help determine whether these new synthetic compounds share a similar "subjective high" with the effects of marijuana/THC. By utilization of drug discrimination and other behavioral techniques, a better understanding of these new "designer" cannabinoids may be reached to assist in treating both the acute and chronic effects of these drugs. The paper provides a brief exposé of modern cannabinoid research as a backdrop to the recreational use of designer herbal blend cannabimimetics.

  17. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and

  18. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Traditional Herbal Preparations Sold in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant potentials for fourteen multipurpose traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa were determined using the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system, the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme inhibitory effects using an ELISA kit and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition using the microtitre plate assay. Nine of the herbal mixtures (Umzimba omubi, Umuthi wekukhwehlela ne zilonda, Mvusa ukunzi, Umpatisa inko...

  19. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensoussan Alan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.

  20. HemoHIM, a herbal preparation, alleviates airway inflammation caused by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Na-Rae; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Lee, In-Chul; Ryu, Jung-Min; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, In-Sik

    2017-01-01

    HemoHIM, herbal preparation has designed for immune system recovery. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of HemoHIM on cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mouse model. To induce COPD, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (eight cigarettes per day) for 4 weeks and intranasally received LPS on day 26. HemoHIM was administrated to mice at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg 1h before CS exposure. HemoHIM reduced the inf...

  1. Investigating the Impact of Herbal Medicines Marketing Mix and Physicians' Product Involvement on Prescription of these Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Ranjbarian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the main side effects of chemical medicines have been discovered, the level of using herbal medicines is still low in Iran. Today prescribing herbal medicines along with chemical ones have different kinds of advantages including: increased health rate in society and developed job opportunities in the fields of agriculture, medicine industry and all of related processes. In our country there are few researches in which the important factors influencing the prescription of herbal medicines have been investigated. Thus to fill this gap the main purpose of this paper is to study the impact of marketing mix of herbal medicines and physicians’ involvement about these drugs on prescribing them. Thus to develop this research 253 doctors in Isfahan were evaluated. In order to examine the main hypotheses Spss19, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and Amos graphic have been used. Results showed that marketing mix and all of its components and also physicians' product Involvement affect prescribing of herbal medicines.

  2. In vitro antioxidant properties, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2010-10-08

    The antioxidant potentials for fourteen multipurpose traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa were determined using the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system, the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme inhibitory effects using an ELISA kit and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition using the microtitre plate assay. Nine of the herbal mixtures (Umzimba omubi, Umuthi wekukhwehlela ne zilonda, Mvusa ukunzi, Umpatisa inkosi, Imbiza ephuzwato, Vusa umzimba, Supreme one hundred, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti) exhibited higher antioxidant potentials, while only four (Imbiza ephuzwato, Ingwe® muthi mixture, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and African potato extract™ showed potent activity against the RT enzyme. Nine mixtures (Imbiza ephuzwato, Umpatisa inkosi, African potato extract™, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe®, Vusa umzimba; Ingwe® muthi mixture, Ibhubezi™, Lion izifozonke Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti) showed AChE enzyme inhibitory activity greater than 50%. The observed activity exhibited by some of the herbal mixtures gives some credence to the manufacturers' claims and goes part of the way towards validating their use against certain conditions such as oxidative stress, HIV/AIDS proliferation and some mental conditions. It is however, desirable to carry out further studies to determine the effects of mixing plant species/parts in one mixture on the antioxidant potency as well as isolating active constituents from the herbal mixtures.

  3. Bacterial contamination of orally-consumed crude herbal remedies:A potential source for multi-drug resistant patho-gens in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.G.Oyero; A.O.B.Oyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The acceptability of herbal remedies for alleviating discomforts and ill-health has become very pop-ular,on the account of the increasing cost of allopathic medicine for personal health maintenance.The observ-able non-adherence of herbalists to the established World Health Organization (WHO)/National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC)regulations for the quality control of herbal medicines is an issue for concern.In view of this,34 popular and widely consumed crude herbal remedies in southwestern,Ni-geria were screened for compliance with standard limits for bacterial contamination,bacteria flora and their an-tibiotic susceptibility pattern.Methods:Isolates recovered from samples were identified using the cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics.They were also tested for drug sensitivity using standard proce-dures.Results:A heavy bacteria load ranging from 3.00 ×103 -9.58 ×105 CFU /ML and 1.20 ×105 -5.41 ×105 CFU /ML was observed for water and spirit extracted preparations respectively.The bacteria flora cum contaminants were:Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus subtilis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus,Lactobacillus plantarum,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Escherichia coli,streptococcus,Shigella, Neisseria,Arthrobacter,Kurthia and Clostridium species.All the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains.Conclusion:The crude herbal preparations consumed in Nigeria failed to comply with the internation-ally recognized standards regarding bacteria load and flora.The presence of MDR pathogens is of greatest con-cern.It poses a great risk to consumer's health and could be a source of introducing MDR organisms into the human population.There is the need for the enforcement of established guidelines to ensure the safety of these preparations.

  4. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  5. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles.

  6. Drug-induced liver toxicity and prevention by herbal antioxidants: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eSingh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is the center for drug and xenobiotic metabolism, which is influenced most with medication/xenobiotic-mediated toxic activity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is common and its actual frequency is hard to determine due to underreporting, difficulties in detection or diagnosis, and incomplete observation of exposure. The death rate is high, up to about 10% for medication instigated liver danger. Endorsed medications (counting acetaminophen represented >50% of instances of intense liver failure in a study from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG of the patients admitted in 17 US healing facilities. Albeit different studies are accessible uncovering the mechanistic aspects of medication prompted hepatotoxicity, we are in the dilemma about the virtual story. The expanding prevalence and effectiveness of Ayurveda and herbal products in the treatment of various disorders led the investigators to look into their potential in countering drug-induced liver toxicity. Several plant products have been reported to date to mitigate the drug-induced toxicity. The dietary nature and less side reactions of the herbs provide them an extra edge over other candidates of supplementary medication. In this paper, we have discussed on the mechanism involved in drug-induced liver toxicity and the potential of herbal antioxidants as supplementary medication.

  7. Herbal drug usage with modern medicine 1: Case study of an enzyme inducer, St John′s Wort - Some perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nuggehally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While the usage of herbal medicines continues to be on the rise, it brings along an imminent risk of drug-drug interaction with scores of modern day medicine(s. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of a potential drug-drug interaction resulting, due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzyme(s and/or transporters, from the use of a popular herbal product known as St. John′s Wort (SJW with modern day medicines. Also, it provides some perspectives and considerations in rationalizing the use of SJW.

  8. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of oven drying at 50ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 9 hour, 70ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes.

  9. β-sitosterol in different parts of Saraca asoca and herbal drug ashokarista: Quali-quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Gahlaut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-sitosterol is an important component in food and herbal products and beneficial in hyperlipidemia. Its higher concentrations in serum may lead to coronary artery disease in case of sitosterolemia. Therefore, it is essential to determine the quantity of β-sitosterol in food and herbal drugs. Saraca asoca and its preparations have been widely used by traditional healers are also a source of β-sitosterol. In the present study, quantitative estimation of β-sitosterol present in hot and cold water extracts of bark, regenerated bark, leaves and flowers of the S. asoca and Ashokarista drugs were carried out first time using high performance liquid chromatography coupled (HPLC with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Different concentrations of β-sitosterol and crude extracts were estimated by HPLC and targeted mass spectrometry. Standard curve for β-sitosterol was prepared from the intensities of transitions (397.50 → 147.0987 m/z having regression coefficient (r 2 0.9952. Out of eight extracts and two drugs used in the study bark water, leaves water and leaves hot water extracts were found to have a considerable quantity of β-sitosterol, i.e. 170, 123.5 and 19.3 ng/mL, respectively. The results showed significant differences in the distribution of β-sitosterol among different organs of S. asoca and drugs prepared from its bark. HPLC/electrospray ionizationmass spectroscopy method is accurate, reproducible and requires less specimen, sample preparation and analysis time over HPLC assay. This type of approaches could be helpful for the quality control of herbal medicines and provides necessary information for the rational utilization of plant resources.

  10. A review on the status of quality control and standardization of herbal drugs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the herbal medicines in the world originate from the developing countries. There are ample opportunities for these countries to expand their global export. The world market for botanical medicines including drug products and raw materials has been estimated to have an annual growth rate between 5% and 15%. Total global botanical drug market is estimated at US$62 billion and is expected to grow to the tune of US$5 trillion by the year 2050. In the USA alone, the usage of botanicals has been increased by 380% between the years 1990 and 1997. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine, is one of the ancient, yet living traditions that face a typical Western bias. Widespread and growing use of botanicals has created public health challenges globally in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy. Results and Discussion: The development of parameters for standardization and quality control of botanicals is a challenging task. Various regulatory authorities, research organizations, and botanical drug manufacturers have contributed in developing guiding principles and addressing issues related to the quality, safety, and efficacy. Conclusions: The present review describes the regulatory aspects of herbal drugs in India and various other countries.

  11. Erythema multiforme-like eruption from a slimming drug preparation cutaneous adverse drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tognetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 34-year-old woman presenting with an erythema multiforme (EM-like eruption. Lesions developed after a 12-day treatment with a slimming drug preparation (food integrator with thermogenic activity and a herbal remedy (pilosella tincture. Serological investigations excluded viral or bacterial infections. Patch testing with galenic preparations of both drugs demonstrated sensitization to the slimming drug preparation. According to literature reports and immune-chemical properties, those components that are likely to have triggered the skin eruption are clorazepate dipotassium and theobromine. Their interaction with other two constituents such as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and dehydrocholic acid may have caused the adverse reaction by means of a summation effect. There are no reports specifically about EM caused by a slimming drug preparation and no studies have identified thermogenic pills as cause of EM/EM-like eruption. Weight-loss compounds in slimming preparations should be kept in mind as a possible cause of drug-induced EM-like eruption.

  12. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Silva, Patricia Bento da; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines.

  13. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above.

  14. Quality Analysis of Herbal Medicine Products Prepared from Herba Sarcandrae by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-guang; SUN Jin-ying; ZHU De-rong; YUAN Bai-qing; YOU Tian-yan

    2008-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection(CE-ED)method was developed for the quality analysis of herbal medicine products prepared from the sanle herb of Herba Sarcandrae:Fufang Caoshanhu tablets,Qingrexiaoyanning capsules,and Xuekang oral liquids.Under the optimal analysis conditions,the low detection limit[1.0×10-7mol/L(S/N=3)]and the wide linear range(1.0×10-7-1.0×10-4 mol/L)were obtained for quality standard compound of isofraxidin.The precisions of the peak current and the migration time(as RSDs)for the real sample analysis were 2.0%-2.6%,and 1.2%-1.8%for isofraxidin,respectively.The contents of isofraxidin detected were 15.77 μg/tablet,0.48 mg/capsule,1.2 mg/ampoule(Jiangxi),and 0.44 mg/ampoule(Dalian)for Fufang Canshanhu tablets,Qingrexiao yanning capsules,and Xuekang oral liquids from different manufacturers,respectively.Quality estimate Was conducted by comparing the contents of isofraxidin in the herbal medicine products with the demanded values of Chinese pharmacopeia.In addition,based on their own unique CE-ED profiles(namely,CE-ED electropherograrns)the Xuekang oral liquids from the different manufacturers could be easily identified.

  15. Concurrent Use of Conventional Drugs with Chinese Herbal Products in Taiwan: A Population-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs worldwide has raised the concern of herb–drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH+D and a conventional drug alone (D-alone. The prevalence of the CH+D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients.

  16. Ethnopharmacological and Chemical Characterization of Salvia Species Used in Valencian Traditional Herbal Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martínez-Francés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Valencia Region (Spain, some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH. The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S. officinalis subsp. officinalis, S. x auriculata and S. microphylla var. microphylla. Samples were collected in Valencia Region and surrounding mountain areas during the ethnopharmacological field work. Twenty-nine medicinal uses were reported for SL, 13 of them being also recorded for SB. Of particular interest is a homemade liquor, used as digestive and known as “salvieta,” which is mainly prepared with SB. The macro- and microscopic characters are insufficient for identification of cut, crushed or powdered material. The study of the essential oil and a HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography fingerprint of their extracts could help to distinguish SB from the other sages. The essential oil from dried aerial parts of SB (content: 1.8–4.5% was characterized by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry showing a composition close to that currently accepted for Spanish sage essential oil in the European Pharmacopoeia, ISO (International Standard Organization and UNE (Una Norma Española standards, with 1,8-cineole (13.7–45.7% and camphor (12.1–28.6% as major constituents. HPTLC methods, based on the analysis of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane

  17. Commercialization strategy of the herbal composition HemoHIM as a complementary drug for anti-cancer therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran

    2013-01-15

    Ο Purpose - Establishment of strategy for the development of HemoHIM as a complementary drug for cancer therapies including non-clinical data preparation, obtainment of a research project grant, base of manufacturing process and raw material standardization Ο Research Results - Examination and confirmation of the essential requirements to develop the complementary drug for anticancer therapies by consulting with Korea FDA, and clinical CRO, and medical experts (animal efficacy study, toxicological safety test, standard analytical method, raw material standardization) - Obtainment of a governmental research project for 3 years from Ministry of Health and Welfare to develop HemoHIM as an complementary herbal drug for anti-cancer therapies - Acquisition of fundamental data on the manufacturing process and the raw material standardization for the optimal efficacy of HemoHIM Ο Expected benefit - Planning to get the approval of IND from Korea FDA by 2015 after completing the non-clinical study through the on-going project from Ministry of Health and Welfare - Planning to commercialize the product by 2017.

  18. Identification of marker compounds in herbal drugs on TLC with DART-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Jee, Eun Hye; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Choi, Hyo Sook; Jang, Young Pyo

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to provide a more versatile and specific information on Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) analysis of medicinal plants. TLC plates developed with the extract of herbal medicines were analyzed with direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source. Three well known herbal drugs were extracted and developed on a silica-coated TLC plate with the conditions pre-established in Korean Pharmacopoeia IX. The developed plate was placed between the DART ion source and TOF-MS analyzer to get real time mass spectra from the bands on the TLC plate directly. The marker coumarin compounds, decursin and decursinol were successfully identified from the TLC plate developed with Angelicae gigantis radix, along with alkaloid compounds of rutaecarpine and evodiamine from Evodiae fructus, and lignan molecules of gomisin A, N, and schisandrin from Schisandrae fructus. This hyphenation system of TLC and DART-MS could provide unique and specific information on the major constituents of crude plant drug on TLC through uncovering high resolution mass number of each band on the TLC plate directly in real time.

  19. Novel spectrofluorimetric method for boldine alkaloid determination in herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Cecilia M.; Henestrosa, Cecilia; Gil, Raúl A.; Fernández, Liliana P.; Acosta, Gimena

    2017-09-01

    A new green on-line method for Boldine determination (BOL) in herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals, using its native fluorescence in acid media (λex = 282 nm; λem = 373 nm) has been developed. The presented methodology involves for the first time, a flow injection (FI) strategy using a mini-column of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as retention agent coupled with molecular fluorescence. Different parameters influence as sample pH and flow rate, eluent flow rate and composition; on BOL sensitivity and elution time was investigated by multifactorial techniques. Adequate dynamic calibration range (r2 = 0.9993) was obtained over a concentration interval of 0.029-27.0 μg mL- 1 BOL. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.008 and 0.029 μg mL- 1, respectively. The average recoveries in explored samples ranged from 95% to 103%. Under optimized conditions, the throughput sample as high as 30 h- 1 was achieved with high repeatability performance (99%). The proposed development represents a useful and valuable tool emulating the analytical efficiency of the official methodologies for quality control of herbal and phytopharmaceutical drugs containing BOL. Moreover, this approach shows advantages respect to low cost, simplicity and environmental and analyst friendly.

  20. Herbal Remedy: An Alternate Therapy of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are one of the most commonly used therapeutic drug groups used worldwide for curing an array of health problems like pain, inflammation, cardiovascular complications, and many other diseases, but they may cause different side effects including gastroduodenal disorders. So, there is a growing interest and need to search for nontoxic, antiulcer formulations from medicinal plants to treat NSAIDs induced gastric ulcer. Extensive research has reported on many natural plants like Camellia sinensis, Phyllanthus emblica, Myristica malabarica, Piper betle, Picrorhiza kurroa, and so forth, and their active constituents reduced NSAIDs induced gastric ulcer via their antioxidative as well as immunomodulatory activity. Therefore, use of herbal formulations in daily life may prevent NSAIDs induced gastric ulceration and other side effects.

  1. Clinical Observation of 40 Cases of Acne Treated by Acupuncture plus Herbal Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI An-he; DAI Xi-ping; ZHANG Hai-bo; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Acne is divided into the patterns of wind and heat in the lung meridian and accumulation of dampness and heat. Forty cases of acne were treated by acupuncture plus herbal drugs (acupuncture and drug group, A) and 30 cases were treated by simple acupuncture as the control group (acupuncture group, B). The results showed basic cure in 31 cases, remarkable effect in 5 cases, effect in 3 cases, failure in 1 case and the total effective rate of 97.5% in Group A, and basic cure in 16 cases, remarkable effect in 6 cases, effect in 3 cases, failure in 5 cases and the total effective rate of 83.3% in Group B. There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) in the therapeutic effect and there was a significant difference (P < 0. 01 ) in the curative rate in the two groups. The therapeutic effect was obviously better in Group A than in Group B.

  2. [Metallic Elemental Analysis of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations by Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-xia; Li Cen; Du, Yu-zhi; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    To discuss the relationship between metallic element and disease through determine the elementals in Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations that have obvious effect on hepatobiliary diseases by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Source, then to reveal the substance foundation of pharmacological action. The results show that all the Tibetan Herbal Medicines used in the experiment have the 9 kinds of metallic elements of potassium(K), calcium(Ca), titanium(Ti), vanadium(V), chromium(Cr), manganese(Mn), ferrum(Fe), zinc(Zn) and lead(Pb), the content of the elements are in the ppb or ppm level though the element constitute and the content have obvious difference. Tibetan Medicine Preparations have another 6 kinds of metallic elements of nickel(Ni), copper(Cu), rubidium(Rb), mercury(Hg), cobalt(Co), gallium(Ga) and 1 kind of nonmetallic elements of arsenic(As) when compare with Herbal Medicines, and the element constitute and the content also have obvious difference. Take advantage of SR-XRF, the test gets the basic data of elements of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Preparations, supply the scientific support to discuss the interaction of pharmacological mechanism and the metallic elements, and find the suitability of the technique for the metallic elements detection in Tibetan Medicines.

  3. Quality and safety control of tumor-shrinking decoction (TSD): A Chinese herbal preparation for the treatment of uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Wai Ling; Yeung, Wing Fai; Song, Tian-He; Lao, Li-Xing; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Reproducible efficacy assessments of Chinese herbal medicines are largely based on well-established quality control procedures. This study presents a comprehensive quality control procedure for tumor-shrinking decoction (TSD), a 15-herb preparation under study as a potential therapy for uterine fibroids. Morphological, microscopic, and physicochemical authentications were first carried out on individual herbal medicines composing TSD. Contaminant tests on TSD for the presence of heavy metals and pesticide residues were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, batch-to-batch quality monitoring of the decoction was investigated via ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An aqueous extract of the herbal medicines was prepared and formulated into TSD. The tested contaminants were within the maximum permitted levels of the Hong Kong government in proprietary Chinese medicines. UPLC and HPLC fingerprints for quality tracking on TSD were established. The decoction was quantitatively standardized by UPLC and HPLC, respectively, with five and three chemical compounds serving as references. Collectively, the procedure established in this study will not only serve as a fundamental basis for the investigation and development of TSD as a novel therapy for uterine fibroids, but also as a protocol for studying other polycomponent herbal preparations. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-12-23

    Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era. It is essential to develop an efficient, high-quality, high-throughput screening method integrated with an MS platform for early screening of candidate drug molecules from natural products. We have developed a new chinmedomics strategy reliant on MS that is capable of capturing the candidate molecules, facilitating their identification of novel chemical structures in the early phase; chinmedomics-guided natural product discovery based on MS may provide an effective tool that addresses challenges in early screening of effective constituents of herbs against disease. This critical review covers the use of MS with related techniques and methodologies for natural product discovery, biomarker identification, and determination of mechanisms of action. It also highlights high-throughput chinmedomics screening methods suitable for lead compound discovery illustrated by recent successes.

  6. Castanea spp. buds as a phytochemical source for herbal preparations: botanical fingerprint for nutraceutical identification and functional food standardisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bonvegna, Luca; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2014-11-01

    Many plant species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and health benefits: Castanea spp. is among the most commonly used herbal medicines. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of chestnut bud preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main bioactive compounds, and to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint to evaluate the single class contribution to the herbal preparation phytocomplex. The analyses were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector. Castanea spp. was identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: the observed analytical fingerprint demonstrated that these bud preparations represent a rich source of bioactive compounds (104.77 ± 1.14 g kg(-1) FW) in relation to different genotypes, specific sampling sites and several phenological stages. This study showed that the observed analytical fingerprint can be considered an important tool for assessing the chemical composition and bioactivities of the chestnut-derived products, considering the Castanea genus as a new source of natural health-promoting compounds. This study allowed the development of an effective tool for quality control by fingerprinting the bud preparation in order to develop a new generation of standardised preparations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Protective effects of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal preparation on substantia nigra neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Cai; Yun Tian; Ruhui Lin; Xuzheng Chen; Zhizhen Liu; Jindong Xie

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese herbs Herba Epimedii, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Rhizoma Polygonati were injected into Parkinson's disease mice established via intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride. The selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor selegiline was used as a positive control drug. After successive administration for 4 weeks, Herba Epimedii could downregulate the expression of caspase-3 and increase the brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, as well as increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease mouse models. Rhizoma Polygonati could downregulate the expression of caspase-3 and FasL, and increase neural growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi could downregulate caspase-3 expression. Rhizoma Polygonati and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi did not produce obvious effects on tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi yielded similar effects on apoptosis-promoting factors to those elicited by selegiline. Herba Epimedii and Rhizoma Polygonati significantly increased the levels of neurotrophic factors compared with selegiline. Herba Epimedii significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity compared with selegiline. It is indicated that the kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal preparation can downregulate the expression of apoptosis-promoting factors, increase neurotrophic factors levels in the substantia nigra and striatum, as well as increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease mouse models, thereby exerting a stronger or similar neuroprotective effects compared with selegiline.

  8. A Critical Approach to Evaluating Clinical Efficacy, Adverse Events and Drug Interactions of Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A; Hoon-Kim, Sung; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (Vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (Tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (Zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (Panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestrogens and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the relief of some symptoms in menopause. However, firm conclusions of efficacy cannot be generally drawn. On the other hand, inconclusive evidence of efficacy or contradictory results have been reported for Aloe vera in the treatment of psoriasis, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in cystitis prevention, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) for tinnitus and intermittent claudication, echinacea (Echinacea spp.) for the prevention of common cold and pomegranate (Punica granatum) for the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications. Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb-drug interactions, have been described. This suggests the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines.

  10. Concurrent use of prescription drugs and herbal medicinal products in older adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat; Wider, Barbara; Watson, Leala Kay; Goodman, Claire

    2016-04-21

    There has been a global increase in the use of herbal medicinal products (HMPs). About a quarter of UK adults use HMPs, bought over the counter by self-prescription and often not disclosed to healthcare professionals. Potential herb-drug interaction is a clinical concern, with older people at greater risk because of co-morbidities and slower clearance of pharmacologically active compounds. While there is a good understanding of general herbal medicine use by older people, less is known about the extent and implications of concurrent use with prescription medicines. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the prevalence, patterns, safety issues and other factors associated with concurrent prescription and herbal medicines use among older adults. Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Web of Science and Cochrane from inception till present for studies reporting the concurrent use of prescription medicines with HMPs in older adults (≥65 years). Lateral searching via related citation (PubMed) and checking reference lists of identified studies will be performed. Two reviewers will independently screen studies, extract data and appraise methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for prevalence data and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Qualitative and quantitative studies from all settings will be included. Non-empirical papers, in vitro experiments and animal studies will be excluded. Primary outcomes are prevalence and patterns of concurrent use, number and types of prescription and HMPs and adverse reactions reported. Secondary outcomes are disclosure of HMP use to healthcare professionals and cost of HMPs. A narrative synthesis of included studies will be performed to summarise the evidence. This review will synthesise and critically appraise

  11. Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kizaibek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500 mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80, with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5 L per day of ASMq decoction for cancer patients.

  12. Fifty Cases of Child Restless Syndrome Treated with the Integrated Method of Chinese Herbal Drugs and Auricular-Plaster Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Fifty cases of child restless syndrome were treated with oral administration of Chinese traditional herbal drugs plus auricular-plaster therapy from December 1998 to November 2001, and another 47 cases were treated with oral administration of methylphenidate as controls. The result is reported as follows.

  13. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts.

  14. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for the separation of arctiin and arctigenin in Fructus Arctii and its herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wenjuan; Chen, Yonglei; Zhang, Yuxia; Ding, Xiuping; Chen, Hongli; Liu, Mancang

    2007-12-01

    A microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method was used to separate arctiin and arctigenin in Fructus Arctii and its herbal preparations. The separation of arctiin and arctigenin was performed using a 1-butanol-SDS-ethyl acetate-water microemulsion in 10mM sodium tetraborate buffer. The analytes were baseline-resolved within 4 min. In the concentration range 5-500 microg/mL, the calibration curves reveal linear relationships between the peak area for each analyte and its concentration (correlation coefficients: 0.9993 for arctiin and 0.9998 for arctigenin). The method was applied to the analysis of arctiin and arctigenin in herbal preparations, and the recoveries were 98.7-103.1% for arctiin and 97.6-103.2% for arctigenin, respectively.

  15. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Jina Choi; Mi-Kyung Lee; Kyung-Yun Kang; Man-Jeong Paik; Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Hae-Ran Park; Sung-Tae Yee

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozo...

  16. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Jina Choi; Mi-Kyung Lee; Kyung-Yun Kang; Man-Jeong Paik; Sung-Kee Jo; Uhee Jung; Hae-Ran Park; Sung-Tae Yee

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozo...

  17. HemoHIM, a herbal preparation, alleviates airway inflammation caused by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Rae; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Lee, In-Chul; Ryu, Jung-Min; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-01-01

    HemoHIM, herbal preparation has designed for immune system recovery. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of HemoHIM on cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mouse model. To induce COPD, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (eight cigarettes per day) for 4 weeks and intranasally received LPS on day 26. HemoHIM was administrated to mice at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg 1h before CS exposure. HemoHIM reduced the inflammatory cell count and levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) induced by CS+LPS exposure. HemoHIM decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration in the airway and inhibited the expression of iNOS and MMP-9 and phosphorylation of Erk in lung tissue exposed to CS+LPS. In summary, our results indicate that HemoHIM inhibited a reduction in the lung inflammatory response on CS and LPS induced lung inflammation via the Erk pathway. Therefore, we suggest that HemoHIM has the potential to treat pulmonary inflammatory disease such as COPD. PMID:28400838

  18. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  19. HemoHIM, a herbal preparation, alleviates airway inflammation caused by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Rae; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Lee, In-Chul; Ryu, Jung-Min; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, In-Sik

    2017-03-01

    HemoHIM, herbal preparation has designed for immune system recovery. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of HemoHIM on cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mouse model. To induce COPD, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (eight cigarettes per day) for 4 weeks and intranasally received LPS on day 26. HemoHIM was administrated to mice at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg 1h before CS exposure. HemoHIM reduced the inflammatory cell count and levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) induced by CS+LPS exposure. HemoHIM decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration in the airway and inhibited the expression of iNOS and MMP-9 and phosphorylation of Erk in lung tissue exposed to CS+LPS. In summary, our results indicate that HemoHIM inhibited a reduction in the lung inflammatory response on CS and LPS induced lung inflammation via the Erk pathway. Therefore, we suggest that HemoHIM has the potential to treat pulmonary inflammatory disease such as COPD.

  20. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Llurba Montesino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites (“protozoans”. The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Six extracts from preparations of Salvia, Valeriana, Hypericum, Silybum, Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL. They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress.

  1. Herbal modulation of drug bioavailability: enhancement of rifampicin levels in plasma by herbal products and a flavonoid glycoside derived from Cuminum cyminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachin, B S; Sharma, S C; Sethi, S; Tasduq, S A; Tikoo, M K; Tikoo, A K; Satti, N K; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Johri, R K; Qazi, G N

    2007-02-01

    The bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF) in a fixed dose combination (FDC) used for the treatment of tuberculosis remains an area of clinical concern and several pharmaceutical alternatives are being explored to overcome this problem. The present study presents a pharmacological approach in which the bioavailability of a drug may be modulated by utilizing the herb-drug synergism. The pharmacokinetic interaction of some herbal products and a pure molecule isolated from Cuminum cyminum with RIF is shown in this paper. An aqueous extract derived from cumin seeds produced a significant enhancement of RIF levels in rat plasma. This activity was found to be due to a flavonoid glycoside, 3',5-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-beta-D-galacturonide 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (CC-I). CC-I enhanced the Cmax by 35% and AUC by 53% of RIF. The altered bioavailability profile of RIF could be attributed to a permeation enhancing effect of this glycoside.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Two Ingredients of the Compound Chinese Herbal Medicine Transdermal Preparation in Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-xia; LI Rui; ZHANG Xiu-ying

    2009-01-01

    The topical administration of the compound Chinese herbal medicine transdermal preparation has been widely used in treating the mastitis of cows.In order to understand the metabolic process,four cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected for the pharmacokinetie study.The transdermal preparation was applied to the diseased part of breast.Then the plasma and milk samples were collected respectively at 0,0.5,1,2,4,6,8,10,12,24,and 36 h.The concentrations of baicalin and phillyrin in plasma and milk were determined by HPLC and the data of time-concentrations were analyzed by the pharmacokinetic software.The results showed that two ingredients in the plasma were not detectable,but they in the milk had linear relationship with the time.The peak concentration of baicalin [(2.84±0.15) μg mL-1]appeared at (4.93±0.35) h,AUC0-LOQ was(27.32±7.91) mg L-1 h-1,and the mean retention time was (28.31±0.49) h.The peak concentration of phillyrin [(0.49±0.41) μg mL-1]achieved at (3.68 4±3.14) h,AUC0-LOQ was (4.10±0.31) mg L-1 h-1,and the mean retention time was (14.52±0.02) h.These suggested that two ingredients had slow absorbing speed and high absorbing degree.They could not be eliminated in a short time,thus exerted the topical curative effect.

  3. [An orientational examination of the effects of extracts from mixtures of herbal drugs on selected renal functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteiková, R; Klimas, R; Samura, B B; Savickas, A; Samura, B A; Belaij, S I; Samura, I B; Rabisková, M; Chalupová, Z; Bernatoniene, J

    2007-04-01

    The paper aimed to determine the effects of mixtures of selected medicinal plants on some physiological renal functions, i.e. excretion of urine and electrolytes and changes in the quantity of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma after water and salt load. The following medicinal plants were selected for the examination: downy birch (Betula pubescens EHRH.), everlasting flower (Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.), German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.). Herbal drugs were used to compose 6 mixtures. Extracts from these mixtures were administered to Wistar strain males and their effects were compared with the effects of an administered suspension of hydrochlorothiazide, an extract from field horsetail herb alone, and a control group of animals which was not administered any preparation. The greatest diuretic effect was found in a mixture composed of birch leaves (Betulae folium), hawthorn berries (Crataegi fructus), strawberry leaves (Fragariae folium), corn silk (Maydis stigmata), chamomile flowers (Matricariae flos), and horsetail herb (Equiseti herba). Its effect was greater by 47% and 34% than the effect of a horsetail herb extract and a hydrochlorothiazide suspension (p < 0.05), respectively. The extract from this mixture also increased the quantity of prostaglandins E2 and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma in water and salt load.

  4. A study to determine the knowledge and level of awareness of medical undergraduates about herbal medicines and herb-drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet K. Boparai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing usage of herbal medicines worldwide has increased the probability of co-administration of herbal and allopathic medicines. This may lead to serious safety concerns, including herb-drug interactions (HDIs. Many HDIs may be overlooked due to poor doctor-patient communication about herbal drug usage probably because of lack of knowledge of herbal medicines and HDIs among physicians. The study was thus planned to identify the knowledge and awareness of medical students regarding the use of herbal medicines and about HDIs, to help improve the teaching skills and curriculum development for medical students. Methods: 286 medical students of 2nd, 3rd and 4th year MBBS course completed the study. All the participants were asked to fill a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 15 questions which included both open-ended and close-ended questions related to age, sex, knowledge, awareness and usage of herbal medicines and about herb-drug interactions. Data was analyzed and expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Majority (95.45% of the students were aware of the fact that herbs can be used as medicines. They were most familiar with the herbs tulsi, neem, turmeric, aloe, ashwagandha and ginger. 46.85% consider herbal medicines to be risk free, and majority (55.6% were not aware of the fact that herbs can cause herb-drug interactions. Media and elderly family members were their most common sources of information regarding herbal medicines. Majority (75.17% would prefer allopathic medicines over herbal medicines. Only 23.07% always informed the physician about their usage of herbal medicines, although most (84.96% felt that history regarding use of herbal medicines should be taken. Majority were not aware of the regulatory status of herbal medicines. Conclusions: Lack of knowledge and awareness of medical students about herbal medicines and herb-drug interactions was seen in the study. There is a need to inform the

  5. Effect of herbal preparation on heavy metal (cadmium) induced antioxidant system in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailiah Roopha, P; Padmalatha, C

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements found to damage antioxidant systems in mammals. To ameliorate cadmium toxicity and to prevent oxidative stress, natural products may be useful. In Indian ethnobotanical practice, a mixture of 17 herbal products is used to fortify the reproductive system of women after parturition and to reverse ovarian oxidative stress. Oral administration of this extract to rats exposed to cadmium was useful in reversing oxidative stress. Two different doses of cadmium (50 ppm and 200 ppm) were given to Wistar rats aged 45 and 65 days. An herbal extract derived from 17 plants was administered orally every day at a dose level of 200 mg/kg of body weight to the rats exposed to cadmium. A battery of enzymes involved in antioxidant activity in the ovary, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were measured in the control, cadmium-exposed rats without treatment and in the cadmium-exposed rats treated with herbal extract. The reduction in SOD, catalase, GPx and GST activity after cadmium exposure improved significantly in the rats treated with the herbal extract (p antioxidant enzymes due to cadmium exposure was reversed significantly with herbal extract administration. The synergistic effect of each bioactive compound in different herbal extracts requires further study.

