WorldWideScience

Sample records for hepatic vascular exclusion

  1. Effect of in situ hypothermic perfusion on intrahepatic pO(2) and reactive oxygen species formation after partial hepatectomy under total hepatic vascular exclusion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Bob H. M.; Straatsburg, Irene H.; Kager, Liesbeth M.; van der Kleij, Ad J.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This study examined attenuation of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) induced liver injury during liver resections by hypothermic perfusion of the liver under total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE). Method: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, microcirculatory integrity and endothelial cell

  2. Differential Effects of Three Techniques for Hepatic Vascular Exclusion during Resection for Liver Cirrhosis on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a serious concern during hepatic vascular occlusion. The objectives of this study were to assess effects of three techniques for hepatic vascular occlusion on I/R injury and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Liver cirrhotic rats had undertaken Pringle maneuver (PR, hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HH, or hepatic blood inflow occlusion without hemihepatic artery control (WH. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF, and hemeoxygenase 1 (HMOX1 were assayed. Results. The histopathologic analysis displayed that liver harm was more prominent in the PR group, but similar in the HH and WH groups. The HH and WH groups responded to hepatic I/R inflammation similarly but better than the PR group. Mechanical studies suggested that TNF-α/NF-κB signaling and TLR4/TRIF transduction pathways were associated with the differential effects. In addition, the HH and WH groups had significantly higher levels of hepatic HMOX1 (P<0.05 than the PR group. Conclusions. HH and WH confer better preservation of liver function and protection than the Pringle maneuver in combating I/R injury. Upregulation of HMOX1 may lead to better protection and clinical outcomes after liver resection.

  3. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [de

  4. Ample spectrum of vascular hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Juan C; Marquez Adriana; Romero, Javier; Aguirre Diego

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic vascular diseases (HVD) are a broad spectrum of entities of low prevalence but with different clinical manifestations that may even lead to death. Its early detection and timely treatment may change the prognosis. Diagnostic imaging plays a key role and imaging findings may be typical. However, in most cases, radiologists must take into account a wide range of differential diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen is one of the most useful tools for the diagnosis of HVD taking also into account the value of other imaging methods such as Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). HVD can be classified according to the compromised vascular structure and can be divided into venous, portal, arterial, sinusoidal and others disorders. The objective of this review is to describe the most common presentation HVD. The major imaging findings and differential diagnosis recognizing its correlation with the pathophysiological mechanisms.

  5. Hepatic vascular injury: Clinical profile, endovascular management and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishav Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prompt endovascular management is the modality of choice in comparison to NOM without AE in both pediatric and adult patients with hemodynamically compromised inaccessible intra hepatic vascular trauma.

  6. The impact of hepatitis A virus infection on hepatitis C virus infection: a competitive exclusion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Chaib, Eleazar; Massad, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We address the observation that, in some cases, patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are cleared of HCV when super-infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). We hypothesise that this phenomenon can be explained by the competitive exclusion principle, including the action of the immune system, and show that the inclusion of the immune system explains both the elimination of one virus and the co-existence of both infections for a certain range of parameters. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our findings.

  7. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases; Diffuse und vaskulaere Lebererkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [German] Neben den fokalen Leberlaesionen stellen diffuse und vaskulaere Lebererkrankungen ein weites Spektrum an Erkrankungen der Leber dar, die radiologisch oft schwer oder gar nicht diagnostizierbar sind. Klassische diagnostische Verfahren sind dabei neben dem Ultraschall die Computertomographie und die Magnetresonanztomographie. Diffuse Parenchymschaeden, bedingt durch Erkrankungen unterschiedlichster Aetiologie, sind deshalb schwierig evaluierbar, weil haeufig charakteristische bildmorphologische Merkmale fehlen. Die Steatosis hepatis, die Haemochromatose/Siderose als Beispiel der Speicherkrankheiten sowie die Sarkoidose und die Candidose als infektioes-entzuendliche Erkrankungen sind einer bildbasierten Diagnosestellung z. T. zugaenglich, bei den meisten diffusen Lebererkrankungen jedoch zeigen sich lediglich unspezifische

  8. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  9. Hepatic oxidative stress, genotoxicity and vascular dysfunction in lean or obese zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Folkmann, Janne Kjærsgaard; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which could be related to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the associations between hepatic oxidative stress and vascular function in pressurized mesenteric arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats at 14, 24 an......-generated DNA damage despite substantial hepatic steatosis.......Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which could be related to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the associations between hepatic oxidative stress and vascular function in pressurized mesenteric arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats at 14, 24...... and 37 weeks of age. Obese Zucker rats had more hepatic fat accumulation than their lean counterparts. Nevertheless, the obese rats had unaltered age-related level of hepatic oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) or human oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1...

  10. Severe Juxtahepatic Venous Injury: Survival after Prolonged Hepatic Vascular Isolation Without Shunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. J. Krige

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival following major juxtahepatic venous injury is rare in blunt liver trauma despite the use of intracaval shunting. Prolonged liver arterial inflow control, total hepatic venous isolation and lobectomy without shunting was used in a patient to repair a combined vena caval and hepatic venous injury after blunt liver injury. An extended period of normothermic hepatic ischemia was tolerated. Early recognition of retrohepatic venous injury and temporary liver packing to control bleeding and correct hypovolemia are essential before caval occlusion. Hepatic vascular isolation without shunting is an effective simple alternative technique allowing major venous repair in complex liver trauma.

  11. Influence of distal ileum exclusion on hepatic and renal functions in presence of extrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Luis de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the ileal exclusion interferes with liver and kidney functional changes secondary to extrahepatic cholestasis.METHODS: We studied 24 rats, divided into three groups with eight individuals each: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (ligation of the hepatic duct combined with internal biliary drainage, and Group 3 (bile duct ligation combined with internal biliary drainage and exclusion of the terminal ileum. Animals in Group 1 (control underwent sham laparotomy. The animals of groups 2 and 3 underwent ligation and section of the hepatic duct and were kept in cholestasis for four weeks. Next, they underwent an internal biliary bypass. In Group 3, besides the biliary-enteric bypass, we associated the exclusion of the last ten centimeters of the terminal ileum and carried out an ileocolic anastomosis. After four weeks of monitoring, blood was collected from all animals of the three groups for liver and kidney biochemical evaluation (albumin, ALT, AST, direct and indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cGT, creatinine and urea.RESULTS: there were increased values of ALT, AST, direct bilirubin, cGT, creatinine and urea in rats from Group 3 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: ileal exclusion worsened liver and kidney functions in the murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis, being disadvantageous as therapeutic procedure for cholestatic disorders.

  12. The Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Hemodynamic Changes in Hepatic Vascular Structures in Patients with Hepatosteatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasin, Mehmet; Tokgoz, Ozlem; Serifoglu, İsmail; Oz, İlker; Erdem, Oktay

    2014-01-01

    The hemodynamic changes in hepatic vascular structures of hepatosteatosis patients were examined using Doppler ultrasonography. Ninety hepatosteatosis patients, classified as mild, moderate or severe, and 30 healthy volunteers were included in this 120-person study. The height, weight, liver size, blood lipids and blood liver function tests of the subjects were measured. Those values were compared in the patient and control groups. In the patient and control groups, color duplex Doppler ultrasonography was used to examine portal vein peak velocity, portal vein flow volume, hepatic artery resistive index (RI), hepatic artery pulsatility index (PI) and hepatic artery flow volume. Similarly to the degree of hepatosteatosis, increases in body mass index, liver size, liver enzyme levels and blood lipid levels were statistically significant (p<0.05). While the difference in portal vein peak velocity in the hepatosteatosis and control groups was not statistically significant, there was an increasing reduction in the degree of steatosis (p>0.05). As the degree of hepatosteatosis increased, there was a reduction in hepatic artery flow volume, portal vein flow volume and total flow volume that was not statistically significant. In the mild hepatosteatosis group, hepatic artery RI and PI values were statistically significantly lower than in the other groups (p<0.05). In the severe hepatosteatosis group, although the hepatic artery RI and PI values were not statistically significant, there was a minimal increase compared to the other groups. It is believed that those results were caused by a reduction in liver compliance and hepatic vascular compliance, in addition to resistance increase in vascular structures

  13. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ziqian; Yang Xizhang; Shen Junjie; Wang Shudong; Zheng Xiaogang; Cao Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  14. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  15. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  16. Hepatic artery embolization for treatment of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and symptomatic hepatic vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Klinikum Oldenburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oldenburg (Germany); Caselitz, Martin; Wagner, Siegfried; Manns, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hannover (Germany); Gratz, Karl-Friedrich [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Lotz, Joachim; Kirchhoff, Timm; Galanski, Michael [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Piso, Plinio [Hannover Medical School, Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    At present there is no established therapy for treating patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and symptomatic hepatic involvement. We present the results of a prospective study with 15 consecutive patients who were treated with staged hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Branches of the hepatic artery were selectively catheterized and embolized in stages using polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) and platinum microcoils or steel macrocoils. Prophylactic antibiotics, analgesics and anti-emetics were administered after every embolization. Clinical symptomatology and cardiac output were assessed before and after therapy as well as at the end of follow-up (median 28 months; range 10-136 months). Five patients had abdominal pain and four patients had symptoms of portal hypertension. The cardiac output was raised in all patients, with cardiac failure being present in 11 patients. After treatment, pain resolved in all five patients, and portal hypertension improved in two of the four patients. The mean cardiac output decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 12.57{+-}3.27 l/min pre-treatment to 8.36{+-}2.60 l/min at the end of follow-up. Symptoms arising from cardiac failure resolved or improved markedly in all but one patient. Cholangitis and/or cholecystitis occurred in three patients of whom two required a cholecystectomy. One patient with pre-existent hepatic cirrhosis died as a complication of the procedure. Staged HAE yields long-term relief of clinical symptoms in patients with HHT and hepatic involvement. Patients with pre-existing hepatic cirrhosis may be poor candidates for HAE. (orig.)

  17. Interventional Treatment of a Symptomatic Neonatal Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmar, Oliver; Knirsch, Walter; Bernet, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention is one treatment option for symptomatic hepatic hemangioma in infants. We report the case of a newborn (birth weight 4060 g) with a large hepatic cavernous hemangioma, which presented early with high cardiac output failure due to arteriovenous shunting and signs of incipient Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. We performed a successful superselective transcatheter coil embolization of three feeding arteries on the seventh day of life. Because of remaining diffuse very small arteries causing a relevant residual shunt, additional occlusion of the three main draining veins was necessary with three Amplatzer vascular plugs. Cardiac failure resolved immediately. Without any additional therapy the large venous cavities disappeared within the following months. The tumor continues to regress in size 8 months after the intervention

  18. Effectiveness of quantitative MAA SPECT/CT for the definition of vascularized hepatic volume and dosimetric approach: phantom validation and clinical preliminary results in patients with complex hepatic vascularization treated with yttrium-90-labeled microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Etienne; Lenoir, Laurence; Rolland, Yan; Laffont, Sophie; Pracht, Marc; Mesbah, Habiba; Porée, Philippe; Ardisson, Valérie; Bourguet, Patrick; Clement, Bruno; Boucher, Eveline

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the use of quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) analysis for vascularized volume measurements in the use of the yttrium-90-radiolabeled microspheres (TheraSphere). A phantom study was conducted for the validation of SPECT/CT volume measurement. SPECT/CT quantitative analysis was used for the measurement of the volume of distribution of the albumin macroaggregates (MAA; i.e., the vascularized volume) in the liver and the tumor, and the total activity contained in the liver and the tumor in four consecutive patients presenting with a complex liver vascularization referred for a treatment with TheraSphere. SPECT/CT volume measurement proved to be accurate (mean error <7%) and reproducible (interobserver concordance 0.99). For eight treatments, in cases of complex hepatic vascularization, the hepatic volumes based on angiography and CT led to a relative overestimation or underestimation of the vascularized hepatic volume by 43.2 ± 32.7% (5-87%) compared with SPECT/CT analyses. The vascularized liver volume taken into account calculated from SPECT/CT data, instead of angiography and CT data, results in modifying the activity injected for three treatments of eight. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT allows us to calculate the absorbed dose in the tumor and in the healthy liver, leading to doubling of the injected activity for one treatment of eight. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for volume measurements. It provides a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients presenting with complex hepatic vascularization, in particular for calculating the vascularized liver volume, the activity to be injected and the absorbed doses. Studies should be conducted to assess the role of quantitative MAA/SPECT CT in therapeutic planning.

  19. Minimal vascular flows cause strong heat sink effects in hepatic radiofrequency ablation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Kai S; Poch, Franz G M; Rieder, Christian; Schenk, Andrea; Stroux, Andrea; Frericks, Bernd B; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Holmer, Christoph; Kreis, Martin E; Ritz, Jörg P; Zurbuchen, Urte

    2016-08-01

    The present paper aims to assess the lower threshold of vascular flow rate on the heat sink effect in bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) ex vivo. Glass tubes (vessels) of 3.4 mm inner diameter were introduced in parallel to bipolar RFA applicators into porcine liver ex vivo. Vessels were perfused with flow rates of 0 to 1,500 ml/min. RFA (30 W power, 15 kJ energy input) was carried out at room temperature and 37°C. Heat sink effects were assessed in RFA cross sections by the decrease in ablation radius, area and by a high-resolution sector planimetry. Flow rates of 1 ml/min already caused a significant cooling effect (P ≤ 0.001). The heat sink effect reached a maximum at 10 ml/min (18.4 mm/s) and remained stable for flow rates up to 1,500 ml/min. Minimal vascular flows of ≥1 ml/min cause a significant heat sink effect in hepatic RFA ex vivo. A lower limit for volumetric flow rate was not found. The maximum of the heat sink effect was reached at a flow rate of 10 ml/min and remained stable for flow rates up to 1,500 ml/min. Hepatic inflow occlusion should be considered in RFA close to hepatic vessels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  20. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: study of hepatic vascular alterations with multi-detector row helical CT and reconstruction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Scaldapane, Arnaldo; Rotondo, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Suppressa, Patrizia; Cirulli, Anna; Sabba', Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hepatic alterations in patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) by using multidetector row helical CT (MDCT) and new reconstruction programs. Materials and methods: An MDCT multiphasic study of the liver was performed in 105 consecutive patients: 89 considered to be affected by HHT and 16 with suspicion of disease alone. The scan delay was determined by using a test bolus of contrast material. The CT examination was performed with a triphasic technique (double arterial phase and portal venous phase). multiplanar and angiographic reconstructions were then obtained, and the images checked for the presence of shunts, hepatic perfusion disorders, vascular lesions (telangiectasis and large confluent vascular masses), indirect signs of portal hypertension, and anatomical vascular variants. Results: Hepatic vascular alterations were found in 78/105 cases (67/89) patients affected by HHT and 11/16 patients with clinical suspicion alone). Therefore HHT diagnosis was excluded in 5 patients. 78/100 (78%) patients with HHT had intrahepatic vascular alterations: arterioportal shunts in 40/78 (51.2%) arteriosystemic shunts in 16/78 (20.5%) and both shunt types in 22/78 (28.3%). Intraparenchymal perfusion disorders were found in 46/78 (58.9%) patients. Telangiectasis were recognised in 50/78 (64.1%) patients. Large confluent vascular masses (LCVMs) were identified in 20/78 (25.6%) patients. indirect signs of portal hypertension were found in 46/78 (58.9%) cases. Variant hepatic arterial anatomy was present in 38/100 cases (38%). Conclusions: Multiphasic MDCT and the new reconstruction programs enable the identification and characterisation of the complex vascular alterations typical of HHT [it

  1. Assessment of Liver Remnant Using ICG Clearance Intraoperatively during Vascular Exclusion: Early Experience with the ALIIVE Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most significant risk following major hepatectomy is postoperative liver insufficiency. Current preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant relies upon assumptions which may not be valid in the setting of advanced resection strategies. This paper reports the feasibility of the ALIIVE technique which assesses the liver remnant with ICG clearance intraoperatively during vascular exclusion. Methods. 10 patients undergoing planned major liver resection (hemihepatectomy or greater were recruited. Routine preoperative assessment included CT and standardized volumetry. ICG clearance was measured noninvasively using a finger spectrophotometer at various time points including following parenchymal transection during inflow and outflow occlusion before vascular division, the ALIIVE step. Results. There were one case of mortality and three cases of posthepatectomy liver failure. The patient who died had the lowest ALIIVE ICG clearance (7.1%/min versus 14.4 ± 4.9. Routine preoperative CT and standardized volumetry did not predict outcome. Discussion/Conclusion. The novel ALIIVE technique is feasible and assesses actual future liver remnant function before the point of no return during major hepatectomy. This technique may be useful as a check step to offer a margin of safety to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and death. Further confirmatory studies are required to determine a safety cutoff level.

  2. A Hepatic GAbp-AMPK Axis Links Inflammatory Signaling to Systemic Vascular Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Niopek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased pro-inflammatory signaling is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Although both inflammatory and energy substrate handling processes represent critical layers of metabolic control, their molecular integration sites remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the heterodimerization interface between the α and β subunits of transcription factor GA-binding protein (GAbp as a negative target of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α signaling. TNF-α prevented GAbpα and β complex formation via reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to the non-energy-dependent transcriptional inactivation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β1, which was identified as a direct hepatic GAbp target. Impairment of AMPKβ1, in turn, elevated downstream cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatocyte-specific ablation of GAbpα induced systemic hypercholesterolemia and early macro-vascular lesion formation in mice. As GAbpα and AMPKβ1 levels were also found to correlate in obese human patients, the ROS-GAbp-AMPK pathway may represent a key component of a hepato-vascular axis in diabetic long-term complications.

  3. Association of conjunctival and corneal calcification with vascular calcification among hepatitis-C-seropositive hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouSeif, Khaled; Sany, Dawlat; Elshahawy, Yasser; Seddik, Ayman; Rahman, Khedr; Gaber, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC) and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification. A total of 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in our hospital were included in this study. Patients underwent a complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure, and CCC was looked for by slit lamp and fundoscopy. CCC was graded according to modified Porter and Crombie classification system described by Tokuyama et al. Helical computerized tomographic chest examination was used to evaluate the grading of AAC. Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained. There was significant difference between seropositive (n = 51) and seronegative patients (n = 49) regarding grading of AAC and CCC (P <0.001). Significant positive correlation was found between grading of CCC, AAC, age (P <0.001), duration on HD (P <0.001), HCV-antibody positivity (P <0.001), serum calcium level (P <0.001), serum phosphorus level (P <0.001), calcium × phosphorus product (P <0.001), and i-parathormone level (P < 0.001). In addition, CCC grading positively correlated with AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing HD infected with the HCV have high degree of CCC, AAC, and mineral metabolism disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC evaluation is an easy, fast, non-invasive method, and might be used as an indirect indicator to detect vascular calcification in patients undergoing MHD.

  4. Association of conjunctival and corneal calcification with vascular calcification among hepatitis-C-seropositive hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled AbouSeif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification. A total of 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD in our hospital were included in this study. Patients underwent a complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure, and CCC was looked for by slit lamp and fundoscopy. CCC was graded according to modified Porter and Crombie classification system described by Tokuyama et al. Helical computerized tomographic chest examination was used to evaluate the grading of AAC. Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained. There was significant difference between seropositive (n = 51 and seronegative patients (n = 49 regarding grading of AAC and CCC (P <0.001. Significant positive correlation was found between grading of CCC, AAC, age (P <0.001, duration on HD (P <0.001, HCV-antibody positivity (P <0.001, serum calcium level (P <0.001, serum phosphorus level (P <0.001, calcium × phosphorus product (P <0.001, and i-parathormone level (P < 0.001. In addition, CCC grading positively correlated with AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing HD infected with the HCV have high degree of CCC, AAC, and mineral metabolism disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC evaluation is an easy, fast, non-invasive method, and might be used as an indirect indicator to detect vascular calcification in patients undergoing MHD.

  5. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  6. Robotic surgery twice performed in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice: delayed right hemihepatectomy following the right-hepatic vascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Liu, Quanda; Chen, Junzhou; Duan, Weihong; Dong, Maosheng; Mu, Peiyuan; Cheng, Di; Che, Honglei; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Xiaoya; Zhou, Ningxin

    2014-10-01

    To explore and find a new method to treat hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice assisted by Da Vinci robot. A hilar cholangiocarcinoma patient of type Bismuch-Corlette IIIa was found with deep jaundice (total bilirubin: 635 µmol/L). On the first admission, we performed Da Vinci robotic surgery including drainage of left hepatic duct, dissection of right hepatic vessels (right portal vein and right hepatic artery), and placement of right-hepatic vascular control device. Three weeks later on the second admission when the jaundice disappeared we occluded right-hepatic vascular discontinuously for 6 days and then sustained later. On the third admission after 3 weeks of right-hepatic vascular control, the right hemihepatectomy was performed by Da Vinci robot for the second time. The future liver remnant after the right-hepatic vascular control increased from 35% to 47%. The volume of left lobe increased by 368 mL. When the total bilirubin and liver function were all normal, right hemihepatectomy was performed by Da Vinci robot 10 weeks after the first operation. The removal of atrophic right hepatic lobe with tumor in bile duct was found with no pathologic cancer remaining in the margin. The patient was followed up at our outpatient clinic every 3 months and no tumor recurrence occurs by now (1 y). Under the Da Vinci robotic surgical system, a programmed treatment can be achieved: first, the hepatic vessels were controlled gradually together with biliary drainage, which results in liver's partial atrophy and compensatory hypertrophy in the other part. Then a radical hepatectomy could be achieved. Such programmed hepatectomy provides a new treatment for patients of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice who have the possibility of radical heptolobectomy.

  7. Effect of severity of steatosis as assessed ultrasonographically on hepatic vascular indices in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Zahedi, Hengameh; Toldi, Gergely; Alinia, Tahereh

    2011-09-01

    Early monitoring of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression in obese patients is important to avoid the development of complications associated with fatty infiltration. of this study was to investigate the relationship between the degrees of fatty infiltration and reduced vascular compliance in NAFLD patients in the three main hepatic vessels. Two hundred and fourty subjects were enrolled in the study. They were divided into 4 groups: 60 controls, 60 grade 1 NAFLD patients, 60 grade 2 NAFLD patients and 60 grade 3 NAFLD patients. After US confirmation of the presence and grade of NAFLD, the peak and mean portal vein velocity (PPVV and MPVV, respectively), the hepatic artery resistance index (HARI), and the phasicity of the hepatic vein were measured. The PPVV was 19.6 +/- 2.4 cm/sec in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 17.6 +/- 1.2 cm/sec in grade 2 and 15.4 +/- 1.1 cm/sec in grade 3. The MPVV was 16.6 +/- 2.4 cm/sec in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 16.6 +/- 2.9 cm/sec in grade 2 and 12.7 +/- 0.7 cm/sec in grade 3. The HARI was 0.75 in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 0.68 in grade 2 and 0.64 in grade 3. There was an inverse relationship between PPVV, MPVV and HARI and different grades of fatty liver in patients (p = 0.001 for PPVV (Figure 7) and HARI, p = 0.006 for MPVV. The values of the investigated liver blood flow parameters were inversely correlated with the fatty infiltration grading. Fatty infiltration can severely influence hepatic blood flow, pointing attention to the importance of early diagnosis and the need for hepatic vessel flow abnormalities characterization in the NAFLD population.

  8. Vascular and hepatic impact of short-term intermittent hypoxia in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Trzepizur

    Full Text Available Experimental models of intermittent hypoxia (IH have been developed during the last decade to investigate the consequences of obstructive sleep apnea. IH is usually associated with detrimental metabolic and vascular outcomes. However, paradoxical protective effects have also been described depending of IH patterns and durations applied in studies. We evaluated the impact of short-term IH on vascular and metabolic function in a diet-induced model of metabolic syndrome (MS.Mice were fed either a standard diet or a high fat diet (HFD for 8 weeks. During the final 14 days of each diet, animals were exposed to either IH (1 min cycle, FiO2 5% for 30s, FiO2 21% for 30s; 8 h/day or intermittent air (FiO2 21%. Ex-vivo vascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine was assessed in aorta rings by myography. Glucose, insulin and leptin levels were assessed, as well as serum lipid profile, hepatic mitochondrial activity and tissue nitric oxide (NO release.Mice fed with HFD developed moderate markers of dysmetabolism mimicking MS, including increased epididymal fat, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and endothelial dysfunction. HFD decreased mitochondrial complex I, II and IV activities and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in liver. IH applied to HFD mice induced a major increase in insulin and leptin levels and prevented endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO production. IH also restored mitochondrial complex I and IV activities, moderated the increase in LDH activity and liver triglyceride accumulation in HFD mice.In a mouse model of MS, short-term IH increases insulin and leptin levels, restores endothelial function and mitochondrial activity and limits liver lipid accumulation.

  9. Utility of Quantitative Tc-MAA SPECT/CT for yttrium-Labelled Microsphere Treatment Planning: Calculating Vascularized Hepatic Volume and Dosimetric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Etienne; Rolland, Yan; Lenoir, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Mesbah, Habiba; Porée, Philippe; Laffont, Sophie; Clement, Bruno; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Boucher, Eveline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of SPECT/CT for volume measurements and to report a case illustrating the major impact of SPECT/CT in calculating the vascularized liver volume and dosimetry prior to injecting radiolabelled yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere). Materials and Methods. This was a phantom study, involving volume measurements carried out by two operators using SPECT and SPECT/CT images. The percentage of error for each method was calculated, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated. A treatment using Therasphere was planned in a patient with three hepatic arteries, and the quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT for this patient is provided. Results. SPECT/CT volume measurements proved to be accurate (mean error Therasphere used. Conclusions. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for vascularized liver volume measurements, providing a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients with complex hepatic vascularization.