  6. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.

  7. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Li Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR, we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

  8. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Yao, Ping; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- β -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

  9. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L

    2013-01-01

    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  10. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xuetong; Wang, Chao; Li, Yan; Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM) is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  11. High-performance thin layer chromatography for quality control of multicomponent herbal drugs: example of cangzhu xianglian san.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Merfort, Irmgard; Reich, Eike

    2010-01-01

    Due to their complexity, multicomponent herbal drugs pose enormous analytical challenges for quality control (QC). Although they may have traditionally been used for hundreds of years, the information about their chemical composition is often still limited. Selecting suitable markers to monitor the identity and potency of the mixture is, therefore, difficult. There is also the possibility of natural variability for each plant. This paper illustrates a pragmatic and practical approach to QC of a multicomponent herbal drug by HPTLC. Cangzhu xianglian xan (CXS), composed of the herbal drugs Coptis rhizome, Aucklandia root, and Atractylodes rhizome (30 + 20 + 60, w/w/w), is used as an example. A characteristic fingerprint can be generated for CXS with toluene-ethyl acetate-methanol-isopropanol-water (60 + 30 + 20 + 15 + 3, v/v/v/v/v) mobile phase on HPTLC silica gel 60 conditioned with ammonia. While the corresponding monograph of the Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia focuses only on the detection of berberine, one of the principal components of Coptis rhizome, the proposed method of identification determines the presence of all three components in the drug after derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent. The same method can also be used to quantitatively determine the content of berberine by scanning densitometry. This paper provides details about the validation of the qualitative and quantitative determinations.

  12. Human study of the herbal preparation(HemoHIM) on enhancement of immune and hematopoietic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-Nam; Jeon, Sun-Hee [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the human efficacy of the herbal preparation(HemoHIM) on the immune and hematopoiesis enhancement in sub-healthy volunteers. It was conducted as a double-blind, placebo-controlled human study. The sub-healthy volunteers with peripheral White Blood Cell (WBC) counts below 5000/μl were recruited and randomly allocated to 3 groups and administered with HemoHIM 6g/day, HemoHIM 12g/day, or placebo throughout the test. Peripheral blood was collected 4 times before or after the administration and analyzed for the hematological and serum biochemical values, immune cell activities, antioxidant status of plasma. The data of 38 volunteers were finally included in the analysis. Although there were no statistical significances, a trend was observed that the dose and duration of HemoHIM administration was correlated to the increased number of immune cells (white blood cells and lymphocytes). NK cell activity was increased significantly in the male group administered with HemoHIM 6g/day. The cytokines involved in immune activation (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6) were significantly increased or showed the trends of increases in HemoHIM administered groups, while IL-4 involved in allergy and asthma was not changed or showed the trends of decreases in HemoHIM administered groups. On the other hand, the antioxidant biomarkers such as total GSH, MDA, and TAS, were not affected by HemoHIM administration. The toxicological safety of HemoHIM administration was confirmed by the serum biochemical analysis of liver and kidney function markers and the questionnaire of HemoHIM administration and the consultation with the doctor, which showed no side effects of HemoHIM administration. The results of this study may provide the basic data for further clinical study on HemoHIM.

  13. Preparation and characterization of herbal creams for improvement of skin viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahshawat, M S; Saraf, S; Saraf, S

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate herbal cosmetic creams for their improvement of skin viscoelastic and hydration properties. The cosmetic cream formulations were designed by using ethanolic extracts of Glycyrriza glabra, Curcuma longa (roots), seeds of Psorolea corlifolia, Cassia tora, Areca catechu, Punica granatum, fruits of Embelica officinale, leaves of Centella asiatica, dried bark of Cinnamon zeylanicum and fresh gel of Aloe vera in varied concentrations (0.12-0.9%w/w) and characterized using physicochemical and physiological measurements. The ethanolic extracts of herbs were incorporated in a cream base that is prepared by a phase inversion emulsification technique. The cream base was prepared by utilizing oil of Prunus amagdalus, Sesamum indicum, honey, cetyl alcohol, stearic acid, polysorbate monoleate, sorbitan monostearate, propylene glycol and glycerin. Physicochemical assessments and microbiological testing were completed for all formulations according to the methods of the Indian Standard Bureau. The studies were carried out for 6 weeks on normal subjects (6 males and 12 females, between 22 and 50 years) on the back of their volar forearm for evaluation of viscoelastic properties in terms of extensibility via a suction measurement, firmness using laboratory fabricated instruments such as ball bouncing and skin hydration using electric (resistance) measurement methods. The physicochemical parameters of formulations CAA1-CAA6, i.e. pH, acid value, saponification value, viscosity, spreadability, layer thickness microbial count and skin sensitivity were found to be in the range of 5.01 +/- 0.4-6.07 +/- 0.6, 3.3-5.1 +/- 0.2, 20-32, 5900-6755 cps, 60-99%, 25-50 mum, 31-46 colony-forming units (CFU) and a 0-1 erythema score. The formulations, CAA4 and CAA5, showed an increase in percentage extensibility (32.27 +/- 1.7% and 29.89 +/- 1.64%, respectively), firmness (28.86 +/- 0.86% and 29.89 +/- 2.8%, respectively) and improved skin

  14. [Bifidogenic factors as drug preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashova, A O; Lisitsin, O B; Abramov, N A

    1999-01-01

    The review of new data on the study of bifidobacterial factors of different origin and the probable mechanisms of their favorable action on the microflora of the intestinal tract if presented. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data on the use of oligosaccharides, including fructo-oligosaccharides, as compounds stimulating the growth and development of bifidobacteria both in pure cultures and in intestinal microflora. Methods for the treatment of natural compounds with a view to enhancing their bifidogenic effect are presented. The possibilities and/or advantages of using bifidogenic factors in vivo and in vitro as medicinal preparations either alone or incorporated in probiotic compositions are evaluated. Suggestion has been made that the choice of the method for using bifidogenic factors may depend on the kind and severity of disturbances in indigenous microflora.

  15. Oral treatment of erectile dysfunction: from herbal remedies to designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, W R

    1998-01-01

    The erect penis has always been a symbol of power, virility, and fertility. Inability to obtain or maintain an erection, known clinically as erectile dysfunction, is a major health problem. It can cause considerable distress, unhappiness, and relationship problems. The search has therefore continued from time immemorial to find an effective safe, and easy to administer treatment for erectile problems. Although a number of these treatments became available in the last two decades, they all had problems with efficacy, safety, or ease of administration. Clinicians in this field often are told at the end of an assessment interview, "I wish you have a magic pill". An effective and safe oral treatment is, no doubt, the most acceptable and easy to use option. Finding such a treatment has always been the dream of many scientists, and many attempts have been made over the years. These ranged from herbal remedies used by native healers, mostly in Eastern countries, to the more sophisticated designer drugs, which are based on a better understanding of the physiological mechanism of erection. This article describes some of these attempts.

  16. Voltammetric determination of wedelolactone, an anti-HIV herbal drug, at boron-doped diamond electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin Saxena; Ratnanjali Shrivastava; Soami P Satsangee

    2015-05-01

    Boron-doped diamond electrode has been utilized for the study of electrochemical behaviour of an anti-HIV herbal drug wedelolactone in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH-2.5) by square-wave and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The response characteristics of cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry showed a remarkable increase in the anodic peak current and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed a lowering in charge transfer resistance at the boron-doped diamond electrode as compared to the glassy carbon electrode that can be attributed to the higher sensitivity of boron-doped diamond sensor. Cyclic voltammetry at the boron-doped diamond surface revealed the oxidation of wedelolactone with two oxidation peaks (P1 and P2) with Ep1 = 0.4V and Ep2 =1.00 V with scan rate varying from 10 - 220 mV/s and exhibits diffusion-controlled process. Based on the electrochemical measurements, a probable oxidation mechanism has been deduced and the electrode dynamics parameters have been evaluated. The effect of concentration on the peak currents of wedelolactone was found to have a linear relationship within the concentration range of 50–700 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 43.87 and 132.93 ng/mL respectively. The applicability of the proposed method was further scrutinized by the successful determination of wedelolactone in real plant samples.

  17. Towards Polypharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics of Multicomponent Drugs and Herbal Medicines Using a Metabolomics Approach

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    Ke Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of pharmacokinetics (PKs of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals (polypharmacokinetics, poly-PKs is difficult due to the vast number of compounds present in natural products, their various concentrations across a wide range, complexity of their interactions, as well as their complex degradation dynamics in vivo. Metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical tools that focus on the comprehensive analysis of small molecules in biofluids is a viable approach to address the challenges of poly-PK. This paper discusses recent advances in the characterization of poly-PK and the metabolism of multicomponent xenobiotic agents, such as compound drugs, dietary supplements, and herbal medicines, using metabolomics strategy. We propose a research framework that integrates the dynamic concentration profile of bioavailable xenobiotic molecules that result from in vivo absorption and hepatic and gut bacterial metabolism, as well as the human metabolic response profile. This framework will address the bottleneck problem in the pharmacological evaluation of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, leading to the direct elucidation of the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of these compounds.

  18. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  19. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

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    D. Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CyA is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John’s wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  20. The impact of current alternative herbal remedies on dental patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K

    1999-01-01

    With the recent boom in holistic and herbal medicine and an ever-growing trend among the general population to refer to herbal remedies as an alternative to traditional pharmaceutical therapies, dental health care providers must be aware of the wide consumption of such products and understand their nature. It becomes imperative, therefore, to include questions regarding the use of herbal preparations as a matter of routine in the patient's drug history, since this may impact a safe dental patient care delivery.

  1. Effects of the Combined Therapy of Acupuncture with Herbal Drugs on Male Immune Infertility-- A Clinical Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bing; Lun Xin; Gong Yuzhuo; Wang Xinzhong

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinical effects of the combined therapy of acupuncture with herbal drugs on male immune infertility and on antisperm antibody (AsAb), 100 male cases of infertility with positive AsAb were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of 50 cases. The acupuncture-drug group was treated with acupuncture on Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23), Taichong (LR 3), Taixi (KI 3), Xinshu (BL 15),Geshu (BL 17), Shenmen (HT 7), and Xuehai (SP 10), combined with oral medication of Liuwei treated with oral prednisone. The clinical therapeutic effects and the impact on AsAb were observed in the two groups. The results showed that the total effective rate in the acupuncture-drug group was 90%;while that of the control group was 64%, the comparison showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The positive rate of blood serum and/or AsAb in both the two groups decreased in varying degrees, but the negative-turning rate of AsAb in the acupuncture-drug group was more obvious, the comparison showing also a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The combined therapy of acupuncture with herbal drugs has definite therapeutic effects on male immune infertility, which can regulate AsAb and raise the immunity of the patients.

  2. Comparative efficacy of herbal and allopathy drugs against coccidiosis in poultry

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    Anjum Khalique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 240 one-day-old broiler chicken were used to test the anti-coccidial efficacy of a herbal drug Coxigon® compared with a chemical synthetic Diclazuril® against Coccidiosis in broilers. These birds were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E, F of forty birds each. There were six treatments, non-infected non-medicated (A, infected non-medicated (B, infected and medicated with Coxigon® at 3 g/1 kg of feed (C infected and medicated with Diclazuril® at 0.20 g/1 kg of feed (D, non-infected but treated with Coxigon® at 3 g/50 kg of feed (E, and non-infected but treated with Diclazuril® (F at 0.20 g/1 kg of feed. Groups B, C, and D were given a challenge dose of coccidial oocysts at the age of 22 days. Weight gain, feed consumption, oocysts count in the faeces, clinical findings and mortality were recorded. The mean values of birds feed intake during experimental period (0-6 weeks were 3770.4, 3206.5, 3493.3, 3333.3, 3751.5 and 3764.1 g for the groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively. The results revealed that the birds of group E had better (P<0.05 weight gain (g as compared to other groups. Moreover, Coxigon® at 3g/1 kg of feed (C had excellent performance in terms of oocysts count (31700/g feaces and lower mortality as compared with Diclazuril® (D.

  3. Effect of Herbal Preparation on Heavy Metal (Cadmium) Induced Antioxidant System in Female Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements found to damage antioxidant systems in mammals. To ameliorate cadmium toxicity and to prevent oxidative stress, natural products may be useful. In Indian ethnobotanical practice, a mixture of 17 herbal products is used to fortify the reproductive system of women after parturition and to reverse ovarian oxidative stress. Oral administration of this extract to rats exposed to cadmium was useful in reversing oxidative stress. Two different doses of cadmium (50 ppm ...

  4. Traditional herbal medicine, pharmacology and complementary alternative medicine (CAM): a preface to this special issue on herbal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiu-Yin KWAN

    2000-01-01

    @@In China, our ancient human civilization has long used plants and other natural products, and their extracts for both healing and poisoning. The understanding of interactions between drugs and living systems was acquired via generations of knowledge accumulation based on empirical observations. This form of healing, also well documented to exist in many other cultural civilizations via a long historical experimentation, has eventually evolved itself from an art form into a scientific modality, now known as pharmacology. This recognition of a formal discipline of medicine occurred only about a century ago following the declaration of Flexner Report in the North America in 1910. The report proclaimed that the practice of medicine should be based on scientific evidence rather than empiricism. The emergence of synthetic organic chemistry facilitating the discovery of new healing chemicals and the rapid development of physiological and biochemical sciences (often dependent on pharmacological tools) have further solidified pharmacology as a mainstream basic medical science. For long decades since the Flexner's report, the empirically based folk medicine has rapidly been replaced by the scientifically based medicine, which is often referred to as the mainstream medicine (and thus becomes a traditional/conventional medicine itself).

  5. In Vitro Co-Delivery Evaluation of Novel Pegylated Nano-Liposomal Herbal Drugs of Silibinin and Glycyrrhizic Acid (Nano-Phytosome to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

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    Ochi Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to evaluate a co-encapsulated pegylated nano-liposome system based on two herbal anti-tumor drugs, silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid, for delivery to a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell line (HepG2. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, co-encapsulated nano-liposomes by the thin layer film hydration method with HEPES buffer and sonication at 60% amplitude. Liposomes that co-encapsulated silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid were prepared with a specified molar ratio of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, cholesterol (CHOL, and methoxy-polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG2000–derived distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG2000-DSPE. We used the MTT technique to assess cytotoxicity for various concentrations of co-encapsulated nano-liposomes, free silibinin (25% w/v and glycyrrhizic acid (75% w/v on HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines over a 48-hour period. Results Formulation of pegylated nano-liposomes showed a narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 46.3 nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE for silibinin was 24.37%, whereas for glycyrrhizic acid it was 68.78%. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity showed significantly greater co-encapsulated nano-liposomes on the HepG2 cell line compared to the fibroblast cell line. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 for co-encapsulated pegylated nanoliposomal herbal drugs was 48.68 µg/ml and free silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid was 485.45 µg/ml on the HepG2 cell line. Conclusion This in vitro study showed that nano-liposome encapsulation of silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid increased the biological activity of free drugs, increased the stability of silibinin, and synergized the therapeutic effect of silibinin with glycyrrhizic acid. The IC50 of the co-encapsulated nano-liposomes was lower than the combination of free silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid on the HepG2 cell line.

  6. Determination of lead in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations obtained in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L; Kiyoshi, M

    2004-08-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia implemented the phase 3 registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy and safety (including the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicinal preparations. As such, a total of 100 traditional medicinal preparations, containing Smilax myosotiflora, in various pharmaceutical dosage forms, which were bought in the Malaysian market, were analysed for lead content using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that 15% of the products analysed possessed 10.23-23.05 ppm of lead, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is that they should not exceed 10 ppm of lead. Out of these 15 products, five products exhibited 10.23-23.05 ppm of lead, in fact they have already been registered with the DCA Malaysia. However, the rest of the products, which possessed 12.24-20.72 ppm of lead, have still not been registered with the DCA Malaysia. Although this study successfully showed that only 85% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to lead, they cannot, however, be assumed to be safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.

  7. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the raw material of the herbal drug Olivae folium and its counterfeits

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    Lakušić Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree leaf is a very significant plant raw material from the medical and economic points of view (Ph. Eur. 5, PDR. In the region of Southeast Europe, olive leaves are most commonly adulterated with oleander leaves and the leaves of Pittosporum tobira. This paper deals with the morphological and anatomical features of leaves of the following species: Olea europaea, Nerium oleander and Pittosporum tobira. The aim of this research was to define concrete diagnostic parameters permitting detection of adulterants in commercial samples of the herbal drug Olivae folium.

  8. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  9. Preparation and application of magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for the selective extraction of osthole in Libanotis Buchtomensis herbal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Hao, Yi; Shi, Juan; Gao, Ruixia

    2016-06-01

    In this work, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared for the selective extraction of osthole from Libanotis Buchtomensis herbal extract. During the synthesis process, double bonds grafted on the surface of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles could not only drive the temple molecules to locate onto the surface of vinyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles by π-π conjugation, which makes the distribution of binding sites ordered, but also direct the occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the surface of magnetic nanoparticles by the copolymerization of vinyl terminal groups with functional monomers and cross-linking agent. The characteristics of the resulting polymers were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, selectivity, reproducibility, and reusability were discussed, which suggest that the obtained nanomaterials possess rapid binding kinetics, high adsorption capacity of 17.65 mg/g, and favorable selectivity for the target molecule. Satisfactory reproducibility and reusability were verified as well. Meanwhile, the resultant imprinted nanoparticles were successfully applied to selectively separate osthole from the herbal extract, which show great potential in extracting active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparative efficacy of supplementation of phytoconcentrate herbal preparation and synthetic amino acid on broiler performance

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    A. B. Kanduri

    Full Text Available In view to study the role of herbal sources of essential amino acids in improving growth & performance, an experiment was conducted on seventy five day Vencob broiler chicks. Chicks were randomly divided into three groups (n=25, one negative control (T0 and two treatments (T1 & T2. Control group (T0 was offered basal diet deficient in natural or synthetic source of amino acids (choline, methionine, lysine & biotin. Treatment group T1 was fed with basal diet supplemented with polyherbal formulation comprising natural sources (herbs that mimic the activity of amino acids (choline, methionine, lysine & biotin @ 2Kg/tonne of feed while treatment group T2 was fed with basal diet supplemented with combination of synthetic choline chloride (600gm/tonne, synthetic methionine (1kg/tonne, synthetic lysine (1kg/tonne and biotin (150mg/tonne. Growth & performance parameters were recorded at weekly intervals and a metabolic trial for nutrient retention studies was conducted at the end of study. A significant increase in mean body weight gain, mean final body weight, feed efficiency & nutrient retention was observed in both the treated groups as compared to untreated control. The results of group T1 supplemented with herbal sources of amino acids were in confirmation with T2 supplemented with combination of synthetic amino acids suggesting that the polyherbal formula can successfully replace synthetic additives in feed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 413-416

  11. Inhibitory effect of herbal remedy PERVIVO and anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopiński, P; Bałan, B J; Kocik, J; Zdanowski, R; Lewicki, S; Niemcewicz, M; Gawrychowski, K; Skopińska-Różewska, E; Stankiewicz, W

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect.

  12. Herbal Products and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs ... not work the way it should. For example, St. John's wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by ...

  13. Evaluation of an Indigenously Prepared Herbal Extract (EndoPam) as an Antimicrobial Endodontic Irrigant: An Ex Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jain; Pathrose, Sonia; Kottoor, Jojo; Karaththodiyil, Ranjith; Alani, Mathew; Mathew, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Backgroundg: Root canal irrigation plays a pivotal role in endodontics. Constant increase in antibiotic resistance and side effects caused by synthetic irrigants has shifted the research toward developing herbal alternatives. The current study aims to assess the ex vivo effectiveness of an indigenously prepared herbal extract “EndoPam” and compare it with the conventional endodontic irrigants for disinfection of root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: As a preliminary study of the antimicrobial efficacy of the test irrigants, an Agar diffusion study was conducted, and zone of inhibition measured. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight root canals were selected and standardized to 12 ± 1 mm in length. Root canals were prepared using rotary ProTaper system until F3 instrument and were infected with the culture of E. faecalis for three weeks. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group 1: EndoPam ( Ingredients: Syzigium aromaticum, Eucalyptus globulus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita), Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine, Group 3: 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite, Group 4: Normal Saline. Irrigation was performed for each group. Samples were inoculated and incubated for 24 h at 37°C for qualitative analysis qualitative analysis. Results: In the preliminary Agar diffusion study, EndoPam exhibited a zone of inhibition comparable to that of sodium hypochrorite. The diameter of the inhibition zone was in the following order: 2% chlorhexidine gluconate > EndoPam > 5.25% NaOCl > Normal Saline. The qualitative assay done by culturing the bacteria after a period of 3 weeks showed no bacterial growth in any of the tested irrigants, except in normal saline. Conclusion: It was found that the experimental product was as effective as conventional irrigants in reducing the microbial count. PMID:26124607

  14. Evaluation of a poly-herbal preparation for the treatment of peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Hayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate the traditional uses of ulcerene, a poly-herbal formulation in ethanol, aspirin and stress-induced gastric ulcer model of rat. The extent of gastric ulcer formation was studied, using ulcer score, ulcer index, percentage cure through gross examination and histopathological evaluation. A significant (p<0.001 dose-dependent anti-ulcerant effect was observed in ulcerene (50 and 100 mg/kg-treated group with highest effectiveness against ethanol-induced ulcer. The concentration-dependent spasmolytic effect was seen in spontaneously contracting, high K+ (80 mM and carbachol (1 µM-induced jejunum contractions (10, 0.3 and 1 mg/mL, similar to dicyclomine (10, 1 and 3 µM, indicated non-specific spasmolytic mechanism behind the effect. By considering these results, ulcerene can be suggested for the treatment of peptic ulcer.

  15. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. R...

  16. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. R...

  17. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  18. Traditional herbal medicine research with special reference to tetrandrine and related bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids: a preface to this special issue on herbal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiu-Yin KWAN

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since the inaugural publication of the special issue on Traditional Herbal Medicine Research in December 2000 and a subsequent follow-up issue in December 2001, the Editorial Office of Acta Pharmacologica Sinica has received a number of encouraging positive feedback from the general readers and academic authorities. I was honored to have been encouraged by the Editor-in-Chief, Professor DING Guang-Sheng to take up the guest editorship for the 3rd special December issue on Traditional Herbal Medicine Research in 2002.

  19. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llurba Montesino, Núria; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-08-04

    Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites ("protozoans"). The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs) as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS) against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL). They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress.

  20. [Herbal drugs of foreign cultures and medical systems exemplified by Indian incense. Considerations regarding social and insurance medicine expert assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreck, C; Saller, R

    1999-09-01

    Increase preparations are being used with increasing frequency in Western medicine. In experimental investigations, an anti-inflammatory effect has been shown. Clinical observations relate to increase applications in rheumatoid arthritis, malignant brain tumors, inflammatory bowel diseases and asthma bronchiale. A relevant clinical effect of increase preparations has not been ascertained. In Germany, the registration of increase preparation H 15 as a drug has been withheld by the federal drug registration office (former "Bundesgesundheitsamt"). Health funds may reimburse costs for increase preparations in exceptional cases only.

  1. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents.

  2. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  3. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction methodology as a tool to improve the antioxidant properties of herbal drug Xiao-chia-hu-tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu-Ting; Wu, Ching-Yi; Weng, Yih-Ming; Tseng, Chin-Yin

    2005-06-03

    Xiao-chai-hu-tang (XCHT) is an important Chinese herbal prescription for curing many types of liver diseases. The contents of bioactive constituents (saikosaponins a, c and d, baicalin, baicalein, and glycyrrhizic acid), and antioxidant properties of XCHT extracts prepared with ultrasound-assisted (US) extraction in combination with ethanol (up to 95%) as extraction modifier were studied. The results showed that the US extraction significantly increased the bioactive constituents concentrations and antioxidant properties of XCHT extracts when compared with the XCHT prepared with traditional boiling-water extraction. Among the XCHT extracts made with US extraction, the sample prepared with 95% ethanol showed the highest bioactive constituent concentrations and the best antioxidant functionalities. The results suggest that US extraction of XCHT is feasible to replace the traditional time-consuming and low efficiency preparation procedure in the future modernized and commercialized manufacture of this highly valuable Chinese herbal medicine.

  5. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuei-Hua Lee; Yueh-Ting Tsai; Jung-Nien Lai; Shun-Ku Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A...

  6. Antimicrobial and Herbal Drug Resistance in Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Faecal Droppings of Common House Lizard/Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhoj R; Singh, Vidya; Ebibeni, N; Singh, Raj K

    2013-01-01

    From 194 faecal dropping samples of common house geckos collected from offices (60), houses (88), integrated farm units (IFS,18) and hostels, guest houses, and dining rooms of different canteen/mess (HGM, 28), 326 bacterial isolates of enteric bacteria belonging to 17 genera and 34 species were detected. Escherichia coli were the most frequently (39) isolated followed by Citrobacter freundii (33), Klebsiella pneumonia (27), Salmonella indica (12), Enterobacter gergoviae (12), and Ent. agglomerans (11). Other important bacteria isolated from gecko droppings were Listonella damsela (2), Raoultella terrigena (3), S. salamae (2), S. houtenae (3), Edwardsiella tarda (4), Edwardsiella hoshinae (1), and Klebsiella oxytoca (2). Of the 223 isolates tested for antimicrobial drug sensitivity, 27 (12.1%) had multiple drug resistance (MDR). None of the salmonellae or edwardsiellae had MDR however, MDR strains were significantly more common among Escherichia spp. (P = 1.9 × 10(-5)) and isolates from IFS units (P = 3.58 × 10(-23)). The most effective herbal drug, Ageratum conyzoides extract, inhibited growth of only 27.8% of strains tested followed by ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (13.9%), eucalyptus oil (5.4%), patchouli oil (5.4%), lemongrass oil (3.6%), and sandalwood oil (3.1%), and Artemisia vulgaris essential oil (3.1%).

  7. Antimicrobial and Herbal Drug Resistance in Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Faecal Droppings of Common House Lizard/Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoj R. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 194 faecal dropping samples of common house geckos collected from offices (60, houses (88, integrated farm units (IFS,18 and hostels, guest houses, and dining rooms of different canteen/mess (HGM, 28, 326 bacterial isolates of enteric bacteria belonging to 17 genera and 34 species were detected. Escherichia coli were the most frequently (39 isolated followed by Citrobacter freundii (33, Klebsiella pneumonia (27, Salmonella indica (12, Enterobacter gergoviae (12, and Ent. agglomerans (11. Other important bacteria isolated from gecko droppings were Listonella damsela (2, Raoultella terrigena (3, S. salamae (2, S. houtenae (3, Edwardsiella tarda (4, Edwardsiella hoshinae (1, and Klebsiella oxytoca (2. Of the 223 isolates tested for antimicrobial drug sensitivity, 27 (12.1% had multiple drug resistance (MDR. None of the salmonellae or edwardsiellae had MDR however, MDR strains were significantly more common among Escherichia spp. (P=1.9×10-5 and isolates from IFS units (P=3.58×10-23. The most effective herbal drug, Ageratum conyzoides extract, inhibited growth of only 27.8% of strains tested followed by ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (13.9%, eucalyptus oil (5.4%, patchouli oil (5.4%, lemongrass oil (3.6%, and sandalwood oil (3.1%, and Artemisia vulgaris essential oil (3.1%.

  8. Separation and determination of four active anthraquinones in Chinese herbal preparations by flow injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Fan, Liuyin; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for the separation and determination of physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin in Rhubarb, Juemingzi, and Chinese herbal preparations was developed by combination of flow injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the first time. The analysis was carried out using an unmodified fused-silica capillary (75 mm x 50 microm ID x 375 microm OD, effective separation length of 48 mm) and direct ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. By a series of optimization, the sample solvent consisted of NaOH (100 mmol/L) and ACN (1:1 v/v), and a running buffer composed of 15 mmol/L sodium borate - 12.5 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - 42% v/v ACN (pH 10.1) was applied for the separation of the four anthraquinones. The separation was rapid and highly reproducible, with complete resolution of all four compounds within 6 min. The sample throughput rate could reach up to 12 per h. The repeatability (defined as relative standard deviation) was 4.45, 4.44, 4.34, 0.61% with peak height evaluation and 1.62, 0.89, 2.49, 2.19% with peak area evaluation for physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin, respectively.

  9. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  10. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  11. A yang-promoting Chinese herbal suppository preparation enhances the antioxidant status of red cells in male human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, D H F; Chiu, P Y; Poon, M K T; Ng, T T L; Chung, Y K; Lam, B Y H; Du, Y; Ko, K M

    2004-07-01

    In the 16-week pilot study, the effect of a Yang-promoting Chinese herbal suppository preparation (VI-28) on the red cell antioxidant status was examined in 31 healthy male subjects aged 41-66 years old. VI-28 treatment for 12 weeks (one suppository (0.3 g) daily for week 1-4; one every 2 days for week 5-8; one every 3 days for week 9-12) produced a time/dose-dependent alteration in red cell antioxidant status. The VI-28-induced change is characterized by a slight depletion in cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in susceptibility to peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation as well as increases in catalase (CAT) and Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. While a reversal trend of change was observed in cellular GSH level, the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation as well as the CAT activity after the cessation of treatment for 4 weeks, the SOD activity exhibited a protracted increase. The results indicate that VI-28 treatment enhances red cell antioxidant status in male subjects. The beneficial effect of VI-28 treatment on red cells may re fl ect a corresponding change in antioxidant status of peripheral tissues.

  12. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  13. Decisions in drug adverse reactions, intoxications and unexpected responses to herbal medicines as public health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Falconí, Pedro P.; Médico Farmacólogo, Bachiller en Derecho, Doctor en Medicina. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Laboratorio de Investigación en Plantas Medicinales, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.

    2007-01-01

    This review evaluates the relevant information on a variety of adverse drug reactions serious, real or potential, attributed to some drugs relatively recent introduction into the world market, in addition, on some intoxications by contaminated medicines, all of which contributed to decision-making in the past and present, by regulatory authorities in drugs in several countries. It explores the broad strategies related to the pillars of the drug policies, the historical and current events ...

  14. The use of herbal preparations for tick control in western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Regassa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of Phytolaca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of Solanum incanum, crushed seeds of Lepidium sativum mixed with fresh cattle faeces, juice of crushed leaves and bark of Calpurnea aurea and commercially available spice of Capsicum spp. mixed with butter, were used by peasant farmers to control ticks. Preliminary in vitro efficacy tests of these plant preparations were performed on engorged female Boophilus decoloratus. Preparations of Capsicum spp., E. obovalifolia, S. incanum and F. brachypoda were found to have 30-100 % killing effects. Subsequently, in vivo treatment trials of these preparations were conducted using indigenous Bos indicus cattle naturally infested with ticks. Results indicate that treatments at the rate of once per day for 5 consecutive days with the latexes of E. obovalifolia and F. brachypoda can reduce tick burdens by up to 70 % on cattle.

  15. HERBAL PRODUCT REALIZATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH WHO AND ISO GUIDELINES

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    S. J. Ameh et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO began the issuance of guidelines for developing standardized herbal preparations from Traditional Medicine (TM. Similarly in 1987, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO launched the most anticipated industrial standard (ISO 9001 in world history. The seventh (7th clause of ISO 9001’s eight clauses is devoted to “Product Realization”- a quality management system (QMS procedure that includes: planning of product realization; appreciation of customer-related processes; design and development processes; purchasing; production and service provision; and control of measuring and monitoring equipment. Purpose: The article takes a hard look at the QMS processes involved in product realization and the critical stages of the WHO model of herbal drug development from TM, with a view to devising a framework that can be used to promote the production of quality herbal products, commencing from the stage of ethnobotanical survey, through the laboratory, to the clinic.Methodology: Both the WHO model of herbal drug development and the 7th clause of ISO 9001:2008 were critically reviewed and combined to yield a framework that is discussed within the context of guiding herbal drug development from TM. Results and Discussion: The resulting WHO-ISO framework of herbal product realization is discussed in terms of its relevance to practical problems of GMP-production using herbal starting materials, given their innate variability in composition, potency and appearance. Conclusion: The provisions of ISO 9001’s seventh clause can, to a large extent, be applied to the production of quality herbal products developed in accordance with WHO.

  16. Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats

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    Shishira Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

  17. Occurrence of toxigenic fungi in herbal drugs Ocorrência de fungos toxigênicos em drogas vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bugno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the consumption of natural drugs have made their use a Public Health problem due to the possibility of access to products without adequate conditions of use. The concern with the quality of the natural products is due to the potential fungal contamination and the risk of the presence of mycotoxins. Ninety-one samples of medicinal plants were evaluated for the fungal contamination and the mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolated from the samples. Results indicated that predominant mycoflora was distributed in 10 genera. From these, 89.9% of the isolates corresponded to genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are extremely important from the mycotoxicological standpoint. 21.97% of the Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates proved to have the ability for producing aflatoxins (42.9%, ochratoxin A (22.4% and citrinine (34.7%. The presence of toxigenic moulds represents a potential risk of mycotoxin contamination and considering the worldwide increased use of herbal products as alternative medicines, it is necessary setting standards for toxigenic moulds in crude herbal drugs in order to reduce the risks for consumers' health.O aumento no consumo de produtos naturais transformou seu uso em um problema de Saúde Pública devido a possibilidade do acesso a produtos sem adequadas condições de uso. A preocupação com a qualidade dos produtos naturais é devida à potencialidade de contaminação por fungos e ao risco da presença de micotoxinas. Noventa e uma amostras de plantas medicinais foram avaliadas quanto à contaminação fungica e ao potencial micotoxigênico de Aspergillus e Penicillium isolados nestas amostras. Os resultados indicaram que a micoflora predominante esteve distribuída entre 10 gêneros. Entretanto, 89,9% dos isolados corresponderam aos gêneros Aspergillus e Penicillium, extremamente importantes do ponto de vista micotoxicológico. Verificou-se que 21,97% dos isolados de Aspergillus e

  18. Preparation of drug nanoparticles by emulsion evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Mai Hoa; Dang Mau Chien [Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 6 Community, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen Tai Chi; Nguyen Minh Triet; Le Ngoc Thanh Nhan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, 41 Dinh Tien Hoang, Ben Nghe Ward, 1 District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ltmhoa@vnuhcm.edu.vn

    2009-09-01

    Polymeric drug nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In this study, prepared the polymeric drug nanoparticles consist of ketoprofen and Eudragit E 100. The morphology structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interactions between the drug and polymer were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The size distribution was measured by means of Dynamic Light Scattering. The nanoparticles have an average size of about 150 nm. The incorporation ability of drugs in the polymeric nanoparticles depended on the integration between polymer and drug as well as the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

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    P. Skopiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect.