  10. Utility of Quantitative 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT for 90yttrium-Labelled Microsphere Treatment Planning: Calculating Vascularized Hepatic Volume and Dosimetric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Etienne; Rolland, Yan; Lenoir, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Mesbah, Habiba; Porée, Philippe; Laffont, Sophie; Clement, Bruno; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Boucher, Eveline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of SPECT/CT for volume measurements and to report a case illustrating the major impact of SPECT/CT in calculating the vascularized liver volume and dosimetry prior to injecting radiolabelled yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere). Materials and Methods. This was a phantom study, involving volume measurements carried out by two operators using SPECT and SPECT/CT images. The percentage of error for each method was calculated, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated. A treatment using Therasphere was planned in a patient with three hepatic arteries, and the quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT for this patient is provided. Results. SPECT/CT volume measurements proved to be accurate (mean error Therasphere used. Conclusions. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for vascularized liver volume measurements, providing a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients with complex hepatic vascularization. PMID:21822489

  11. Utility of Amplatzer Vascular Plug with Preoperative Common Hepatic Artery Embolization for Distal Pancreatectomy with En Bloc Celiac Axis Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toguchi, Masafumi; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Numoto, Isao; Hidaka, Syojiro; Yamakawa, Miho; Asato, Nobuyuki; Im, SungWoon; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Murakami, Takamichi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility and safety of the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) for preoperative common hepatic embolization (CHA) before distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) to redistribute blood flow to the stomach and liver via the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and MethodsFour patients (3 males, 1 female; median age 69 years) with locally advanced pancreatic body cancer underwent preoperative CHA embolization with AVP. After embolization, SMA arteriography was performed to confirm the alteration of blood flow from the SMA to the proper hepatic artery.ResultsIn three of four patients, technical successes were achieved with sufficient margin from the origin of gastroduodenal artery. In one patient, the margin was less than 5 mm, although surgery was successfully performed without any problem. Eventually, all patients underwent the DP-CAR without arterial reconstruction or liver ischemia.ConclusionsAVP application is feasible and safe as an embolic procedure for preoperative CHA embolization of DP-CAR.

  12. Utility of Amplatzer Vascular Plug with Preoperative Common Hepatic Artery Embolization for Distal Pancreatectomy with En Bloc Celiac Axis Resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toguchi, Masafumi, E-mail: e024163@yahoo.co.jp; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Numoto, Isao; Hidaka, Syojiro; Yamakawa, Miho [Kindai University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Asato, Nobuyuki [Kindai University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Nara Hospital (Japan); Im, SungWoon; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Matsuki, Mitsuru [Kindai University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Takeyama, Yoshifumi [Kindai University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Murakami, Takamichi [Kindai University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility and safety of the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) for preoperative common hepatic embolization (CHA) before distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) to redistribute blood flow to the stomach and liver via the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and MethodsFour patients (3 males, 1 female; median age 69 years) with locally advanced pancreatic body cancer underwent preoperative CHA embolization with AVP. After embolization, SMA arteriography was performed to confirm the alteration of blood flow from the SMA to the proper hepatic artery.ResultsIn three of four patients, technical successes were achieved with sufficient margin from the origin of gastroduodenal artery. In one patient, the margin was less than 5 mm, although surgery was successfully performed without any problem. Eventually, all patients underwent the DP-CAR without arterial reconstruction or liver ischemia.ConclusionsAVP application is feasible and safe as an embolic procedure for preoperative CHA embolization of DP-CAR.

  13. An implantable vascularized protein gel construct that supports human fetal hepatoblast survival and infection by hepatitis C virus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha J Harding

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Widely accessible small animal models suitable for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV in vivo are lacking, primarily because rodent hepatocytes cannot be productively infected and because human hepatocytes are not easily engrafted in immunodeficient mice.We report here on a novel approach for human hepatocyte engraftment that involves subcutaneous implantation of primary human fetal hepatoblasts (HFH within a vascularized rat collagen type I/human fibronectin (rCI/hFN gel containing Bcl-2-transduced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Bcl-2-HUVEC in severe combined immunodeficient X beige (SCID/bg mice. Maturing hepatic epithelial cells in HFH/Bcl-2-HUVEC co-implants displayed endocytotic activity at the basolateral surface, canalicular microvilli and apical tight junctions between adjacent cells assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Some primary HFH, but not Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells, appeared to differentiate towards a cholangiocyte lineage within the gels, based on histological appearance and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 mRNA and protein expression. Levels of human albumin and hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha mRNA expression in gel implants and plasma human albumin levels in mice engrafted with HFH and Bcl-2-HUVEC were somewhat enhanced by including murine liver-like basement membrane (mLBM components and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-HUVEC within the gel matrix. Following ex vivo viral adsorption, both HFH/Bcl-2-HUVEC and Huh-7.5/Bcl-2-HUVEC co-implants sustained HCV Jc1 infection for at least 2 weeks in vivo, based on qRT-PCR and immunoelectron microscopic (IEM analyses of gel tissue.The system described here thus provides the basis for a simple and robust small animal model of HFH engraftment that is applicable to the study of HCV infections in vivo.

  14. Evaluation of the vascular state of hepatic tumor with radioisotope angiography and blood pool scintigraphies (early and delayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1976-01-01

    Combined radioisotope examinations of hepatic tumors have been performed using α 1 -fetoprotein radioimmunoassay, radioisotope angiography of the liver, and some tumor positive imaging scintigraphies. However, with these methods, it is frequently impossible to differentiate metastatic cancers from benign focal lesions. Radioisotope angiography of the liver, and both early (5 min later)- and delayed (4 hours later) blood pool scintigraphies of the liver were done continuously after 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-albumin intravenous injection, in cases of clearcut focal lesions on sup(99m)Tc-colloid liver scan. The relationships among these findings were examined. Four of seven cases with hepatoma and two of nine cases with metastatic cancer which had showed hypervascular findings on radioisotope angiogram showed clear blood pool activities in the area of focal defects on sup(99m)Tc-colloid scan although less than liver. On the other hand, none of hypovascular tumors on radioisotope angiogram showed blood pool activities. However, four hours later, in most malignant lesions, the lesion to liver activity ratio calculated from data processing system showed a much higher value than the ratio obtained 5 min later after injection, although two cases with benign focal lesions did not show such sequential change. The sequential evaluation of the vascular state of a hepatic tumor using radioisotope angiography and early-and delayed blood pool scintigraphies was supposed to be extremely useful for the elucidation of the nature of focal hepatic lesions on sup(99m)Tc-colloid scan, especially in differentiating hypovascular malignant- and benign lesions. (auth.)

  15. Exclusion of brown lemmings reduces vascular plant cover and biomass in Arctic coastal tundra: resampling of a 50 + year herbivore exclosure experiment near Barrow, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D R; Lara, M J; Tweedie, C E; Shaver, G R; Batzli, G O; Shaw, J D

    2011-01-01

    To determine the role lemmings play in structuring plant communities and their contribution to the 'greening of the Arctic', we measured plant cover and biomass in 50 + year old lemming exclosures and control plots in the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The response of plant functional types to herbivore exclusion varied among land cover types. In general, the abundance of lichens and bryophytes increased with the exclusion of lemmings, whereas graminoids decreased, although the magnitude of these responses varied among land cover types. These results suggest that sustained lemming activity promotes a higher biomass of vascular plant functional types than would be expected without their presence and highlights the importance of considering herbivory when interpreting patterns of greening in the Arctic. In light of the rapid environmental change ongoing in the Arctic and the potential regional to global implications of this change, further exploration regarding the long-term influence of arvicoline rodents on ecosystem function (e.g. carbon and energy balance) should be considered a research priority.

  16. Treatment of a Common Iliac Aneurysm by Endovascular Exclusion Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug and Femorofemoral Crossover Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupe, Nicholas J.; Ling, Lynn; Cowling, Mark G.; Asquith, John R.; Hopkinson, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    We report our initial experience using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP2) in the treatment of a left common iliac aneurysm. Following investigation by computerized tomographic angiography and catheter angiography, a 79-year-old man was found to have a markedly tortuous iliac system, with a left common iliac artery aneurysm that measured 48 mm in maximal diameter. Due to the patient's age and comorbidities the surgical opinion was that conventional open repair was not suitable. However, due to the tortuous nature of the aneurysm and iliac vessels, standard endovascular repair, using either a bifurcated or an aorto-uni-iliac stent graft, was also not possible. A combined approach was used by embolizing the ipsilateral internal iliac artery using coils and excluding the aneurysm using two AVP2 occlusion devices, followed by femorofemoral crossover grafting. Total aneurysm occlusion was achieved using this method and this allowed the patient to have a much less invasive surgical procedure than with conventional open repair of common iliac aneurysms, thus avoiding potential comorbidity and mortality.

  17. Vascular complications (splenic and hepatic artery aneurysms) in the occipital horn syndrome: report of a patient and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentzel, H.-J.; Seidel, J.; Vogt, L.; Vogt, S.; Kaiser, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    We report an 18-year-old boy with occipital horn syndrome who developed aneurysms of the splenic and hepatic arteries. Occipital horn syndrome, also called X-linked cutis laxa or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IX, is characterised by a skeletal dysplasia which includes occipital horns, broad clavicles, deformed radii, ulnae and humeri, narrow rib cage, undercalcified long bones and coxa valga. Distinctive features common to all patients are unusual facial appearance, hypermobility of finger joints, limitation of extension of elbows, chronic diarrhoea and genitourinary abnormalities. In this case report we describe the difficulties encountered in the diagnostic management of patients with EDS-related vascular lesions. (orig.)

  18. The correlation of CT perfusion imaging with microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Ren Bo; Liu Wenya; Wen Hao; Qing Song; Xie Weidong; Sun Yajing; Wang Haitao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation of CT perfusion imaging with microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE). Methods: Multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging was performed in 27 patients with HAE. Time-density curves(TDC) of the HAE peripheral area was drawn from the region of interest (ROI) with perfusion functional software. CT perfusion parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) were calculated. MVD and VEGF expression of pathological specimens were examined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34, anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. The CT perfusion parameters, MVD and VEGF were compared in different types of TDC with t test. The correlation of CT perfusion parameters with MVD and VEGF were analyzed with Spearman test. Results: In this group, 21 cases which TDC lower than that of the liver were classified as type Ⅰ, the others 6 cases TDC higher than the liver were of type Ⅱ TDC. TDC perfusion parameters of the two types were as follows, BF: (111.7±27.6), (158.9±39.5) ml · 100 g -1 · min -1 , BV: (15.1±6.2) , (26.8±8.4) ml/100 g, MTT: (7.0±4.4), (7.7±3.1) s, PS: (51.7±17.3), (51.0±20.5) ml ·100 g -1 · min -1 . The significant differences of BF, BV and MVD [(20.5±5.4)/HP, (37.2±7.5)/HP, respectively] were found between two types (t=-7.897, -18.783, -5.223, P 0.05). The correlation was found between the MVD and BF and BV in the type Ⅱ TDC group (r=0.789 and 0.878, respectively) and no correlation was found between MVD and each CT perfusion parameters in the type Ⅰ TDC group (P>0.05). There was no correlation between the VEGF expression and CT perfusion parameters in two types of TDC (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion imaging with different type of TDC reflected different situation of angiogenesis in HAE peripheral area, which could be a potential technique to illustrate the

  19. Vascular complications (splenic and hepatic artery aneurysms) in the occipital horn syndrome: report of a patient and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, H.-J. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena (Germany)]|[Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bachstrasse 18, D-07 740 Jena (Germany); Seidel, J.; Vogt, L. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Jena/Thueringen (Germany); Vogt, S.; Kaiser, W.A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    We report an 18-year-old boy with occipital horn syndrome who developed aneurysms of the splenic and hepatic arteries. Occipital horn syndrome, also called X-linked cutis laxa or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IX, is characterised by a skeletal dysplasia which includes occipital horns, broad clavicles, deformed radii, ulnae and humeri, narrow rib cage, undercalcified long bones and coxa valga. Distinctive features common to all patients are unusual facial appearance, hypermobility of finger joints, limitation of extension of elbows, chronic diarrhoea and genitourinary abnormalities. In this case report we describe the difficulties encountered in the diagnostic management of patients with EDS-related vascular lesions. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs.

  20. Intrahepatic upregulation of MRTF-A signaling contributes to increased hepatic vascular resistance in cirrhotic rats with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Qin, Jun; Sun, Longci; Gui, Liang; Zhang, Chihao; Huang, Yijun; Deng, Wensheng; Huang, An; Sun, Dong; Luo, Meng

    2017-06-01

    Portal hypertension in cirrhosis is mediated, in part, by increased intrahepatic resistance, reflecting massive structural changes associated with fibrosis and intrahepatic vasoconstriction. Activation of the Rho/MRTF/SRF signaling pathway is essential for the cellular regulatory network of fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate MRTF-A-mediated regulation of intrahepatic fibrogenesis in cirrhotic rats. Portal hypertension was induced in rats via an injection of CCl 4 oil. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained using a polyethylene PE-50 catheter and pressure transducers. Expression of hepatic fibrogenesis was measured using histological staining. Expression of protein was measured using western blotting. Upregulation of MRTF-A protein expression in the livers of rats with CCl 4 -induced cirrhosis was relevant to intrahepatic resistance and hepatic fibrogenesis in portal hypertensive rats with increased modeling time. Inhibition of MRTF-A by CCG-1423 decelerated hepatic fibrosis, decreased intrahepatic resistance and portal pressure, and alleviated portal hypertension. Increased intrahepatic resistance in rats with CCl 4 -induced portal hypertension is associated with an upregulation of MRTF-A signaling. Inhibition of this pathway in the liver can decrease hepatic fibrosis and intrahepatic resistance, as well as reduce portal pressure in cirrhotic rats with CCl 4 -induced portal hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Up-regulation of proproliferative genes and the ligand/receptor pair placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao X; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Shackel, Nicholas A; Gorrell, Mark D

    2007-09-01

    Cirrhosis can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-diseased liver and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis with or without HCC were compared. Proliferation pathway genes, immune response genes and oncogenes were analysed by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. Real-time RT-PCR showed up-regulation of genes in HCV cirrhosis including the proliferation-associated genes bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3), placental growth factor 3 (PGF3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and soluble VEGFR1, the oncogene FYN, and the immune response-associated genes toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and natural killer cell transcript 4 (NK4). Expressions of TLR2 and the oncogenes B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and PIM2 were decreased in HCV cirrhosis. In addition, PIM2 and TLR2 were increased in HCV cirrhosis with HCC compared with HCV cirrhosis. The ligand/receptor pair PGF and VEGFR1 was intensely expressed by the portal tract vascular endothelium. VEGFR1 was expressed in reactive biliary epithelial structures in fibrotic septum and in some stellate cells and macrophages. PGF and VEGFR1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the neovascular response in cirrhosis.