  1. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  2. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  3. Treatment of Functional Retrograde Ejaculation with Acupuncture and TCM Herbal Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖远辉

    2002-01-01

    @@ Acupuncture at the Taichong (LR 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Ciliao (BL 32) points combined with TCM drugs for soothing the liver, replenishing the kidney, freeing the seminal passage, and eliminating the stasis showed effective for functional retrograde ejaculation in 25 cases. The total effective rate of 68.0% was significantly better than imipramine used in the control group (P<0.05).

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYSIS METHODS OF COSMETICS WITH WATER EXTRACTS FROM HERBAL DRUGS RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chakhirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies on development of cosmetics with complex extracts from herb of Bidens, flowers of Calendula, and flowers of Matricaria. We cited the analysis methods of the received extract and a drug on its base

  5. In Vivo Study on the Pharmacological Interactions between a Chinese Herbal Formula ELP and Antiresorptive Drugs to Counteract Osteoporosis

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    Chun-Hay Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiresorptive drugs, alendronate and raloxifene, are effective in lowering bone mineral density (BMD loss in postmenopausal women. However, long-term treatment may be associated with serious side effects. Our research group has recently discovered that a Chinese herbal formula, ELP, could significantly reduce BMD loss in animal and human studies. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic bone-protective effects of different herb-drug combinations using ovariectomized rats. To assess the efficacy of different combinations, the total BMD was monitored biweekly in the 8-week course of daily oral treatment. Bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and deoxypyridinoline level were also determined after 8 weeks. From our results, coadministration of ELP and raloxifene increased the total tibial BMD by 5.26% (2.5 mg/kg/day of raloxifene; P=0.014 and 5.94% (0.25 mg/kg/day of raloxifene; P=0.026 when compared with the respective dosage groups with raloxifene alone. Similar synergistic effects were also observed in BMD increase at distal femur (0.25 mg/kg/day; P=0.001 and reduction in urinary deoxypyridinoline crosslink excretion (2.5 and 0.25 mg/kg/day; both P=0.02. However, such interactions could not be observed in all alendronate-treated groups. Our data provide first evidence that ELP could synergistically enhance the therapeutic effects of raloxifene, so that the clinical dosage of raloxifene could be reduced.

  6. SWEETLEAD: an in silico database of approved drugs, regulated chemicals, and herbal isolates for computer-aided drug discovery.

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    Paul A Novick

    Full Text Available In the face of drastically rising drug discovery costs, strategies promising to reduce development timelines and expenditures are being pursued. Computer-aided virtual screening and repurposing approved drugs are two such strategies that have shown recent success. Herein, we report the creation of a highly-curated in silico database of chemical structures representing approved drugs, chemical isolates from traditional medicinal herbs, and regulated chemicals, termed the SWEETLEAD database. The motivation for SWEETLEAD stems from the observance of conflicting information in publicly available chemical databases and the lack of a highly curated database of chemical structures for the globally approved drugs. A consensus building scheme surveying information from several publicly accessible databases was employed to identify the correct structure for each chemical. Resulting structures are filtered for the active pharmaceutical ingredient, standardized, and differing formulations of the same drug were combined in the final database. The publically available release of SWEETLEAD (https://simtk.org/home/sweetlead provides an important tool to enable the successful completion of computer-aided repurposing and drug discovery campaigns.

  7. Indian herbal pharmacovigilance: The untamed saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Madan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The acceptability of herbal formulations as therapeutic agents for numerous diseases has reached to its brim in the latest phytomedicine scenario. Since herbal medicinal products are complex mixtures from biological sources, regulations are necessary to guarantee the constant quality and quantity in order to break the unanimous myth related to herbal medicines consumption. Although the pharmacovigilance program in India has spread its roots in the field of medicines, amazingly there has been no benchmark regulations set up in the herbal segments. Aim: As per the latest regulatory scenario, the herbal drug regulation or herbal pharmacovigilance of India is lagging very much behind the highly regulated international herbal markets. The present article serves as a reminder of the fact that it is the high time for the Indian drug regulators to tame the herbal drug market since India has emerged as resourceful of enormous herbal medicines with full proof folk knowledge but is still lacking the specific legislative criteria to establish these herbal products as "medicine." Conclusion: This systemic herbal pharmacovigilance will definitely boost up not only the herbal market trend, but also the confidence about using of botanical medicines regarding their safe and rationale use within the ambit of pharmacotherapy.

  8. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multi-drug resistance (MDR of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.

  9. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Hyun Wook Cho; Hae-Ran Park; Uhee Jung; Sung-Kee Jo; Sung-Tae Yee

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured w...

  10. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Hyun Wook Cho; Hae-Ran Park; Uhee Jung; Sung-Kee Jo; Sung-Tae Yee

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured w...

  11. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC. The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.

  12. Preparation and application of functionalized nano drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudong Gong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Targeting at category memory characteristics and preparation methods of functionalized nano drugs, preparation technology of functionalized nano drug carriers is studied, and then important role of functionalized nano drug carrier in preparation of medicine is studied. Methods: Carry out the relevant literature search with computer, change limited language in the paper to Chinese and necessarily remove repetitive studies. Results: After first review of 1260 retrieved literature, it can be found that nano drug is with accurate quantity, relatively good targeting, specificity and absorbency. Necessary research of nano drug carriers can prevent and treat disease to a certain extent. Conclusion: Preparation of functionalized nanocarrier is simple and convenient, which can improve frequency of use of nano preparation technology and provide better development space for medical use. Therefore, nanocarriers should be combined with drugs with relatively strong specificity in clinics, in order to be able to conduct effective research on nanometer intelligent drug, effectively promote long-term development of nano biotechnology, and then provide favorable, reliable basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  13. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF SELECTED COLOURING HERBALS IN SAVARNIKARAN

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    Wadikar Sujata Surendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Clinical study on "Clinical Evaluation of Selected Colouring Herbals in Savarnikaran" was carried out at shalya tantra dept. of M.A.Podar Hospital, Worli, Mumbai 18. The prime aim of the study is to make available an effective, alternative colouring cosmetic preparations which will be useful in post burn, post acne and post wound colour morbidity.Ayurvedic herbal drugs are abundant, easily available and cost effective but their use is not observed in all forms. The trial drug is prepared in powder-paste, oil and ointment form. Further the efficacy of the different preparation is also evaluated separately. Cosmetic aspect of ayurvedic surgery is neglected, here we attempt to bring this aspect in routine practice.Total number of 40 patients were studied in this clinical study.Observations were documented through specially designed clinical record form and relevant conclusions were drawn.

  14. Artemisinins from folklore to modern medicine--transforming an herbal extract to life-saving drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weina, P J

    2008-06-01

    The history of the artemisinins from Ge Hong in China during the 4th century, to the re-discovery of the qing hao derivatives in the 1970s, to the explosion of artemisinin derivatives and combinations throughout the world today is a fascinating story. The central and underappreciated role of the United States Army's 'drug company' known as the Division of Experimental Therapeutics at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research is a story worth relating. From being the first group outside China to extract the active component of qing hao, to leading the work on neurotoxicity of the class in animals, to bringing a Good Manufacturing Practices intravenous formulation to the worldwide market is traced.

  15. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  16. 五种外用中药制剂对兔螨病的疗效比较%Comparison of Curative Effects of Five Chinese Herbal Preparations for Rabbit Acariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭德展; 肖秀娥; 刘毅

    2015-01-01

    T he treatment effectiveness of five Chinese Herbal preparation , Zanthoxylum preparation , Kushen decoction ,Chinaberry decoction ,Chajiesan and Mingxiongsan .to rabbit acariasis were observed and compared via direct contact with drugs to isolated adult mites in vitro or drugs used to mite affected part in rabbits ,in order to select the best one ,The results showed that acaricidal effect of pepper prepara‐tion was the best ,and the required time to cure was the shortest .%分别采用药物与离体螨虫成虫直接接触法和药物外用于螨病患部,比较了花椒制剂、苦参水煎剂、苦楝皮水煎剂、明雄散、擦疥散5种外用中药制剂的杀螨作用和对兔螨病的疗效。通过5种中药制剂杀螨作用和治疗效果观察,结果表明花椒制剂杀螨效果最好,治愈螨病所需时间最短。

  17. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G; Heiss, Elke H; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2013-10-07

    In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10µg/mL). Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. © 2013 The authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of contribution of individual constituents to antioxidant activity in herbal drugs using postcolumn HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Jakstas, Valdas; Burdulis, Deividas; Benetis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    The most important attention is paid to the search of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in medicinal and food raw materials of plant origin. A number of plants, their extracts, food products, and medicinal preparations appear to be the objects of scientific research. Effectiveness and informative character of research, undoubtedly, depend on relevance, sensitivity, and efficiency of the methods chosen. The aim of this work was to develop and validate the postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DPPH method as well as its application in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of known and unknown compounds scavenging free radicals and existing in medicinal plant raw materials. HPLC-separated compounds were identified at the wavelength of 275 nm, and then the mobile phase with analytes flowed through a mixing tee to the reaction coil, where DPPH reagent solution was supplied. The solution flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The reaction coil was connected with UV/VIS type detector, which measured absorption of flowing solution at the wavelength of 520 nm. It was determined that vitexin rhamnoside, the dominant compound in the leaves of Crataegus monogyna, was not a significant radical scavenger. The most active antioxidant in the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna was chlorogenic acid. The most active antioxidant in Origanum vulgare raw material was rosmarinic acid. Identified analytes in the extracts of Achillea millefolium that possessed radical-scavenging properties were chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, and luteolin.

  19. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.

  20. Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment.......Advances in preparation technologies for nanomedicines have provided novel formulations for pulmonary drug delivery. Application of drugs via the lungs can be considered as one of the most attractive implementations of nanoparticles for therapeutic use due to the unique anatomy and physiology...... of the lungs. The colloidal nature of nanoparticles provides important advantages to the formulation of drugs, which are normally difficult to administer due to poor stability or uptake, partly because nanoparticles protect the drug from the physiological milieu, facilitate transport across biological barriers...

  1. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kritika Kesarwani; Rajiv Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug...

  2. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kritika Kesarwani; Rajiv Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug...

  3. Preparation and Optimization of Nanoemulsions for targeting Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsions have appeared as a novel drug delivery system which allows sustained or controlled release of drug, biological active ingredient and genetic material. Nanoemulsion is a dispersion consisting of oil, surfactant and an aqueous phase, which is a isotropically clear and thermo-dynamically or kinetically stable liquid solution, usually with droplet diameter within the range of 10-500nm. Although interest in nano-emulsions was developed for more than two decades now, mainly for nanoparticle preparation, it is in the last few years that direct applications of nano-emulsions in consumer products are being developed, mainly in pharmacy and cosmetics. These recent applications have made that studies on optimization methods for nano-emulsion preparation be a requirement. The design of effective formulations for drugs has long been a major task, because drug efficacy can severely limited by instability or poor solubility in the vehicle. Nanoemulsion is being applied to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of water insoluble drugs. The nanosized droplets leading to an enormous increase in interfacial areas associated with nanoemulsion would influence the transport properties of the drug [1, 2]. Recently, there has been a considerable attraction for this formulation, for the delivery of hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drug as drug carriers because of its improved drug solubilization capacity, long shelf life, ease of preparation and improvement of bioavailability of drugs. This review is focused on the most recent literature on developments of nano-emulsions as final application products and on the optimization of their preparation.

  4. Does the taste matter? Taste and medicinal perceptions associated with five selected herbal drugs among three ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, Northern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieroni Andrea

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, diverse scholars have addressed the issue of the chemosensory perceptions associated with traditional medicines, nevertheless there is still a distinct lack of studies grounded in the social sciences and conducted from a cross-cultural, comparative perspective. In this urban ethnobotanical field study, 254 informants belonging to the Gujarati, Kashmiri and English ethnic groups and living in Western Yorkshire in Northern England were interviewed about the relationship between taste and medicinal perceptions of five herbal drugs, which were selected during a preliminary study. The herbal drugs included cinnamon (the dried bark of Cinnamomum verum, Lauraceae, mint (the leaves of Mentha spp., Lamiaceae, garlic (the bulbs of Allium sativum, Alliaceae, ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae, and cloves (the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae. The main cross-cultural differences in taste perceptions regarded the perception the perception of the spicy taste of ginger, garlic, and cinnamon, of the bitter taste of ginger, the sweet taste of mint, and of the sour taste of garlic. The part of the study of how the five selected herbal drugs are perceived medicinally showed that TK (Traditional Knowledge is widespread among Kashmiris, but not so prevalent among the Gujarati and especially the English samples. Among Kashmiris, ginger was frequently considered to be helpful for healing infections and muscular-skeletal and digestive disorders, mint was chosen for healing digestive and respiratory troubles, garlic for blood system disorders, and cinnamon was perceived to be efficacious for infectious diseases. Among the Gujarati and Kashmiri groups there was evidence of a strong link between the bitter and spicy tastes of ginger, garlic, cloves, and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal properties, whereas there was a far less obvious link between the sweet taste of mint and cinnamon and their

  5. Effects of drug serum of anti-fibrosis I herbal compound on calcium in hepatic stellate cell and its molecular mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hong Xiao; Dian-Wu Liu; Qing Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of anti-fibrosis I herbal compound on intracellular Ca2+ in activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) and to try to survey its molecular mechanism in treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension.METHODS: The activated HSC line was plated on small glass cover slips in 24 wells culture dishes at a density of 5x106/mL, and incubated in RPMI-1640 media for 24 h.After the cells were loaded with Fluo-3/AM, intracellular Ca2+ was measured with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The dynamic changes of intracellular Ca2+,stimulated by carbon tetrachloride, TGF-β1 antibody and the drug serum of anti-fibrosis I herbal compound and under orthogonal design were determined by LSCM. The effect of anti-fibrosis I herbal compound on intracellular Ca2+ was observed before and after the addition of TGF-β1antibody.RESULTS: The intracellular Ca2+ were significantly different in different dosage of carbon tetrachloride anti-fibrosis Iformula drug serum, TGF-β1 antibody and different turn of these substance, but their interval time between CCl4and TGF-β1 antibody, CCl4 and anti-fibrosis I drug serum had no influence on intracellular Ca2+. The result showed intracellular Ca2+ wasn't significantly different between rat serum without anti-fibrosis I and untreated group.After carbon tetrachloride stimulation, intracellular Ca2+ of activated HSC increased significantly when the dosage of CCl4 from 5 to 15 mmol/L, however, decreased significantly after stimulation by 5-20 μg/mL TGF-β1antibody or 5-20 mL/L drug serum. Moreover, before and after the addition of TGF-β1 antibody, intracellular Ca2+was significantly different. These results suggested that the molecular mechanism was independent of blocking TGF-β1 effects.CONCLUSION: Anti-fibrosis I herbal compound may treat hepatic fibrosis and decrease portal hypertension by inhibiting activated HSC contractility through decrease of intracellular Ca2+.

  6. Preparation of drug delivery systems using supercritical fluid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompella, U B; Koushik, K

    2001-01-01

    Small changes in temperature and pressure near the critical region induce dramatic changes in the density and solubility of supercritical fluids, thereby facilitating the use of environmentally benign agents such as CO2 for their solvent and antisolvent properties in processing a wide variety of materials. While supercritical fluid technologies have been in commercial use in the food and chromatography industries for several years, only recently has this technology made inroads in the formulation of drug delivery systems. This review summarizes some of the recent applications of supercritical fluid technology in the preparation of drug delivery systems. Drugs containing polymeric particles, plain drug particles, solute-containing liposomes, and inclusion complexes of drug and carrier have been formulated using this technology. Also, polymer separation using this technology is enabling the selection of a pure fraction of a polymer, thereby allowing a more precise control of drug release from polymeric delivery systems.

  7. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue, E-mail: lixue@imm.ac.cn; Hu, Jinping, E-mail: hujp@imm.ac.cn; Wang, Baolian, E-mail: wangbaolian@imm.ac.cn; Sheng, Li, E-mail: shengli@imm.ac.cn; Liu, Zhihao, E-mail: liuzhihao@imm.ac.cn; Yang, Shuang, E-mail: yangsh@imm.ac.cn; Li, Yan, E-mail: yanli@imm.ac.cn

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights: • Emodin, 18

  8. Improved nanoparticles preparation and drug release for liver targeted delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Weili

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nTargeted delivery of drugs and proteins to liver can be achieved via asialoglycoprotein receptor, which can recognize and combine the galactose- and N-acetygalatosamine-terminated glycoproteins. Glycosyl is usually conjugated with drugs directly to fabricate prodrugs or with nanoparticles encapsulated drugs via forming covalent bonds, while the covalent bonds may lead to some shortages for drug release. Therefore, we have a hypothesis that we can prepare nanoparticles for efficient targeting by glycosylation using galactosylated poly (L-glutamic acid (Gal-PLGA as a carrier to entrap the model drugs in nanoparticles core physically rather than forming covalent drug conjugation. The means of incorporation of drug in nanoparticles may improve drug release to maintain its activity, raise its therapeutic index and diminish the adverse effect. Based on previous researches, it is achievable to obtain nanoparticles that we hypothesize to prepare. Due to their nanometer-size and galactosyl, the nanoparticles may be a potential delivery system for passive and active targeting to liver parenchymal cells for therapy of hepatitis and liver cancer.

  9. Preparing community educational presentations on ergogenic drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetts, B J

    1989-10-01

    Advice on how to prepare educational presentations on the use of ergogenic drugs is provided. One way that pharmacists can contribute to the effort to curb the use of performance-enhancing drugs is by giving educational presentations in schools and other public forums and before groups of athletes, parents, teachers, healthcare professionals, and others. Public demand for information on the pharmacology and risks of ergogenic drug use, especially anabolic steroid use, has increased in the wake of the widely publicized disqualification of sprinter Ben Johnson at the 1988 Summer Olympics. When addressing adolescents, speakers must choose their words particularly carefully because these listeners tend to focus only on the possible benefits of the drugs in question, which may appeal not only to athletes but also to those seeking to improve their physical appearance. In addition, speakers must overcome a credibility gap created by early claims by medical experts that anabolic steroids are not effective in increasing muscle size and strength. Thorough preparation is the key to effective presentations. Reading of relevant materials is important, but speakers should also familiarize themselves with the practical details by talking with athletes, gym owners, and sports medicine personnel. The speaker must be prepared to answer pointed questions from sometimes skeptical audiences. By preparing effective, factual community presentations on ergogenic drug use, pharmacists can help to dispel the misinformation that leads many high school students to begin using these agents.

  10. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  11. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  12. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Kesarwani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal, and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  13. Preparation and Drug-release Behavior of β-TCP Ceramics Drug Carrier in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qihuan; YAN Xin; YAN Yuhua; DAI Honglian; JIANG Xin; LI Shipu

    2012-01-01

    β-TCP ceramics drug carrier was first prepared and characterized.SEM showed that β-TCP carrier was in porous amorphous structure with diameters around 10 μm.The physical properties including apparent porosity,volume-weight,tensile strength and the permeability were measured and the results indicated those properties fit the clinical usage of β-TCP drug carrier.Furthermore,drug release experiment in vitro showed that the carrier could prolong drug release in simulated body fluid which provides basis for the clinical use of β-TCP ceramics as drug carrier.

  14. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hua Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47–0.69 that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.

  15. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.

  16. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Shemamruthaa, a Herbal Preparation, in 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Breast Cancer Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Ayyakkannu; Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachidanandam, Thiruvaiyaru Panchanatham

    2015-10-01

    A herbal preparation, Shemamruthaa (SM), was formulated to investigate the molecular mechanism by which it exhibits anticancer effects in mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study, and mammary carcinoma was induced by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, intragastrically. After 3 months of induction period, the rats were treated with SM (400 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Our study shows that SM-treated mammary carcinoma rats showed regression in tumor volume with concomitant increase in p(53), Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 mRNA and protein levels compared with mammary carcinoma-induced rats. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were markedly increased in mammary carcinoma-induced rats, whereas the SM treatment significantly decreased the expression of these proteins. The expression pattern of apoptotic signaling molecules analyzed in the present study signifies the therapeutic efficacy of SM against breast cancer.

  17. Efficacy of Indigenous Herbal Preparation on Altered Milk pH, Somatic Cell Count and Electrolyte Profile in Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Kolte

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of three different locally prepared indigenous herbal paste were evaluated in subclinical 24 mastitic cows with reference to restoring altered milk pH, somatic cell count and milk electrolyte profile. The study revealed that all the treatment were found effective in restoring the altered milk constituents in subclinical mastitis with increased in the milk production. T3 (oots of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, Asparagus reacemosus (Shatavari, Curcuma-amada (Ambe Haldi and fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi in equal quantities was found more effective than T5 ( T3 and T4 in combination in equal quantities and T4 (fresh roots of Glycerrhiza glabra (Jeshathamadh, Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi, leaves of Riccinus communis (Yerand, bark of Ficus racemosa (Umber and rhizome of Curcuma longa (Haldi in equal quantities [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 239-240

  18. Utilização de fitoterápicos por idosos: resultados de um inquérito domiciliar em Belo Horizonte (MG, Brasil Herbal drug use by elderly people: results from a domiciliary survey in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianno D. P. Marliére

    2008-12-01

    Social (INSS database for in-home interview. The prevalence of herbal drugs use, and possible drug interactions were investigated. Results showed that 667 (80.3% of selected individuals were interviewed. Seventy-one subjects (10.6% used herbal drugs in the past 15 days, mainly those prepared from ginkgo (41.8%, horse chestnut (12.3%, and soya extract (8.2%. More than 60% of the herbal drugs were acquired in compounding pharmacies. Almost 45% of the herbal drug users were exposed to at least one potential herb-drug interaction, such as between ginkgo and thiazide diuretics (14 and antithrombotic/anticoagulants (8. Strategies to provide orientation for the rational use of these products in elderly people are necessary, since they are the population most exposed to polypharmacy and in consequence, most vulnerable to inappropriate uses of medications.

  19. Efficacy of a standardized herbal preparation (Roidosanal® in the treatment of hemorrhoids: A randomized, controlled, open-label multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Aggrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catechins and epicatechins are monomers of naturally occurring proanthocyanidins, which have been reported with free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory properties. Plant parts rich in proanthocyanidins have been used for years in treatment of various ano-rectal diseases. This study compares the efficacy of two herbal preparations, Daflon® 500 mg and Roidosanal® , in ameliorating the signs and symptoms associated with hemorrhoids. Objective: To evaluate the safety and to compare the efficacy of a herbal preparation, Roidosanal® versus Daflon® 500 mg, on signs and symptoms of hemorrhoidal disease. Materials and Methods: In this pilot, active controlled, open-labeled multicentre study, 73 patients with proctoscopy proven hemorrhoids (Grade I to III were randomly assigned to receive either Roidosanal® (Gr R; n = 37 or Daflon® 500 mg (Gr D; n = 36, for 15 days, at three centers in India. Assessment of hemorrhoidal symptoms was carried out in all patients at different time points. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed for both primary and secondary endpoints. Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Both products were found to be equally effective in improving the ano-rectal conditions in Grade I and Grade II hemorrhoids; however, Roidosanal® demonstrated better efficacy in patients with Grade III hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids associated symptoms like bleeding, pain, etc., improved in both groups, although intergroup comparisons were comparable. Conclusion: Both Roidosanal® and Daflon® 500 mg were equally effective in resolving signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids. Roidosanal® can be tried as a safe and effective treatment option for treatment of hemorrhoids. Further randomized, double-blind and large multicentre studies are recommended.

  20. Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Advances in preparation technologies for nanomedicines have provided novel formulations for pulmonary drug delivery. Application of drugs via the lungs can be considered as one of the most attractive implementations of nanoparticles for therapeutic use due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the lungs. The colloidal nature of nanoparticles provides important advantages to the formulation of drugs, which are normally difficult to administer due to poor stability or uptake, partly because nanoparticles protect the drug from the physiological milieu, facilitate transport across biological barriers and can offer controlled drug release. There are numerous methods for producing therapeutic nanoparticles, each with their own advantages and suitable application. Liquid atomization techniques such as spray drying can produce nanoparticle formulations in a dry powder form suitable for pulmonary administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment.

  1. Treatment of drug dependence with Brazilian herbal medicines Tratamento da dependência de drogas com plantas medicinais brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaldo A. Carlini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic "Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Addictions" in a country must be preceded by answers to four questions: 1. Does the country in question possess a biodiversity rich enough to allow the discovery of useful medicines? 2. Do local people have tradition and culture to look for and use resources from Nature to alleviate and cure diseases, including drug dependence? 3. Is drug dependence (or addiction present in the country in question? 4. Do people of that country recognize and diagnose such problem as a serious one? Alcohol is, by far, the most serious health problem when drug abuse is considered, reaching all of Brazilian society, including the Indians. On the contrary, other drugs may be considered as minor problems and they are not the main focus of this manuscript. The people living in Brazilian hinterland don’t have access to public health systems. Consequently, these people seek assistance from "curandeiros" and "raizeiros"; the Indians are assisted by the shaman. These "folk doctors" do not know the academic medicine and therapeutics, and resort to the local plants to treat different ailments of their patients. Furthermore, alcohol abuse and dependence are not recognized by them, according to the rules and criteria of academic medicine. We have conducted a survey in many Brazilian books, Thesis concerning phytotherapy, and several databank. The results of such searches were very disappointing. No published papers from Brazilian authors concerning the use of plants for the treatment of addictions were found in the databases and there were only three very short notes in the masterly book written by Shultes and Raffauf (1990. From the Brazilian books on folk medicine employing medicinal plants, ten mentions were disclosed: most of them dealing with treatment of alcohol problems and two to counteract "Ayahuasca" dependence.O tema "Plantas medicinais no tratamento de dependência" em um país deve ser precedido pela resposta a

  2. Effects of H2O2, paraquat, and ethephon on herbal drug quality of Schiandra chinensis based on reactive oxygen species system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiang-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, more and more herbal drugs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM rely on cultivation rather than natural resources because of overexploitation, and the study on quality of cultivated herbal medicines has become a hotspot in the research field of ecology of TCM resources. Though some of molecular biology techniques could improve the contents of secondary metabolites, those chemical compositions may differ from what we require from natural products, resulting in different treatment efficacy. Objective: To explore ways and means of improving TCM quality by means of regulating secondary metabolism from the perspective of natural physiological ecology. Materials and Methods: H 2 O 2 and paraquat as carriers of ROS, propyl gallate as a ROS scavenger, and ethephon as a ROS inductive agent were sprayed on Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. Results: The hypo-concentration ROS could enhance the activities of POD, PPO, as well as CAT, and propyl gallate acted on the opposite side, but they all failed to break the homeostasis between ROS and oxidase activity and to exert any effect on the contents of the schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin, and schisandrin B. The hypso-concentration ROS could break the homeostasis, reduce the activities of POD, PPO, as well as CAT, and improve the quality of S. chinensis fruit. The ethephon could effectively improve the quality of S. chinensis without the limitation of metabolic regulation. Conclusion: The conclusions accord with the hypothesis that ROS regulates secondary metabolism.

  3. Drug release characterization and preparation of Ca-Alginate microparticle drug carrier using membrane emulsification method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Jin Oh; Park, Seong Bae; Park, Ham Yong; Haam, Seung Joo; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Conventional alginate bead has been limited to be used as a drug carrier because of its large size. To overcome the disadvantages of conventional large-size alginate drug beads, Ca-alginate microparticles were prepared using membrane emulsification method controlled with the sodium alginate concentration and the pressure of reactor. The optimal monodispersed microparticles were obtained with the concentration of 2 wt % alginate solution and the pressure of 0.4*10{sup 5} Pa. The mean size of our prepared microparticles was about 4 {gamma}m. As the drug solutions, lidocaine{center_dot}HCI(cationic), sodium salicylate(anionic) and 4-acetamidophenol(nonionic) were selected. These three different drugs were loaded in the drug carrier of prepared alginate microparticles. Drug releases were performed in the sodium phosphate buffers of pH 2 and pH 7 and ionic strength of 0.2. The release behavior with the variation of drug charge shoed that of the cationic drug release was retarded more than anionic one due to the ionic interaction between carboxyl group of alginates and positive charge of cationic drug. >From the comparison experiments of the buffers of pH 2 and pH 7, the release was much retarded at pH 2 buffer due to the ionic repulsive force or ionic attractive force between the carboxyl group and the hydroxy or sodium ion in the buffer. Conclusively, the usage of small-size pH sensitive microparticle as a drug carrier has a high potential for the application of drug delivery systems. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  4. 中药复方对家禽病毒性疾病的治疗效果%Therapeutic Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Compound Preparation on Viral Diseases in Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群; 朱子凤; 江平康; 周李

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从传统中草药及其复方中开发高效、长效、广谱、低毒、价廉的抗病毒新药.[方法]以祛邪药白花蛇舌草、金银花和扶正药黄芪、甘草等组成抗病毒复方制剂,用于鸡新城疫(ND)、鸡传染性法氏囊病(IBD)、鸭病毒性肝炎(DVH)、H9亚型禽流感(AI)和禽肿头综合征等疾病自然发病家禽的治疗.同时,以单体黄芪多糖饲喂家禽作为对照.[结果]中药复方制剂对ND、IBD、DVH、AI和禽肿头综合征治疗的有效率分别为87%、87%、69%、100%、100%,均高于黄芪多糖;其痊愈率分别为33%、37%、13%、69%、75%,均显著高于黄芪多糖(P<0.01):其治疗效果较差的病例百分比分别为15%、21%、24%、6%、7%,均显著低于黄芪多糖(P<0.01).[结论]中药复方对某些家禽病毒性疾病的治疗效果较好,在降低死亡率和促进生产性能方面优于单体黄芪多糖.%[Objective] To develop a new antiviral agent with high and long efficacy, wide spectrum, low toxicity and low cost from traditional Chinese herbal medicine and their compound. [ Method] The “Quxie” (i.e. , eliminating pathogenic factors) drugs including Hedyotis diffusa and Lonicera japonica and “Fuzheng” (i.e. , strengthening body resistance) drugs including Radix astragali and Glycyrrhiza uralensis were taken to form an antiviral herbal compound preparation. Taking the astragalus polysaccharide monomer as control, the experiment was constructed by using the agent to treat some naturally occurring viral diseases, including Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), duck viral hepatitis (DVH), avian influenza (AI) H9 subtype and avian swollen head syndrome. [ Result ] The effective rates of the agent for treatment of the above-mentioned diseases were 87%,87%,69%,100% and 100%, respectively, which were higher than that of astragalus polysaccharide monomer. The cure rates for these diseases were 33%,37%,13%,69% and 75

  5. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs One of the most famous journals about Chinese herbal medicines in China.The journal started publication monthly since January 1970,is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research.The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of

  6. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects.

  7. The Preparation and Application of Chinese Herbal Anti-Acne Cream%中药祛痘膏的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立琼; 张榕文; 万玉华; 吴志强; 任杰麟

    2014-01-01

    A Chinese herbal anti-acne cream was prepared to treat acne. The process for preparing this cream was investiga-ted,its quality standard was established,and the efficacy of the cream was observed by a clinical test. The result showed it was simple to produce and a curative effect with stable quality was also observed. The total effective rate was up to 91% in the clini-cal test with a group of 100 patients,which was better than the result of 80% from control group of 50 patients (P<0.05).%研制了一种以中药组方作为祛痘功效成分的祛痘膏,用于治疗痤疮。确定了祛痘膏的制备工艺和质量标准,同时抽选门诊患者进行治疗,观察临床疗效。结果证实,所得制剂制备工艺简单,性质稳定,疗效确切。治疗组100例,总有效率91%,对照组50例,总有效率80%,治疗组疗效优于对照组(P <0.05)。

  8. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-02-19

    HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HemoHIM on the functional and phenotypic maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC I, and MHC II) and the production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, and TNF-α) were increased by HemoHIM in BMDCs. Furthermore, the antigen-uptake ability of BMDCs was decreased by HemoHIM, and the antigen-presenting ability of HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increased TLR4-dependent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Our findings demonstrated that HemoHIM induces TLR4-mediated BMDCs functional and phenotypic maturation through in vivo and in vitro. And our study showed the antigen-presenting ability that HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increase CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses by in vitro. These results suggest that HemoHIM has the potential to mediate DC immune responses.

  9. Kampo medicine: Evaluation of the pharmacological activity of 121 herbal drugs on GABA(A and 5 HT3A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin M Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and its constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, we performed a broad screening of Kampo remedies to look for pharmacologically relevant 5 HT3A and GABA(A receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness or insomnia. Therefore, we analyzed the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5 HT3A and GABA(A receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix and Leonurus japonicus (herba were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5 HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5 HT3A receptor antagonist. We also identified several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex, Syzygium aromaticum (flos and Panax ginseng (radix for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects, for instance Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications.

  10. Analgesic effect and mechanism of the three TCM-herbal drug-combination Tou Feng Yu pill on treatment of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-chuan; Shen, Xiao-fei; Meng, Xian-li; Zhang, Yi; Lai, Xian-rong

    2011-06-15

    It is well known that pain is one of the most important characteristics of migraine. Therefore, it is important and interesting to investigate the analgesic effect and mechanism of drugs which are used to treat migraine. Tou Feng Yu pill (TFY) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, consisting of the three Chinese herbal drugs Radix Angelicae dahuricae (Baizhi), Rhizome Ligustici (Chuanxiong) and Folium Camelliae sinensis (green tea) for the treatment of migraine. In this study, we found that TFY could significantly reduce the writhing times induced by acetic acid and licking foot response induced by formalin, and extend the writhing latent period. But the analgesic effect was not observed at hot-plate test. Meanwhile, experimental migrainous model induced by nitroglycerin was used to investigate the therapeutic effect of TFY. Compared with the control group, the levels of plasma calcitonin gene related to peptide (CGRP), serum nitric oxide (NO) and contents of brain dopamine (DA) in TFY administration groups were significantly decreased, and the levels of plasma endothelin (ET) and contents of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) were remarkably increased, also the ratio of ET/NO was clearly corrected. Furthermore, the improving effect of behavior abnormality was observed in TFY administration rats. Meanwhile, isolated vascular ring test indicated that TFY had an significant effect on vasomotion, and antagonize vasospasm; moreover TFY also could increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduce cerebrovascular resistance index (RI) in normal rabbits, which verified the effect of TFY on vasomotion and abnormal hemorheology. All the results indicate that TFY has an effective therapeutical action on migraine, which may be related to three aspects as following: firstly, adjusting the level of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and vasoactive substances, relieving neurogenic inflammation; secondly, improving vasomotion, increase cerebral blood flow

  11. A facile drug delivery system preparation through the interaction between drug and iron ion of transferrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Liu, Jihua [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM (China); Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong, E-mail: zhoujiahong@njnu.edu.cn [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Yu, Boyang, E-mail: boyangyu59@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM (China); Shen, Jian [Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory Biofunctional Materials, Key Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2013-09-15

    Many anticancer drugs have the capability to form stable complex with metal ions. Based on such property, a simple method to combine these drugs with transferrin, through the interaction between drug and Fe ion of transferrin, to improve their anticancer activity, is proposed. To demonstrate this technique, the complex of photosensitive anticancer drug hypocrellin A and transferrin was prepared by such facile method. The results indicated that the complex of hypocrellin A and transferrin can stabilize in aqueous solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated the superior cancer cell uptake ability of hypocrellin A-transferrin complex to the free hypocrellin A. Significant damage to such drug-impregnated tumor cells was observed upon irradiation and the cancer cells killing ability of hypocrellin A-transferrin was stronger than the free hypocrellin A within a certain range of concentrations. The above results demonstrated the validity and potential of our proposed strategy to prepare the drug delivery system of this type of anti-cancer drugs and transferrin.

  12. Alternating current electrospinning for preparation of fibrous drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Attila; Cselkó, Richárd; Démuth, Balázs; Verreck, Geert; Mensch, Jürgen; Marosi, György; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf

    2015-11-10

    Alternating current electrospinning (ACES) was compared to direct current electrospinning (DCES) for the preparation of drug-loaded nanofibrous mats. It is generally considered that DCES is the solely technique to produce nanofibers using the electrostatic force from polymer solutions, however, less studied and also capable ACES provides further advantages such as increased specific productivities. A poorly water-soluble drug (carvedilol) was incorporated into the fibers based on three different polymeric matrices (an acid-soluble terpolymer (Eudragit(®) E), a base-soluble copolymer (Eudragit(®) L 100-55) and a nonionic homopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone K90)) to improve the dissolution of the weak base drug under different pH conditions. Morphology and fiber diameter evaluation showed similar electrospun fibers regardless the type of the high voltage and the major differences in feeding rates. The amorphous ACES and DCES fibers provided fast and total drug dissolutions in all cases. The presented results show that ACES can be a more feasible novel alternative to formulate fibers for drug delivery purposes.

  13. Dialdehyde starch nanoparticles: Preparation and application in drug carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dialdehyde starch nanoparticles (DASNP) were prepared by the redox reaction of NaIO4 and starch in water-in-oil microemulsion. IR spectrum showed that DASNP had aldehyde groups, and quantitative alkali consumption showed that its dialdehyde content was about (50±5)%. The average diameter of DASNP determined by SEM was about 100 nm. TGA-DTA showed that its thermal stability was better than starch nanoparticle (StNP) and dialdehyde starch (DAS). Its low biological toxicity was detected by cell experiment. Also the best mass ratio of doxorubicin (DOX) to combined DASNP detected by UV-VIS was 15 : 1, and the product was effective for controlled release of DOX. The cell experiment showed that the drug-carrier particle (DOX-DASNP) can release DOX for a long time and strengthened the effect of the anticancer drug. This work demonstrates that the DASNP, which has good thermal stability, small particle size, low biological toxicity, and slowly anticancer drug-releasing to strengthen drug effect, is a potentially useful carrier for anticancer drug.

  14. Microencapsulation of protein drugs for drug delivery: strategy, preparation, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guanghui

    2014-11-10

    Bio-degradable poly(lactide) (PLA)/poly(lactide-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan microspheres (or microcapsules) have important applications in Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) of protein/peptide drugs. By encapsulating protein/peptide drugs in the microspheres, the serum drug concentration can be maintained at a higher constant value for a prolonged time, or injection formulation can be changed to orally or mucosally administered formulation. PLA/PLGA and chitosan are most often used in injection formulation and oral formulation. However, in the preparation and applications of PLA/PLGA and chitosan microspheres containing protein/peptide drugs, the problems of broad size distribution and poor reproducibility of microspheres, and deactivation of protein during the preparation, storage and release, are still big challenges. In this article, the techniques for control of the diameter of microspheres and microcapsules will be introduced at first, then the strategies about how to maintain the bioactivity of protein drugs during preparation and drug release will be reviewed and developed in our research group. The membrane emulsification techniques including direct membrane emulsification and rapid membrane emulsification processes were developed to prepare uniform-sized microspheres, the diameter of microspheres can be controlled from submicron to 100μm by these two processes, and the reproducibility of products can be guaranteed. Furthermore, compared with conventional stirring method, the big advantages of membrane emulsification process were that the uniform microspheres with much higher encapsulation efficiency can be obtained, and the release behavior can be adjusted by selecting microsphere size. Mild membrane emulsification condition also can prevent the deactivation of proteins, which frequently occurred under high shear force in mechanical stirring, sonification, and homogenization methods. The strategies for maintaining the bioactivity of protein drug were

  15. Latest Progress in Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State

  16. 21 CFR 201.310 - Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man. 201.310 Section 201.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.310...

  17. Comparative efficacy of herbal essences with amphotricin B and ketoconazole on Candida albicans in the in vitro condition

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Gavanji; Sayed R. Zaker; Zahra G. Nejad; Azizollah Bakhtari; Elham S. Bidabadi; Behrouz Larki

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Candida species are the most important factors of fungal infections in humans and animals. It is necessary to prepare antifungal or antimicrobial drugs because of increasing drug resistance. The natural treatment of diseases of bacterial origin using medicinal plants is important. In this study the effect of antimicrobial medicinal herbal essential oils and conventional antifungal drugs were evaluated on Candida albicans in vitro. Methods: Disc diffusion assay and the micro...

  18. Drug silica nanocomposite: preparation, characterization and skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, Martina; Ennas, Guido; Casu, Mariano; Fadda, Anna Maria; Frongia, Francesca; Marongiu, Francesca; Sanna, Roberta; Scano, Alessandra; Valenti, Donatella; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate silica nanocomposites as topical drug delivery systems for the model drug, caffeine. Preparation, characterization, and skin permeation properties of caffeine-silica nanocomposites are described. Caffeine was loaded into the nanocomposites by grinding the drug with mesoporous silica in a ball mill up to 10 h and the efficiency of the process was studied by XRPD. Formulations were characterized by several methods that include FTIR, XRPD, SEM and TEM. The successful loading of caffeine was demonstrated by XRPD and FTIR. Morphology was studied by SEM that showed particle size reduction while TEM demonstrated formation of both core-shell and multilayered caffeine-silica structures. Solid-state NMR spectra excluded chemical interactions between caffeine and silica matrix, thus confirming that no solid state reactions occurred during the grinding process. Influence of drug inclusion in silica nanocomposite on the in vitro caffeine diffusion into and through the skin was investigated in comparison with a caffeine gel formulation (reference), using newborn pig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells. Results from the in vitro skin permeation experiments showed that inclusion into the nanocomposite reduced and delayed caffeine permeation from the silica nanocomposite in comparison with the reference, independently from the amount of the tested formulation.

  19. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  20. Simultaneous analysis of six aristolochic acids and five aristolactams in herbal plants and their preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinbin; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Weifeng; Ding, Li; Tang, Fei; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2008-02-22

    Aristolochic acid analogues, including aristolochic acids (AAs) and aristolactams (ALs), are known to be nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. In this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six AAs together with five ALs. Baseline separation was obtained on an ODS C18 analytical column with 0.2% HAc/methanol gradient elution. The hyphenation of DAD and FLD allows the method to directly meet the analysis requirements of most herbal plants with high sensitivity and selectivity. For trace analysis, aristolochic acids were reduced to their corresponding aritstolactams in acidic solution containing iron powder, and then high sensitive detection and quantification were carried out. The method was successfully validated in the matrices of various Aristolochiaceae plants and their preparations. Linearities of around 3-4 orders of magnitude were obtained with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9970. The detection limits were decreased to 0.2ng/ml. Satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precisions were achieved with RSDs less than 5.74%, and the average recovery factors were in the range of 94.5-99.2%.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C.

  2. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  3. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA. In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+ cell as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+ cell differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight pretreatment (4 weeks. These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  4. The healing effects of herbal preparations from Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica in full-thickness wound models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Babaei

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Topical ointments prepared from the extracts of U. dioica and S. ebulus and their combination possess strong wound healing properties. It is postulated that a synergistic effect may exist between the two extracts since the combination 2% showed better results than the sole extracts.

  5. Pharmacovigilance of herbal products in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, Ak

    2011-07-01

    Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines.

  6. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  7. Development of polymeric nanoparticles with highly entrapped herbal hydrophilic drug using nanoprecipitation technique: an approach of quality by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; Mishra, Amit; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study is to achieve higher entrapment efficiency (EE) of berberine chloride (selected hydrophilic drug) using nanoprecipitation technique. The solubility of drug was studied in various pH buffers (1.2-7.2) for selection of aqueous phase and stabilizer. Quality by design (QbD)-based 3(2) factorial design were employed for optimization of formulation variables; drug to polymer ratio (X1) and surfactant concentration (X2) on entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size (PS) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were subjected to solid state analysis, in vitro drug release and stability study. The aqueous phase and stabilizer selected for the formulations were pH 4.5 phthalate buffer and surfactant F-68, respectively. The formulation (F-6) containing drug to polymer ratio (1:3) and stabilizer (F-68) concentration of 50 mM exhibited best EE (82.12%), PS (196.71 nm), PDI (0.153). The various solid state characterizations assured that entrapped drug is amorphous and nanoparticles are fairly spherical in shape. In vitro drug release of the F-6 exhibited sustained release with non-Fickian diffusion and stable at storage condition. This work illustrates that the proper selection of aqueous phase and optimization of formulation variables could be helpful in improving the EE of hydrophilic drugs by nanoprecipitation technique.

  8. Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyad Davidson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task.

  9. Interactions between modern and Chinese medicinal drugs: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K F; Leung, K S; Leung, P C

    2003-01-01

    While the use of health food and over-the-counter drugs for health promotion and adjuvant therapy is becoming increasingly popular, the concern about adverse effects is mounting. The possible adverse effects that may arise from drug interactions between these herbal preparations and standard modem therapy are equally worrying. Herbal toxicity and adverse effects are well documented in classical Chinese medicinal volumes. Interactions between herbal preparations and standard modem therapy are known. Extensive work needs to be done before useful guidelines can be established. However, based on available reports and clinical observations, some commonly used herbs and Chinese medicines have already demonstrated the need for special attention when used together with modern therapy. This paper analyzes the important material already available, and would serve as a preliminary checklist for patients who are taking herbal preparations, while at the same time receiving treatment from modern medicine.

  10. Evaluation of Antitumor, Immunomodulatory and Free Radical Scavenging Effects of A New Herbal Prescription Seaweed Complex Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHAO Changlun; KONG Wenwen; FANG Yuchun; WANG Changyun

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs,and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer,liver cancer and digestive cancer.However,little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis.The antitumor,immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study.Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect.The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively.The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated.It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22,and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages.SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals.The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals,which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  11. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  12. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far.

  13. Performance comparison of two herbal and industrial medicines using nanoparticles with a starch/cellulose shell and alginate core for drug delivery: In vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Behzadi, Sahar

    2017-07-18

    In this study, the performance of two kinds of industrial and herbal drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles with a shell of starch and cellulose and an alginate core were examined as a new technique for nanoparticle drug delivery. The test method involved creating a suspension of starch and alginate, which was then dried, mixed with cellulose, and heated to form core-shell nanoparticles. The industrial drug calcitonin and an extract of the herb Amaranthus retroflexcus L. were added separately and in combination to the nanoparticles, and the performance of each configuration was evaluated. Variables like shape, size of nanoparticle, and pH were examined for their effect in vitro. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization of parameters. The properties of the nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The most optimal conditions for formation of the smallest nanoparticles were found to be pH 4 with a concentration of 0.15g starch, 0.04g alginate, and 0.01g cellulose, which resulted in a spherical nanoparticle size of 25.6-68.7nm. This novel method for helping bone regeneration offers a potentially major advance in the medical treatment of osteoporosis. The results of optimization indicated that the most optimal conditions of the tests were performed at pH 4, CA=0.04, CS=0.21, and CC=0.01. In acidic pH the size of nanoparticles was less than 100nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of herbal medicines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Cecília Bezerra; Ramalho, Lívia Santos; Marques, Robelma France de Oliveira; Perfeito, João Paulo Silvério

    2014-12-02

    Rich Brazilian biodiversity is accompanied by a long acceptance of medicinal plants and traditional knowledge by the Brazilian population. To improve the regulatory framework for herbal medicines in Brazil, ANVISA recently revised its legislations. The aim of this study is to discuss the new Brazilian standards for herbal medicines regulation. The national and international legislation on herbal medicines was revised to prepare new Brazilian standards. This new legislation is discussed. This new proposed regulation separates herbal into two categories: herbal medicines (HM) and traditional herbal product (THP). The safety and efficacy of HM must be proven by clinical data. ANVISA recognizes some plants as safe and effective; therefore, the registration of these species can be simplified. ANVISA also recognizes the monographs of the European community as simplified registrations. THP can prove their safety and effectiveness by tradition of use or following a simplified registration. Brazil has been altering their legal standards for herbal medicines, based on harmonization with internationally practiced requirements and the characteristics of the Brazilian market, facilitating the safe access and rational use of medicinal plants and herbal products to Brazilian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, multienzyme, prebiotic, probiotic, and herbal essential oil mixture in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Aysul, N; Küçükyilmaz, K; Aypak, S; Ege, G; Catli, A U; Aksit, H; Cöven, F; Seyrek, K; Cinar, M

    2014-02-01

    The efficacies of 5 widely used dietary supplements were investigated on performance indices, fecal oocyst excretion, lesion score, and intestinal tract measurements in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected birds by using a comparative model. This study included 2,400 sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks that were equally divided in 2 groups: the infected group, experimentally infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. at 14 d of age, and the healthy controls. The birds in both groups were further divided equally into 6 groups, of which one was fed a basal diet and served as control without treatment and the other 5 served as experimental treatments. These 5 groups were fed 5 diets containing preparations of 60 mg/kg of anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL), 1 g/kg of multienzyme (ENZ), 1 g/kg of probiotic (PRO), 1 g/kg of prebiotic (PRE), and 40 mg/kg of an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM). Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant improvement in the infected animals, which indicates that dietary supplemental regimens with SAL, ENZ, PRO, and PRE initiated in 1-d-old chicks reduced adverse effects after challenge with coccidiosis; however, chicks that were administered EOM failed to show such improvement. Uninfected chickens showed significant improvement in FCR with supplements SAL, PRE, and EOM, which signifies significant (P small intestines, whereas supplementation with SAL or EOM alone was effective (P excretion compared with the control treatment. The data indicated that use of these subtherapeutically efficacious supplements (except EOM) in broiler production can lessen the depression in growth due to coccidial challenge.

  16. Chinese Herbal Preparation Xuebijing Potently Inhibits Inflammasome Activation in Hepatocytes and Ameliorates Mouse Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqiang Liu

    Full Text Available The Chinese herb preparation Xuebijing injection (XBJ has been widely used in the management of various septic disorders or inflammation-related conditions, however the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect remains largely elusive. In the current study, we found that XBJ treatment potently ameliorated mouse hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury, manifested as decreased liver function tests (LDH, ALT, AST, improved inflammation and less hepatocyte apoptosis. Notably, XBJ markedly inhibited inflammasome activation and IL-1 production in mouse livers subjected to IRI, even in the absence of Kupffer cells, suggesting Kupffer cells are not necessary for hepatic inflammasome activation upon Redox-induced sterile inflammation. This finding led us to investigate the role of XBJ on hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammasome activation using an in vitro hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-triggered hepatocyte injury model. Our data clearly demonstrated that XBJ potently inhibited apoptosis, as well as caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β production in a time- and dose-dependent manner in isolated hepatocytes, suggesting that in addition to its known modulatory effect on NF-κB-dependent inflammatory gene expression, it also has a direct impact on hepatocyte inflammasome activation. The current study not only deepens our understanding of how XBJ ameliorates inflammation and apoptosis, but also has immediate practical significance in many clinical situations such as partial hepatectomy, liver transplantation, etc.

  17. Mesoporous hydroxyapatite: Preparation, drug adsorption, and release properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zhenyuwuhn@sina.com

    2014-11-14

    Mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized through gas–liquid chemical precipitation method at ambient temperature without any template. Structure, morphology and pore size distribution of HA were analyzed via X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug adsorption and release behavior of HA. The kinetics of DOX adsorption on HA followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms at various temperatures were obtained, and the equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy changes) demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. In vitro pH-responsive (pH = 7.4, 5.8) controlled release was investigated. DOX-loaded HA showed a slow, long-term, and steady release rate. The release rate at pH5.8 was larger than that at pH7.4. Consequently, the as-prepared mesoporous HA has potential applications in controlled drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • Mesoporous HA was synthesized by a simple precipitation method without any template. • The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. • Thermodynamics investigation showed that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. • DOX-loaded HA showed a long-term, steady, and pH-controlled release rate.

  18. Optimized and comparative antioxidant assays and its applications in herbal and synthetic drug analysis as an antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Khobragade, C N; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Drug development in the recent times often relies on use of natural and synthetic drugs that are promising candidates as therapeutic agents for prevention of diseases and disorders. They possess different chemical structures with wide range of therapeutic activities. Many natural and synthetic drugs act as antioxidant agents in various metabolic processes. Increasing epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have shown that intake of antioxidants drugs provide protection against various disorders and diseases related to oxidative stress. The factors responsible for this oxidative stress are mainly free radicals, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant drugs act as free radical scavenging, reducing and metal chelating substances; Antioxidants also show inhibition of various metabolic enzymes and factors responsible for inflammation. The present paper reviews different In vitro assays for determination of antioxidant activities (Table 1). The basic assays include DDPH assay, OH Scavenging assay, Reducing activity assay, TEAC assay, FCR assay, PRTC assay, ABTS assay, FRAP assay, ORAC assay, Ferric thiocynate assay, TRAP assay, Chemiluminescence assay, NBT assay, CUPRAC Assay.

  19. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates.

  20. Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohanty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Galactogogues elicit pharmacological effects, resulting in increased prolactin concentration through interactions with dopamine receptors and thereby augmenting milk supply. Commercially available synthetic drugs induce adverse effect on the neuro-endocrine axis of lactation physiology. Their prolonged uses have caused toxicity which opens a detrimental platform to normal health status of both human and animals. So the researchers have developed a keen interest in traditional herbs, because these are easily available, cheap and with a hope that they may not leave any toxic residues in milk. Phyto-pharmacological research on natural products can contribute for the discovery of new active compounds with novel structures which may serve as a lead for the development of new galactogogues. Although majority of these herbal preparations have not been evaluated their traditional use suggests that they are safe and effective. The purpose of this review paper was to succinctly review recent progress made in the field of commercially available and tranditional galactogogues.

  1. Analysis of the adverse drug reaction of the Chinese herbal%活血化瘀中药的不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白宇明; 魏国义

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析活血化瘀中药的不良反应发生情况,促进临床合理用药.方法 通过以中药“不良反应”为关键词,检索CHKD期刊全文数据中1998-2011年国内所有文献,查阅中药致不良反应文献的原文,并进行分析.结果 15种常用活血化瘀基本中药引起的12类不良反应及药源性疾病共计203例,其中累及系统主要为泌尿系统62例,呼吸系统47例,皮肤症状27例,急性中毒13例和循环系统12例.引起不良反应较多的药物为斑蝥(6种)、水蛭、丹参、马钱子(各5种),当归、川芎、乳香、三七(各3种).年龄越大,活血化瘀中草药不良反应构成比越高.女性活血化瘀中草药不良反应构成比较男性高.结论 活血化瘀中药不良反应分类繁多,临床表现多种多样,应引起医务人员和广大患者的重视.%Objective To analyze the adverse drug reaction of blood-activating and stasis-resoloing Chinese herbal medicine.And in order to promote the clinical reasonable using medicine.Methods "Adverse drug reaction" was as the key words,all literature of full text data the CHKD journal from 1998 to 2011 were retrieved,literature of adverse reactions caused by the original inspection Chinese medicine were checked.Results A total of 15 kinds of commonly used blood circulation Chinese medicine caused 12 adverse reactions and drug-induced disease was 203 cases,involving 62 cases of the urinary system,47 cases of the respiratory system,27 cases of skin symptoms,13 cases of acute poisoning and cyclesystem in 12 cases.Drugs to cause adverse reactions were cantharidin (6 species),leeches,Salvia,horse vomica (5),Angelica,Chuanxiong,frankincense,Panax (3).The older,the higher the ratio of adverse reactions of Chinese herbal medicine.The female had higher incidence than men.Conclusion Traditional Chinese medicine has adverse classification and diverse clinical manifestations.The medical staff and the majority of patients should pay more attention on

  2. Can herbal remedies be the answer to multidrug resistance? Profile of drug resistance in Salmonella species in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasaikar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The treatment of serious Salmonella infections which requires the use of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is being compromised by the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs. This study reports the antibiotic profile of Salmonella species, highlighting increasing ESBLs trends in Salmonella spp. and the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR. To proffer solution to the problem of MDR, screening of selected herbal plants was carried out. Methods: 142 consecutive isolates of Salmonella spp. collected over a period of 4 years were tested for antibiotic resistance. Antibiogram, ESBL phenotype and confirmation of isolate were determined using a semi-automated antibiotic test. Tests were performed based on Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards for broth microdilution methods and interpretation using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the control strain. Antibiotic resistant patterns were determined, ranking order of importance as percent (% of each type of resistance. Twelve plants selected based on ethnobotanical survey information as remedy in the treatment of stomach related ailments were screened using broth microdilution methods against strains of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterococcus. Results: A greater proportion of isolates were obtained from invasive cultures. Of the Salmonella isolates, there was a striking predominance of S.enterica serotype Typhi followed by S.enterica serotype Typhimurium. Most species showed pentavalent resistance to commonly used drugs. Antimicrobial resistance in S.enterica serotype Typhi is visibly increasing. Of growing concern is the increase in strains exhibiting ESBLs. Plant screening revealed promising therapeutic values in Aloe arborescens, A.striatula, and Psidium guajava. Conclusion: Increasing MDR in Salmonella serovars involved ESBLs’ production. Plants with significant antibacterial activities were comparable to the tested

  3. The Incidence of Drug- and Herbal and Dietary Supplement-Induced Liver Injury: Preliminary Findings from Gastroenterologist-Based Surveillance in the Population of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Maricruz; Verma, Manisha; Beswick, David; Bey, Stephanie; Hossack, Jared; Merriman, Nathan; Shah, Ashish; Navarro, Victor

    2017-05-29

    The population-based incidence rate of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the USA is not known. The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) accrues cases of hepatotoxicity due to medications and herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) from limited geographical areas. The current analysis was an ancillary study of DILIN aimed at determining the annual incidence of DILI in the USA on a population basis, through surveillance in the state of Delaware. At the outset of the study, there were 41 gastroenterologists in the state of Delaware and all agreed to participate in surveillance for DILI, which comprised active reporting of suspected cases to the DILIN. The gastroenterologists underwent training in the diagnosis of DILI and were provided with DILIN inclusion criteria. Only cases that met the DILIN laboratory inclusion criteria in 2014 were included in the incidence calculation, and these patients were invited to participate in the DILIN Prospective Study. The number of suspected cases that met inclusion criteria served as the numerator and the 2014 Delaware adult population as the denominator. During 2014, 23 patients were identified by the surveillance network, 20 of whom met DILIN laboratory inclusion criteria, leading to an incidence of 2.7 cases of DILI per 100,000 adult residents [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.9 per 100,000]. Fourteen subjects agreed to participate in the DILIN; six declined. Among enrolled cases, the mean age was 51 years, 57% were women, and 71% were white. Eight cases were attributed to antibiotics (36%) and other drugs (21%) and six to HDS (43%). The pattern of injury was hepatocellular in all HDS cases, but only 50% of conventional drug cases (p = 0.05), which more commonly presented with eosinophilia (p = 0.47) and higher alkaline phosphatase levels (p = 0.05). Half of patients were jaundiced, none developed liver failure, and all recovered without the need for transplantation. Prospective, gastroenterologist

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Preparations against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in Cow Mastitis%中药制剂对奶牛隐性乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌抑菌试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂生; 高光平; 李正本; 史秋梅; 张艳英; 邵新华; 梁银聚

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究中药制剂对奶牛隐性乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌的抑菌效果。[方法]根据中兽医学理论和中药特性,组成复方中药制剂“增乳健牛散”4种不同的方剂,制备水煎液对奶牛乳房炎的主要病原菌进行抑菌试验。[结果]4种不同的方剂水煎液都有抑菌效果;对金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌,方剂3为极敏,其他3种不同的方剂为高敏;方剂3抑菌作用最强。[结论]该研究为治疗奶牛隐性乳房炎相关中草药方剂的开发提供了理论依据。%[Objective] This study aimed to analyze the antibacterial activity of herbal preparations against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in cow mastitis. [Method] The crude drug solutions of four different prescriptions for Zen-grujianniusan were prepared through reflux extraction. Their antibacterial activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in cow mastitis were investigated. [Result] Al the four different prescriptions exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Among them, prescription Ⅲ was ex-tremely sensitive, and had the best bactericidal effect. The other three prescriptions were highly sensitive. [Conclusion] This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of herbal preparations for the treatment of cow mastitis.

  5. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kritika Kesarwani; Rajiv Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  6. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kritika; Kesarwani; Rajiv; Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Recently,the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines.However,many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size,resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability.Nowadays with the advancement in the technology,novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems.For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes,microspheres,nanoparticles,transferosomes,ethosomes,lipid based systems etc.have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs.Many herbal compounds including quercetin,genistein,naringin,sinomenine,pipeline,glycvrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability.The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs(herbal),and to achieve better therapeutic response.An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action(wherever reported)and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability,exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  7. Toxicological considerations of herbal medicines in clinical use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IkegF; FujiY

    2002-01-01

    Based on herbal crude drugs listed in WHO monographs,the clinical uses and toxicity such as acute,chronic and mutagenic of 16 herbal medicines among 210 medicinal prescriptions used in present-day Japan are summarized.These herbal medicines are claddified into two categories:8 kinds of prescription containing Bupleurum root such as Sho-saiko-to and Saiko-keishi-to,or 8 kinds of prescription not containing Bupleurum root such as Juzen-taiho-to and Ninjin-yoei-to.Some potential interactions between herbal medicine and the Western drugs are also described.

  8. Preparation of multiparticulate systems for oral delivery of a micronized or nanosized poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerea, Matteo; Pattarino, Franco; Foglio Bonda, Andrea; Palugan, Luca; Segale, Lorena; Vecchio, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare multiparticulate drug delivery systems for oral administration of a poorly soluble drug such as itraconazole. Multiparticulate systems were prepared by extrusion/spheronization technique using a mix of crospovidone, low viscosity hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, micronized drug and water. In order to improve the release performance of the multiparticulate systems, the micronized drug was suspended in water with polysorbate 20 and nanonized by a high-pressure homogenization. The suspension of drug nanoparticles was then spray-dried for enabling an easy handling of the drug and for preventing the over-wetting of the powders during extrusion/spheronization processing. Both multiparticulate units prepared with micronized or nanonized drug showed acceptable disintegrating properties. The nanosizing of micronized drug powder provided a significant improvement of drug dissolution rates of the multiparticulates.

  9. [Discussing of influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui-Fu; Nie, He-Yun; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Li, Rong-Miao

    2014-10-01

    This study left flavonoids and alkaloids Chinese herbal monomer with common parent nucleus as cream base carriages drug respectively, cream base were prepared with stable span 60-tween 80 emulsification system. The near-infrared stability analysis technology was performed to quantitatively characterize the physical stability of cream. Base on the theory of gel network structure, theory of emulsification, theory of solubility parameter and theory of double layer, the influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream was discussed. The results showed that tetrahydropalmatine, matrine and naringenin had similar solubility parameter value with cream base material, creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomer have higher Zeta potential value and stronger physical stability, and that those creams had similar microstructure information with cream base. However, a larger solubility parameter difference exists between baicalin, baicalein, berberine, palmatine and cream base material. Creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomers had lower Zeta potential value and poorer physical stability, and that those creams had great different microstructure information with cream base.

  10. Quality fluctuation detection of an herbal injection based on biological fingerprint combined with chemical fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lele; Ma, Lina; Feng, Wuwen; Zhang, Congen; Sheng, Feiya; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Chen; Dong, Gang; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yan, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Herbal injection is one of the most important preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. More than 130 types of herbal injections are used clinically for 400 million patients annually with total sales of over four billion US dollars per year. However, the current quality control (QC) methods relying mainly on chemical fingerprints (CF) can hardly ensure quality and safety of the herbal injections with complex chemical composition and have resulted in an increase in serious adverse drug reactions. In this study, a comprehensive approach for the QC of a controversial herbal injection Shuang-Huang-Lian lyophilized powder (SHL) was established based on the quality fluctuation detection by a combination of CF and biological fingerprint (BF). High-performance liquid chromatography and the impedance-based xCELLigence system were applied to establish the CF and BF, respectively. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminant ability of the two methods. The results showed that being subjected to environmental influence like oxygen/air, high temperature, and extreme illumination could lead to quality fluctuation of SHL. The combination of chemical and biological fingerprint method is a more powerful tool for the QC of SHL because it can clearly discriminate different groups of abnormal samples. This method can be used for the detection of quality fluctuation of SHL and can provide reference for the quality control of other herbal injections.

  11. A phase II randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ProstateEZE Max: a herbal medicine preparation for the management of symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Samantha; Rao, Amanda; Beck, Shoshannah L; Steels, Elizabeth; Gramotnev, Helen; Vitetta, Luis

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ProstateEZE Max, an orally dosed herbal preparation containing Cucurbita pepo, Epilobium parviflorum, lycopene, Pygeum africanum and Serenoa repens in the management of symptoms of medically diagnosed benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). This was a short-term phase II randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. The trial was conducted on 57 otherwise healthy males aged 40-80 years that presented with medically diagnosed BPH. The trial participants were assigned to receive 3 months of treatment (1 capsule per day) with either the herbal preparation (n = 32) or a matched placebo capsule (n = 25). The primary outcome measure was the international prostate specific score (IPSS) measured at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months. The secondary outcomes were the specific questions of the IPSS and day-time and night-time urinary frequency. There was a significant reduction in IPSS total median score in the active group of 36% as compared to 8% for the placebo group, during the 3-months intervention (p < 0.05). The day-time urinary frequency in the active group also showed a significant reduction over the 3-months intervention (7.0-5.9 times per day, a reduction of 15.6% compared to no significant reduction change for the placebo group (6.2-6.3 times per day) (p < 0.03). The night-time urinary frequency was also significantly reduced in the active group (2.9-1.8, 39.3% compared to placebo (2.8-2.6 times, 7%) (p < 0.004). The herbal preparation (ProstateEZE Max) was shown to be well tolerated and have a significant positive effect on physical symptoms of BPH when taken over 3 months, a clinically significant outcome in otherwise healthy men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of Hollow Porous HAP Microspheres as Drug Delivery Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; HUANG Wenhai; WANG Deping

    2007-01-01

    Hollow HAP microspheres in sub-millimeter size were prepared and investigated as a drug delivery vehicle. The LCB (lithium-calcium borate) glass microspheres, which were made through flame spray process, were chosen as precursor for hollow HAP microspheres. The LCB glass microspheres reacted with phosphate buffer (K2HPO4) solution for 5 days at 37 ℃. During the reaction the Ca-P-OH compound precipitated on the surface of LCB glass microspheres and formed porous shells. Then the microspheres turned to be hollow ones with the same diameter as the glass microspheres after LCB glass run out in the chemical reaction. After heat-treated at 600 ℃ for 4 h, the Ca-P-OH compound became HAP, thus the hollow HAP microspheres were produced. The mechanism of forming hollow HAP microspheres through the chemical reaction between phosphate buffer and LCB glass was confirmed by the XRD analysis. The microstructure characteristics of the hollow, porous microspheres were observed by SEM.

  13. Development and validation of a combined methodology for assessing the total quality control of herbal medicinal products--application to oleuropein preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Lemonakis

    Full Text Available Oleuropein (OE is a secoiridoid glycoside, which occurs mostly in the Oleaceae family presenting several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-atherogenic effects etc. Based on these findings OE is commercially available, as Herbal Medicinal Product (HMP, claimed for its antioxidant effects. As there are general provisions of the medicine regulating bodies e.g. European Medicines Agency, the quality of the HMP's must always be demonstrated. Therefore, a novel LC-MS methodology was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of OE and its main degradation product, hydroxytyrosol (HT, for the relevant OE claimed HMP's. The internal standard (IS methodology was employed and separation of OE, HT and IS was achieved on a C18 Fused Core column with 3.1 min overall run time employing the SIM method for the analytical signal acquisition. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation requirements and the results show adequate linearity (r(2 > 0.99 over a wide concentration range [0.1-15 μg/mL (n=12] and a LLOQ value of 0.1 μg/mL, for both OE and HT. Furthermore, as it would be beneficial to control the quality taking into account all the substances of the OE claimed HMP's; a metabolomics-like approach has been developed and applied for the total quality control of the different preparations employing UHPLC-HRMS-multivariate analysis (MVA. Four OE-claimed commercial HMP's have been randomly selected and MVA similarity-based measurements were performed. The results showed that the examined samples could also be differentiated as evidenced according to their scores plot. Batch to batch reproducibility between the samples of the same brand has also been determined and found to be acceptable. Overall, the developed combined methodology has been found to be an efficient tool for the monitoring of the HMP's total quality. Only one OE HMP has been found to be consistent

  14. Investigation of Physicochemical Drug Properties to Prepare Fine Globular Granules Composed of Only Drug Substance in Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Ryohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Osugi, Yukiko; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some drug properties (wettability and particle size distribution) on granule properties (mean particle size, particle size distribution, sphericity, and granule strength) were investigated in a high (>97%) drug-loading formulation using fluidized bed rotor granulation. Three drugs: acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); and ethenzamide (ETZ) were used as model drugs based on their differences in wettability and particle size distribution. Granules with mean particle sizes of 100-200 µm and a narrow particle size distribution (PSD) could be prepared regardless of the drug used. IBU and ETZ granules showed a higher sphericity than APAP granules, while APAP and ETZ granules exhibited higher granule strength than IBU. The relationship between drug and granule properties suggested that the wettability and the PSD of the drugs were critical parameters affecting sphericity and granule strength, respectively. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles of granules prepared with poorly water-soluble drugs (IBU and ETZ) showed a rapid release (80% release in 20 min) because of the improved wettability with granulation. The present study demonstrated for the first time that fluidized bed rotor granulation can prepare high drug-loaded (>97%) globular granules with a mean particle size of less than 200 µm and the relationship between physicochemical drug properties and the properties of the granules obtained could be readily determined, indicating the potential for further application of this methodology to various drugs.