  2. Hepatic natural killer cells exclusively kill splenic/blood natural killer-resistant tumor cells by the perforin/granzyme pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermijlen, David; Luo, Dianzhong; Froelich, Christopher J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kummer, Jean Alain; Willems, Erik; Braet, Filip; Wisse, Eddie

    2002-01-01

    Hepatic natural killer (NK) cells are located in the liver sinusoids adherent to the endothelium. Human and rat hepatic NK cells induce cytolysis in tumor cells that are resistant to splenic or blood NK cells. To investigate the mechanism of cell death, we examined the capacity of isolated, pure

  3. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  4. Hepatic and vascular enhancement at dual-phase helical CT: comparison of Iobitridol 300 and Iohexol 300 in a prospective randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legmann, P.; Vignaux, O.; Bahurel, H.; Oudjit, A.; Coste, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine hepatic and vascular enhancement, clinical tolerance, and iconographic quality of Iobitridol (300 mg/ml) at dual-phase helical CT and to compare it with Iohexol (300 mg/ml). One hundred forty-six patients were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received 120 ml of Iohexol (group A) or Iobitridol (group B). Mean enhancement of liver, aorta and portal vein was obtained at the arterial phase and at the portal-venous phase. Overall image quality was assessed by two independent blinded investigators. Adverse reactions were recorded. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and distribution of patient intrinsic parameters between the two groups, except for blood pressure but without statistical correlation between the difference in blood pressure and the impact on enhancement measurements. There was no significant difference in clinical tolerance and image quality. Mean liver as well as aortic and portal vein enhancement measurements did not show any significant difference. Iobitridol compares favorably with Iohexol. Both products have similar safety, tolerance, and efficacy. Both contrast media have equivalent blood pool concentration and interstitial compartment diffusion. (orig.)

  5. Hepatic and vascular enhancement at dual-phase helical CT: comparison of Iobitridol 300 and Iohexol 300 in a prospective randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legmann, P.; Vignaux, O.; Bahurel, H.; Oudjit, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France); Coste, J. [Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine hepatic and vascular enhancement, clinical tolerance, and iconographic quality of Iobitridol (300 mg/ml) at dual-phase helical CT and to compare it with Iohexol (300 mg/ml). One hundred forty-six patients were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received 120 ml of Iohexol (group A) or Iobitridol (group B). Mean enhancement of liver, aorta and portal vein was obtained at the arterial phase and at the portal-venous phase. Overall image quality was assessed by two independent blinded investigators. Adverse reactions were recorded. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and distribution of patient intrinsic parameters between the two groups, except for blood pressure but without statistical correlation between the difference in blood pressure and the impact on enhancement measurements. There was no significant difference in clinical tolerance and image quality. Mean liver as well as aortic and portal vein enhancement measurements did not show any significant difference. Iobitridol compares favorably with Iohexol. Both products have similar safety, tolerance, and efficacy. Both contrast media have equivalent blood pool concentration and interstitial compartment diffusion. (orig.)

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  7. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: study of hepatic vascular alterations with multi-detector row helical CT and reconstruction programs; Telangiectasia emorragica ereditaria: TC multidetettore multifasica e programmi di ricostruzione nello studio delle alterazioni vascolari epatiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Scaldapane, Arnaldo; Rotondo, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe [Policlinico Universitario, Bari (Italy). DiMIMP Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini; Suppressa, Patrizia; Cirulli, Anna; Sabba' , Carlo [Policlinico Universitario, Bari (Italy). Centro Interdipartimentale per lo studio dell' HHT

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hepatic alterations in patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) by using multidetector row helical CT (MDCT) and new reconstruction programs. Materials and methods: An MDCT multiphasic study of the liver was performed in 105 consecutive patients: 89 considered to be affected by HHT and 16 with suspicion of disease alone. The scan delay was determined by using a test bolus of contrast material. The CT examination was performed with a triphasic technique (double arterial phase and portal venous phase). multiplanar and angiographic reconstructions were then obtained, and the images checked for the presence of shunts, hepatic perfusion disorders, vascular lesions (telangiectasis and large confluent vascular masses), indirect signs of portal hypertension, and anatomical vascular variants. Results: Hepatic vascular alterations were found in 78/105 cases (67/89) patients affected by HHT and 11/16 patients with clinical suspicion alone). Therefore HHT diagnosis was excluded in 5 patients. 78/100 (78%) patients with HHT had intrahepatic vascular alterations: arterioportal shunts in 40/78 (51.2%) arteriosystemic shunts in 16/78 (20.5%) and both shunt types in 22/78 (28.3%). Intraparenchymal perfusion disorders were found in 46/78 (58.9%) patients. Telangiectasis were recognised in 50/78 (64.1%) patients. Large confluent vascular masses (LCVMs) were identified in 20/78 (25.6%) patients. indirect signs of portal hypertension were found in 46/78 (58.9%) cases. Variant hepatic arterial anatomy was present in 38/100 cases (38%). Conclusions: Multiphasic MDCT and the new reconstruction programs enable the identification and characterisation of the complex vascular alterations typical of HHT. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare le alterazioni epatiche nei pazienti affetti da Telangiectasia Emorraica Ereditaria (TEE) utilizzando una TC multidetettore (TCMD) ed in nuovi programmi di ricostruzione. Materiale e metodi: E' stato eseguito uno

  8. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  12. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  13. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  14. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  15. An Interaction of the Pre- and Post-Weaning Diets Rich in Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fats Alters Plasma Lipids, Hepatic Gene Expression and Aortic Vascular Reactivity in Adult 057Bl/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Chechi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of diets rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA fed during pre- and post-weaning time periods on the lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity in adult C57Bl/6 mice, in order to assess the impact of maternal nutrition and its interaction with the offspring diet on the metabolism of adult offspring. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet enriched with n-6 PUFA (P or control diet (C for 2-weeks before, during mating, gestation and lactation, while their pups received either P or C for 8-weeks post-weaning. Results A significant interaction between the maternal and post-weaning diets was observed for the offspring body weight, food-, caloric-intake, plasma lipids, hepatic mRNA expression of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, aortic contractile and relaxation responses ( P < 0.05. Conclusion The overall metabolic and physiological outcome in the offspring is dependent upon the interaction between the pre- and post-weaning dietary environments.

  16. Large Vaginal Varicosities in the Setting of Pregnancy without Known Hepatic or Vascular Risks: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Mark; Clevenger, Steven; Hart, Elaine

    2018-01-01

    Pregnancy may cause the onset of vaginal or vulvar varicosities that may be a concern for hemorrhage risk during childbirth. A 38-year-old female G4P1112 at 34 weeks and 1 day was referred to an outpatient OB/Gyn clinic for evaluation of a large vaginal mass. The referring provider had concern for malignancy. Lesions of the vulva were biopsied and found to be benign. For two months prior to presentation, she was experiencing discomfort with walking, yellow vaginal discharge, and dysuria. Treatment with fluconazole showed no improvement. She denied any personal or family history of malignancies, varicosities, or hepatic issues. Past surgical history was significant for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and two cesarean sections. A large vaginal mass during pregnancy is a concern whether it is malignancy or large vaginal varicosities that may put the patient at risk of severe hemorrhage during childbirth. We concluded that the mass was large vaginal varicosities as there was no discernible etiology. A repeat cesarean section was recommended due to the risk of hemorrhage during childbirth. For long-term management, close observation postpartum was recommended. Spontaneous resolution is a potential outcome and this is what our patient experienced. Without an underlying etiology, supportive measures are the best options.

  17. Large Vaginal Varicosities in the Setting of Pregnancy without Known Hepatic or Vascular Risks: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sueyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy may cause the onset of vaginal or vulvar varicosities that may be a concern for hemorrhage risk during childbirth. A 38-year-old female G4P1112 at 34 weeks and 1 day was referred to an outpatient OB/Gyn clinic for evaluation of a large vaginal mass. The referring provider had concern for malignancy. Lesions of the vulva were biopsied and found to be benign. For two months prior to presentation, she was experiencing discomfort with walking, yellow vaginal discharge, and dysuria. Treatment with fluconazole showed no improvement. She denied any personal or family history of malignancies, varicosities, or hepatic issues. Past surgical history was significant for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and two cesarean sections. A large vaginal mass during pregnancy is a concern whether it is malignancy or large vaginal varicosities that may put the patient at risk of severe hemorrhage during childbirth. We concluded that the mass was large vaginal varicosities as there was no discernible etiology. A repeat cesarean section was recommended due to the risk of hemorrhage during childbirth. For long-term management, close observation postpartum was recommended. Spontaneous resolution is a potential outcome and this is what our patient experienced. Without an underlying etiology, supportive measures are the best options.

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  19. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  20. Characterization and spatial relationships of the hepatic vascular-biliary tracts, and their associated pancreocytes and macrophages, in the model fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata): A study of serial sections by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sisandra; Rocha, Maria J; Rocha, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    The guppy is a tropical fish that has been used as an experimental model organism in science. It is a species well adapted to the natural environment and that can support adverse environmental conditions, and so, at occasions, its presence can be indicative of environmental disturbances. Moreover, as the liver is very important when studying fish diseases, the knowledge of normal microanatomy is essential to assess histological changes, e.g., related to environmental change or toxic pollutants. The target organ of this histological study is the liver. The main objective is to contribute to the identification of anatomical and structural variations of this organ in different teleost species. We studied the distribution and spatial organization of the different types of blood vessels and biliary ducts and the relationships between them are established. For this, each liver was totally sectioned and the serial sections inspected in detail. The guppy liver presented intra-hepatic pancreatic tissue and so reported its association with the vascular and biliary elements. We observed that the input of afferent vessels (i.e., bringing blood into the liver) occur not only in the hilum but pierce and enter the organ at various points. Within the liver, venous vessels and bile ducts are seen, isolated or associated as venous-arteriolar tracts (VAT), and venous-biliary- arteriolar tracts (VBAT). Sometimes, pancreocytes appear within the liver surrounding isolated veins, forming venous tract with pancreatic acini (VT-P), or dual associations with afferent vessels, forming venous-arteriolar tracts with pancreatic acini (VAT-P). Intrahepatic pancreatic ducts were tiny and rare, putting in question the functional role of the acini. Contrary to other fish species, we did not spot isolated arterioles and associations between these and biliary ducts (BAT).We found aggregates of macrophages, namely associated with afferent and efferent (i.e., draining blood out) venous vessels; the

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  3. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  4. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  5. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  9. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  10. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  11. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  12. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  13. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  14. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  17. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  18. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  19. Technetium-99m-labelled red blood cell imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangiomas: the role of SPECT/CT with a hybrid camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Danieli, Roberta; Manni, Carlo; Capoccetti, Francesca; Simonetti, Giovanni [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Delayed liver single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after {sup 99m}Tc red blood cell (RBC) labelling is helpful in detecting hepatic haemangiomas; however, diagnosis can be difficult when lesions are situated adjacent to structures like the inferior vena cava, the heart or hepatic vessels, where blood activity persists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of RBC SPECT and transmission computed tomography (RBC SPECT/CT) performed simultaneously with a hybrid imaging system for correct characterisation of hepatic lesions in patients with suspected haemangioma, and to assess the additional value of fused images compared with SPECT alone. Twelve patients with 24 liver lesions were studied. The acquisitions of both anatomical (CT) and functional (SPECT) data were performed during a single session. SPECT images were first interpreted alone and then re-evaluated after adding the transmission anatomical maps. Image fusion was successful in all patients, with perfect correspondence between SPECT and CT data, allowing the precise anatomical localisation of sites of increased blood pool activity. SPECT/CT had a significant impact on results in four patients (33.3%) with four lesions defined as indeterminate on SPECT images, accurately characterising the hot spot foci located near vascular structures. In conclusion, RBC SPECT/CT imaging using this hybrid SPECT/CT system is feasible and useful in the identification or exclusion of suspected hepatic haemangiomas located near regions with high vascular activity. (orig.)

  20. Treatment of hemobilia by transcatheter vascular occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.; Roesch, J.; Keller, F.S.; Antonovic, R.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of hemobilia treated by transcatheter arterial occlusion are presented and reviewed with 30 similar cases reported in the literature. Transcatheter vascular occlusion successfully controlled hemorrhage in all 34 patients. No obvious liver parenchymal damage appeared in 26 patients; transient elevation of liver enzymes occurred in 6 patients (18%) including one in our series; two of the patients reviewed died of acute hepatic insufficiency following nonselective hepatic artery embolization. Hemobilia should be considered when gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurs after abdominal trauma, liver biopsy or other manipulative liver procedures. Hepatic angiography establishes the diagnosis and selective vascular occlusion is the treatment of choice for control of intractable or recurrent hemorrhage. Techniques and precautions for the diagnosis and transcatheter therapy of hemobilia are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  3. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  4. [Repeat hepatic resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ciurea, S; Braşoveanu, V; Pietrăreanu, D; Tulbure, D; Georgescu, S; Stănescu, D; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of iterative liver resections are presented, out of a total of 150 hepatectomies performed between 1.01.1995-1.01.1998. The resections were carried out for recurrent adenoma (one case), cholangiocarcinoma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (one case), colo-rectal cancer metastasis (one case). Only cases with at least one major hepatic resection were included. Re-resections were more difficult than the primary resection due, first of all, to the modified vascular anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound permitted localization of intrahepatic recurrences. Iterative liver resection appears to be the best therapeutical choice for patients with recurrent liver tumors.