  15. [Herbals and herbal nutritional products hepatotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Barboza-Nobrega, María De Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and other botanicals have been used in different cultures with medicinal and dietary purposes for centuries. Contrary to the belief of being natural and safe products, their hepatotoxic potential is recognized in several studies worldwide, and represent a health problem that deserves greater attention. The reported prevalence of hepatotoxicity associated with botanicals is variable and depends on various factors such as population, period and design of the study. There have been reports of a total of 60 products with herbal medicinal and dietary purposes, which may cause liver damage; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Their clinical and histological features, not unlike liver injury associated with drugs in most patients, have a pattern of hepatocellular injury. Diagnosis is by exclusion, and represents a clinical challenge. It is essential the clinical suspicion and the differential diagnosis with other acute and chronic conditions. Hence, future researches are aimed at improving existing diagnostic methods and introducing new toxicological, genetic and immunological technologies. Treatment is complex and presents a challenge for the specialist, as there are no antidotes. Management based on the discontinued use of the product and in the symptomatic treatment, decreases the progression to an acute fulminant hepatic failure.

  16. Preparation and characterization of microporous fibers for sample preparation and LC-MS determination of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewski, Boguslaw; Nowaczyk, Jacek; Ligor, Tomasz; Olszowy, Pawel; Ligor, Magdalena; Wasiniak, Bartlomiej; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen K; Amann, Anton

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation of polypyrrole (PPy) fibers for solid phase microextraction (SPME). PPy coatings were obtained during the electrochemical polymerization process. The utility of various metal wires (Fe, Cu, Ag, Cu/Ag, kanthal and medical stainless steel) as a support for polymers was compared. Various experimental conditions of the synthesis process such as scan rate, voltage limits and number of scans and deposition time were applied. The average polymer thickness was in the range of 7-125 microm and its weight was in the scope of 0.65-5.6 mg. Different techniques, mainly elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, and chromatography were performed for the characterization of obtained fibers with microporous structure. The extraction efficiency of cardiovascular drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, oxprenolol, propafenone and mexiletine) by means of fibers was tested. The concentration of mentioned compounds in standard solution was in the span of 10-150 ng/mL. LC-MS was employed for determination of drugs in desorption solution. LODs varied from 0.013 to 1.51 ng/mL for metoprolol and mexiletine respectively. The repeatability of extraction was obtained with the RSD values lower than 10%.

  17. Assessment of maximum tolerated dose of a new herbal drug, Semelil (ANGIPARSTM in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A Phase I clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: In many cases of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU management, wound healing is incomplete, and wound closure and epithelial junctional integrity are rarely achieved. Our aim was to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a new herbal compound for wound treatment in a Phase I clinical trial.Methods: In this open label study, six male diabetic patients with a mean age of 57±7.6 years were treated with escalating intravenous doses of Semelil, which started at 2 cc/day to 13.5 cc/day for 28 days. Patients were assessed with a full physical exam; variables which analyzed included age, past history of diabetes and its duration, blood pressure, body temperature, weight, characteristics of DFU, Na, K, liver function test, Complete Blood Count and Differential(CBC & diff, serum amylase, HbA1c, PT, PTT, proteinuria, hematuria, and side effects were recorded. All the measurements were taken at the beginning of treatment, the end of week 2 and week 4. We also evaluated Semelil's side effects at the end of weeks 4 and 8 after ending therapy.Results and major conclusions: Up to the drug dose of 10 cc/day foot ulcer dramatically improved. We did not observe any clinical or laboratory side effects at this or lower dose levels in diabetic patients. With daily dose of 13.5 cc of Semelil we observed phlebitis at the infusion site, which was the only side effect. Therefore, in this study we determined the MTD of Semelil at 10 cc/day, and the only DLT was phlebitis in injection vein. The recommended dose of Semelil I.V. administration for Phase II studies was 4 cc/day.

  18. The genus Sida L. - A traditional medicine: Its ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological data for commercial exploitation in herbal drugs industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Biswanath; Das, Niranjan; Dinda, Subhajit; Dinda, Manikarna; SilSarma, Indrajit

    2015-12-24

    Sida L. (Malvaceae) has been used for centuries in traditional medicines in different countries for the prevention and treatment of different diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal and urinary infections, malarial and other fevers, childbirth and miscarriage problems, skin ailments, cardiac and neural problems, asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, weight loss aid, rheumatic and other inflammations, tuberculosis, etc. To assess the scientific evidence for therapeutic potential of Sida L. and to identify the gaps of future research needs. The available information on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Sida species was collected via a library and electronic searches in SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar for the period, 1933-2015. A variety of ethnomedicinal uses of Sida species have been found in India, China, Afrian and American countries. Phytochemical investigation of this genus has resulted in identification of about 142 chemical constituents, among which alkaloids, flavonoids and ecdysteroids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts and isolates have exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects involving antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, abortifacient, neuroprotective, cardiovascular and cardioprotective, antimalarial, antitubercular, antidiabetic and antiobesity, antioxidant and nephroprotective activities among others. Ethnopharmacological preparations containing Sida species as an ingredient in India, African and American countries possess good efficacy in health disorders. From the toxicity perspective, only three Sida species have been assessed and found safe for oral use in rats. Pharmacological results supported some of the uses of Sida species in the traditional medicine. Alkaloids, flavonoids, other phenolics and ecdysteroids were perhaps responsible for the activities of extracts of the plants of this genus. No clinical study

  19. The influence of the harvest cut height on the quality of the herbal drugs Melissae folium and Melissae herba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrlianová, Mária; Tekel'ová, Daniela; Felklová, Melanie; Reinöhl, Vilém; Tóth, Jaroslav

    2002-02-01

    Variability in both the content and quality of essential oil was observed in herb and leaf drugs in dependence on the harvest cut height of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. cv. Citra). Three different cuts were carried out on the respective plants. The oil content in the herb was highest in the top third (0.13 % V/m), satisfactory in the herb including both the top and middle thirds (0.08 % V/m) and lowest in the whole herb (0.06 % V/m). The oil content in the leaves of the respective herbs was in the range 0.39 % - 0.14 % V/m (top third part - whole aerial part). The percentage of citrals, linalool and beta-caryophyllene in essential oil decreased in the basipetal direction, whilst the amounts of beta-caryophyllene oxide and citronellal increased in the same direction. Citrals (A and B): 55.79 % in the top third part of the herb, 48.46 % in the whole herb, 59.74 % and 56.87 % in the leaves from that parts, respectively. Similarly, beta-caryophyllene: 5.01 %, 3.87 %, 6.97 %, 5.13 %; beta-caryophyllene oxide: 17.19 %, 24.07 %, 15.64 %, 17.82 %; citronellal: 2.73 %, 5.51 %, 2.82 %, 6.44 %.

  20. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohni, Y R; Kaimal, P; Bhatt, R M

    1995-01-01

    The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation had a MIC of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidazole. In experimental caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of 89% with the average degree of infection (ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the sham-treated control group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was doubled to 200 mg/kg per day. There were varying degrees of inhibition of the following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically cultured amoebae: DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase and protease.

  1. The Structure-Dependent Electric Release and Enhanced Oxidation of Drug in Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocarrier Loaded with Anticancer Herbal Drug Berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danni; Ruan, Pan; Meng, Ziyuan; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to explore graphene oxide (GO) special electric and electrochemical properties in modulating and tuning drug delivery in tumor special environment of electrophysiology. The electric-sensitive drug release and redox behavior of GO-bearing berberine (Ber) was studied. Drug release in cell potential was applied in a designed electrode system: tumor environment was simulated at pH 6.2 with 0.1 V pulse voltage, whereas the normal was at pH 7.4 with 0.2 V. Quite different from the pH-depended profile, the electricity-triggered behavior indicated a high correlation with the carriers' structure: GO-based nanocomposite showed a burst release on its special "skin effect," whereas the PEGylated ones released slowly owing to the electroviscous effect of polymer. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the redox behaviors of colloid PEGylated GO toward absorbed Ber in pH 5.8 and 7.2 solutions. After drug loading, the oxidation of Ber was enhanced in a neutral environment, whereas the enhancement of PEG-GO was in an acidic one, which means a possible increased susceptibility of their biotransformation in vivo. The studies designed in this work may help to establish a kind of carrier system for the sensitive delivery and metabolic regulation of drugs according to the different electrophysiological environment in tumor therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  3. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  4. Contents of four active components in different commercial crude drugs and preparations of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; YU Chen; JIA Jing-Ying; Susan Wai Sum LEUNG; Yaw Loong SIOW; Ricky Ying Keung MAN; ZHU Da-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To detect the contents of four active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in various commercially available danshen crude drugs and preparations. METHODS: Commercially available danshen crude drugs from different sources, as well as danshen pills and intravenous injection preparations containing danshen alone or in combination with other herbs were collected. The composition of these danshen samples was analyzed using HPLC. Specifically,the amounts of magnesium tanshinoate B (MTB), danshensu, isotanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone were determined.In some of these samples, the content of MTB was further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS)/MS method. RESULTS: There were great variations in the amount of the four active ingredients in the commercially available danshen crude drugs and drug preparations in this study. The amount of MTB was the highest among the four components measured in the crude drugs. However, the amounts of MTB in all danshen preparations were much lower than those in crude drugs. The 2 lipophilic components, isotanshinone ⅡA and cryptotanshinone, were very low or not detectable in both injection and oral preparations. CONCLUSION:MTB can be used to standardize the various forms of danshen crude drugs and drug preparations from different sources. In view of the variation in the amounts of MTB and other components, improvement in the production methods of danshen preparations is essential to ensure consistent amount of its active ingredients and reproducible pharmacological actions.

  5. LIPOSOMAL ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGY A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR AYURVEDIC DRUG PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hemanth kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Liposomal Encapsulation Technology (LET is the newest delivery method used by medical researchers to transfer drugs that act as healing promoters to the definite body organs. This form of delivery system offers targeted delivery of vital compounds to the body. It has been in existence since the early 70’s. Liposomal Encapsulation Technology is a state of the art method of producing sub-microscopic bubbles called liposomes, which encapsulate various substances. These phospholipids or “liposomes” form a barrier around their contents that is resistant to enzymes in the mouth and stomach, digestive juices, alkaline solutions, bile salts, and intestinal flora, found in the human body as well as free radicals. The contents of the liposomes are therefore shielded from degradation and oxidation. This protective phospholipid shield or barrier remains unharmed until the contents of the liposome are delivered right to the target organ, gland, or system where the contents will be utilized. Natural extracts are generally degraded because of oxidation and other chemical reactions before they delivered to the target site. Our research has shown liposomal encapsulated ayurvedic preparations have shown more stability and also more efficiency when compared to traditional preparations. Size of liposomes were measured around 85-200 nm.

  6. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom

    2000-06-01

    World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination.

  7. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This is due to raw materials contamination and unhygienic production conditions. ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal drugs. ..... Microbial spoilage and preservation of.

  8. Herbal beverages formulations and bioactive properties: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira, João C.M.; Morais, Ana L.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Herbal beverages are among the main products which claim medicinal benefits, specially related with antioxidant properties [1,2]. The definition of herbal beverages (“teas”) as functional drinks might be related with the plant species from which is prepared, formulation or preparation method. In this study the beverages were prepared from Camellia sinensis (black and green tea), Aspalathus linearis (red tea) and Cochlospermum angolensis (borututu tea), available in different formulations (bag...

  9. Multiple unit gastroretentive drug delivery systems: a new preparation method for low density microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new preparation method for low density foam-based, floating microparticles and to demonstrate the systems' performance in vitro. Major advantages of the novel preparation technique include: (i) short processing times, (ii) no exposure of the ingredients to high temperatures, (iii) the possibility to avoid toxic organic solvents, and (iv) high encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. Floating microparticles consisting of polypropylene foam powder, model drug [chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), diltiazem HCl, theophylline or verapamil HCl] and polymer [Eudragit RS or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] were prepared by soaking the microporous foam carrier with an organic solution of drug and polymer and subsequent drying. The effects of various formulation and processing parameters on the resulting in vitro floating behaviour, internal and external particle morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release and physical state of the incorporated drug were studied. Good in vitro floating behaviour was observed in most cases and a broad variety of drug release patterns could be achieved by varying the drug loading and type of polymer. Interestingly, PMMA-based microparticles showed incomplete drug release with verapamil HCl. This restriction could be overcome by forming the free base of the drug prior to microparticle preparation. In contrast to the salt, the free base acted as a plasticizer for PMMA, resulting in sufficiently high diffusion coefficients and, consequently, complete drug release. The low density microparticles were compressed into rapidly disintegrating tablets in order to provide an administrable oral dosage form.

  10. Herbal product use by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Stuart, Armando

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of medicinal herbal products around the world. In various countries, these products are classified and promoted as foods, not pharmaceuticals, which facilitate their availability on the international market without requiring a medical prescription. Since older adults (OAs) are an important and growing sector of the population in many countries, it is important to know the prevalence of their herbal product use, since many OA take herbs along with diverse quantities of prescription and over the counter medications. For this reason, it is important to be aware of the possibilities of health complications due to the concomitant use of diverse medications and herbs. OA are an especially vulnerable population, since many of the human body's physiological activities, such as renal and hepatic detoxification and clearance usually decrease with age. Additionally, information on certain herbal products is either misleading, or simply unavailable. These products may indeed be a therapeutic option, but some can be used properly only under the guidance of a health professional. Those OA taking combinations of various medications and herbal supplements are also more at risk to experience some sort of herb-drug interactions. This publication reviews selected articles related to the use of herbal products by OAs and mentions the various patterns of use and health implications of the concomitant use of herbal products and prescription medications. This topic is currently not fully understood and further research is warranted.

  11. Preparative Scale Resolution of Enantiomers Enables Accelerated Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Hanna; Andersson, Shalini

    2017-01-18

    The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca. The combination of chromatography and racemization as well as strategies on when to apply preparative chiral chromatography of enantiomers in a multi-step synthesis of a drug compound can further facilitate accelerated drug discovery and the early clinical evaluation of the drug candidates.

  12. Preparative Scale Resolution of Enantiomers Enables Accelerated Drug Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Leek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of pure enantiomers is of increasing importance not only for the pharmaceutical industry but also for agro-chemistry and biotechnology. In drug discovery and development, the enantiomers of a chiral drug depict unique chemical and pharmacological behaviors in a chiral environment, such as the human body, in which the stereochemistry of the chiral drugs determines their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. We present a number of challenging case studies of up-to-kilogram separations of racemic or enriched isomer mixtures using preparative liquid chromatography and super critical fluid chromatography to generate individual enantiomers that have enabled the development of new candidate drugs within AstraZeneca. The combination of chromatography and racemization as well as strategies on when to apply preparative chiral chromatography of enantiomers in a multi-step synthesis of a drug compound can further facilitate accelerated drug discovery and the early clinical evaluation of the drug candidates.

  13. Crystallization Methods for Preparation of Nanocrystals for Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli; Yin, Qiuxiang; Glennon, Brian; Zhong, Jian; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun

    2015-01-01

    Low water solubility of drug products causes delivery problems such as low bioavailability. The reduced particle size and increased surface area of nanocrystals lead to the increasing of the dissolution rate. The formulation of drug nanocrystals is a robust approach and has been widely applied to drug delivery system (DDS) due to the significant development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can be used to improve drug efficacy, provide targeted delivery and minimize side-effects. Crystallization is the main and efficient unit operation to produce nanocrystals. Both traditional crystallization methods such as reactive crystallization, anti-solvent crystallization and new crystallization methods such as supercritical fluid crystallization, high-gravity controlled precipitation can be used to produce nanocrystals. The current mini-review outlines the main crystallization methods addressed in literature. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were summarized and compared.

  14. Preparation and in vitro characterization of non-effervescent floating drug delivery system of poorly soluble drug, carvedilol phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Meka Venkata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility of carvedilol phosphate and to formulate it into non-effervescent floating tablets using swellable polymers. Solid dispersions (SD of carvedilol were prepared with hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and poloxamer to enhance solubility. Non-effervescent floating tablets were prepared with a combination of optimized solid dispersions and release retarding polymers/swellable polymers such as xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide. Tablets were evaluated for physicochemical properties such as hardness, thickness and buoyancy. SD prepared with the drug to poloxamer ratio of 1:4 by melt granulation showed a higher dissolution rate than all other dispersions. Formulations containing 40 mg of polyethylene oxide (C-P40 and 50 mg xanthan gum (C-X50 were found to be best, with the drug retardation up to 12 hours. Optimized formulations were characterized using FTIR and DSC and no drug and excipient interactions were detected.

  15. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  16. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  17. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  18. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  19. 医用乳酸菌对常用中草药的耐药性试验%Drug resistance test of medicinal lactic acid bacteria to common Chinese herbal medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世荣; 杨丙田; 宋青楠; 王延秋; 王霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究医用乳酸菌对几种常用中草药的耐药性,为医用乳酸菌与中草药的临床合并应用提供理论依据.方法 将中草药制成煎剂,通过琼脂扩散方法进行耐药性试验.结果 5种医用乳酸菌对黄连均表现出中度敏感,对黄芩表现微弱敏感.结论 5种医用乳酸菌对大部分中草药(包括有抗菌和抑菌作用的中草药)不敏感.%Objective To study (he drug resistance of medicinal lactic acid bacteria to several common Chinese herbal medicines, and provide theoretical basis for clinical application of the combinations of herbs and lactic acid bacteria. Methods Drug resistance was detected by using agar diffusion test. Results The five kinds of medicinal lactic acid bacteria were all moderately sensitive to Rhizoma Coptidis and slightly sensitive to Scutellaria Baicalensis. Conclusion The five kinds of medicinal lactic acid bacteria are not sensitive to most Chinese herbal medicines including the herbs with have antimicrobial effect and antibacterial effects.

  20. An experimental study of a novel combination of a herbal drug with an allopathic drug to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of irbesartan plus curcumin and comparison with glibenclamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Tularam Leve

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin has been used as a traditional remedy for many diseases in Ayurveda. Many studies have proved antidiabetic and antihyperlipidimic effects of curcumin. The present study was conducted to evaluate antihyperglycemic actions of Irbesartan in combination with Curcumin. Methods: After baseline sampling, 18 rats of diabetic groups i.e. Group 1 to Group 3, were started with exclusive high fat diet and water ad libitum for next 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, each rat was given Inj. Streptozotocin in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight, dissolved in 0.2 ml of citrate buffer (pH 4.5 intraperitoneally. Drugs were given orally in normal saline by gastric gavage with the help of rat feeding cannula. Results: Rats of diabetic group 2, receiving combination of Irbesartan 20mg/kg and Curcumin 200mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks, have shown significant decrease is mean FPG level (FPG- 29.69% reduction, p<0.001. Irbesartan+Curcumin had no any hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic rats as well as diabetic rats. Conclusions: Irbesartan in combination with Curcumin has significant antihyperglycemic effects. At the same time, Irbesartan combined with Curcumin, does not produce hypoglycemia in normal as well as diabetic rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 182-186

  1. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Calixto

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false. Plants contain hundreds of constituents and some of them are very toxic, such as the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs, digitalis and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less frequent compared with synthetic drugs, but well-controlled clinical trials have now confirmed that such effects really exist. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed, and the general tendency is to perpetuate the German Commission E experience, which combines scientific studies and traditional knowledge (monographs. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.

  2. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN HERBAL MEDICINES AND COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakh N Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanophytomedicines are prepared from active phytoconstituents or standardized extracts. The world market for nanomedicine is estimated to reach $130.9 billion by the fiscal year 2016. Liposome nanoparticle (NP with entrapped doxorubicin has been reported to be 300 fold more effective because of better pharmacokinetic ability in treatment of Kaposi sarcoma. NP of paclitaxel is used in the treatment of breast cancer. It has increased water solubility, reduced toxicity and improved therapeutic index. Nanotized herbal drug containing active principles of veteh root, seawort, cassia twig and liquorice root is found to be effective in pulmonary, liver, bone, brain and skin cancer. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of polymeric nanoparticles containing curcumin reveal at least 9 fold increase in oral bioavailability when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer. The green nanotechnology utilizes plant based phytochemicals in the overall synthesis and architecture of NP. Cumin and gum arabic are used for synthesis of gold NP that has reduced toxicity to living organism and environment. Bhasma used in Ayurveda is ancient but ultra modern nanomedicine prepared from metal. Swarna bhasma has particle size of 56 nm. NP in cosmetics has been used safely and effectively. NP ingredients like Zno and TiO2 have properties that provide greater degree of protection from sun. Liposome containing Aloe vera extract in size range less than 200 nm diameter has shown higher rate of cell proliferation and increased synthesis of collagenase in in vitro test using human skin fibroblast and epidermal keratinocytes.

  3. Preparation of a core-shell magnetic ion-imprinted polymer via a sol-gel process for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Xiao, Deli; He, Jia; Li, Hui; He, Hua; Dai, Hao; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-21

    A novel magnetic surface ion-imprinted polymer (c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP) was synthesized for the first time using magnetic CNTs/Fe3O4 composites (c-MMWCNTs) as the core, 3-ammonium propyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and Cu(II) as the template. c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP was evaluated for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines via a magnetic solid phase extraction (M-SPE) procedure. One factor affecting the separation and preconcentration of the target heavy metal was pH. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity of c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP toward Cu(II) were estimated. The results indicated that the adsorption mechanism corresponds to a pseudo-second order adsorption process, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.985 and a maximum adsorption capacity of 42.2 mg g(-1). The relative selectivity factor (β) values of Cu(II)/Zn(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 38.5 and 34.5, respectively. c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP, combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, was successfully applied in the extraction and detection of Cu(II) in herbal medicine, with high recoveries ranging from 95.6% to 108.4%.

  4. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  5. Identification of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) and other designer drugs in herbal incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Boyd, Sue; Atkinson, Sarah; Wolf, Jenna; Slottje, Pim M; Goodchild, Katrina; McGowan, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    The identification and structural elucidation of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR is reported. QMPSB was identified in Queensland, Australia on plant material packaged as herbal incense. The identification of QMPSB was initially hampered due to trans-esterification occurring in the extraction solvent. An investigation of the trans-esterification of QMPSB in methanol and ethanol was conducted and analytical data for the respective methyl and ethyl esters are reported. Analytical data is presented for two other compounds detected on seized plant material packaged as herbal incense: the synthetic cannabimimetic 1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (MAM-1220) and the JWH-081 analogue 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (CHM-081).

  6. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.

  7. Manufacturing process of high quality phytopreparation on example of herbal sedative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rational phytotherapy is a modern concept of using plant-originated drugs which has emerged from the need to improve phytotherapy in order to make the use of herbal remedies more efficient and safer. The aim of this study was to give the health-care workers more information on the manufacturing process of high quality phytopreparation following principles of Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Laboratory Practice on the example of herbal sedative, Odoval S® capsules. Material and Methods. This study was designed to reflect the production process of a high-quality and safe herbal remedy, starting from defining the formulation and the production procedure to the quality control of raw materials, characterization of the final product, and testing stability of active ingredients in the capsules. Results. Formulation of the phytopreparation, validation of the production process, quality control and stability testing, all together have resulted in the production of capsules with defined valeric acid content (1 mg valeric acid per capsule. Discussion. The preparation is recommended to relieve the symptoms caused by chronic stress (anxiety, irritability, fatigue, lack of concentration, heart palpitations and for mild insomnia. Conclusion. This paper presents the complete cycle of the production of a phytopreparation on the example of a new herbal sedative - Odoval S® capsules.

  8. Opinions of pharmacists and herbalists on herbal medicine use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-22

    Jan 22, 2017 ... courses in herbal medicine (HM) use by patients at pharmacy schools. Methods: This ... conventional drugs have been documented [5], but a patient's request ... pharmacists and herbalists is important to ensure patient safety.

  9. Herbal medicine--sets the heart racing!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGovern, E

    2010-07-01

    The potential for pharmaceuticals to produce side effects and drug interactions is well known to medical practitioners and the lay public alike. However, the potential for alternative medicines to produce such effects is less widely known. We describe a potentially dangerous interaction between a herbal medicine and concomitant selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) ingestion.

  10. Hexa-herbal Chinese formula for eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Jäger, Anna; Heinrich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse pharmacological activities and reliable clinical performances of Chinese herbal medicines have attracted worldwide attention in terms of its modernization. Here, a hexa-herbal Chinese formula (HHCF) for treating eczema topically has been studied from both chemical and biological perspective...... colonizes the skin of most patients with AD and produces superantigens that could further increase severity of AD via subverting T-regulatory cell activity and inducing corticosteroid resistance. [3] Therefore, activity of the decoctions prepared from mixture and individual medicinal plants of the formula...

  11. Determination of Residues of Heavy Metal and Organochlorine Pesticides in Eight Famous Herbal Drugs in Zhejiang%“浙八味”药材重金属和有机氯农药残留分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫平; 唐红芳; 金锋; 阮征; 谭玉凤

    2013-01-01

    ,45.017 ng · g-1 and 5.434 ng ·g-1 pentachloronitrobenzene(PCNB) was detected of Chrysan - themum morifolium Ramat. The content of PCNB was 1. 030 ng · g -1. Other samples did not have these nine organochlorine pesticides. The contents of lead, cadmium and copper were 0.8281 ~ 1. 7473 mg · kg-1 ,0. 1169 ~ 0. 2950 mg · kg-1 and 2. 5195 ~ 8. 2864 mg · kg-1 respectively. Conclcusions: The contents of bexachlorocyclohexane( BHC) , dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane ( DDT) and pentachloronitro - benzene (PCNB) in most medicinal materials of eight famous herbal drugs in Zhejiang had no discovered or had lower levels which were within the ermissible limits of Green Trade Standards of Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plants and Preparations. Heavy metals that detected in all samples were under the limits of the standards and accorded with the provision of The Professional Import and Export Standards for Medicinal Herbs and Preparations.

  12. Impact of chinese herbal medicine on american society and health care system: perspective and concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Winston I; Lu, Dominic P

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  13. [Preparation of two poor water soluble drugs - nanoporous ZnO solid dispersions and the mechanism of drug dissolution improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bei; Sun, Chang-shan; Zhi, Zhuang-zhi; Wang, Yan; Chang, Di; Wang, Si-ling; Jiang, Tong-ying

    2011-11-01

    Nanoporous ZnO was used as a carrier to prepare drug solid dispersion, the mechanism of which to improve the drug dissolution was also studied. Nanoporous ZnO, obtained through chemical deposition method, was used as a carrier to prepare indomethacin and cilostazol solid dispersions by melt-quenching method, separately. The results of scanning electron microscope, surface area analyzer, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction showed that drugs were implanted into nanopores of ZnO by physical adsorption effect and highly dispersed into nanopores of ZnO in amorphous form, moreover, these nanopores strongly inhibited amorphous recrystallization in the condition of 45 degrees C and 75% RH. In addition, the results of the dissolution tested in vitro exhibited that the accumulated dissolutions of indomethacin and cilostazol solid dispersions achieved about 90% within 5 min and approximately 80% within 30 min. It was indicated in this study that the mechanism of drug dissolution improvement was associated with the effects of nanoporous ZnO carrier on increasing drug dispersion, controlling drug in nanopores as amorphous form and inhibiting amorphous recrystallization.

  14. [Preparation and drug releasing property of curcumin nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-jun; Han, Gang; Yu, Jiu-gao; Dai, Hong-guang

    2009-02-01

    To prepare curcumin nanoparticles and evaluate the in vitro release of curcumin. The chitosan-graft-vinyl acetate copolymers were synthesized by free radical polymerization. Curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation. The encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles and the in vitro release of curcumin were studied. The nanoparticles were discrete and uniform spheres, covered with positive charges. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles was up to 91.6%. The in vitro release profile showed the slower release rate of curcumin. The methods is simple. The nanoparticles possess good physical performance and sustained release character in vitro.

  15. Nanoparticles for Herbal Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vani Mamillapalli

    2016-01-01

      Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects...

  16. Evaluation Of Potential Cytotoxic Effects Of Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have played an important role in treating different diseases since ancient times. Bioactive components of medicinal plants are a good starting point for discovering new drugs such as chemotherapeutics. Currently, there are four classes of plant-derived chemotherapeutic drugs used in clinical practice. However, to discover new potential cytotoxic molecules, the research effort on herbal extracts has not diminished. The aim of this review was to evaluate the chemical constituents of plants that possess cytotoxicity, the signalling pathways responsible for this effect, and the influence of solvent polarity on potential cytotoxic effect and to present the cytotoxic activity of selected herbal extracts. The polyphenolic, anthraquinon, diterpneoid, triterpenoid, flavonoid, betulinic acid and berberine content contributes to cytotoxicity of herbal extracts. The inhibitory effect on cancer cells viability could be a consequence of the non-apoptotic processes, such as cell cycle arrestment, and the apoptotic process in tumour cells through different signalling pathways. The influence of solvent polarity on potential cytotoxic effect of herbal extracts should not be ignored. In general, the best cytotoxic activity was found in nonpolar and moderately polar herbal extracts. The herbal extract with IC50 below 30 μg/ml could be considered a very strong cytotoxic agent. Considering that many antitumor drugs have been discovered from natural products, further research on plants and plant-derived chemicals may result in the discovery of potent anticancer agents.

  17. The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2008-01-01

    Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public

  18. Preparation, characterization and in-vivo evaluation of microemulsions containing tamoxifen citrate anti-cancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Faranak; Farhadian, Nafiseh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Biriaee, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a new nanocarrier for oral delivery of tamoxifen citrate (TMC) as a lipophilic oral administrated drug. This drug has low oral bioavailability due to its low aqueous solubility. To enhance the solubility of this drug, the microemulsion system was applied in form of oil-in-water. Sesame oil and Tween 80 were used as drug solvent oil and surfactant, respectively. Two different formulations were prepared for this purpose. The first formulation contained edible glycerin as co-surfactant and the second formulation contained Span 80 as a mixed surfactant. The results of characterization showed that the mean droplet size of drug-free samples was in the range of 16.64-64.62nm with a PDI value of <0.5. In a period of 6months after the preparation of samples, no phase sedimentation was observed, which confirmed the high stability of samples. TMC with a mass ratio of 1% was loaded in the selected samples. No significant size enlargement and drug precipitation were observed 6months after drug loading. In addition, the drug release profile at experimental environments in buffers with pH=7.4 and 5.5 showed that in the first 24h, 85.79 and 100% of the drug were released through the first formulation and 76.63 and 66.42% through the second formulation, respectively. The in-vivo results in BALB/c female mice showed that taking microemulsion form of drug caused a significant reduction in the growth rate of cancerous tumor and weight loss of the mice compared to the consumption of commercial drug tablets. The results confirmed that the new formulation of TMC could be useful for breast cancer treatment.

  19. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  20. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  1. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Herbal medicine development: a plea for a rigorous scientific foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietman, Paul S

    2012-09-01

    Science, including rigorous basic scientific research and rigorous clinical research, must underlie both the development and the clinical use of herbal medicines. Yet almost none of the hundreds or thousands of articles that are published each year on some aspect of herbal medicines, adheres to 3 simple but profound scientific principles must underlie all of herbal drug development or clinical use. Three fundamental principles that should underlie everyone's thinking about the development and/or clinical use of any herbal medicine. (1) There must be standardization and regulation (rigorously enforced) of the product being studied or being used clinically. (2) There must be scientific proof of a beneficial clinical effect for something of value to the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. (3) There must be scientific proof of safety (acceptable toxicity) for the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. These fundamental principles of science have ramifications for both the scientist and the clinician. It is critically important that both the investigator and the prescriber know exactly what is in the studied or recommended product and how effective and toxic it is. We will find new and useful drugs from natural sources. However, we will have to learn how to study herbal medicines rigorously, and we will have to try to convince the believers in herbal medicines of the wisdom and even the necessity of a rigorous scientific approach to herbal medicine development. Both biomedical science and practicing physicians must enthusiastically accept the responsibility for searching for truth in the discovery and development of new herbal medicines, in the truthful teaching about herbal medicines from a scientific perspective, and in the scientifically proven clinical use of herbal medicines.

  3. Recent advances in the preparation progress of protein/peptide drug loaded PLA/PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Sustained release drug delivery from microparticles is an excellent alternative for daily protein/peptide drug administration protocol. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are the most commonly used polymer carriers in the development of protein/peptide microspheres. Basically there are three preparation methods for PLA/PLGA microspheres: the solvent extraction/evaporation based multiple emulsion (W/O/W emulsion) method, the phase separation method and the spray drying method. The stability of the protein/pipetide loaded, encapsulation efficiency, and the burst effect of the microspheres are key problems usually met in the preparation of microspheres. In this review the preparation techniques and progress in the development of protein/pipetide microspheres which aimed to stabilize protein/peptide structural integrity, keep the bioactivity of drugs, increase the encapsulation efficiency and improve the release profile were summarized and evaluated.

  4. A process for preparation of anticancer drug 9-nitro camptothecin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qing-Quan; CHEN Zhi-Yong; WANG Yuan-Hua; LIU Wei-Jun; HUANG Hao-Xi; HU Wen-Hao

    2004-01-01

    Camptothecin and some of its semisythetic derivatives such as topotecan, irinotecan and 9-nitrocamptothecin, have exhibited strong antitumor activity against various experimental tumor model. The water insoluble 9-nitrocamptothecin demonstrated very potent antitumor activity against many different types of human cancers and HIV. Literature procedures for preparing 9-nitrocamptothecin are direct nitration of camptothecin using a concentrated nitric/concentrated sulfuric acid system or a combination of two or more different nitrate salts/concentrated sulfuric acid system. The two systems demand on the chromatographically separation, which is a hindrance to industrial production. We found that the main products of nitration of camptothecin,9-nitrocamptothecin and 12-nitrocamptothecin, have the great difference for the solubility in the organic solvent. So we studied various organic solvent for the crude product obtained from nitration of camptothecin using KNO3/concentrated sulfuric acid system. At last we found that the ethyl acetate is the best solvent for extraction of the reaction solution and tchloroform and the ether is the best solvent for recrystalization by screening various polarity of organic solvent.

  5. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of sustained release drug delivery system for verapamil HCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalekar M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Verapamil HCl is a calcium channel blocker administered on thrice a day dosage regimen. In the present study resinates of verapamil HCl were formulated using Indion resins. Drug loading process was optimized with respect to drug:resin ratio, pH of loading solution, and particle size of resin. Resinates were characterized using XRPD. In vitro drug release rates from resinate was not adequately sustained. Hence resinates were incorporated in pellets using extrusion spheronization to achieve desired release pattern. Optimum drug loading was seen at pH of 3.5 in drug resin ratio of 1:1 and was seen to increase with temperature. XRPD studies revealed verapamil to be present in amorphous form in resinates. Drug release from resinates was complete in four hours. Resinates were pelletized using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Resinate of Indion 254 with 5% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose fulfilled USP criteria for extended release verapamil preparation.

  6. Drug-nanoencapsulated PLGA microspheres prepared by emulsion electrospray with controlled release behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Huiying; Yu, Shukui; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Luning

    2016-01-01

    The development of modern therapeutics has raised the requirement for controlled drug delivery system which is able to efficiently encapsulate bioactive agents and achieve their release at a desired rate satisfying the need of the practical system. In this study, two kind of aqueous model drugs with different molecule weight, Congo red and albumin from bovine serum (BSA) were nano-encapsulated in poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres by emulsion electrospray. In the preparation process, the aqueous phase of drugs was added into the PLGA chloroform solution to form the emulsion solution. The emulsion was then electrosprayed to fabricate drug-nanoencapsulated PLGA microspheres. The morphology of the PLGA microspheres was affected by the volume ratio of aqueous drug phase and organic PLGA phase (Vw/Vo) and the molecule weight of model drugs. Confocal laser scanning microcopy showed the nanodroplets of drug phase were scattered in the PLGA microspheres homogenously with different distribution patterns related to Vw/Vo. With the increase of the volume ratio of aqueous drug phase, the number of nanodroplets increased forming continuous phase gradually that could accelerate drug release rate. Moreover, BSA showed a slower release rate from PLGA microspheres comparing to Congo red, which indicated the drug release rate could be affected by not only Vw/Vo but also the molecule weight of model drug. In brief, the PLGA microspheres prepared using emulsion electrospray provided an efficient and simple system to achieve controlled drug release at a desired rate satisfying the need of the practices. PMID:27699061

  7. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, G.; Raj, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug 'curcumin' is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug loaded Fe3O4-CS, Fe3O4-CS-PEG and Fe3O4-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183-390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26-41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behavior of curcumin drug loaded Fe3O4-CS, Fe3O4-CS-PEG and Fe3O4-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium in addition to the nature of matrix.

  8. Studies on the Preparation Properties and Drug Loading of theStarch Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJin; HouXinpu

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of studies of starch microspheres, we carried out the research program of starch nanoparticles(SNP)which included preparation, physical and chemical properties and drug loading. The SNP was prepared using reversedphase-microemulsion polymerization method, with soluble starch as raw material. The particle size, quantity ofphosphorous, degradability, scanning electron microgragh, IR spectra and stability of SNP were investigated. Thepharmacodynamics and concentration-time curve of insulin starch nanoparticles were determined.

  9. One Step Preparation of Controlled Drug Release Systems in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liqin; WANG Chengwei; CHEN Liuping

    2009-01-01

    Drug delivery systems based on copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide were fn-st prepared by a one step method, in which supercritical carbon dioxide was simultaneously used as a polymerization medium and an impregnation agent. The obtained microspheres were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scan-ning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The release effect of the in situ prepared microgels impregnated with ibuprofen was presented through in vitro release simulation.

  10. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  11. Acupuncture and Traditional Herbal Medicine Therapy Prevent Deliriumin Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Shusaku; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nawa, Takahide; Okada, Hideshi; Ojio, Shinsuke; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.

  12. New drugs and preparations for open-angle glaucoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Primary (or chronic) open-angle glaucoma (POAG or COAG) may be asymptomatic but causes progressive optic nerve damage with significant loss of visual field. Treatments aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by reducing the production of aqueous humour and/or increasing its drainage. Here we update our previous articles to reflect new drugs, preservative-free preparations and fixed-dose drug combinations for POAG.

  13. Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ayyanar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Results of an ethnobotanical study of wound healing treatments among the tribal people of Tirunelveli hills in southern India are presented. A total of 46 plants belonging to 44 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against wounds and related injuries such as cuts, burns, bruises caused by external injury, boils, sores, abscess and wounds created during delivery. Leaves were the most frequently utilized plant part and most herbal remedies are prepared as paste and applied externally; in some cases medicinal preparations were also administered orally. Of the plants collected in the present study none of the plants have been reported to have such specific wound healing compounds except Areca catechu and Scoparia dulcis. The present study suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. Industrial Relevance: The study of ethnomedical systems and herbal medicines as therapeutic agents of a paramount importance in addressing health problems of traditional communities and third world countries as well as industrialized societies. Of the reported plants,  Acalypha indica, Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Calotropis gigantea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscosa, Eupatorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa, Ixora coccinia, Morinda pubescens, Opuntia dillenii, Pongamia pinnata, Scoparia dulcis and Vitex altissima were studied in animal models for wound healing, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity on the basis of their use in traditional medicine as wound healers and these plants can be used to formulate drugs in pharmaceutical companies.

  14. CURRENT SCENARIO OF HERBAL TECHNOLOGY WORLD WIDE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Agarwal*, Shashi Alok , Amreen Fatima and Amita Verma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the basic concepts of herbal technology which is used worldwide. 21st century is the century of Biology mechanical and propelled by scientific knowledge and hi-tech expertise. Herbal technology, are going to be the most influential elements that are fundamental for success and welfare for the people of nations. Information on the herbal technology was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. Nutraceutical are food or part of the food that grant medical or health benefits together with the prevention or cure of the disease. Cosmaceuticals are the largest accumulation to the health trade and are described as cosmetic products with drug; they are the fastest increased segment in the skin care market. Biopesticides are cost effective, safer, readily available, and ecological and therefore more environment- friendly and will offer substitute to conventional pesticides. Herbal drugs represent a major contribute to all the formally recognized systems of health in India. An upward trend has been experimental in the research on herbals. Export–Import reports reveal that the global trade of herbal technology and plant originated products is around US $250 billion. In the present article, an attempt has been made to present an overview of the herbal technology in the international market and intends to throw in the knowledge about Herbal drugs, Nutraceuticals, Cosmaceuticals, and Biopesticides which comes under herbal technology.

  15. ["Dosis solum facit venenum" also for herbal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noordwijk, J

    2002-01-19

    A report of severe hepatitis due to the use of material from the plant Chelidonium majus, reminds us that herbal products can be much more life-threatening than many people realise. The widespread use of plants for food has reinforced the idea that eating plants promotes health. With the development of organic chemistry in the 19th century it became possible for the first time to purify and identify pharmacologically active plant constituents and later on to synthesize related compounds with an even stronger activity. The development of the antimalarial artemotil from Artemisia plants is a recent example. The activity, safety and composition of such compounds can be controlled in just the same manner as purely synthetic compounds. However, some people still believe that traditional plants are much safer and better than modern synthetic pharmaceuticals. The qualitative and quantitative composition of such herbal medicines from alternative medical sources, are not covered by public health legislation. Whereas phytotherapists consider plants to be a source of useful drugs, regular physicians maintain that the composition of a preparation and not the provenance, determines its effects.

  16. Novel sample preparation method for surfactant containing suppositories: effect of micelle formation on drug recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Éva; Ueno, Konomi; Forgó, Péter; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György

    2013-09-01

    Rectal drug delivery is currently at the focus of attention. Surfactants promote drug release from the suppository bases and enhance the formulation properties. The aim of our work was to develop a sample preparation method for HPLC analysis for a suppository base containing 95% hard fat, 2.5% Tween 20 and 2.5% Tween 60. A conventional sample preparation method did not provide successful results as the recovery of the drug failed to fulfil the validation criterion 95-105%. This was caused by the non-ionic surfactants in the suppository base incorporating some of the drug, preventing its release. As guidance for the formulation from an analytical aspect, we suggest a well defined surfactant content based on the turbidimetric determination of the CMC (critical micelle formation concentration) in the applied methanol-water solvent. Our CMC data correlate well with the results of previous studies. As regards the sample preparation procedure, a study was performed of the effects of ionic strength and pH on the drug recovery with the avoidance of degradation of the drug during the procedure. Aminophenazone and paracetamol were used as model drugs. The optimum conditions for drug release from the molten suppository base were found to be 100 mM NaCl, 20-40 mM NaOH and a 30 min ultrasonic treatment of the final sample solution. As these conditions could cause the degradation of the drugs in the solution, this was followed by NMR spectroscopy, and the results indicated that degradation did not take place. The determined CMCs were 0.08 mM for Tween 20, 0.06 mM for Tween 60 and 0.04 mM for a combined Tween 20, Tween 60 system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilot trial of an intervention aimed at modifying drug preparation practices among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Hector M; Finlinson, Henriette A; Negron, Juan; Sosa, Irmaly; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Robles, Rafaela R

    2009-06-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) contaminate preparation materials with blood-borne pathogens by using syringes as measuring and dispensing devices. In collaboration with IDUs, we developed a preventive intervention consisting of four new preparation practices aimed at avoiding the use of syringes in the preparation, and reducing the contamination of the materials. This report describes the results of a pilot trial introducing the new practices to ascertain their adoption potential and their potential efficacy in reducing contamination. Participants comprised 37 active IDUs among whom the new practices were promoted during 16 weeks. In addition to self-reported behaviors, the study collected cookers and plastic caps from shooting galleries and tested them for the presence of blood residues. Adoption rates were: (1) cleaning of skin area with hand sanitizer--65.6%; (2) directly pouring water with a dropper into the cooker--56.3%; (3) drawing drug solution with a preparation syringe and syringe filter--34.4%; and, (4) backload rinsing syringes--53.1%. Rates of blood residues detected in cookers and plastic caps were 41.7% prior to the trial, 28.6% at week 8, 24.6% at week 14, and 12.0% at week 18. We believe the results of the pilot trial are compelling and suggest that this intervention merits further formal testing.

  18. Hybrid aerogel preparations as drug delivery matrices for low water-solubility drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Peter; López-Periago, Ana M; Lázár, István; Saurina, Javier; Domingo, Concepción

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive study of 14 hybrid aerogels of different composition with applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The overall objective was to modulate the release behavior of drug-impregnated aerogels, from an almost instantaneous release to a semi-retarded delivery prolonged during several hours, through internal surface functionalization. The designed hybrid aerogels were composed of silica and gelatin and functionalized with either phenyl, long (16) hydrocarbon chain or methyl moiety. As model systems, three class II active agents (pKaaerogels. The work relied on the use of supercritical fluid technology for both the synthesis and functionalization of the hybrid aerogels, as well as for the impregnation with an active agent using supercritical CO2 as a solvent. For the impregnated aerogels, in vitro release profiles were recorded under gastric and intestinal pH-conditions using HPLC techniques. The release behavior observed for the three studied drugs was explained considering the measured dissolution profiles of the crystalline drugs, the aerogel composition and its functionalization. Such features are considered of great interest to tailor the bioavailability of drugs with low water solubility.

  19. Insights on the Formulation of Herbal Beverages with Medicinal Claims According with Their Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Several herbal beverages claim medicinal benefits due to their antioxidant properties. However, operational factors such as the extracted herbal component, preparation method or concentration levels, might influence their biological activity. To assess this effect, the antioxidant activity of beverages prepared with Camellia sinensis, Aspalathus linearis or Cochlospermum angolensis, used solely or mixed with different fruit, plant or algae extracts, was studied using different ...

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Composite Drug Membranes of Gelatin/Chitosan to Ocular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Composite drug membranes of gelatin/chitosan for therapy of glaucoma by trabeculectomy were prepared through solvent volatilization, using triamcinolone acetonide as a model drug. The membranes were characterized by FT- IR, X-RD and SEM. Their degradability and swelling ability and biocompatibility were studied. The results showed that biocompatibility , flexibility, swelling ability and degradability of the composite films were better than pure film of chitosan . The composite membrane containing 25% (w/w) of gelatin was best. The drug was loaded in film in crystallite. The rabbit eyes experiment after 8 weeks showed that the form of follicle was all right, and ophthalmototus maintain in the perfect level.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of dopaminergic drugs used for Parkinson's disease, cabergoline and ropinirole, in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Armağan; Cağlar, Sena

    2007-04-01

    Simple and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for determination of dopaminergic drugs used for Parkinson's disease, cabergoline (CAB) and ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP), in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on the reactions between the studied drug substances and ion-pair agents [methyl orange (MO), bromocresol green (BCG) and bromophenol blue (BPB)] producing yellow colored ion-pair complexes in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane, which are spectrophotometrically determined at the appropriate wavelength of ion-pair complexes. Beer's law was obeyed within the concentration range from 1.0 to 35 microg ml(-1). The developed methods were applied successfully for the determination of these drugs in tablets.

  2. Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan as a novel polymeric drug for drug controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changkun; Wu, Yiguang; Zhao, Liyan; Huang, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    The acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan (ASACTS) with high degree of substitution (DS) was successfully synthesized, and characterized with FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis methods. The optimum synthesis conditions were obtained which gave the highest DS (about 60%) for ASACTS. Its drug release experiments were carried out in simulated gastric and intestine fluids. The results show that the drugs in the form of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) were released in a controlled manner from ASACTS only in simulated gastric fluid. The release profile can be best fitted with logistic and Weibull model. The research results reveal that ASACTS can be a potential polymeric drug for the controlled release of ASA and SA in the targeted gastric environment.

  3. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  4. [Toxic hepatitis due to the use of Ruta herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaev, Elena; Zeller, Lior; Biton, Amnon; Barski, Leonid

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal medicine by the general population is increasing. There are many known side effects resulting from these treatments. Despite the known side effects, physicians tend to neglect the anamnesis details regarding this issue and research budgets of these drugs are relatively low compared with conventional medicine, thus causing a lack of updated information. In this case report, we present an example of toxic hepatitis due to use of Ruta herbal medicine, an unfamiliar side effect of the common herbal medicine Ruta.

  5. To strengthen and refresh: herbal therapy in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esterik, P

    1988-01-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia herbal tonic drinks are a long established part of the health adaptation system of both rural and urban households. A recent study on infant feeding practices in urban poor households revealed a differential use of postpartum herbal tonics in Bangkok, Thailand and Semarang, Indonesia. This paper explores the cultural meaning of this difference between comparable groups of mothers, focussing on the colonial and neocolonial development of the medical systems, the transmission of knowledge about herbal therapies, and how the tonics fit into the food-drug classification system in both countries.

  6. Preparation and structure of drug-carrying biodegradable microspheres designed for transarterial chemoembolization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujing; Benzina, Abderazak; Molin, Daniel G M; Akker, Nynke van den; Gagliardi, Mick; Koole, Leo H

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) drug-eluting microspheres containing anti-tumor drugs, cisplatin, and sorafenib tosylate have been prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation method with diameter between 200 and 400 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cisplatin microspheres had smooth surfaces, while sorafenib tosylate microspheres and cisplatin + sorafenib tosylate microspheres were porous at the surface and the pits of the latter were larger than those of the former. Notably, cisplatin + sorafenib tosylate microspheres had a fast drug release rate compared with microspheres containing one drug alone. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments and classical matrigel endothelial tube assay certificated the maintaining bioactivity of cisplatin and sorafenib tosylate released from the microspheres, respectively. This work provides a useful approach for the fabrication of drug-eluting beads used in transarterial chemoembolization.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system of etoricoxib using modified chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation chitosan has been chemically modified by treating with two different aldehydes like acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde to form Schiff′s bases. Schiff′s bases of chitosan with acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were named as polymer A and polymer B, respectively. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectral data have confirmed the reaction carried out on chitosan. Drug free polymeric films of chitosan, chemically modified chitosan and chitosan/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend were prepared and evaluated for various physicochemical characters. Further, the films were incorporated with anti-inflammatory drug, etoricoxib using glycerol as plasticizer. The drug loaded films were cross-linked with sodium citrate and studied for permeation characteristics across dialysis membrane and rat skin. All the films were evaluated for bursting strength, swelling index, moisture uptake, thickness uniformity, drug content uniformity, tensile strength, percent elongation at break, percent flatness, water vapour transmission rate and in vitro drug permeation study.

  8. Features of the local immunity state of upper respiratory tract mucosa in children – pupil-orphans of children’s home and effectiveness of seasonal prophylaxis of ARVI using multicomponent herbal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochynа I.L.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 116 children from children’s homes at the age from 3 to 17 years during clinical well-being were inspected. The question on possibility of immunological examination of organized groups of children and the need of seasonal prophylaxis of ARVI using multicomponent herbal preparation hase been submitted with the city department of health, city department of education, with heads of children's homes as official guardians of children, being in full compliance with the requirements of the biotic committee, considering ICH GCP guidelines and Helsinki Declaration on Bioethics, taking into account the rights of a child. The evaluation of the local immunity system in all children from orphanages during clinical well-being by non-invasive methods was done twice - before and after seasonal prophylaxis of ARVI. Standardized microbiological examination of nose and throat mucosa was used; the content of antimicrobial lactoferrin protein (test system Human Lactoferrin, Hycult ® biotech, NTV, "BioKhimMak», α-defensins 1-3 (test system Human HNP 1-3, Hycult ® biotech, NTV, "BioKhimMak" with asses¬sment of SIgA concentration (test system "Vector - BEST", Russia in secretion of oropharyngeal cavity was determined. The presence of significant changes in the system of local immunity in the upper respiratory tract mucosa in children (101 humans with frequent episodes of ARVI due to α-defensins 1-3 reduction and deficit of secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in oropharyngeal secretions was shown. In 83.3% of cases this occurred in combination with dysbiosis of throat and nasal mucous membranes, the effect of dysbiosis on the local immunity state was confirmed by a correlation analysis. The efficacy of multicomponent herbal preparation in scheme of seasonal ARVI prevention in children was 88%, being proved by the formation of eubiosis of nose and throat mucous membranes in 78% of cases in combination with a significant increase of lactoferrin

  9. Preparation of finasteride capsules-loaded drug nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tarek A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, optimized freeze-dried finasteride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from drug nanosuspension formulation that was developed using the bottom–up technique. The effects of four formulation and processing variables that affect the particle size and solubility enhancement of the NPs were explored using the response surface optimization design. The optimized formulation was morphologically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Physicochemical interaction among the studied components was investigated. Crystalline change was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Crystal growth of the freeze-dried NPs was compared to the corresponding aqueous drug nanosuspension. Freeze-dried NPs formulation was subsequently loaded into hard gelatin capsules that were examined for in vitro dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior. Results revealed that in most of the studied variables, some of the quadratic and interaction effects had a significant effect on the studied responses. TEM image illustrated homogeneity and shape of the prepared NPs. No interaction among components was noticed. XRPD confirmed crystalline state change in the optimized NPs. An enhancement in the dissolution rate of more than 2.5 times from capsules filled with optimum drug NPs, when compared to capsules filled with pure drug, was obtained. Crystal growth, due to Ostwald ripening phenomenon and positive Gibbs free energy, was reduced following lyophilization of the nanosuspension formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters from drug NPs were superior to that of pure drug and drug microparticles. In conclusion, freeze-dried NPs based on drug nanosuspension formulation is a successful technique in enhancing stability, solubility, and in vitro dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs with possible impact on the drug bioavailability. PMID:26893559

  10. Preparation of finasteride capsules-loaded drug nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: In this study, optimized freeze-dried finasteride nanoparticles (NPs were prepared from drug nanosuspension formulation that was developed using the bottom–up technique. The effects of four formulation and processing variables that affect the particle size and solubility enhancement of the NPs were explored using the response surface optimization design. The optimized formulation was morphologically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Physicochemical interaction among the studied components was investigated. Crystalline change was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD. Crystal growth of the freeze-dried NPs was compared to the corresponding aqueous drug nanosuspension. Freeze-dried NPs formulation was subsequently loaded into hard gelatin capsules that were examined for in vitro dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior. Results revealed that in most of the studied variables, some of the quadratic and interaction effects had a significant effect on the studied responses. TEM image illustrated homogeneity and shape of the prepared NPs. No interaction among components was noticed. XRPD confirmed crystalline state change in the optimized NPs. An enhancement in the dissolution rate of more than 2.5 times from capsules filled with optimum drug NPs, when compared to capsules filled with pure drug, was obtained. Crystal growth, due to Ostwald ripening phenomenon and positive Gibbs free energy, was reduced following lyophilization of the nanosuspension formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters from drug NPs were superior to that of pure drug and drug microparticles. In conclusion, freeze-dried NPs based on drug nanosuspension formulation is a successful

  11. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  12. Sample preparation composite and replicate strategy case studies for assay of solid oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Beverly; Harrington, Brent; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Michele Xuemei

    2017-08-16

    Drug product assay is one of several tests required for new drug products to ensure the quality of the product at release and throughout the life cycle of the product. Drug product assay testing is typically performed by preparing a composite sample of multiple dosage units to obtain an assay value representative of the batch. In some cases replicate composite samples may be prepared and the reportable assay value is the average value of all the replicates. In previously published work by Harrington et al. (2014) [5], a sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay was developed to provide a systematic approach which accounts for variability due to the analytical method and dosage form with a standard error of the potency assay criteria based on compendia and regulatory requirements. In this work, this sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay is applied to several case studies to demonstrate the utility of this approach and its application at various stages of pharmaceutical drug product development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  14. Preparation and characterization of amidated pectin based hydrogels for drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R K; Datt, M; Pal, K; Banthia, A K

    2008-06-01

    In the current studies attempts were made to prepare hydrogels by chemical modification of pectin with ethanolamine (EA) in different proportions. Chemically modified pectin products were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde reagent for preparing hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), organic elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), swelling studies, biocompatibility and hemocompatibility studies. Mechanical properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated by tensile test. The hydrogels were loaded with salicylic acid (used as a model drug) and drug release studies were done in a modified Franz's diffusion cell. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands. XRD studies indicated increase in crystallinity in the hydrogels as compared to unmodified pectin. The degree of amidation (DA) and molar and mass reaction yields (YM and YN) was calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis. The hydrogels showed good water holding properties and were found to be compatible with B-16 melanoma cells & human blood.

  15. Robot-assisted preparation of oncology drugs: the role of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Elisabetta; Bufarini, Celestino

    2012-12-15

    Since 2007, the preparation of cancer drugs at the Pharmacy of the University Hospital of Ancona has been progressively robotized. Currently, the process of preparation of intravenous cancer drugs is almost totally automated (95%). At present, the Cytotoxic laboratory of Ancona is the sole, in Europe, that can count on two robots. The robots handle 56 oncology molecules, which correspond to more than 160 different vials. The production rate in 2011 exceeded 19,000 preparations. The quality of compounding and the sterility controls are satisfactory, every step of the process is traceable. The nursing staff played a fundamental role in the robot development process. The nursing staff and the pharmacists are still collaborating with the robotic engineers in order to increase efficiency, ergonomics and user-friendliness of the robots.

  16. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabha, G., E-mail: gprabhagovinn@gmail.com; Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com

    2016-06-15

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug ‘curcumin’ is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183–390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26–41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behavior of curcumin drug loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium in addition to the nature of matrix. - Highlights: • The considered drug carrier Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were prepared and entrapping (Curcumin). • The amount of the drug had great effect on the drug LC and EE and zeta potential Nanocomposites. • The Curcumin- loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanocomposites showed pH responsive drug release.

  18. The new LOCI digoxin assay on the Vista 1500 analyzer is virtually free from interferences of herbal supplements hawthorn and ashwagandha (Indian ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Johnson, Myrtle J; Wahed, Amer

    2012-07-01

    Herbal supplements hawthorn and ashwagandha (Indian ginseng) are indicated for cardiac illnesses and may be taken by patients receiving digoxin therapy. Because both hawthorn and ashwagandha are known to interfere with serum digoxin measurements using certain digoxin immunoassays, we investigated potential interference of these two herbal supplements with the new homogenous sequential chemiluminescent assay for digoxin based on the luminescent oxygen channeling technology (LOCI digoxin) for application on the Dimension and Vista platform. When aliquots of a drug-free serum pool were supplemented with various amounts of hawthorn (three different commercial preparations) or ashwagandha (two different commercial preparations) and apparent digoxin values were measured using LOCI digoxin assay on Dimension Vista 1500 analyzer we observed none-detected values except when aliquots were supplemented with very high amounts of the herbal extracts. When aliquots of a serum digoxin pool (prepared by pooling specimens from patients receiving digoxin) where further supplemented with various amounts of these supplements and digoxin concentrations were remeasured, statistically significant falsely higher digoxin values were observed only in specimens containing very high amounts of these supplements. Such interference may not be clinically significant. We conclude that new LOCI digoxin assay is virtually free from interferences of herbal supplements, hawthorn, and ashwagandha.

  19. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-04-27

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  20. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frenzel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Herb induced liver injury (HILI and drug induced liver injury (DILI share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT. However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  1. Preparation and Properties of Gelatin-Chitosan/Montmorillonite Drug-loaded Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Junping; SHAN Jiahui; FAN Zhaoming; YAO Kangde

    2011-01-01

    A kind of slow release drug-loaded microspheres were prepared with gelatin,chitosan and montmorillonite(MMT)by an emulsification/chemical cross-linking method using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent and acyclovir as model drug.The microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM),respectively.The morphology,drug content,encapsulation efficiency and drug-release behavior were investigated with different MMT contents.The experimental results indicated that intercalated microspheres could be prepared,the morphology of microspheres was markedly affected by MMT.The glomeration performance of uncross-linked microspheres was improved because of the physical cross-linking of MMT.Drug content and encapsulation efficiency were decreased when increased the content of MMT,but burst release and the drug release were significantly decreased with the addition of MMT.Effective physical cross-linking could be formed when added MMT,and MMT could reduce the content of toxic chemical cross-linking agents.

  2. PREPARATION AND DRUG RELEASE CHARACTERISTICS OF PINGYANGMYCIN GELATIN MICROSPHERES FOR EMBOLIZATION THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红; 张镇西; 吴道澄; 于开涛; 李晓晔

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To prepare Pingyangmycin gelatin microspheres (PYM-GMS) for carotid artery embolization therapy and to study the release characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Methods: PYM-GMS was prepared by optical double-phase emulsified condensation polymerization. Through UV-spectrophotometer drug content and encapsulation rate were measured. The characteristics of drug release in vitro which could simulate the actual state in vivo were tested by HPLC. Three ways of vein drop, artery perfusion and artery embolization were contrasted. Under the supervision of X-ray, PYM-GMS were perfused into the external carotid artery of rabbits by superselective artery embolization. Blood samples were tested at different time and analyzed statistically. Results: The roundness of PYM-GMS was 1.02±0.005. The mean diameter was 85.6 (m, 78% of them ranging from 50(200 (m, which fitted the use of embolization. PYM content and encapsulation rate were 6.8% and 91.3% respectively. 70% of the drug was released in 3 h in the simulated environment in vivo and total drug was released after more than 6 h. After artery embolization with small dosage of PYM-GMS, the local drug concentration was 8 times higher than the blood drug concentration and the high level of local drug concentration was kept for more than 120 min. Conclusion: External carotid artery embolization with PYM-GMS, which significantly reduced the circulating drug level and employment dosage, could prolong the duration higher drug concentration and suit the purpose of targeted tumor therapy.

  3. 中草药抗白念珠菌作用研究进展%Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝毅; 夏志宽; 杨蓉娅

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common human fungal pathogen,which can cause a variety of superficial and deep mycoses,and often become resistant to commonly used antifungal agents.So looking for broad-spectrum,high efficiency,low toxicity anti-Candida drugs has became a hot research.Extremely rich resources of Chinese herbal medicine have certain advantages of the prevention and treatment of Candida infections.To study the role of Chinese herbal medicine against Candida albicans,articles summarize the three aspects:herbal mechanism of action against Candida albicans and its active ingredient,single herb and compound herbal preparations against Candida albicans,synergistic effect of compound traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine against Candida albicans.The Chinese herbal medicine against Candida albicans clinical and experimental studies in recent years were reviewed.The article further confirmed the role of herbal anti-Candida albicans and showed the broad application prospects of herbal antifungal aspects.%白念珠菌,是人类最常见的真菌病原体,可引起各种浅表及深部真菌病,对常用抗真菌药物易产生耐药.文章就近年来有关中草药抗白念珠菌的相关临床及实验研究进行综述,主要从中草药抗白念珠菌的作用机制及其活性成分、单味及复方中草药制剂抗白念珠菌作用、中西药协同抗白念珠菌作用几个方面进行阐述.

  4. Water-based preparation of spider silk films as drug delivery matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Elisa; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-09-10

    The main focus of this work was to obtain a drug delivery matrix characterized by biocompatibility, water insolubility and good mechanical properties. Moreover the preparation process has to be compatible with protein encapsulation and the obtained matrix should be able to sustain release a model protein. Spider silk proteins represent exceptional natural polymers due to their mechanical properties in combination with biocompatibility. As both hydrophobic and slowly biodegrading biopolymers, recombinant spider silk proteins fulfill the required properties for a drug delivery system. In this work, we present the preparation of eADF4(C16) films as drug delivery matrices without the use of any organic solvent. Water-based spider silk films were characterized in terms of protein secondary structure, thermal stability, zeta-potential, solubility, mechanical properties, and water absorption and desorption. Additionally, this study includes an evaluation of their application as a drug delivery system for both small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight molecules such as proteins. Our investigation focused on possible improvements in the film's mechanical properties including plasticizers in the film matrix. Furthermore, different film designs were prepared, such as: monolayer, coated monolayer, multilayer (sandwich), and coated multilayer. The release of the model protein BSA from these new systems was studied. Results indicated that spider silk films are a promising protein drug delivery matrix, capable of releasing the model protein over 90 days with a release profile close to zero order kinetic. Such films could be used for several pharmaceutical and medical purposes, especially when mechanical strength of a drug eluting matrix is of high importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and in vitro drug delivery response of doxorubicin loaded PAA coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidirad Reyhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spherical superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION with mean diameter of 6 nm were prepared by means of a reduction-precipitation method. The surface of SPION were coated with poly(acrylic acid 5000 (PAA-5000 and followed by loading of anticancer drug doxorubicin. Drug loading efficiency was (14.64 ± 0.29. In vitro drug release studies were done for 8 h at two different pH (4.2 and 7.4 and drug release rates at pH 4.2 (100% DOX released in 2 h was much faster than that at pH 7.4 (~78% DOX released in 8 h. These results indicate that these DOX-carrier nanoparticles have a high drug loading capacity and favorable release property for magnetic drug targeting. Kinetic drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model at pH 4.2 while at pH 7.4 zero order model was best fitted, and drug release mechanism followed super case II transport in acidic and basic medium. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, and UV-Vis.

  6. Determination of the Mutagenicity Potential of Supermint Herbal Medicine by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis in Rat Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivar Amanpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The increasing use of herbal drugs and their easy availability have necessitated the use of mutagenicity test to analyze their toxicity and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Supermint herbal medicine in DNA breakage of rat hepatocytes in comparison with sodium dichromate by single cell gel electrophoresis technique or comet assay. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared from male wistar rats and were counted and kept in a bioreactor for 30 minutes. Then cells were exposed to the Supermint herbal medicine at doses of 125, 250 and 500 μl/ml. Buffer 4 (incubation buffer and sodium dichromate were used as negative and positive control for one hour respectively. Then cell suspension with low melting point agarose were put on precoated slides and covered with agarose gel. Then lysing, electrophoresis, neutralization and staining were carried out. Finally the slides were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. The parameter under this analysis was the type of migration which was determined according to Kobayashi pattern. Results: With increased dose of Supermint herbal medicine the DNA damage was slightly increased (P<0001. Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect.

  7. Online sources of herbal product information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions.

  8. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  9. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs The journal started publication monthly since January 1970, is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research. The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of research papers, brief reports, reviews, dissertation, and special treatises to report the recent achievements of the basic study, production, quality

  10. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  11. Review of selected Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Emily; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how Chinese herbal medicines are used in the treatment of diabetes, focusing on potential benefits and risks. Medline, expert interviews, and Internet searches were used to identify Chinese herbal medicines with antidiabetic properties and their diabetes-related health claim, proposed antidiabetic effect, adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions. Twenty-three herbs and 5 herbal formulas were selected for review. Antidiabetic health claims included increasing serum insulin, decreasing blood glucose, increasing glucose metabolism, and/or stimulating pancreatic function. Side effects were few or not reported. The use of Chinese herbal medicines in diabetes is promising but still far from proven. Diabetes educators need to be aware of the risks and benefits of herbal medicines. Patients should be asked about the use and source of herbal medicines and carefully monitored for drug interactions and adverse effects.

  12. Glycyrrhetinic acid-modified nanoparticles for drug delivery:Preparation and characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Qin; WANG Wei; HE XiaoTing; ZHU XiaoCui; HUANG Wei; ZHANG ChuangNian; YUAN Zhi; CHEN XueSi

    2009-01-01

    In this work,glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (mGA-suc-CTS) used as liver targeted carrier for drug delivery,was prepared via hemisuccinate as a bridged group. The structure of the product was confirmed by IR and NMR methods and the degree of substitution (DS) of glycyrrhetinic acid groups was estimated via elemental analysis. Nanoparticles were formed by ionic gelation methold. The drug-loading and release behavior of the nanoparticles were investigated using BSA as the model drug.The results indicated that the carrier with a highest DS of 5.19% could be got and the DS was controlled by changing reaction temperature or feed ratio. BSA could be entrapped into the nanoparticles with the drug-loading ratio of 26.3% and the encapsulation efficiency of 81.5%. A sustained release over an 11-day period was observed in pH 7.4 in vitro.