  5. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry explores the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions. Social...... exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...... psychological condition. Social exclusion anxiety instead points to a distributed affect which circulates and smolders in all social groups. This is the result of an ever-present risk of someone being judged unworthy to belong to, or deemed not a legitimate participant in, a social group. Such anxiety may...

  6. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  7. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  11. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  13. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  15. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  16. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  17. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  18. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  19. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This

  20. Hepatic resection and regeneration. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuse, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic surgery has been performed on condition that the liver regenerates after hepatic resection, and the development of liver anatomy due to Glisson, Rex, and Couinaud has thrown light on hepatic surgery Understanding of feeding and drainage vessels became feasible for systemic hepatic resection; however, it seems to have been the most important problem to control the bleeding during hepatic resection. New types of devices such as cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and Microwave coagulation were exploited to control blood loss during hepatic surgery. Pringle maneuver for exclusion feeding vessels of the liver and the decrease of central venous pressure during anesthesia enabled further decrease of blood loss. Nowadays, 3D-CT imaging may depict feeding and drainage vessels in relation to liver mass, and surgeons can simulate hepatic surgery in virtual reality before surgery, allowing hepatectomy to be performed without blood transfusion. Thus, hepatic resection has been a safe procedure, but there's been a significant research on how much of the liver can be resected without hepatic failure. A prediction scoring system based on ICGR15, resection rates, and age is mostly reliable in some criteria. Even if hepatectomy is performed with a good prediction score, the massive bleeding and associated infection may induce postoperative hepatic failure, while the criteria of postoperative hepatic failure have not yet established. Hepatic failure is supposed to be induced by the apoptosis of mature hepatocytes and necrosis originated from microcirculation disturbance of the liver. Prostaglandin E1 for the improvement of microcirculation, steroid for the inhibition of cytokines inducing apoptosis, and blood purification to exclude cytokines have been tried separately or concomitantly. New therapeutic approaches, especially hepatic regeneration from the stem cell, are expected. (author)

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  12. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  19. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  3. Exclusive processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this talk I concentrate on purely exclusive processes. In Sec. II form factors and exclusive decays of heavy quarkonium states will be discussed. In Sec. III elastic wide angle elastic scattering will be considered with emphasis placed on the energy dependence for a fixed angle. The x → 1 limit of structure functions is discussed in Sec. IV. This is a limit which matches on, in a rather complicated way, with transition form factors. In Sec. V the idea of intrinsic charm is considered, mostly from a conceptual viewpoint as to its definition and possible existence. In Sec. VI there is a brief discussion of calculations of matrix elements which occur in deeply inelastic scattering by use of a bag model. In Sec. VII wee parton cancellations and Sudakov corrections for μ-pair production are considered. Sec. VIII concerns soft particle production and the mutliplicity of hadrons in a jet. (orig./HSI)

  4. Circulating hyaluronate: concentration in different vascular beds in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Laurent, T C

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid; HA) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous HA in fasting, supine subjects with normal (n = 6) or moderately decreased kidney function (n = 9). In both groups hepatic venous HA was sign......The plasma concentration of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid; HA) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous HA in fasting, supine subjects with normal (n = 6) or moderately decreased kidney function (n = 9). In both groups hepatic venous HA...

  5. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  6. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  7. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  8. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  9. Off-pump hepatic to azygos connection via thoracotomy for relief of fistulas after a Kawashima procedure : Ten-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrigoni, Sara C.; van den Heuvel, Freek; Willems, Tineke P.; Hillege, Hans; Lindberg, Harald L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Ebels, Tjark

    Objectives: An almost universal incidence of developing pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas after the Kawashima operation has been reported. Exclusion of the hepatic venous flow from the pulmonary circulation causes the development of these malformations. Redirection of hepatic venous flow to the

  10. Exclusion and authorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    'Everyone in the world is exposed to radiation from natural and artificial sources. Any realistic system of radiological protection must have a clearly defined scope if it is not to apply to the whole of mankind's activities'. This quote, from ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP, 1991), remains apposite. The main tool for defining scope is the concept of exclusion: situations, sources or exposures that are excluded from the system of radiological protection are, to all intents and purposes, ignored. Sources and exposures that are not excluded are within the scope of the system of protection and by inference within regulatory systems implementing ICRP recommendations. These sources and exposures should be subject to appropriate authorization by the relevant regulatory authority. In order to avoid excessive regulatory procedures, however, provisions should be made for granting an exemption in cases where it is clear that regulatory provisions are unnecessary. Exemption is a regulatory tool intended to facilitate efficient use of regulatory resources. Nevertheless, the regulatory act of granting exemptions is, in itself, a form of authorization and the material or situation so exempted remains within the regulatory system. This distinction between exclusion and exemption is an important one. Historically, the concept of exclusion has been applied to sources or exposures that are essentially unamenable to control because of their widespread nature. The usually quoted examples are cosmic radiation at ground level and 40 K in the body. Clearly, many exposures from natural sources could fall into this category. The challenges are firstly to establish a sound basis for deciding which should be excluded and which should be controlled, and secondly to see if the concept could or should be applied to artificial sources and exposures. These two questions are the subject of this paper. (author)

  11. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually...

  12. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  15. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  16. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  17. Hepatic Arterial Configuration in Relation to the Segmental Anatomy of the Liver; Observations on MDCT and DSA Relevant to Radioembolization Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, Andor F. van den; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2015-01-01

    PurposeCurrent anatomical classifications do not include all variants relevant for radioembolization (RE). The purpose of this study was to assess the individual hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern and to develop an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended classification.MethodsThe hepatic vascular anatomy was assessed on MDCT and DSA in patients who received a workup for RE between February 2009 and November 2012. Reconstructed MDCT studies were assessed to determine the hepatic arterial configuration (origin of every hepatic arterial branch, branching pattern and anatomical course) and the hepatic segmental vascularization territory of all branches. Aberrant hepatic arteries were defined as hepatic arterial branches that did not originate from the celiac axis/CHA/PHA. Early branching patterns were defined as hepatic arterial branches originating from the celiac axis/CHA.ResultsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern could be assessed in 110 of 133 patients. In 59 patients (54 %), no aberrant hepatic arteries or early branching was observed. Fourteen patients without aberrant hepatic arteries (13 %) had an early branching pattern. In the 37 patients (34 %) with aberrant hepatic arteries, five also had an early branching pattern. Sixteen different hepatic arterial segmental vascularization patterns were identified and described, differing by the presence of aberrant hepatic arteries, their respective vascular territory, and origin of the artery vascularizing segment four.ConclusionsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern show marked individual variability beyond well-known classifications of anatomical variants. We developed an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended anatomical classification

  18. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  19. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  20. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Microvascular Architecture of Hepatic Metastases in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Kuruppu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of effective treatment for hepatic metastases can be initiated by a better understanding of tumour vasculature and blood supply. This study was designed to characterise the microvascular architecture of hepatic metastases and observe the source of contributory blood supply from the host. Metastases were induced in mice by an intrasplenic injection of colon carcinoma cells (106 cells/ml. Vascularization of tumours was studied over a three week period by scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts. Metastatic liver involvement was observed initially within a week post induction, as areas approximately 100 μm in diameter not perfused by the casting resin. On histology these spaces corresponded to tumour cell aggregates. The following weeks highlighted the angiogenesis phase of these tumours as they received a vascular supply from adjacent hepatic sinusoids. Direct sinusoidal supply of metastases was maintained throughout tumour growth. At the tumour periphery most sinusoids were compressed to form a sheath demarcating the tumour from the hepatic vasculature. No direct supply from the hepatic artery or the portal vein was observed. Dilated vessels termed vascular lakes dominated the complex microvascular architecture of the tumours, most tapering as they traversed towards the periphery. Four vascular branching patterns could be identified as true loops, bifurcations and trifurcations, spirals and capillary networks. The most significant observation in this study was the direct sinusoidal supply of metastases, together with the vascular lakes and the peripheral sinusoidal sheaths of the tumour microculature.

  2. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  3. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  4. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  5. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  9. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  10. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  11. Right Hepatic Artery: A Cadaver Investigation and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The right hepatic artery is an end artery and contributes sole arterial supply to right lobe of the liver. Misinterpretation of normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the right hepatic artery contribute to the major intraoperative mishaps and complications in hepatobiliary surgery. The frequency of inadvertent or iatrogenic hepatobiliary vascular injury rises with the event of an aberrant anatomy. This descriptive study was carried out to document the normal anatomy and different variations of right hepatic artery to contribute to existing knowledge of right hepatic artery to improve surgical safety. This study conducted on 60 cadavers revealed aberrant replaced right hepatic artery in 18.3% and aberrant accessory right hepatic artery in 3.4%. Considering the course, the right hepatic artery ran outside Calot’s triangle in 5% of cases and caterpillar hump right hepatic artery was seen in 13.3% of cases. The right hepatic artery (normal and aberrant crossed anteriorly to the common hepatic duct in 8.3% and posteriorly to it in 71.6%. It has posterior relations with the common bile duct in 16.7% while in 3.4% it did not cross the common hepatic duct or common bile duct. The knowledge of such anomalies is important since their awareness will decrease morbidity and help to keep away from a number of surgical complications.

  12. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  13. Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Radiology has gained importance in the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography is usually the first imaging modality for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Unenhanced CT with or without dual kVp measurement and MRI with in and out of phase sequence can allow objective evaluation of hepatic steatosis. However, none of the imaging modalities can differentiate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/fatty liver disease from simple steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis is important in donor evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation and hepatic surgery. Recently, one-stop shop evaluation of potential liver donors has become possible by CT and MRI integrating vascular, parenchymal, volume and steatosis evaluation. Moreover hepatic steatosis (diffuse, multinodular, focal, subcortical, perilesional, intralesional, periportal and perivenular), hypersteatosis and sparing (geographic, nodular and perilesional or peritumoral) can cause diagnostic problems as a pseudotumor particularly in the evaluation of oncology patients. Liver MRI is used as a problem-solving tool in these patients. In this review, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing, quantifying hepatic steatosis and solutions for diagnostic problems associated with fatty infiltration and sparing.

  14. Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    Radiology has gained importance in the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography is usually the first imaging modality for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Unenhanced CT with or without dual kVp measurement and MRI with in and out of phase sequence can allow objective evaluation of hepatic steatosis. However, none of the imaging modalities can differentiate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/fatty liver disease from simple steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis is important in donor evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation and hepatic surgery. Recently, one-stop shop evaluation of potential liver donors has become possible by CT and MRI integrating vascular, parenchymal, volume and steatosis evaluation. Moreover hepatic steatosis (diffuse, multinodular, focal, subcortical, perilesional, intralesional, periportal and perivenular), hypersteatosis and sparing (geographic, nodular and perilesional or peritumoral) can cause diagnostic problems as a pseudotumor particularly in the evaluation of oncology patients. Liver MRI is used as a problem-solving tool in these patients. In this review, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing, quantifying hepatic steatosis and solutions for diagnostic problems associated with fatty infiltration and sparing

  15. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  16. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  17. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  18. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  19. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  20. Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-23

    Although phylogenetically unrelated, human hepatitis viruses share an exclusive or near exclusive tropism for replication in differentiated hepatocytes. This narrow tissue tropism may contribute to the restriction of the host ranges of these viruses to relatively few host species, mostly nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primate models thus figure prominently in our current understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses, including the enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), and have also played major roles in vaccine development. This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to our current understanding of the biology of these viruses. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  2. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  3. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  6. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  7. Generalized exclusion and Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, A

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalized oscillator algebra at the roots of unity with generalized exclusion and we investigate the braided Hopf structure. We find that there are two solutions: these are the generalized exclusions of the bosonic and fermionic types. We also discuss the covariance properties of these oscillators

  8. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  9. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Hepatitis B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M S

    2015-12-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet for educational material concerning health and diseases. This information can be utilized to teach the population of hepatitis B and C if properly written at the necessary grade level of the intended patient population. We explored the readability of online resources concerning hepatitis B and C. Google searches were performed for "Hepatitis B" and "Hepatitis C." The Internet resources that were intended for patient education were used with specific exclusions. Articles were taken from 19 and 23 different websites focusing on the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis B and C, respectively. The articles were analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The results were compared and averaged to identify the anticipated academic grade level required to understand the information. The average readability scores of the 10 scales had ranges of 9.7-16.4 for hepatitis B and 9.2-16.4 for hepatitis C. The average academic reading grade level for hepatitis B was 12.6 ± 2.1 and for hepatitis C was 12.7 ± 2.1. There was no significant discrepancy between the hepatitis B and C Internet resource averaged grade levels. The resources accessed by patients are higher than the previously determined necessary grade level for patients to properly understand the intended information. The American Medical Association recommends material should be simplified to grade levels below the sixth grade level to benefit the ideal proportion of the patient population.

  10. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  11. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 4

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso,Gabriele; Domina,Gianniantonio; Bonari,Gianmaria; Buono,Sergio; Chianese,Giuseppina; Cortesi,Gloria; Cortesi,Gloria; Iamonico,Duilio; Olivieri,Nicola; Peruzzi,Lorenzo; Pierini,Brunello; Roma-Marzio,Francesco; Scoppola,Anna; Soldano,Adriano; Stinca,Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records and exclusions for Italy or for Italian administrative regions of taxa in the genera Cedrus, Cenchrus, Citrus, Cyrtomium, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Erigeron, Iris, Oenothera, Pavonia, Phytolacca, Styphnolobium, and Verbena. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Amaranthus is proposed.

  12. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  13. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  14. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...... kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market...

  15. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is no clear guidance from theory as to the limits of the transition region; .... behavior in exclusive photoreactions with hadrons in the final state at large t may provide .... The planned medium acceptance detector (MAD) system in Hall A.

  16. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00106463

    2015-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production is a unique QCD process in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. Several results have been obtained at LHCb for the production of single charmonia, pairs of charmonia, and single bottomonia.

  17. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  18. Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers’ Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Piccolo; Markus Reisinger

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the rationale for exclusive territories in a model of repeated interaction between competing supply chains. We show that with observable contracts exclusive territories have two countervailing effects on manufacturers' incentives to sustain tacit collusion. First, granting local monopolies to retailers distributing a given brand softens inter- and intrabrand competition in a one-shot game. Hence, punishment profits are larger, thereby rendering deviation more profitable....

  19. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics, as given by Haldane, allows for a statistical interaction between distinguishable particles (multi-species statistics). The thermodynamic quantities for such statistics ca be evaluated exactly. The explicit expressions for the cluster coefficients are presented. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence onto the higher-dimensional and the multi-species cases remain essentially open

  20. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  1. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  2. Outcomes and complications of angioembolization for hepatic trauma: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher S; Bulger, Eileen M; Kwan, Sharon W

    2016-03-01

    The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs. Hepatic hemorrhage is a complex and challenging complication following hepatic trauma. Significant shifts in the treatment of hepatic hemorrhage, including the increasing use of angioembolization, are believed to have improved patient outcomes. We aimed to describe the efficacy of angioembolization in the setting of acute hepatic arterial hemorrhage as well as the complications associated with this treatment modality. A systematic review of published literature (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library) describing hepatic angioembolization in the setting of trauma was performed. Articles that fulfilled the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. We analyzed the efficacy rate of angioembolization in the setting of traumatic hepatic hemorrhage as well as the complications associated with hepatic angioembolization. Four hundred fifty-nine articles were identified in the literature search. Of these, 10 retrospective studies and 1 prospective study met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Efficacy rate of angioembolization was 93%. The most frequently reported complications following hepatic angioembolization included hepatic necrosis (15%), abscess formation (7.5%), and bile leaks. Although the outcomes of hepatic angioembolization were generally favorable with a high success rate, the treatment modality is not without associated morbidity. The most frequently associated major complication was hepatic necrosis. Rates of complications were affected by study heterogeneity and should be better defined in future studies. Systematic review, level III.

  3. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  4. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  5. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  6. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  7. Hepatic artery aneurysm repair: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaunoo SS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hepatic artery aneurysms remain a clinically significant entity. Their incidence continues to rise slowly and mortality from spontaneous rupture is high. Repair is recommended in those aneurysms greater than 2 cm in diameter. It is not surprising that vascular comorbidities, such as ischaemic heart disease, are common in surgical patients, particularly those with arterial aneurysms such as these. The decision of when to operate on patients who require urgent surgery despite having recently suffered an acute coronary syndrome remains somewhat of a grey and controversial area. We discuss the role of delayed surgery and postoperative followup of this vascular problem. Case presentation A 58-year-old man was admitted with a 5.5 cm hepatic artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was asymptomatic and was an incidental finding as a result of an abdominal computed tomography scan to investigate an episode of haemoptysis (Figure 1. Three weeks prior to admission, the patient had suffered a large inferior myocardial infarction and was treated by thrombolysis and primary coronary angioplasty. Angiographic assessment revealed a large aneurysm of the common hepatic artery involving the origins of the hepatic, gastroduodenal, left and right gastric arteries and the splenic artery (Figures 2 and 3. Endovascular treatment was not considered feasible and immediate surgery was too high-risk in the early post-infarction period. Therefore, surgery was delayed for 3 months when aneurysm repair with reconstruction of the hepatic artery was successfully performed. Graft patency was confirmed with the aid of an abdominal arterial duplex. Plasma levels of conventional liver function enzymes and of alpha-glutathione-S-transferase were within normal limits. This was used to assess the extent of any hepatocellular damage perioperatively. The patient made a good recovery and was well at his routine outpatient check-ups. Conclusion There is no significant

  8. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  9. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  10. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  12. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  14. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  15. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  16. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  17. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  18. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  19. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  20. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics that was given by Haldane admits a 'statistical interaction' between distinguishable particles (multispecies statistics). For such statistics, thermodynamic quantities can be evaluated exactly; explicit expressions are presented here for cluster coefficients. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models of the Calogero-Sutherland type. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence to the higher-dimensional and the multispecies cases remain essentially open; however, our results provide some hints as to searches for the models in question

  1. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  2. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  3. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  4. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  5. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  6. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  7. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  8. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  9. Interventional Radiological Treatment of Perihepatic Vascular Stenosis or Occlusion in Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uller, Wibke; Knoppke, Birgit; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Heiss, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.; Melter, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of percutaneous treatment of vascular stenoses and occlusions in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods: Fifteen children (mean age 8.3 years) underwent interventional procedures for 18 vascular complications after liver transplantation. Patients had stenoses or occlusions of portal veins (n = 8), hepatic veins (n = 3), inferior vena cava (IVC; n = 2) or hepatic arteries (n = 5). Technical and clinical success rates were evaluated. Results: Stent angioplasty was performed in seven cases (portal vein, hepatic artery and IVC), and sole balloon angioplasty was performed in eight cases. One child underwent thrombolysis (hepatic artery). Clinical and technical success was achieved in 14 of 18 cases of vascular stenoses or occlusions (mean follow-up 710 days). Conclusion: Pediatric interventional radiology allows effective and safe treatment of vascular stenoses after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT). Individualized treatment with special concepts for each pediatric patient is necessary. The variety, the characteristics, and the individuality of interventional management of all kinds of possible vascular stenoses or occlusions after PLT are shown

  10. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  11. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  12. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes γγ → M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed

  13. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  14. Interventional method in diagnosis and treatment of vascular complication after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yonghui; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Yu Shenping; Chen Guihua

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of interventional method in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular complication after liver transplantation. Methods: Seven patients (3 vena cava stenosis, 1 hepatic artery stenosis, 2 hepatic artery thrombosis, and 1 hepatic artery pseudo-aneurysm) with vascular complication after liver transplantation had been studied retrospectively, including the correlative biochemistry data and angiographic signs. Results: Among the 7 patients, 6 patients had been successfully treated by interventional radiology procedure. The technical success rate was 85.56%. The renal functions of 3 patients with vena cava stenosis who had been treated by angioplasty improved satisfactorily. The survival time after this intervention of these 3 patients ranged from 10 days to 20 months. 1 patient still lived 20 months after the intervention, 2 died of other complications beside caval stenosis within one month after the intervention. The hepatic function of the 4 patients with hepatic artery complications treated by interventional procedures had not been redressed. Conclusion: Angiography played an important role in diagnosing the hepatic vascular complication after liver transplantation. The result of interventional radiology treatment of vena cava stenosis was encouraging

  15. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  16. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  17. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  18. RECENT THEORIES OF PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN HEPATITIS C VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Popović Dragonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is potentially reversible, or progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior and personality changes, and transient neurologic symptoms and characteristic electroencephalographic patterns associated with acute and chronic liver failure. For some time, there has been controversy regarding the origin of toxins responsible for the change of mental state. It was found that the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy is responsible for multiple organ peripheral changes (intestinal changes, abnormalities of portal-systemic circulation, liver failure, loss of muscle tissue, changes in brain intracellular communication (osmotic changes, astrocytes and axonal abnormalities in communication, changes in cerebral perfusion and ammonia, endogenous benzodiazepines, gamma amino butyric acid, derivatives of methionine and false neurotransmitters. The aforementioned metabolic factors that contribute to the development of hepatic encephalopathy are not mutually exclusive and multiple factors may be present at the same time.

  19. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  20. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  1. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  2. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  3. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  4. Exclusive photoreactions on light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.

    1989-08-01

    The mechanism of photon absorption on light nuclei in the Δ-resonance region is discussed. The present status of experimental results is briefly summarized. A recent data from 1.3-GeV Tokyo ES using a π sr spectrometer is introduced. Exclusive measurements of the photodisintegration of 3 He and 4 He may be a clear way to identify 2N, 3N and 4N absorptions. (author)

  5. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities....

  6. Effects of raloxifene on portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Hsin, I-Fang; Hsu, Shao-Jung; Chang, Ting; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2017-05-05

    Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been used extensively for osteoporosis. In addition to the effect of osteoporosis treatment, emerging evidences show that raloxifene affects the vascular function in different tissues. Cirrhosis is characterized with portal hypertension and complicated with hepatic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension affects portal-systemic shunt which leads to hepatic encephalopathy that the vascular modulation might influence severity of hepatic encephalopathy. Herein, we evaluated the impact of raloxifene on bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cirrhotic rats. The female Sprague-Dawley rats received BDL plus ovariectomy or sham-operation. Four weeks later, rats were divided into 2 subgroups respectively to receive of raloxifene (10mg/kg/day) or saline (vehicle) for 14 days. On the 43th day, motor activities and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Hepatic and vascular mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The histopathological change of liver was examined. We found that the liver biochemistry, ammonia level and motor activity were similar between cirrhotic rats with or without raloxifene administration. The hemodynamic parameters were not significantly different except that raloxifene reduced portal venous inflow. Raloxifene exacerbated hepatic fibrosis and up-regulated hepatic endothelin-1 and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expressions. In addition, raloxifene modulated the mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase and endothelin-1 in the superior mesenteric artery and collateral vessel. In conclusion, raloxifene aggravates hepatic fibrosis and decreases portal venous inflow in cirrhotic rats without adversely affecting portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy. The modulation of hepatic and vascular endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase expressions may play a role in the mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Groin abscesses and vascular catastrophes in intravenous drug users--strategy and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerlein, H; Ruff, S; Haage, P; Zirngibl, H; Fraunhofer, S; Settmacher, U

    2008-02-01

    Drug addiction is a global medical and public health-care problem. Infections of the groin and fossa cubitalis are a common clinical problem in these patients. Severe vascular complications are rare but if they occur, therapy is difficult and requires emergency management and surgery because of bleeding problems. In a retrospective case series, we report on patients treated within an emergency setting in our hospital because of groin abscesses with vascular involvement between 2003 and 2006. The therapeutic concepts and results are reported and discussed in the context of a review of the international literature. We report on 4 patients with a long-standing history of i. v. drug abuse (average age 33, range 29-36 years). All were hepatitis C Ag positive and HIV negative. The general health and nutritional status were not compromised, all patients had one or more DVT in their medical history. In two cases, emergency surgery with revascularisation was necessary (after 2 days in one case and 4 weeks in the other) because of septic bleeding subsequent to abscess incision. Two patients underwent primary revascularisation because of pseudoaneurysms. The grafts were a saphenous vein patch and a superficial femoral artery patch in one and deep vein segments in two cases. In two cases, a sartorius muscle flap and VAC therapy were used to cover the defect. All patients survived, minor amputation became necessary in one case. Abscess excision and debridement have to be as complete as possible and primary revascularisation is the procedure of choice in cases of severe groin infection. In the case of large vessel involvement, abscess incision alone without revision of the vascular structures is dangerous because of subsequent complications like secondary ruptures. For this reason, these patients require intensive care and close monitoring. Successful treatment exclusively based on ligation is described in literature with regard to isolated lesions of the superficial or deep

  8. Diffuse Hepatic Calcifications in a Transfusion-Dependent Patient with Beta-Thalassemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic calcification is usually associated with infectious, vascular, or neoplastic processes in the liver. We report the first case of beta-thalassemia major with isolated diffuse hepatic calcification in a 23 year old woman, who had been transfusion-dependent since the age of 6 months. She was referred to our center with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed diffuse hepatic calcification in the right, left, and caudate lobes of the liver. Her medical history disclosed hypoparathyroidism as well as chronic hepatitis C virus infection, which was successfully treated but led to early micronodular cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Other studies done to search for the cause of hepatic calcification failed to reveal any abnormalities. We suspect that hypoparathyroidism caused liver calcification, and should be, therefore, considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic calcification if other causative factors have been ruled out.