  13. Microparticles prepared from biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates as matrix for encapsulation of cytostatic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murueva, A V; Shishatskaya, E I; Kuzmina, A M; Volova, T G; Sinskey, A J

    2013-08-01

    Microparticles made from degradable polyhydroxyalkanoates of different chemical compositions a homopolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyric and 4-hydroxybutyric acids (P3HB/4HB), 3-hydroxybutyric and 3-hydroxyvaleric acids (P3HB/3HV), 3-hydroxybutyric and 3-hydroxyhexanoic acids (P3HB/3HHx) were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique, from double emulsions. The study addresses the influence of the chemical compositions on the size and ξ-potential of microparticles. P3HB microparticles loaded with doxorubicin have been prepared and investigated. Their average diameter and ξ-potential have been found to be dependent upon the level of loading (1, 5, and 10 % of the polymer mass). Investigation of the in vitro drug release behavior showed that the total drug released from the microparticle into the medium increased with mass concentration of the drug. In this study mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells were cultivated on PHA microparticles, and results of using fluorescent DAPI DNA stain, and MTT assay showed that microparticles prepared from PHAs of different chemical compositions did not exhibit cytotoxicity to cells cultured on them and proved to be highly biocompatible. Cell attachment and proliferation on PHA microparticles were similar to those on polystyrene. The cytostatic drug encapsulated in P3HB/3HV microparticles has been proven to be effective against HeLa tumor cells.

  14. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  15. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  16. Preparation and drug release mechanism of CTS-TAX-NP-MSCs drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tian; Yang, Enyun; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Linan; Zhang, Li; Shen, Ning; Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Xie, Yinghua; Wu, Shaomei; Gao, Zibin

    2013-11-01

    Targeting delivery of anticancer agents is a promising field in anticancer therapy. Inherent tumor-tropic and migratory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them potential vehicles for targeting drug delivery systems for tumors. Although, MSCs have been successfully studied and discussed as a vehicle for cancer gene therapy, they have not yet been studied adequately as a potential vehicle for traditional chemical anticancer drugs. In this study, we have engineered MSCs as a potential targeting delivery vehicle for paclitaxel (TAX)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs). The size, surface charge, starving time of MSCs, incubating time and concentration of NPs could influence the efficiency of NPs uptake. In vitro release of TAX from CTS (chitosan)-TAX-NP-MSCs and the expression of P-glycoprotein demonstrated that release of TAX from MSCs might involve both passive diffusion and active transport. In vitro migration assays indicated that MSCs at passage number 3 have the highest migrating ability. Although, the migration ability of CTS-TAX-NP-MSCs could be inhibited by uptake of CTS-TAX-NPs, this ability could recover 6 days after the internalization.

  17. New Method to Prepare Mitomycin C Loaded PLA-Nanoparticles with High Drug Entrapment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhenqing; Wei, Heng; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Chunxiao; Zhan, Chuanming; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2009-07-01

    The classical utilized double emulsion solvent diffusion technique for encapsulating water soluble Mitomycin C (MMC) in PLA nanoparticles suffers from low encapsulation efficiency because of the drug rapid partitioning to the external aqueous phase. In this paper, MMC loaded PLA nanoparticles were prepared by a new single emulsion solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of MMC by formation of MMC-SPC complex. Four main influential factors based on the results of a single-factor test, namely, PLA molecular weight, ratio of PLA to SPC (wt/wt) and MMC to SPC (wt/wt), volume ratio of oil phase to water phase, were evaluated using an orthogonal design with respect to drug entrapment efficiency. The drug release study was performed in pH 7.2 PBS at 37 °C with drug analysis using UV/vis spectrometer at 365 nm. MMC-PLA particles prepared by classical method were used as comparison. The formulated MMC-SPC-PLA nanoparticles under optimized condition are found to be relatively uniform in size (594 nm) with up to 94.8% of drug entrapment efficiency compared to 6.44 μm of PLA-MMC microparticles with 34.5% of drug entrapment efficiency. The release of MMC shows biphasic with an initial burst effect, followed by a cumulated drug release over 30 days is 50.17% for PLA-MMC-SPC nanoparticles, and 74.1% for PLA-MMC particles. The IR analysis of MMC-SPC complex shows that their high liposolubility may be attributed to some weak physical interaction between MMC and SPC during the formation of the complex. It is concluded that the new method is advantageous in terms of smaller size, lower size distribution, higher encapsulation yield, and longer sustained drug release in comparison to classical method.

  18. From “herbal highs” to the “heroin of cannabis”: Exploring the evolving discourse on synthetic cannabinoid use in a Norwegian Internet drug forum

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgrei, Ola Røed

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, online vendors began selling an array of so-called “legal highs”—apparently organic produce made from exotic herbs. Simultaneously, members of online drug discussion forums began to debate the alleged effects of the new drugs, creating an enormous base of user-derived information based on personal experiences. This study combines the historical data spanning a seven-year period derived from a Norwegian drug discussion forum about synthetic cannabinoids and interviews wi...

  19. Hepatotoxicity and the present herbal hepatoprotective scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyankar Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the metabolic and physiological processes of our body as well as the detoxification of various drugs and xenobiotic chemicals occur in the liver. During this detoxification process, the reactive chemical intermediates damage the liver severely. There are several commercially available drugs, consumption of which results in idiosyncratic drug reaction mediated hepatotoxicity. Drug induced hepatotoxicity is a burning problem in this regard and several drugs are withdrawn from the market due to their hepatotoxic nature. Today, worldwide search of non-hepatotoxic drugs, especially potent hepatoprotective drugs have led towards the screening of numerous herbal products. Pharmaceutical companies and scientific communities have started to consider the therapeutic efficiency of the plant-based hepatoprotective remedies. Different herbs are mentioned in various ethnopharmacological practices possessing hepatoprotective capacities and around the globe, such herbs are still used by people to cure certain liver diseases. Therefore, we have documented the various aspects of hepatotoxicity and an overview on the current scenario of the hepatoprotective herbal remedies.

  20. Implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Pacheco Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service and to be able to analyze the added value to pharmacotherapy. Methods: The implementation was carried out in June 2012 at a tertiary level Hospital, taking place in two periods: 1- test period with the installation of the robot, with technical configuration of the equipment and validation of 29 active ingredients and the integration of electronic prescribing software with the robot application (9 months. 2- Usage period (22 months. On the other hand, training was given to pharmacists and nurses. The robot uses image recognition, barcode identification and gravimetric controls for proper operation. These checks provide information about the error ratio in the preparation, with a margin of ± 10%, which after a pilot study was restricted to a range of ±4%. The robot was programmed to recognize bags, infusion pumps, syringes and vials. The added value was assessed for 31 months by identifying preparation´s errors. Results: 11,865 preparations were made by the robot, which meant approximately 40% of all antineoplastic prepared from 29 different active ingredients. 1.12% (n=133 of the errors were identified by the robot and therefore didn´t reach the patient (negative desviation - 4%. These errors were corrected manually. Conclusion: The implementation of a robot in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs allows to identify errors therefore preventing them to arrive to the patient. This promotes safety and quality of the process, reducing the exposure to cytotoxic drugs from the manipulator

  1. [Implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Ramos, María de la Paz; Arenaza Peña, Ainhoa Elisa; Santiago Pérez, Alejandro; Bilbao Gómez-Martino, Cristina; Zamora Barrios, María Dolores; Arias Fernández, María Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    To describe the implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service and to be able to analyze the added value to pharmacotherapy. The implementation was carried out in June 2012 at a tertiary level Hospital, taking place in two periods: 1- test period with the installation of the robot, with technical configuration of the equipment and validation of 29 active ingredients and the integration of electronic prescribing software with the robot application (9 months). 2- Usage period (22 months). On the other hand, training was given to pharmacists and nurses. The robot uses image recognition, barcode identification and gravimetric controls for proper operation. These checks provide information about the error ratio in the preparation, with a margin of ± 10%, which after a pilot study was restricted to a range of ±4%. The robot was programmed to recognize bags, infusion pumps, syringes and vials. The added value was assessed for 31 months by identifying preparation's errors. 11,865 preparations were made by the robot, which meant approximately 40% of all antineoplastic prepared from 29 different active ingredients. 1.12% (n=133) of the errors were identified by the robot and therefore didn't reach the patient (negative desviation - 4%). These errors were corrected manually. The implementation of a robot in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs allows to identify errors therefore preventing them to arrive to the patient. This promotes safety and quality of the process, reducing the exposure to cytotoxic drugs from the manipulator. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Contact Lenses Embedded with Polycaprolactone-Based Nanoparticles for Ocular Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Farzaneh Hashemi; Khoee, Sepideh; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Chaleshtori, Sirous Sadeghian; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-02-08

    To improve the efficiency of topical ocular drug administration, we focused on development of a nanoparticles loaded contact lens to deliver the hydrophobic drug over a prolonged period of time. The cross-linked nanoparticles based on PCL (poly ε-caprolactone), 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and poly ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) were prepared by surfactant-free miniemulsion polymerization. The lens material was prepared through photopolymerization of HEMA and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) using PEG-DA as the cross-linker. Effects of nanoparticles loading on critical contact lens properties such as transparency, water content, modulus and ion and oxygen permeabilities were studied. Nanoparticles and hydrogel showed high viability, indicating the absence of cytotoxicity and stimulatory effect. Drug release studies revealed that the hydrogel embedded with nanoparticles released the drug for a period of 12 days. The results of this study provide evidence that nanoparticles loaded hydrogels could be used for extended delivery of loteprednol etabonate and perhaps other drugs.

  3. PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MICRO EMULSION OF ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUG: VALSARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Patel et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan is an orally administered ACE inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure, but its solubility and oral bioavailability are poor. The objective of investigation is to formulate a microemulsion drug delivery system of valsartan using minimum surfactant concentration that could improve its solubility and oral bioavailability. Valsartan microemulsion were prepared by Phase-titration method. The composition of optimized formulation consist of Capmul MCM(Oil, Tween 20 (Surfactant,PEG 400(Co-Surfactant and it contains 40 mg of Valsartan.Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to check for the micro-emulsification range. Prepared microemulsion formulations were tested for micro emulsifying properties and the resultant microemulsion were evaluated for robustness to dilution, viscosity, drug content, thermodynamic stability studies and in-vitrodissolution. The optimized microemulsion formulation further evaluated for thermodynamic stability studies, particle size distribution, and zeta potential to confirm the stability of the formed Microemulsion. Resultant microemulsion optimized formulation (F2 shows drug release (99.71%, droplet size (36 nm, viscosity (0. 8872 cP, Zetapotenial (-38.8 mV and infinite dilution capability. The formulation was found to show a significant improvement in terms of the drug release with complete release of drug within 80 minutes. Thus, micro emulsifying formulation of valsartan was successfully developed with sustained release.

  4. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Olmesartan Medoxomil for Bioavailability Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh T. Prajapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB antihypertensive agent administered orally that has absolute bioavailability of only 26% due to the poor aqueous solubility (7.75 μg/ml. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS to enhance the oral absorption of OLM. The solubility of OLM in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was determined. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using Acrysol EL 135, Tween 80, Transcutol P, and distilled water to identify the efficient self-microemulsification region. Prepared SMEDDS was further evaluated for its emulsification time, drug content, optical clarity, droplet size, zeta potential, in vitro dissolution, and in vitro and ex vivo drug diffusion study. The optimized formulation S2 contained OLM (20 mg, Tween 80 (33%v/v, Transcutol P (33%v/v, and Acrysol EL 135 (34%v/v had shown the smallest particle size, maximum solubility, less emulsification time, good optical clarity, and in vitro release. The in vitro and ex vivo diffusion rate of the drug from the SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of the plain drug suspension. It was concluded that SMEDDS would be a promising drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs by the oral route.

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Cuiqing Liu; Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity, however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly...

  7. Studies on locally available three anti-diabetic herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are being used for the treatment of different diseases for centuries. Sustainable development of herbal medicines need the study of their safety, efficacy and standardization are essential. Two commercially available herbal medicines i.e., Ziabetes (dolabi and Jambadayrist, and a folkloric medicine prepared from four plant materials by a local practitioners were investigated for their chemical compositions. Four compounds were isolated from the extracts of these medicines by silica gel column chromatography. Oleic acid and p-hydroxycinnamic acid were isolated from the aqueous 80%ethanol extract of the folkloric medicine whereas benzoic acid was found to be present in Ziabetes and Jambadayrist. The present investigation revealed that excessive amount of benzoic acid (or sodium benzoate is being added as preservative in commercial herbal medicines.

  8. Overview STUDY AND APPLICATION OF HERBAL DISINFECTANTS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO-BIN CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants[1]. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty[2]. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils[3]. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  9. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  10. The effectiveness of a course of the drug " Alakton " in the preparation of skilled wrestlers

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    Sazonov V.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . The influence of the new domestic preparation on the performance of functional readiness and psychophysiological performance athletes. Material and methods . The study involved 12 qualified wrestlers (age 17-19 years with the written consent. The drug contains chelated magnesium glycinate cocarboxylase and betaine. Course reception - within seven days of shock microcycle. Results . Found that course reception has a positive impact on health and the special recovery processes athletes. Also found a positive effect on physiological indicators. The authentic reduction in travel time distance shuttle run 4 x 9 m, increase in the coefficient of special endurance, increase the number of repetitions in the test. Showed a reduction in the coefficient of restitution and increasing the number of shots (mill in this test. Conclusions . The data obtained suggest appropriate use of the drug in the practice of preparing skilled fighters.

  11. Effects of medicated serum prepared with Chinese herbal medicine Changweiqing on pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin in colon cancer cells%肠胃清对结肠癌细胞草酸铂药代动力学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 孙晓文; 许建华; 陆海; 范忠泽; 孙珏; 张晓晓

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Changweiqing-medicated serum, which was prepared with a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on the reversal of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) resistance and the relationship between the reversal and cellular accumulation of platinum and proteins associated with copper transporter in HCT116/L-OHP cells.METHODS: For clarifying the reversal effect of Changweiqing, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium was applied to determine the L-OHP resistance of HCT116/L-OHP cell line. The relationship between the cellular accumulation of platinum and the L-OHP resistance in HCT116/L-OHP cells, and the effects of drug-medicated serum on intracellular contents of platinum were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Western blot method was used to determine the expressions of human copper transporter 1 (hCTRl), ATPase Cu2+ transporting alpha polypeptide (ATP7A), copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7B), glutathione S-transferase-7t (GST-7r) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2).RESULTS: The inhibitory concentration 50% values of different pairs of L-OHP-sensitive and -resistant cells were 7.2 and 89. 00. The resistance index of HCT116/L-OHP cells was 12. 36. The reverse index of drug serum on HCT116/L-OHP cells was 2. 74. The platinum content in HCT116/L-OHP cells was decreased compared with HCT116 cells in condition of 7.2 μg/mL L-OHP. After treating by 7.5% Changweiqing-medicated serum, the intracellular platinum contents in L-OHP-sensitive and -resistant cells were increased. It was dose-dependent that drug-medicated serum promoted the uptake of L-OHP by HCT116 or HCT116/L-OHP cells and inhibited the discharge. The 7. 5% Changweiqing-medicated serum increased the expression of hCTRl and decreased the expressions of ATP7A and ATP7B in HCT116/L-OHP cells, but had no effects on GST-Π and MRP2 protein expressions.CONCLUSION: Changweiqing can reverse the L-OHP resistance of HCT116/L-OHP by increasing the

  12. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  13. Seaweed Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles: Preparation and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances and increasing amounts of research on the utilization of natural polymeric materials as drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Seaweed polysaccharides are abundant resources and have been extensively studied for several biological, biomedical, and functional food applications. The exploration of seaweed polysaccharides for drug delivery applications is still in its infancy. Alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, and laminarin are polysaccharides commonly isolated from seaweed. These natural polymers can be converted into nanoparticles (NPs by different types of methods, such as ionic gelation, emulsion, and polyelectrolyte complexing. Ionic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexing are commonly employed by adding cationic molecules to these anionic polymers to produce NPs of a desired shape, size, and charge. In the present review, we have discussed the preparation of seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs using different types of methods as well as their usage as carriers for the delivery of various therapeutic molecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, anti-cancer drugs, and antibiotics. Seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs exhibit suitable particle size, high drug encapsulation, and sustained drug release with high biocompatibility, thereby demonstrating their high potential for safe and efficient drug delivery.

  14. A new and improved method for the preparation of drug nanosuspension formulations using acoustic mixing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Dennis H; Lamberto, David J; Liu, Lina; Kwong, Elizabeth; Nelson, Todd; Rhodes, Timothy; Bak, Annette

    2014-10-01

    Drug discovery and development is a challenging area. During the drug optimization process, available drug compounds often have poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, making the proper in vivo evaluation of these compounds difficult. To address these challenges, drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble compounds have emerged as a promising formulation approach. Herein, we report on a new drug sparing technology utilizing low shear acoustic mixing to rapidly identify optimized nanosuspension formulations for a wide range of compounds with dramatically improved material and time efficiencies. This approach has several key advantages over typical methods of preparing nanoparticles, including miniaturization of the milling process, the ability to evaluate multiple formulation conditions in a high throughput manner, and direct translation to optimized formulation scale-up for in vivo studies. Furthermore, there are additional benefits obtained with this new approach resulting in nanosuspension formulations with significant stability and physical property enhancements over those obtained using traditional media milling techniques. These advantages make this approach highly suitable for the rapid evaluation of potential drug candidates in the discovery and development space.

  15. Evaluation of environmental contaminations and occupational exposures involved in preparation of chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shinichiro; Miyawaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Shoji; Oishi, Masako; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Many healthcare workers are concerned about the risk of occupational exposures to hazardous drugs. The Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists (JSHP) revised the "Guidelines for the Handling of Antineoplastic Drugs in Hospitals", however, the precautions and awareness of handling drugs varied in institutions. We assessed the levels of environmental contaminations in our hospital and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) in pharmacists and nurses. In environmental studies, we obtained samples by wiping the surfaces around two biological safety cabinets (BSCs) on eight days for four months. One BSC was equipped in hospital pharmacy and the other was equipped in an oncology ward, and used for preparing chemotherapeutic drugs for outpatients and for inpatients, respectively. We obtained the urine samples from 6 pharmacists and 2 nurses. We used solid phase extraction (SPE) as a convenient extraction procedure and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the analysis of the samples. CP was detected on the working surfaces inside both BSCs, and detected at low levels on the back surfaces of the BSCs and at the working tables around the BSCs. IF over the LLOQ was not detected in both BSCs. CP and IF were not detected in all urine samples of pharmacists and nurses. Detection frequencies and amounts of these drugs were low levels, compared with previous reports in Japan, and our results showed that improving awareness about handling hazardous drugs could reduce the risk of the occupational exposures.

  16. The Preparation of Cationic Folic Acid and Its Application in Drug Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hu; Lu Gan; Qian-xuan Li; Hong Tao; Lin Ye; Ai-ying Zhang; Zeng-guo Feng

    2014-01-01

    The cationic folic acid (CFA) was prepared by introducing triethylenetetramine into folic acid with EDCI/NHS and characterized by IR,NMR and mass spectra.It was found that approximately one of two carboxyls in the folic acid molecule was substituted to form CFA.The conversion of r-carboxyl is found to be 59% higher than 30% of a-carboxyl.The CFA and doxorubicin hydrochloride can be loaded on the ionic shell of PTX-encapsulated micelle to form CFA loaded binary drug carrier via static interaction in aqueous solutions.The successful loading was demonstrated by zeta potential measurement and the drug load amount (DLA) of CFA was measured by HPLC.In vitro cytotoxicity results revealed the CFA drug carrier showed higher cytotoxicity to cancer cell MDA-MB-321 than the binary drug carrier without CFA and the positive control,while it showed lower cytotoxicity to normal cell HUVEC than the positive control,and similar cytotoxicity with the binary drug carrier without CFA.These results as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy observation indicate the synthesized CFA drug carrier possesses active tumor-targeting property.

  17. Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g. PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time (ln(t. The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated.

  18. Gaojushen:a novel anti-cancer drug prepared from SEC superantigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈廷祚

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Clinical observations Gaojushen is a novel anti-cancer drug developed by Xiehe Bio-pharmaceutical Company,Shenyang, China. It is prepared and processed from the filtrate of Staphylococcus aureus culture. The active component contained in it has been shown to be a SEC superantigen that is a metabolite of the culture.This superantigen is marked by its ability to stimulate T cells at a high frequency, thereby giving rise to potent cell-mediated immunological responses and producing a large variety of cytokines with the final rsult of apoptosis of tumor cells. The drug was approved for trial prodoction in 1994 by the Center of the State Evaluation and Review of New Drugs,China,and was licenced for marketing by 1996 after finishing the phase III clinical trial.

  19. Guidance on preparing an investigational new drug application for fecal microbiota transplantation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Colleen R; Kunde, Sachin S; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for Clostridium difficile infections that are refractory to antibiotic therapy. Because of the important roles of the microbiota in the function of the gastrointestinal tract and other aspects of human physiology, there is a growing interest in studying FMT for other clinical indications. The US Food and Drug Administration regulates clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FMT. Studies of FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection or other indications could require submission of an investigational new drug application. Most academic physicians and investigators do not have the regulatory experience necessary to undertake this process. We provide guidance to researchers on the preparation and submission of investigational new drug applications to study FMT. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymeric formulations for drug release prepared by hot melt extrusion: application and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Milica; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2015-07-01

    Over the past few decades hot melt extrusion (HME) has emerged as a powerful processing technology for the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms in which an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is dispersed into polymer matrices. It has been shown that formulations using HME can provide time-controlled, sustained and targeted drug delivery, and improved bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In this review, the basic principles of the HME process are described together with an overview of some of the most common biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers used for the preparation of different formulations using this method. Further, the applications of HME in drug delivery and analytical techniques employed to characterize HME products are addressed.

  1. Preparation and drug releasing property of magnetic chitosan-5-fluorouracil nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-sheng; LI Jian-guo; LI He-ping; TANG Fa-qing

    2009-01-01

    In order to synthesize the targeting drug carrier system, magnetic chitosan-5-fluorouracil nano-particles were prepared by using 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as model drug, Fe_3O_4 nano-particles as kernel, chitosan as enveloping material and glutaraldehyde as cross linking agent through ultrasonic technique. The morphology of the magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles was observed with a transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results showed that magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles were prepared in spherical structure with a size range of 50-60 nm. The delivering capacity and drug releasing properties of magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles were investigated by UV-vis spectrum analysis. The results showed that the loading capacity was 13.4% and the cumulative release percentage in the phosphate buffer (pH=7.2) solutions was 68% in 30 h. These data indicate that the wrapped drug of magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles was slowly-released. The magnetic response of magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles was studied by UV-vis spectrometer to detect the changes of solution absorbance. Without external magnetic field, the nano-particle deposition rate was slow. When being subjected to 8 mT magnetic field, the particle sedimentation rate was increased rapidly. The results showed that magnetic chitosan-5-Fu nano-particles have a magnetic stability and strong targeting characteristics.

  2. Designing an experimental HIV/HCV intervention to promote the safe re-use of drug preparation materials by injection drug users in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Rafaela R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs in San Juan, Puerto Rico are characterized by high rates of daily injecting, injection of shared drugs, re-use of injection syringes, and use of shooting galleries. They lack adequate access to new injection syringes and drug preparation equipment, and experience elevated rates of HIV and HCV infection. Between April and August, 2006, researchers and active IDUs collaborated in the development of an experimental HIV/HCV intervention aimed at identifying drug preparation items and practices that will enable IDUs to make drug solutions without potentially contaminated injection syringes contacting materials used to prepare drugs. The collaboration involved discussing and testing a variety of drug preparation items and practices in office and community settings. The process was repeated until concerns that had been raised were resolved, and a tentative set of intervention items and practices to be evaluated in a community field trial was identified. Throughout, a strong emphasis was placed on the capacity of an item or practice to address common problems confronted by IDUs (blunted needles, clogged syringes, injected particles in addition to the core aim of reducing contamination of preparation materials by blood in injection syringes. This report describes the final selection of items and practices: 1 A small water bottle that permits IDUs to add approximately .05 cc water drops directly to drug powder in cookers; 2 A preparation syringe (a type of ancillary equipment not used for injecting that permits IDUs to pull up a measurable amount of water to add to drug powder, an alternative to producing water drops; 3 A filtering device, the Sterifilt filter, attached to a preparation syringe, which eliminates the need for cotton or cigarette filters; 4 Use of a preparation syringe to distribute drug solution by backloading to injection syringe(s; 5 A small water bottle enabling IDUs to clean injection syringes by

  3. Studies on the phase I and II metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the alkaloids of the herbal drug of abuse Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Kratom) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, Anika-Anina

    2011-01-01

    In the presented studies, the herbal drug Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) was investigated regarding its metabolism and its toxicological analysis in rat and human urine. Depending on the plant species and plant parts the three most abundant alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa are MG, PAY and the MG diastereomer SG. Further alkaloids are the MG diastereomers SC and MC and ISO-PAY the diastereomer of PAY. The diastereomers of MG and PAY were mainly metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in p...

  4. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation.

  5. Placebos used in clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K

    2008-06-01

    One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study.

  6. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  7. HERBAL REMEDIES FOR GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have great importance in maintaining the health of every person. Demands of Herbal medicines are increasing in both developed and developing countries due to growing recognition of natural plants being lesser no. of side effect, easily available in surrounding place with low coast. Different parts of the plant have different active substances and these active substances may vary in their extent of activity and concentration. Most of active principles are present in leaves, flower, fruit, bark, root & seeds of the plant. Gastric diseases are a major and worldwide very common problem in every age of person. Its 90% arises commonly due to mostly used of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory category of drug and about 8 to 10% by used of most spicy and fast food(Junk Food. In this review we have described some medicinal plants with respect to their Gastroprotective action.

  8. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    OpenAIRE

    Namdeo R Jadhav; Trupti Powar; Santosh Shinde; Sameer Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have...

  9. Occurrence of Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Isolated from Herbal Medicinal Products Sold in Different Markets of Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdela Yesuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the world’s population uses herbal medicine to treat various illnesses as means of primary healthcare. However, during preparation, herbal plants may be exposed to contamination by potential pathogens, and this may lead to infections. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial contamination of herbal medicinal products and to assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to May 25, 2013, at Gondar Town. A total of 55 samples used as oral, local, and intranasal routes of administration were collected from the herbalists. Results. In the present study the total aerobic bacterial count ranges from zero to 2.41×109 CFU/g with mean count of 1.99×108 CFU/g or mL while the total coliform count showed an average of 1.05×108 CFU/g or mL with a range of zero to 2.1×109 CFU/g. The most common bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. followed by Enterobacter spp., Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella spp. Multiple drug resistance was not uncommon and it was found that 125 (83.4% of the isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Conclusion. Herbal medicinal preparations were highly contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms with high microbial load. Most of the isolates have multiple drug resistance. Using those contaminated herbal medicines may lead to infection of other health related risks. Therefore, this warrants urgent training of herbalists and management scale-up for quality and safety of medicinal plants.

  10. PLANTEROSOMES: A POTENTIAL PHYTO-PHOSPHOLIPID CARRIERS FOR THE BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF HERBAL EXTRACTS

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    Priyanka Rathore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Planterosomes, term “PLANTERO” means plant while “SOME” means cell-like. A novel emerging technique applied to phytopharmaceutical for the enhancement of bioavailability of herbal extract for medicinal applications. Since the two major limiting factors for molecules to pass the biological membrane for their absorption in the blood stream mainly includes lipid solubility and molecular sizes. There are many plant extracts having excellent bioactivity in vitro but low or less in vivo because of their poor lipid solubility and improper size of the molecule or both which result in poor absorption and bioavailability of constituents from plant extract and are destroyed in the gastric fluids when taken orally. Planterosomes are recent advanced forms of herbal formulations that have enhanced absorption rate, producing better bioavailability than conventional herbal extracts. Since they have improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic parameters, they can be used in the treatment of the acute and chronic liver disease. Planterosomes are prepared by non conventional methods. Planterosomes absorption in GIT is greater resulting in increased plasma level than individual component. They act as a bridge between novel delivery system and conventional delivery system. Phospholipids molecule acting as vital carrier made up of water soluble head and two fat soluble tails, due to this nature they possess dual solubility and thus acting as an effective emulsifier. These drug-phospholipids complex can be formulated in the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsions, syrup, lotion, gel, cream, aqueous microdispersions, pill, capsule, powder, granules and chewable tablets. Planterosomes just like Phytosomes technology effectively enhanced the bioavailability of many popular herbal extracts including milk thistle, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed and ginseng etc.

  11. Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar; Mahdi, Farzana; Chander, Ramesh

    2008-09-01

    In the present investigation we report the protective potential of some herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant status and levels of metal ions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity of the herbs was also evaluated. Induction of diabetes mellitus in rats caused an increase in blood lipid peroxide levels that was associated with the reduced activity of red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant enzymes--namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase--along with depletion of plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, and selenium levels. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, and Ocimum sanctum extracts (500 mg/kg of body weight) not only lowered the blood glucose level but also inhibited the formation of lipid peroxides, reactivated the antioxidant enzymes, and restored levels of GSH and metals in the above-mentioned model. The herbal extracts (50-500 microg) inhibited the generation of superoxide anions (O(2)(-.)) in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic in vitro systems. These preparations also inhibited the ferrous-sodium ascorbate-induced formation of lipid peroxides in RBCs. The in vivo and in vitro protective effects of the above-mentioned herbal drugs were also compared with that of glibenclamide. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the above-mentioned herbal plants not only possess hypoglycemic properties, but they also decrease oxidative load in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we propose that long-term use of such agents might help in the prevention of diabetes-associated complications. However, the extrapolation of these results to humans needs further in-depth study.

  12. Herbal Product Education in United States Pharmacy Schools: Core or Elective Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Elaine D.; Parikh, Ami; Freely, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent of use and knowledge of herbal drugs by pharmacy students through a print survey completed by a convenience sample of culturally diverse students. Found a low knowledge level about popular herbal products; individual scores were affected by ethnicity, work experience, family tradition, and sources of information. Concluded that…

  13. Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq, a Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, Inhibits Caco-2 Cells Proliferation via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

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    Abdiryim Yusup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Study the effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq ethanol extract on the proliferation, apoptosis, and correlative gene, expression in colon cancer cells (Caco-2 to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anticancer property of Abnormal Savda Munziq. Materials and Methods. ASMq ethanol extract was prepared by a professional pharmacist. Caco-2 cells were treated with different concentration of ASMq ethanol extract (0.5–7.5 mg/mL for different time intervals (48 and 72 h. Antiproliferative effect of ASMq ethanol extract was determined by MTT assay; DNA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis assay; cell cycle analysis was detected by flow cytometer; apoptosis-related gene expression was detected by RT-PCR assay. Results. ASMq ethanol extract possesses an inhibition effect on Caco-2 cells proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase, and downregulation of bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax gene expression. Conclusion. The anticancer mechanism of ASMq ethanol extract may be involved in antiproliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression such as bcl-2 and Bax activity pathway.

  14. Effect of the preparation method on the drug loading of alginate-chitosan microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alginate-chitosan (ALG-CHI microspheres obtained by polyelectrolyte complexation are pH-sensitive, biocompatible and adhesive, and are excellent candidates for the delivery of drugs, proteins and peptides in the human body. A wide variety of methods for the production of these polymeric complexes has been provided. The water-in-oil emulsion is a complex production method, but generally enhances the control of particle size and particle size distribution of the microspheres, extremely necessary for obtaining repeatable controlled release behavior. In this work, a novel and facile water-in-oil emulsion method for the ALG-CHI polyelectrolyte complexes is discussed. The method proposed produced ALG-CHI microspheres with improved morphology and enhanced drug loading in comparison with the aqueous medium method. The drug loading in the water-in-oil emulsion was over 30% higher than in the aqueous medium, an indication that the new method proposed the common drug leaching during the microspheres’ preparation is avoided, being an interesting alternative to encapsulate drugs of hydrophilic nature.

  15. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, G., E-mail: gianina.dodi@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); SCIENT — Research Centre for Instrumental Analysis, Bucharest (Romania); Pala, A. [University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Barbu, E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Peptanariu, D. [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania); Hritcu, D.; Popa, M.I. [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); Tamba, B.I. [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV–Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles preparation by ionic gelation • The optimum synthesis system designed particles around 200 nm • The nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at specific concentrations • The loaded formulations evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour • The results encourage further investigations as polysaccharidic drug nanocarriers.