  9. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  10. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  11. Role of endovascular treatment in vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.M.; Haq, T.U.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the results, complications and follow-up of patients after endovascular treatment of vascular injuries. Methods: Fifty transcatheter embolisation procedures (TCE) were performed in 46 patients between 1999 and 2008 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Injuries in 14 (30.4%) patients were due to road traffic accident; iatrogenic in 13 (28%); accidental in 6 (13%). Firearms, bomb blasts and earthquake contributed to injuries in 8(17%), 4(8.8%) and 1(2.2%) patients respectively. All patients underwent angiography and had evidence of either active haemorrhage, pseudo-aneurysm, abnormal vascularity or arteriovenous fistula. Follow-up ranged from 1 day to 6 years with mean of 10.5 months. Medical record files, lab results and imaging reports were utilised for the study. Procedure was declared as technically successful when there was cessation of extravasation, occlusion of fistula or exclusion of pseudo-aneurysm in the post-embolisation angiograms. Treatment was deemed clinically successful if there was resolution of the indication for which the procedure was done. Results: Transcatheter embolisation was technically successful in occluding vascular lesions in all 46 (100%) patients. Lesions recurred in 4 (9%) patients who underwent initially successful TCE. These patients were treated effectively with repeated TCE. Three patients died during the same hospital stay and 3 patients died after being discharged from the hospital. All these patients were treated successfully with TCE and had factors other then TCE contributing to their mortality. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolisation for vascular injuries was found to be a satisfactory procedure, with low morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  12. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  13. Successful Embolization of a Spontaneous Mesocaval Shunt Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixadera, Helena; Tomasello, Alejandro; Quiroga, Sergi; Cordoba, Joan; Perez, Mercedes; Segarra, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy was found to have a large, spontaneous mesocaval shunt. The shunt was successfully occluded with the use of an Amplatzer Vascular Plug. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this device to embolize a mesocaval shunt involving the superior mesenteric vein.

  14. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  15. Exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warkentin, N.; Schaefer, A.; Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate electroproduction of pion pairs on the nucleon in the framework of QCD factorization for hard exclusive processes. We extend previous analyses by taking the hard-scattering coefficients at next-to-leading order in α s . The dynamics of the produced pion pair is described by two-pion distribution amplitudes, for which we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis. In particular, we obtain constraints on these quantities by comparing our results with measurements of angular observables that are sensitive to the interference between two-pion production in the isoscalar and isovector channels. (orig.)

  16. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  17. Peripheral hepatic arterial embolization with cross-linked collagen fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.R.; Kerlan, R.K. Jr.; Dodds, L.; McLaughlin, P.; La Berge, J.M.; Harrington, D.; Daniels, A.M.; Ring, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic artery embolization with a nonimmunogenic, cross-linked collagen preparation (Angiostat, collagen for embolization, Target Therapeutics) was studied in mongrel dogs. Flow-directed technique was used to achieve complete distal arterial occlusion. Serial liver function evaluation demonstrated marked alterations at 48 to 72 hours, partial correction at 1 week, and resolution of abnormalities by 1 month. Restoration of large-vessel blood flow was angiographically demonstrable at 1 week. Recanalization, achieved by migration of endothelial cells around the collagen, resulted in complete restoration of normal hepatic vascular and tissue anatomy at 1 month. Repeated embolization at biweekly intervals was well tolerated

  18. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  19. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  20. Implementation of mutual exclusion in VHDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.V.; Benders, L.P.M.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Wilsey, P.A.; Rhodes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In VHDL it is difficult to implement mutual exclusion at an abstract level since atomic actions are required. A local status model and an arbiter model are presented to achieve mutual exclusion in VHDL. Shared data, protected by a mutual exclusion mechanism, cannot be modelled as a simple, resolved

  1. Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion

  2. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  3. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  4. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  5. Hepatic perfusion disorders: a pictorial review of CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Nam Yeol; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Shin, Sang Soo; Song, Sang Gook; Lim, Hyo Soon; Heo, Suk Hee; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lan, Shen Yu

    2005-01-01

    The liver has a unique dual blood supply through the portal vein and the hepatic artery. There are several communications between these two vessels under various conditions such as in hepatic tumors, trauma and liver cirrhosis, vascular compromise, among others. When vascular compromise occurs, this dual blood supply system can cause changes in the volume of blood flow in individual vessels or even in the direction of blood flow. With rapid image acquisition and increased resolution available in multislice CT and MR imaging, hepatic perfusion disorders are now more frequently encountered than in the past. Familiarity with imaging findings of these perfusion disorders will be helpful in characterizing focal hepatic lesions and will also help to avoid false positive diagnoses

  6. Hepatic perfusion disorders: a pictorial review of CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Nam Yeol; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Shin, Sang Soo; Song, Sang Gook; Lim, Hyo Soon; Heo, Suk Hee; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lan, Shen Yu [Yan Bian Cancer Hospital, Peijing (China)

    2005-09-15

    The liver has a unique dual blood supply through the portal vein and the hepatic artery. There are several communications between these two vessels under various conditions such as in hepatic tumors, trauma and liver cirrhosis, vascular compromise, among others. When vascular compromise occurs, this dual blood supply system can cause changes in the volume of blood flow in individual vessels or even in the direction of blood flow. With rapid image acquisition and increased resolution available in multislice CT and MR imaging, hepatic perfusion disorders are now more frequently encountered than in the past. Familiarity with imaging findings of these perfusion disorders will be helpful in characterizing focal hepatic lesions and will also help to avoid false positive diagnoses.

  7. Radiological findings and interventions for iatrogenic vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Sang Wook; Lee, Jong Seog; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jong Hyo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological findings and effectiveness of radiological interventions in patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries. We analyzed 50 patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries treated with radiological intervention. The causes of injuries were surgery (n=20), cardiovascular intervention (n=15), non-cardiovascular radiological intervention (n=14), and endoscopic intervention (n=1). The injury had resulted in hemorrhage in 35 cases. The iliac and/or femoral, hepatic, and renal vessels were commonly injured. Angiography, ultrasonography with Doppler examination, CT, and CT angiography were performed to diagnose vascular injuries and guide the radiological intervention. The mean follow-up period was 23 months and in 16 cases was more than one year. the major radiological findings were extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous shunt, or vascular obstruction. To control these lesions, radiological interventions such as embolization (n=36), local urokinase administration, stent insertion, foreign body removal, ultrasonography-guided compression, or stent-graft insertion were performed. The clinical problems were immediately controlled by the single trials of radiological interventions and did not recur in 40 cases (80%). Radiological examinations and interventions are useful in cases with iatrogenic vascular injuries. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  8. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  9. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  10. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  12. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  13. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection to Complete SMA Pseudoaneurysm Exclusion After Failing of Endograft Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopinski, Piotr; Ciostek, Piotr; Pleban, Eliza; Iwanowski, Jaroslaw; Krol, Malgorzata Serafin-; Marianowska, Agnieszka; Noszczyk, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    Visceral aneurysms are potentially life-threatening vascular lesions. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) pseudoaneurysms are a rare but well-recognized complication of chronic pancreatitis. Open surgical repair of such an aneurysm, especially in patients after previous surgical treatment, might be dangerous and risky. Stent graft implantation makes SMA pseudoaneurysm exclusion possible and therefore avoids a major abdominal operation. Percutaneous direct thrombin injection is also one of the methods of treating aneurysms in this area. We report a first case of percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection to complete SMA pseudoaneurysm exclusion after an unsuccessful endograft placement. Six-month follow-up did not demonstrate any signs of aneurysm recurrence

  14. Bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent: experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chuansheng; Feng Gansheng; Zhang Yanfang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the efficacy, safety and related characteristics of bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent. Materials and methods: The authors prepared bletilla colloid as a vascular embolization agent from the stem tubers of bletilla of Chinese medicinal herb. Related characteristics of bletilla colloid were studied. In four pigs hepatic arterial embolization was performed with the bletilla colloid. Results: The bletilla colloid was a homogenous viscous colloid whose relative viscosity was 2324.6 mm 2 /s. It was easily injected through 4-F catheter and hyperattenuating under fluoroscopy, meanwhile, with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility, without pyrogenetic response and toxicity. In vitro, the mixture of bletilla colloid and MMC did not produce separation and suspension phenomena but released 50% of MMC at 1.8h and 100% at 3.4h. The bletilla colloid mainly embolized peripheral arteries, maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. The injuries of normal hepatic tissues were slight, without hepatic cytonecrosis. Conclusions: Bletilla colloid, safe and effective in use with angioembolic function and characteristics of carrier and slow-release, is a potential peripheral embolization agent

  15. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  16. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  17. Vascular Surgery and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of robotics to Vascular surgery has not progressed as rapidly as of endovascular technology, but this is changing with the amalgamation of these two fields. The advent of Endovascular robotics is an exciting field which overcomes many of the limitations of endovascular therapy like vessel tortuosity and operator fatigue. This has much clinical appeal for the surgeon and hold significant promise of better patient outcomes. As with most newer technological advances, it is still limited by cost and availability. However, this field has seen some rapid progress in the last decade with the technology moving into the clinical realm. This review details the development of robotics, applications, outcomes, advantages, disadvantages and current advances focussing on Vascular and Endovascular robotics

  18. Hemobilia caused by a ruptured hepatic cyst: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Sudhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. More than 50% of hemobilia cases are related to iatrogenic trauma from hepatobiliary procedures, and needle biopsy of the liver represents the most common cause. A minority of hemobilia cases are due to hepatobiliary disorders such as cholangitis, hepatobiliary cancers, choledocholithiasis, and vascular abnormalities in the liver. The classic presentation of hemobilia is the triad of right upper quadrant (biliary pain, obstructive jaundice, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of hemobilia caused by a spontaneous hepatic cyst rupture, where our patient presented without the classical symptoms, in the absence of therapeutic or pathological coagulopathy, and in the absence of spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma. Case presentation A 91-year-old African-American woman was referred to our out-patient gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of mild epigastric pain and intermittent melena. An abdominal computed tomography scan was remarkable for multiple hepatic cysts. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple blood clots at the ampulla of Vater. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a single 18 mm-sized filling defect in the common hepatic duct wall at the junction of the right and left hepatic duct, adjacent to one of the hepatic cysts. The ruptured hepatic cyst communicated to the bile ducts and was the cause of hemobilia with an atypical clinical presentation. Conclusion Hemobilia is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely occurs due to hepatic cyst rupture. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report in the literature that describes hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture. However, it is the first case in the literature of hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture in the absence of iatrogenic or spontaneous trauma, and in the absence of a spontaneous or pathological coagulopathy.

  19. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  20. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  1. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  2. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mustika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  3. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated with interferon alfa. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Realdi, G

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment-associated virological and biochemical remission improves survival in a cohort of 90 white patients with compensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (Child A) followed for a mean period of 7 years. Inclusion...... criteria were biopsy-proven cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, abnormal serum aminotransferase levels, exclusion of hepatitis delta virus, and absence of complications of cirrhosis. Of the 40 IFN-treated patients, 27 (67%) showed sustained HBeAg loss with alanine aminotransferase (ALT...

  4. Hepatic VX2 tumor after portal vein occlusion in rabbits: evaluation with DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Zhang Qichuan; Chen Lin; Huang Xiaobing; Huan Guangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of DSA for hepatic vascular anatomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of portal vein occlusion in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups with 10 in each group, including test group A and positive control group B of ham operation. For the test group A, portal branch ligation (PBL) was performed for the left external branch after 3 weeks of the tumor implantation to the left external lobe. Two weeks later, the DSA of hepatic artery and portal vein were performed in all of the rabbits. Results: The total displaying effectiveness of the branches of hepatic artery by DSA was better than that by vascular perfusion. There was hypovascular blood supply to hepatic artery implantation of the tumor in the test group A, comparing with that of the group B. Conclusion: DSA can clearly display special details of the hepatic vascular anatomy in rabbits, and play an important role in post-procedural evaluation of the portal vein occlusion in rabbits. (authors)

  5. Leptin receptor blockade reduces intrahepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in an experimental model of rat liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María Gabriela; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Marrone, Giusi; Rodríguez-Vilarrupla, Aina; Deulofeu, Ramon; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosch, Jaume; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Increased hepatic vascular resistance mainly due to elevated vascular tone and to fibrosis is the primary factor in the development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Leptin, a hormone associated with reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability, vascular dysfunction, and liver fibrosis, is increased in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at evaluating whether leptin influences the increased hepatic resistance in portal hypertension. CCl4-cirrhotic rats received the leptin receptor-blocker ObR antibody, or its vehicle, every other day for 1 wk. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamics were measured in both groups. Hepatic nitric oxide production and bioavailability, together with oxidative stress, nitrotyrosinated proteins, and liver fibrosis, were evaluated. In cirrhotic rats, leptin-receptor blockade significantly reduced portal pressure without modifying portal blood flow, suggesting a reduction in the intrahepatic resistance. Portal pressure reduction was associated with increased nitric oxide bioavailability and with decreased O2(-) levels and nitrotyrosinated proteins. No changes in systemic hemodynamics and liver fibrosis were observed. In conclusion, the present study shows that blockade of the leptin signaling pathway in cirrhosis significantly reduces portal pressure. This effect is probably due to a nitric oxide-mediated reduction in the hepatic vascular tone.

  6. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  8. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  9. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  10. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  11. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  12. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  13. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  14. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  15. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  16. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  17. Exclusive Higgs production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechambre, Alice [Universite de Liege, Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Allee du 6 aout, 17 - Bat. B5c, B-4000 Liege 1 - Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Staszewski, Rafal [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski, Institute of Nuclear Physics - PAN, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Royon, Christophe [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    After a brief description of the models of exclusive diffractive Higgs production, we first evaluate the theoretical uncertainties that affect the calculation of exclusive cross section (jets, Higgs...). In addition, in view of the recent measurement of exclusive di-jet at CDF and the new implementation of the corresponding cross section in FPMC (Forward Physics Monte-Carlo), we developed an analysis strategy that can be used to narrow down these uncertainties with the help of early LHC measurement. (authors)

  18. Negotiations and Exclusivity Contracts for Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dukes; Esther Gal–Or

    2003-01-01

    Exclusive advertising on a given media outlet is usually profitable for an advertiser because consumers are less aware of competing products. However, for such arrangements to exist, media must benefit as well. We examine conditions under which such exclusive advertising contracts benefit both advertisers and media outlets (referred to as ) by illustrating that exclusive equilibria arise in a theoretical model of the media, advertisers, and consumers who participate in both the product and me...