  16. Effect of traditional Chinese herbal preparation Cudong Tongbian capsule on gastrointestinal motility%促动通便胶囊影响胃肠道动力功能的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿明

    2005-01-01

    含水量的影响弱,潜在优势在于其不良反应较小.%BACKGROUND :Traditional Chinese herbal medicines, according to their different pharmacological effects, may promote, inhibit or bi-directionally regulate gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of Cudong Tongbian (CDTB) capsule,a traditional Chinese herbal preparation, on gastrointestinal motility and defecation in rats. DESIGN :Randomized controlled experimental with SD rats. SETTING :Department of Pharmacology of Fenyang College, Shanxi Medical University. MATERIALS:This study was carried out at the Central Laboratory of Fenyang College,Shanxi Medical University between October, 2003 and January, 2004.Fifty SD rats of both gender (by half) with body mass of 200 to 250 g were randomizedinto 5 equal groups, namely normal saline group, high-and low-dose CDTB groups, Bianmitong (BMT) group and glycerol group.Altogether 150 Kunming rats with body mass of 20 to 25 g of both genders (by half) were divided into 3 groups (n=50) for gastric emptying experiment, intestinal movement experiment and defecation experiment, respectively. METHODS:①Gastric emptying experiment of CDTB capsule was performed with domperidoneas the standard control.Fifty SD rats were randomized into 5 groups to receive subcutaneous injection of normal saline (0.2 mL/20 g), solution of CDTB capsule (prepared from the Chinese herbs mainly of costus root, aurantii fructus immaturus, hawthorn fruit, and Rhizoma pinelliae) at high dose (10 g/kg) and low dose (5 g/kg), and domperidone at high dose (30 mg/kg) and low dose (15 mg/kg).Forty minutes later, gastric lavage with 1 g/L methyl orange was performed, 30 minutes after which the rats were killed to obtain gastric tissue rinsed thoroughly with 10 mL distilled water.The optical density of methyl orange in the gastric tissue was determined by colorimetric assay against the optical density of 0.2 mL methyl orange (1g/L) mixed with 0.2 mL 10 mL distilled water.The gastric

  17. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, A A; Marzouk, M A; Ammar, A A; Elosaily, G H

    2010-10-01

    This study sought to formulate and evaluate a self-nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for clotrimazole (CT), a poorly water-soluble antimycotic drug, used in vaginal delivery. SNEDDS was developed to increase the CT dissolution rate, solubility, and ultimately bioavailability. The solubility of CT in various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants was determined. Based on solubility studies, oil phase (oleic acid without or with coconut oil), surfactant (Tween 20), and co-surfactants (PEG 200 and n-butanol) were selected and grouped in two combinations for phase studies. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were used to evaluate the area of self-nanoemulsification. Essential properties of the prepared systems with regard to emulsion droplet size and turbidity value were determined. In order to investigate the potential for interaction between any of the SNEDDS ingredients used, FTIR spectroscopy was performed. In vitro release studies were performed with SNEDDS formulations in capsules, and the plain drug served as a control. The droplet size of the nanoemulsion was greatly affected by the ratio of the surfactant and co-surfactant. Based on the results with regard to droplet size, turbidity values, and complete drug release after 3 h, three optimized formulations were selected; each contained oleic acid/coconut oil/Tween 20/PEG 200/n-butanol in ratios of 10:0:60:15:15 (%, w/w), 7.5:2.5:53.5:13.3:13.3 (%, w/w), and 6.7:3.3:60:10:10 (%, w/w), respectively. Results suggested that the prepared SNEDDS formulations produced acceptable properties in terms of immediate drug release and could increase the bioavailability of CT.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of vitamin A nanosuspension as a novel ocular drug delivery

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    Abbas Akhgari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The aim of this study was to prepare a nanosuspension formulation as a new vehicle for the improvement of the ocular delivery of vitamin A. Material and Methods: Formulations were designed based on full factorial design. A high pressure homogenization technique was used to produce nanosuspensions. Fifteen formulations were prepared by the use of different combinations of surfactants Tween 80, benzalkonium chloride and Pluronic and evaluated for pH, particle size, entrapment efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, stability and drug release.  Also, Draize test was used to evaluate the irritation of rabbit eye by formulations. Results: All formulations showed a small mean size that is well suited for ocular application. Also it was observed that the particle size decreased with increase in the amount of surfactant. Drug entrapment increased with increasing amount of surfactant. It was shown that initial and final drug release can be controlled by the ratio and the total amount of surfactants, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of Tween 80 and Pluronic in the formualtions with a proper ratio does not show eye irritation and could be useful to achieve a suitable nanosuspension of vitamin A as a novel ocular delivery system.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Escherichia coli Liposomes as a New Drug Delivery System to Colon Cancer

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    Mohammad Kargar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liposomes are spherical vesicles composed of concentric phospholipid bilayers that can entrap hydrophilic, hydrophobic drugs. Liposomes can be prepared from natural phospholipids, synthetic lipids or bacterial lipids. The aim of this study was to formulate liposome from bacterial lipids and evaluate physicochemical properties. Materials and methods: This study was performed experimentally on E.coli. The lipids were extracted from E.coli. using chloroform and methanol. Film method was used for preparing nano-systems and methylene blue was used as a drug model. Then their particle sizes were determined using particle sizer. The release methylene blue was carried out using dialysis membrane. Also, trailing them in cancer cells was evaluated by using carboxyfluorescein. Results: The average particle size of E.coli. liposomal was 338 nm. Encapsulation efficiency was 53.33 ± 2.88% and the value of release after 24 h was 97.54% ± 0.00. Liposomes could deliver the carboxyfluorescein to cancer cells. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that bacterial liposome has probably a suitable nano-particle such as particle size and desirable loading and it is possible to use them as drug delivery system.

  20. [Preparation and clinical application of polyvinyl alcohol/drug-loaded chitosan microsphere composite wound dressing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuju; Lin, Zhidan; Chen, Wenbin; Song, Ying; Li, Zhizhong

    2011-04-01

    In order to prepare and apply the polyvinyl alcohol/drug-loaded chitosan microspheres composite wound dressing, we first prepared chitosan microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method, and then added chitosan microspheres into the reactants during the acetalization of polyvinyl alcohol and formaldehyde. We further studied the morphology, water absorption, swelling degree, mechanical properties and in vitro release of the sponge with different amount of chitosan microspheres. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol/drug-loaded chitosan composite sponge has porous structure with connectionism. Increasing the amount of chitosan microspheres would make the apertures smaller, so that the water absorption and the swelling of sponge decreased, but the tensile strength and compressive strength increased. With the increase of the amount of chitosan microspheres, the drug absorption of cefradine and the release rate increase, and the release time become longer. With the results of toxicity grade of 0 to 1, this type of composite sponge is non-toxic and meets the requirement of biocompatibility. The observation of rabbit nasal cavity after surgical operation suggested that polyvinyl acetal sponge modified with the chitosan has antiphlogistic, hemostatic and non-adherent characteristic, and can promote the healing and recovering of the nasalmucosa. After using this composite material, best growing surroundings for patients' granulation tissue were provided. Exposed bone and tendon were covered well with granulation tissue.

  1. A brief review on the application of nanoparticle enclosed herbal medicine for the treatment of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Mehrdad; Eatemadi, Ali; Soleimaninejad, Maryam; Hammed, Aiyelabegan T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicines have been routinely employed all over the world dated back from the ancient time and have been identified by patients and physicians for their excellent therapeutic value as they have lower adverse effects when compared with the modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics requires a scientific technique to deliver the active herbal extract in a controlled manner to avoid repeated administration and increase patient compliance. This can be reached by fabricating a novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal components. NDDSs does not only decrease the repeated dose to overcome ineffectiveness, but also help to increase potency by decreasing toxicity and elevating drug bioavailability. Nano-sized DDS of herbal drugs have a potential application for improving the activity and countering the problems related to herbal medicines. Hence, application of nanocarriers as an NDDS in the traditional herbal medicine system is important to treat more chronic diseases like infectious endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  3. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorniani D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dena Dorniani,1 Mohd Zobir bin Hussein,1 Aminu Umar Kura,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2 Abdul Halim Shaari,3 Zalinah Ahmad4 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 2Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics Laboratory, 3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 4Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results: We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D, ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively

  4. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  5. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  6. Analysis of pharmaceutical preparations containing antihistamine drugs by micellar liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Algaba, C; Bermúdez-Saldaña, J M; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Sagrado, S; Medina-Hernández, M J

    2006-02-13

    Rapid chromatographic procedures for analytical quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing antihistamine drugs, alone or together with other kind of compounds are proposed. The method uses C18 stationary phases and micellar mobile phases of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with either 1-propanol or 1-butanol as organic modifier. The proposed procedures allow the determination of the antihistamines: brompheniramine, chlorcyclizine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, flunarizine, hydroxyzine, promethazine, terfenadine, tripelennamine and triprolidine, in addition to caffeine, dextromethorphan, guaifenesin, paracetamol and pyridoxine in different pharmaceutical presentations (tablets, capsules, suppositories, syrups and ointments). The methods require minimum handling sample and are rapid (between 3 and 12 min at 1 mLmin(-1) flow rate) and reproducible (R.S.D. values<5%). Limits of detection are lower than 1 microgmL(-1) and the recoveries of the analytes in the pharmaceutical preparations are in the range 100+/-10%.

  7. Ultra-small and innocuous cationic starch nanospheres: preparation, characterization and drug delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinjuan; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Liu, Zhen

    2013-07-01

    This research demonstrated the preparation of ultra-small cationic starch nanospheres for the first time. Unlike conventional cationic starch, the cationic starch in here could not form gel. The starch nanoparticles were obtained via reverse micro-emulsion method and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS). The formation mechanism of cationic starch nanospheres was proposed and the effects of preparation conditions on particle size were also investigated. A cationic starch nanosphere with a size of 50 nm can be obtained under the optimal condition. Moreover, the drug release behaviors, cytotoxicity test and degradation analysis were tested and indicated that the particles possess good capacity in delivering the negatively charged molecules, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Thus, the cationic nanoparticles exhibit potential applications in the areas of food and medical sciences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Keratin Blended Films using Biopolymers for Drug Controlled Release Application

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    Ansaya Thonpho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Keratin solution was separately blended with collagen, gelatin, sericin and starch for films preparation. All the blended films had smooth surfaces without phase separation, except the keratin/starch blend film. The native keratin film showed small particles embedded in all the film surfaces that resulted in them being rough. The structure of the native keratin film changed from beta-sheet to random coil at high blend ratio of other substances. This result increased the dissolution of the films especially the keratin/starch blend. The results relate directly to the decreased thermal stability of this film. However, the changes in structure did not affect the chlorhexidine release pattern. It is possible that the interaction between the drug and blending substances, and the substances to water molecules are the main factor influencing the drug release pattern from the films.

  9. Preparation and release kinetics of betulinic acid/ CS drug-loaded microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan(CS is the unique alkaline polysaccharide in nature, because of its perfect biocompatibility and degradability, it is widely used in medicine, soft release and control release. The betulinic acid is the derivative of betulin, it has many pharmacological activities, such as anti- inflammatory, antitumor, anti-malaria and anti-HIV. In this paper, the Span-80 was used as emulsifiers, the glutaraldehyde was used as crosslinker. With the method of orthogonal experiment, the preparation technology was optimized. The microspheres were characterized by SEM and its degree of crosslinking, drug-loading rate and encapsulation efficiency were tested at the same time.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of magnetic microspheres of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) for colon drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satinder Kakar; Deepa Batra; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study magnetic microspheres of mesalamine(5-aminosalicylic acid) for colon drug delivery.Methods:Magnetic microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique for use in the application of magnetic carrier technology.An attempt was made to target mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) to its site of action i.e. to colon.EudragitS-100, ethylcellulose and chitosan were used in three different drug: polymer ratios i.e.1:1,1:2 and1:3.The microspheres were characterized in terms of particle size, percentage yield, drug content, encapsulation efficiency,in vitro release pattern andex vivo study.The microspheres were uniform in size and shape.Thein vitrorelease profile was studied in pH7.4 phosphate buffer medium usingUSP dissolution apparatus.Results:Chitosan microspheres were found to be better retained in terms of percentage release of the drug.Thus chitosan microspheres could be better retained at their target site.Conclustion:Flow characteristics are also better in case of chitosan magnetic microspheres. Thus reticuloendothelial clearance can be minimized and site specificity can be increased.

  11. PLA nano- and microparticles for drug delivery: an overview of the methods of preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Verónica; Ferreira, María Luján

    2007-06-07

    The controlled release of medicaments remains the most convenient way of drug delivery. Therefore, a wide variety of reports can be found in the open literature dealing with drug delivery systems. In particular, the use of nano- and microparticles devices has received special attention during the past two decades. PLA and its copolymers with GA and/or PEG appear as the preferred substrates to fabricate these devices. The methods of fabrication of these particles will be reviewed in this article, describing in detail the experimental variables associated with each one with regard to the influence of them on the performance of the particles as drug carriers. An analysis of the relationship between the method of preparation and the kind of drug to encapsulate is also included. Furthermore, certain issues involved in the addition of other monomeric substrates than lactic acid to the particles formulation as well as novel devices, other than nano- and microparticles, will be discussed in the present work considering the published literature available.

  12. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ethylcellulose and Polymethacrylate Resins Loaded Microparticles Containing Hydrophilic Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Pandav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the recent study was to prepare and estimate sustained release of Ethylcellulose (300 cps and Eudragit (RS 100 and RL 100 microparticles containing Propranolol hydrochloride used as a treatment of cardiovascular system, especially hypertension. Method. Propranolol hydrochloride was microencapsulated with different polymers (Ethylcellulose, Eudragit RS, and Eudragit RL using modified hydrophobic (O/O solvent evaporation method using 1 : 1 combination of acetone and isopropanol as the internal phase. Obtained microparticles were showing higher batch yield with higher encapsulation efficiency. Microparticles were prepared with different ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 3, 1 : 5, and 1 : 7 (%, wt/wt using span 80 (%, v/v as a surfactant. Results. The influence of formulation factors like drug: polymer ratio, internal phase, and type of polymers on obtained microparticles was characterized with respect to particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, percentage yield, FTIR, and FE-SEM. Higher encapsulation efficiencies were obtained with various polymers like Ethylcellulose (96.63 ± 0.5 compared to Eudragit RS 100 (83.70 ± 0.6 and RL 100 (89.62 ± 0.6. The in vitro release study was characterized by initial burst. Conclusion. The result of study displays that Ethylcellulose and Eudragit loaded microparticles of Propranolol hydrochloride can be effectively prepared using modified hydrophobic emulsification solvent evaporation technique. Therefore, the modified hydrophobic emulsion technique can also be applied to the preparation of microparticles for low molecular weight and highly water soluble drugs.

  13. An Intensified Vibratory Milling Process for Enhancing the Breakage Kinetics during the Preparation of Drug Nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Lu; Davé, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2016-04-01

    As a drug-sparing approach in early development, vibratory milling has been used for the preparation of nanosuspensions of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to intensify this process through a systematic increase in vibration intensity and bead loading with the optimal bead size for faster production. Griseofulvin, a poorly water-soluble drug, was wet-milled using yttrium-stabilized zirconia beads with sizes ranging from 50 to 1500 μm at low power density (0.87 W/g). Then, this process was intensified with the optimal bead size by sequentially increasing vibration intensity and bead loading. Additional experiments with several bead sizes were performed at high power density (16 W/g), and the results were compared to those from wet stirred media milling. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dissolution tests were used for characterization. Results for the low power density indicated 800 μm as the optimal bead size which led to a median size of 545 nm with more than 10% of the drug particles greater than 1.8 μm albeit the fastest breakage. An increase in either vibration intensity or bead loading resulted in faster breakage. The most intensified process led to 90% of the particles being smaller than 300 nm. At the high power intensity, 400 μm beads were optimal, which enhanced griseofulvin dissolution significantly and signified the importance of bead size in view of the power density. Only the optimally intensified vibratory milling led to a comparable nanosuspension to that prepared by the stirred media milling.

  14. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  15. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving pullulan films containing BCS class II drug nanoparticles for bioavailability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Scott M; Ma, Zhelun; Li, Meng; Davé, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess pullulan as a novel steric stabilizer during the wet-stirred media milling (WSMM) of griseofulvin, a model poorly water-soluble drug, and as a film-former in the preparation of strip films via casting-drying the wet-milled drug suspensions for dissolution and bioavailability enhancement. To this end, pullulan films, with xanthan gum (XG) as thickening agent and glycerin as plasticizer, were loaded with griseofulvin nanoparticles prepared by WSMM using pullulan in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic stabilizer. The effects of drug loading and milling time on the particle size and suspension stability were investigated, as well as XG concentration and casting thickness on film properties and dissolution rate. The nanosuspensions prepared with pullulan-SDS combination were relatively stable over 7 days; hence, this combination was used for the film preparation. All pullulan-based strip films exhibited excellent content uniformity (most 5000 cP viscosity. USP IV dissolution tests revealed fast/immediate drug release (t80 < 30 min) from films <120 μm thick. Thinner films, films with lower XG loading, or smaller drug particles led to faster drug dissolution, while drug loading had no discernible effect. Overall, these results suggest that pullulan may serve as an acceptable stabilizer for media milling in combination with surfactant as well as a fast-dissolving film former for the fast release of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles.

  16. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  17. Effect of common herbal medicines on patients undergoing anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatindra Kumar Batra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are the oldest known remedies to mankind. Herbs have been used by all cultures throughout history but India has one of the oldest, and most diverse cultural living traditions associated with the use of medicinal plants. The use of these agents may have perioperative implications, which often is a result of various factors. The constituents of these medications may not be adequately described. Conventional agents like ste-roids, oral hypoglycaemic agent, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and antihistamines are frequently added to herbal medicines. Toxic materials like arsenic, mercury, lead, etc. have been detected from time to time in some herbs. The use of herbal medicines can result in drug interactions, most of which are less well defined. The interactions that are most important in the perioperative period include sympathomimetic, sedative, and coagulopathic effects. Less than 50% of patients admit to taking these medicines, which compounds the prob-lem. It is imperative that anaesthesiologists obtain a history of herbal medicine use from patients and anticipate the adverse drug interactions. In case of any doubt, it may be prudent to stop these herbal medicines atleast 2-3 weeks prior to anaesthesia and surgery.

  18. Investigation of Physicochemical Drug Properties to Prepare Fine Globular Granules Composed of Only Drug Substance in Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mise, Ryohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-ichiro; Osugi, Yukiko; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    ...%) drug-loading formulation using fluidized bed rotor granulation. Three drugs: acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); and ethenzamide (ETZ) were used as model drugs based on their differences in wettability and particle size distribution...

  19. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: Actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf eTeschke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  20. Preparation and in vitro characterisation of bioactive mesoporous silica microparticles for drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopowicz, Magdalena, E-mail: mprokop@gumed.edu.pl; Czarnobaj, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Adrian; Sawicki, Wiesław

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface mineralization activity and in vitro drug behaviour potential of new mesoporous silica microparticles (MSM). The unmodified MSM (MSM-0%Ca) and calcium-modified MSM (MSM-5%Ca, MSM-15%Ca, MSM-25%Ca) were prepared using the self-assembling method. Calcium diethoxide was used as a calcium precursor. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), used as an anticancer model drug, was selected to the drug loading and release studies. The DOX loading into the microparticles was performed by liquid adsorption process. The self-formation of carbonate hydroxyapatite (C-Hap) on the MSM surface was examined under in vitro biomimetic conditions. The samples were characterised by means of scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements. The results indicated an inverse relationship — while increasing the total amount of calcium in the MSM composition the surface area and pore volume decrease with a simultaneous increase in the pore size. This was correlated with a progressive increase in the surface mineralization ability — especially its initial promotion, and in the decrease in MSM drug loading efficiency. The release rate of the DOX can be effectively tailored by varying the amount of calcium, where the elution rate of DOX increases with an increasing amount of the Ca precursor. - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica microparticles were synthesized via self-assembling method. • Different compositions of Ca-modified mesoporous silica were obtained. • The mineralization process and drug behaviour potential of Ca-modified mesoporous silica were investigated. • The initial growth of calcium phosphate can be controlled by a calcium precursor. • The elution rate of DOX can be controlled by a calcium precursor.

  1. Preparation of Biocompatible Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Delivery of Antibiotic Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To prepare biocompatible ciprofloxacin-loaded carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CCC NPs and evaluate their cell specificity as well as antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in vitro. Methods. CCC NPs were prepared by ionic cross-linking method and optimized by using Box-Behnken response surface method (BBRSM. Zeta potential, drug encapsulation, and release of the obtained nanoparticles in vitro were thoroughly investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and killing profiles of free or ciprofloxacin-loaded nanoparticles against Escherichia coli were documented. The cytotoicity of blank nanoparticles and cellular uptake of CCC NPs were also investigated. Results. The obtained particles were monodisperse nanospheres with an average hydrated diameter of 151 ± 5.67 nm and surface of charge −22.9 ± 2.21 mV. The MICs of free ciprofloxacin and CCC NPs were 0.16 and 0.08 μg/mL, respectively. Blank nanoparticles showed no obvious cell inhibition within 24 h, and noticeable phagocytosis effect was observed in the presence of CCC NPs. Conclusion. This study shows that CCC NPs have stronger antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli than the free ciprofloxacin because they can easily be uptaken by cells. The obtained CCC NPs have promising prospect in drug delivery field.

  2. Preparation of starch nanoparticles in water in oil microemulsion system and their drug delivery properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinge; Chen, Haiming; Luo, Zhigang; Fu, Xiong

    2016-03-15

    In this research, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide C16mimBr/butan-1-ol/cyclohexane/water ionic liquid microemulsion was prepared. The effects of n-alkyl alcohols, alkanes, water content and temperature on the properties of microemulsion were studied by dilution experiment. The microregion of microemulsion was identified by pseudo-ternary phase diagram and conductivity measurement. Then starch nanoparticles were prepared by water in oil (W/O) microemulsion-cross-linking methods with C16mimBr as surfactant. Starch nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 94.3nm and narrow size distribution (SD=3.3) were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) data revealed that starch nanoparticles were spherical granules with the size about 60nm. Moreover the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated the formation of cross-linking bonds in starch molecules. Finally, the drug loading and releasing properties of starch nanoparticles were investigated with methylene blue (MB) as drug model. This work may provide an efficient pathway to synthesis starch nanoparticles.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we prepared nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS and investigated its preliminary pharmacodynamics. The type and concentration of oil phase, inner aqueous phase and emulsifier were screened to prepare optimum nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS. Next, the optimum formulations were characterized based on microstructure, volume-weighted mean droplet size, self-emulsifying rate, yield, storage stability, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The water/oil/water multiple emulsions exhibited typical multiple structure, with relatively small volume-weighted mean droplet size 6.0 ± 0.7 μm and high self-emulsifying ability (self-emulsifying time <2 min. Encapsulation of nattokinase was up to 86.8 ± 8.2%. The cumulative release of nattokinase within 8 h was about 30%, exhibiting a sustained release effect. The pharmacodynamics study indicated that nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS could significantly prolong the whole blood clotting time in mouse and effectively improve the carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis compared with nattokinase solution. Moreover, we showed that SDEDDS could successfully self-emulsify into water/oil/water multiple emulsions upon dilution in dispersion medium with gentle stirring and effectively protect nattokinase activity in gastric environment. Our findings suggested that SDEDDS could be a promising strategy for peptide and protein drugs by oral administration.

  4. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds are formed from MG only by humans or whether they are metabolites formed from the second abundant Kratom alkaloid paynantheine (PAY), the dehydro analog of MG. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of PAY in rat urine after administration of the pure alkaloid. This was first isolated from Kratom leaves. Liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry provided detailed structure information of the metabolites in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. Besides PAY, the following phase I metabolites could be identified: 9-O-demethyl PAY, 16-carboxy PAY, 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy PAY, 17-O-demethyl PAY, 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY, and 9-O-demethyl-17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY. These metabolites indicated that PAY was metabolized via the same pathways as MG. Several metabolites were excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. The metabolism studies in rats showed that PAY and its metabolites corresponded to the MG-related dehydro compounds detected in urine of the Kratom users. In conclusion, PAY and its metabolites may be further markers for a Kratom abuse in addition of MG and its metabolites.

  5. Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K M; Farrelly, J G; Upton, R; Chen, J

    2007-04-01

    Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from the same species serve as different herbs): three herbs, madouling, qingmuxiang and tianxianteng, derived respectively from the fruit, root and stem of Aristolochia debilis; and (3) one-to-multiple (one herb refers to multiple species): the herb fangji refers to the root of either Aristolochia fangchi, Stephania tetrandra or Cocculus trilobus; in this case, the first belongs to a different family (Aristolochiaceae) than the latter two (Menispermaceae), and only the first contains aristolochic acid (AA), as demonstrated by independent analytical data provided in this article. Further, mutong (Akebia quinata) is allowed in TCM herbal medicine practice to be substituted with either guan mutong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) or chuan mutong (Clematis armandii); and mu fangji (Cocculus trilobus) by guang fanchi (Aristolochia fangchi) or hanzhong fangji (Aristolochia heterophylla), thereby increasing the risk of exposing renotoxic AA-containing Aristolochia species to patients. To avoid these and other confusions, we wish to emphasize the importance of a pharmaceutical name, which defines the species name, the plant part, and sometimes the special process performed on the herb, including cultivating conditions. The pharmaceutical name as referred to in this article is defined, and is limited to those botanicals that are intended to be used as drug. It is hoped that by following the pharmaceutical name, toxic herbs can be effectively identified and substitution or adulteration avoided.

  6. A comparison of patterns of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting with St. John's Wort and fluoxetine during the period 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Claire L; Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian F

    2015-07-01

    Herbal medicines are perceived to be safe by the general public and medical practitioners, despite abundant evidence from clinical trials and case reports that show herbal preparations can have significant adverse effects. The overall impact of adverse events to herbal medicines in Australia is currently unknown. Post marketing surveillance of medications through spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is one way to estimate this risk. The patterns of spontaneously reported ADRs provide insight to herbal dangers, especially when compared with patterns of a mechanistically similar conventional drug. The study compared the pattern of spontaneously reported ADRs to St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a common herbal treatment for depression which contains selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), to fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed synthetic SSRI antidepressant. Spontaneous ADR reports sent to the TGA between 2000-2013 for St. John's Wort (n = 84) and fluoxetine (n = 447) were obtained and analysed. The demographic information, types of interaction, severity of the ADR, and the body systems affected (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system) were recorded for individual ADR cases. The majority of spontaneously reported ADRs for St. John's Wort and fluoxetine were concerning females aged 26-50 years (28.6%, 22.8%). The organ systems affected by ADRs to St John's Wort and fluoxetine have a similar profile, with the majority of cases affecting the central nervous system (45.2%, 61.7%). This result demonstrates that herbal preparations can result in ADRs similar to those of prescription medications.

  7. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  8. [Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

    2007-01-01

    The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model.

  9. Preparation and characterization of curcumin-piperine dual drug loaded nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Moorthi; Kiran Krishnan; R Manavalan; K Kathiresan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare curcumin-piperine (Cu-Pi) nanoparticles by various methods and to study the effect of various manufacturing parameters on Cu-Pi nanoparticles and to identify a suitable method for the preparation of Cu-Pi nanoparticles to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer. Methods: Cu-Pi nanoparticles were prepared by thin film hydration method, solid dispersion method, emulsion polymerization method and Fessi method. Optimization was carried out to study the effect of various manufacturing parameter on the Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Results: Out of four methods, Fessi method produced a minimum average particle size of 85.43 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.183 and zeta potential of 29.7 mV. Change of organic solvent (acetone or ethanol) did not have any significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. However, increase in sonication time, stirring speed, viscosity, use of 1:10:10 ratio of drug/polymer/surfactant, and use of anionic surfactant or combination of anionic surfactant with cationic polymer or combination of non-ionic surfactant with cationic polymer had a significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Conclusions: Cu-Pi nanoparticles coated with PEG containing copolymer produced by Fessi method had a minimum average particle size, excellent polydispersity index and optimal zeta potential which fall within the acceptable limits of the study. This dual nanoparticulate drug delivery system appears to be promising to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer.

  10. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  11. A novel strategy for the preparation of porous microspheres and its application in peptide drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi; Wang, Yuxia; Zhang, Huixia; Zhou, Weiqing; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-09-15

    A new strategy is developed to prepare porous microspheres with narrow size distribution for peptides controlled release, involving a fabrication of porous microspheres without any porogens followed by a pore closing process. Amphiphilic polymers with different hydrophobic segments (poly(monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-co-d,l-lactide) (mPEG-PLA), poly(monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-co-d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA)) are employed as microspheres matrix to prepare porous microspheres based on a double emulsion-premix membrane emulsification technique combined with a solvent evaporation method. Both microspheres possess narrow size distribution and porous surface, which are mainly caused by (a) hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) segments absorbing water molecules followed by a water evaporation process and (b) local explosion of microspheres due to fast evaporation of dichloromethane (MC). Importantly, mPEG-PLGA microspheres have a honeycomb like structure while mPEG-PLA microspheres have a solid structure internally, illustrating that the different hydrophobic segments could modulate the affinity between solvent and matrix polymer and influence the phase separation rate of microspheres matrix. Long term release patterns are demonstrated with pore-closed microspheres, which are prepared from mPEG-PLGA microspheres loading salmon calcitonin (SCT). These results suggest that it is potential to construct porous microspheres for drug sustained release using permanent geometric templates as new porogens.

  12. PREPARATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG FORMULATION AND CONSIDERATION”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Godge G.R.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates enhancement of the dissolution profile of furosemide using solid dispersion (SD with eudragit(RLPO & RSPO & also control it’s by using solvent evaporation technique. 1: 0.5(w/w 1:1(w/w ,1:1.5 solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using solvent water and methanol in 1:1 ratio. Dissolution studies using the USP paddle method were performed for solid dispersions of furosemide at 37 ± 0.5 C and 55 rpm in simulated gastric fluid (SGF of pH 1.2. Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and x-ray diffractometry (XRD were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. Tablets were formulated containing solid dispersion products and compared with pure drug . IR spectroscopy, XRD, and DSC showed change in the crystal structure towards amorphous one of furosemide (FRMD. Dissolution of furosemide improved and release is controlled significantly in solid dispersion with the ratio 1:1.5 of eudragit RLPO & RSPO . Tablets containing solid dispersion exhibited better dissolution profile than pure drug. Thus, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for improvement of dissolution of furosemide as well as control it’s release.

  13. Fully glutathione degradable waterborne polyurethane nanocarriers: Preparation, redox-sensitivity, and triggered intracellular drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ismail; Babanejad, Niloofar; Shendi, Hasan Kashef; Nabid, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Polyurethanes are important class of biomaterials that are extensively used in medical devices. In spite of their easy synthesis, polyurethanes that are fully degradable in response to the intracellular reducing environment are less explored for controlled drug delivery. Herein, a novel glutathione degradable waterborne polyurethane (WPU) nanocarrier for redox triggered intracellular delivery of a model lipophilic anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) is reported. The WPU was prepared from polyaddition reaction of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a novel linear polyester polyol involving disulfide linkage, disulfide labeled chain extender, dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA) using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. The resulting polyurethane self-assembles into nanocarrier in water. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed fast swelling and disruption of nanocarriers under an intracellular reduction-mimicking environment. The in vitro release studies showed that DOX was released in a controlled and redox-dependent manner. MTT assays showed that DOX-loaded WPU had a high in vitro antitumor activity in both HDF noncancer cells and MCF- 7 cancer cells. In addition, it is found that the blank WPU nanocarriers are nontoxic to HDF and MCF-7 cells even at a high concentration of 2mg/mL. Hence, nanocarriers based on disulfide labeled WPU have appeared as a new class of biocompatible and redox-degradable nanovehicle for efficient intracellular drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Polyethyleneimine Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Drug Delivery

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    Sedighe Arabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles with polymeric coating have great significance in drug delivery purpose. We intended to prepare a modified amphiphilic polymer with targeting susceptibility to reduce side effects to normal cells. In this study polyethyleneimine (PEI as a polycationic polymer reacted with sebacoyl chloride to make a new amphiphilic polymer and folic acid as a targeting agent to reduce cytotoxicity of polymer and increase specific entrance of nanoparticles to cancerous cells. The obtained polymer (PEI-Sb-FA was then coated on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs to stabilize them. The core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by different methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. Curcumin was finally loaded on PEI-Sb-FA-MNPs and the release behavior was studied in different pH. Curcumin loading of 28.2% was obtained and released drug in acidic pH = 4.5 was more than pH = 7.4, showing drug release sensitivity toward pH of media.

  15. Preparation and characterization of naproxen-loaded electrospun thermoplastic polyurethane nanofibers as a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman, Cigdem; Özgüney, Işık; Kumbasar, E Perrin Akcakoca

    2016-07-01

    The design and production of drug-loaded nanofiber based materials produced by electrospinning is of interest for use in innovative drug delivery systems. In the present study, ultra-fine fiber mats of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) containing naproxen (NAP) were successfully prepared by electrospinning from 8 and 10% (w/w) TPU solutions. The amount of NAP in the solutions was 10 and 20% based on the weight of TPU. The collection period of the drug-loaded electrospun TPU fibers was 5, 10 and 20h, and they were characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA analysis. The morphology of the NAP-loaded electrospun TPU fiber mats was smooth, and the average diameters of these fibers varied between 523.66 and 723.50nm. The release characteristics of these fiber mats were determined by the total immersion method in the phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. It was observed that the collection period in terms of the mat thickness played a major role in the release rate of NAP from the electrospun TPU mats.

  16. Treatment of asthma and food allergy with herbal interventions from traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2-3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with a high prevalence of anxiety, particularly in adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine, used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western healthcare. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine for asthma treatment. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of "antiasthma" herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention is the only antiasthma traditional Chinese medicine product that is a Food and Drug Administration investigational new drug that has entered clinical trials in the United States. Research into the effects and mechanisms of action of antiasthma herbal medicine intervention in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on traditional Chinese medicine herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 is the only Food and Drug Administration botanical investigational new drug under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. This review article discusses promising traditional Chinese medicine interventions for asthma, food allergy, and comorbid conditions, and explores their possible mechanisms of action. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  17. Spray drying of drug-swellable dispersant suspensions for preparation of fast-dissolving, high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Arteaga, Colby; Abdelmalek, Beshoy; Davé, Rajesh; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug can be improved by preparing a drug nanosuspension and subsequently drying it into nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs). Unfortunately, drug nanoparticles aggregate during milling and drying, causing incomplete recovery and slow dissolution. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of various classes of dispersants on drug dissolution from drug NCMPs, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via high drug nanoparticle loaded, surfactant-free NCMPs. Precursor suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) nanoparticles in the presence of various dispersants were prepared via wet stirred media milling and spray dried to form the NCMPs. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as a base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Two swellable crosslinked polymers, croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG), and a conventional soluble matrix former, Mannitol, were used in addition to HPC. Besides being used as-received, CCS was also wet co-milled with GF for two different durations to examine the impact of CCS particle size. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV spectroscopy, NCMP redispersion and dissolution tests were used for characterization. The results show that incorporation of CCS/SSG, preferably wet-milled to a wide particle size distribution, into the spray-dried NCMPs resulted in fast release and dispersion of drug nanoparticle clusters. The swellable dispersants were superior to Mannitol in dissolution enhancement, and could achieve fast release comparable to SDS, demonstrating the feasibility of spray drying to prepare high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites.

  18. HERBAL APPROACHES FOR DIARRHOEA: A REVIEW

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    Komal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is the one of the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries effecting mainly the infants and children’s. There are many synthetic drug treatments for diarrhoea like loperamide, bismuth subsalicylate and racecadotril. But these drugs have more side effects like nausea, abdominal discomfort, headache etc. Many herbal plants available which have anti-diarrhoeal activity with lesser side-effects than the conventional drugs. The review focuses on the various plants which have been proved for their anti-diarrhoeal activity in experimental animal models. This review also focused the in-vivo animal models such as castor oil induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal motility test, magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea and serotonin induced diarrhoea.

  19. Immunostimulatory lipid nanoparticles from herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Tal H; Takaoka, Anna; de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi; Smeureanu, Gabriela; Drain, Charles M; Kawamura, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Reproducibility is an important issue in biological characterization of drug candidates and natural products. It is not uncommon to encounter cases in which supposedly the same sample exhibits very different biological activities. During our characterization of macrophage-stimulatory lipids from herbal medicine, it was found that the potency of these lipids could vary substantially from experiment to experiment. Further analysis of this reproducibility issue led to the discovery of solvent-dependent nanoparticle formation by these lipids. While larger nanoparticles (approximately 100 nm) of these lipids showed modest macrophage-stimulatory activity, smaller nanoparticles (nanoparticle formation and macrophage-stimulatory activity of plant lipids. Although nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the context of vehicles for drug delivery, our finding indicates that drugs themselves can form nanoassemblies, and their biological properties may be altered by the way they assemble. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.