  19. Embolization with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug in TIPS Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattynama, Peter M. T.; Wils, Alexandra; Linden, Edwin van der; Dijk, Lukas C. van

    2007-01-01

    Vessel embolization can be a valuable adjunct procedure in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). During the creation of a TIPS, embolization of portal vein collaterals supplying esophageal varices may lower the risk of secondary rebleeding. And after creation of a TIPS, closure of the TIPS itself may be indicated if the resulting hepatic encephalopathy severely impairs mental functioning. The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, Golden Valley, MN) is well suited for embolization of large-diameter vessels and has been employed in a variety of vascular lesions including congenital arteriovenous shunts. Here we describe the use of the AVP in the context of TIPS to embolize portal vein collaterals (n = 8) or to occlude the TIPS (n = 2)

  20. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  1. Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable

  2. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    OpenAIRE

    da Silveira, Gustavo G.; Collaboration, for the CMS

    2013-01-01

    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and ...

  3. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  4. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  6. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of a resectable single hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with characteristic imaging by ADC map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hideki; Tochio, Tomomasa; Suga, Daisuke; Kumazawa, Hiroaki; Isono, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsusaki, Shimpei; Sase, Tomohiro; Saito, Tomonori; Mukai, Katsumi; Nishimura, Akira; Matsushima, Nobuyoshi; Baba, Youichirou; Murata, Tetsuya; Hamada, Takashi; Taoka, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    A 47-year-old woman with a single-nodule hepatic tumor was referred to our hospital. She had no symptoms. The tumor was located at the surface of the right lobe of the liver; it showed peripheral low signal intensity on a magnetic resonance imaging apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, and an influx of blood flow into the peripheral area of the tumor at the early vascular phase on perflubutane microbubble (Sonazoid(®)) contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasonography. Since we suspected a malignant tumor, the patient underwent surgical resection. The hepatic tumor was resected curatively. Pathological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of epithelioid cells with an epithelioid structure and/or cord-like structure. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for cluster of differentiation 34 and factor VIII-related antigen. Based on the above, a final diagnosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) was made. Hepatic EHE is a rare hepatic tumor: only a few cases of hepatic EHE with curative resection have been reported. We were unable to reach a diagnosis of hepatic EHE by imaging studies; however, an ADC map was useful in showing the malignant potential of the tumor, and CE ultrasonography was useful in revealing the peripheral blood flow of the tumor. When an unusual hepatic mass is encountered, hepatic EHE should be kept in mind, and the mass should be inspected with more than one imaging modality, including an ADC map, in the process of differential diagnosis.

  8. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with comfrey ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, M L; Swinburn, B; Kennedy, M; Nicholson, G

    1990-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with hepatic veno-occlusive disease and severe portal hypertension and subsequently died from liver failure. Light microscopy and hepatic angiography showed occlusion of sublobular veins and small venous radicles of the liver, associated with widespread haemorrhagic necrosis of hepatocytes. The patient had been on a predominantly vegetarian diet and, prior to his illness, took comfrey leaves which are known to contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Comfrey is widely used as a herbal remedy, but so far has only been implicated in two other documented cases of human hepatic veno-occlusive disease. A possible causal association of comfrey and this patient's veno-occlusive disease is suggested by the temporal relationship of the ingestion of comfrey to his presentation, the histological changes in the liver and the exclusion of other known causes of the disease.

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targher, Giovanni; Lonardo, Amedeo; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus are common diseases that often coexist and might act synergistically to increase the risk of hepatic and extra-hepatic clinical outcomes. NAFLD affects up to 70-80% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and up to 30-40% of adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The coexistence of NAFLD and diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing not only the more severe forms of NAFLD but also chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Indeed, substantial evidence links NAFLD with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD is also associated with an increased risk of developing microvascular diabetic complications, especially chronic kidney disease. This Review focuses on the strong association between NAFLD and the risk of chronic vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus, thereby promoting an increased awareness of the extra-hepatic implications of this increasingly prevalent and burdensome liver disease. We also discuss the putative underlying mechanisms by which NAFLD contributes to vascular diseases, as well as the emerging role of changes in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and associated vascular diseases.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  12. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  13. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  14. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  15. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  16. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  17. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  18. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  20. 10 CFR 1009.4 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 1009.4 Section 1009.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.4 Exclusions. This part shall not apply when the amount to be priced or charged is...

  1. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  2. 18 CFR 1308.3 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 1308.3... General Matters § 1308.3 Exclusions. (a) This part does not apply to any TVA contract which does not contain a disputes clause. (b) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this part does not apply to any...

  3. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  4. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  5. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  6. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  7. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  8. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  9. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  10. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  11. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  12. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  13. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  14. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  15. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  16. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  17. (-) Epicatechin regulates blood lipids and attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea and a variety of other plant foods. Recent studies have shown that EC and foods rich in EC exerted vascular protective effects. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechani...

  18. Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Successful Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ju; Shin, Byung Seok; Lee, In Ho; Ohm, Joon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A 67-year-old woman presented with memory impairment and behavioral changes. Brain MRI indicated hepatic encephalopathy. Abdominal CT scans revealed an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that consisted of two shunt tracts to the aneurysmal sac that communicated directly with the right hepatic vein. The large tract was successfully occluded by embolization using the newly available AMPLATZERTM Vascular Plug II and the small tract was occluded by using coils. The patient's symptoms disappeared after shunt closure and she remained free of recurrence at the 3-month follow-up evaluation.

  19. Dementia: Alzheimer pathology and vascular factors: From mutually exclusive to interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Norden, A.G.W.; van Dijk, E.J.; de Laat, K.F.; Scheltens, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; de Leeuw, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Both its incidence and prevalence are expected to increase exponentially as populations' age worldwide. Despite impressive efforts of research worldwide, neither cure nor effective preventive strategy is available for this devastating

  20. Dementia: Alzheimer pathology and vascular factors: from mutually exclusive to interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, A.G.W. van; Dijk, E.J. van; Laat, K.F. de; Scheltens, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Both its incidence and prevalence are expected to increase exponentially as populations' age worldwide. Despite impressive efforts of research worldwide, neither cure nor effective preventive strategy is available for this devastating

  1. Focal hepatic lesions: contrast-enhancement patterns at pulse-inversion harmonic US using a microbubble contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-A; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hye-Won; Juhng, Seon-Kwan; Won, Jong-Jin [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To analyze the contrast-enhancement patterns obtained at pulse-inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) of focal hepatic lesions, and to thus determine tumor vascularity and the acoustic emission effect. We reviewed pulse-inversion images in 90 consecutive patients with focal hepatic lesions, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HHC) (n=43), metastases (n=30), and hemangioma (n=17). Vascular and delayed phase images were obtained immediately and five minutes following the injection of a microbubble contrast agent. Tumoral vascularity at vascular phase imaging and the acoustic emission effect at delayed phase imaging were each classified as one of four patterns. Vascular phase images depicted internal vessels in 93% of HCCs, marginal vessels in 83% of metastases, and peripheral enhancement in 71% of hemangiomas. Delayed phase images showed inhomogeneous enhancement in 86% of HCCs; hypoechoic, decreased enhancement in 93% of metastases; and hypoechoic and reversed echogenicity in 65% of hemangiomas. Vascular and delayed phase enhancement patterns were associated with a specificity of 91% or greater, and 92% or greater, respectively, and with positive predictive values of 71% or greater, and 85% or greater, respectively. Contrast-enhancement patterns depicting tumoral vascularity and the acoustic emission effect at PIHI can help differentiate focal hepatic lesions.

  2. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  4. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  5. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  7. Stentgraft Implantation for the Treatment of Postoperative Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersoli, F., E-mail: fpedersoli@ukaachen.de; Isfort, P.; Keil, S.; Goerg, F.; Zimmermann, M.; Liebl, M.; Schulze-Hagen, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Schmeding, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Clinic for General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery (Germany); Kuhl, C. K.; Bruners, P. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    PurposeHepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of major pancreaticobiliary surgery. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular stentgraft implantation for the management of such vascular lesions.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2013 and October 2015, ten patients with postoperative hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, of which eight presented with active hemorrhage, were treated with endovascular stentgraft implantation. All patients had undergone major pancreatic or hepatic surgery before (pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatectomy, hemihepatectomy, extended hemihepatectomy). The pseudoaneurysms were diagnosed 13–202 days after surgery and were associated with postsurgical complications (e.g., leakage of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis).ResultsIn 9/10 patients, the pseudoaneurysm was completely excluded via stentgraft implantation. In 1/10 patient, the pseudoaneurysm ruptured during the procedure and was successfully treated by immediate open surgery. In 1/10 patient, a second intervention was performed after 6 days because of rebleeding; this was successfully treated by implantation of a second overlapping stentgraft. Mean follow-up time is 51 days. None of the patients died due to stentgraft- or aneurysm-related complications. Further episodes of hemorrhage were not observed. In one patient, clinically asymptomatic complete occlusion of the stentgraft was discovered at follow-up imaging.ConclusionStentgraft implantation is a safe and effective technique to treat hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms related to major pancreatic or hepatic surgery, especially in the setting of acute hemorrhage.

  8. Stentgraft Implantation for the Treatment of Postoperative Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersoli, F.; Isfort, P.; Keil, S.; Goerg, F.; Zimmermann, M.; Liebl, M.; Schulze-Hagen, M.; Schmeding, M.; Kuhl, C. K.; Bruners, P.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeHepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of major pancreaticobiliary surgery. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular stentgraft implantation for the management of such vascular lesions.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2013 and October 2015, ten patients with postoperative hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, of which eight presented with active hemorrhage, were treated with endovascular stentgraft implantation. All patients had undergone major pancreatic or hepatic surgery before (pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatectomy, hemihepatectomy, extended hemihepatectomy). The pseudoaneurysms were diagnosed 13–202 days after surgery and were associated with postsurgical complications (e.g., leakage of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis).ResultsIn 9/10 patients, the pseudoaneurysm was completely excluded via stentgraft implantation. In 1/10 patient, the pseudoaneurysm ruptured during the procedure and was successfully treated by immediate open surgery. In 1/10 patient, a second intervention was performed after 6 days because of rebleeding; this was successfully treated by implantation of a second overlapping stentgraft. Mean follow-up time is 51 days. None of the patients died due to stentgraft- or aneurysm-related complications. Further episodes of hemorrhage were not observed. In one patient, clinically asymptomatic complete occlusion of the stentgraft was discovered at follow-up imaging.ConclusionStentgraft implantation is a safe and effective technique to treat hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms related to major pancreatic or hepatic surgery, especially in the setting of acute hemorrhage.

  9. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  10. Intrahepatic tissue pO2 during continuous or intermittent vascular inflow occlusion in a pig liver resection model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wagensveld, B. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gabeler, E. E.; van der Kleij, A. J.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary vascular inflow occlusion of the liver (clamping of the hepatic pedicle) can prevent massive blood loss during liver resections. In this study, intrahepatic tissue pO2 was assessed as parameter of microcirculatory disturbances induced by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in the

  11. Effect of hepatic venous sphincter contraction on transmission of central venous pressure to lobar and portal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautt, W W; Legare, D J; Greenway, C V

    1987-11-01

    In dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital, central vena caval pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP), and intrahepatic lobar venous pressure (proximal to the hepatic venous sphincters) were measured. The objective was to determine some characteristics of the intrahepatic vascular resistance sites (proximal and distal to the hepatic venous sphincters) including testing predictions made using a recent mathematical model of distensible hepatic venous resistance. The stimulus used was a brief rise in CVP produced by transient occlusion of the thoracic vena cava in control state and when vascular resistance was elevated by infusions of norepinephrine or histamine, or by nerve stimulation. The percent transmission of the downstream pressure rise to upstream sites past areas of vascular resistance was elevated. Even small increments in CVP are partially transmitted upstream. The data are incompatible with the vascular waterfall phenomenon which predicts that venous pressure increments are not transmitted upstream until a critical pressure is overcome and then further increments would be 100% transmitted. The hepatic sphincters show the following characteristics. First, small rises in CVP are transmitted less than large elevations; as the CVP rises, the sphincters passively distend and allow a greater percent transmission upstream, thus a large rise in CVP is more fully transmitted than a small rise in CVP. Second, the amount of pressure transmission upstream is determined by the vascular resistance across which the pressure is transmitted. As nerves, norepinephrine, or histamine cause the hepatic sphincters to contract, the percent transmission becomes less and the distensibility of the sphincters is reduced. Similar characteristics are shown for the "presinusoidal" vascular resistance and the hepatic venous sphincter resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  13. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  14. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  15. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  16. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatic Artery Mycotic Aneurysm Associated with Staphylococcal Endocarditis with Successful Treatment: Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara Chaudhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic hepatic artery aneurysm is a vascular pathology associated with bacterial endocarditis. It is rare in occurrence after the introduction of effective antibiotics. We present a young patient with injection drug abuse associated staphylococcal endocarditis which was successfully treated with antibiotics and valve replacement who presented with abdominal pain. He was found to have mycotic aneurysm of hepatic artery which was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  20. Treatment of Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: Finding Uses for Thalidomide in a New Era of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Soape

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH is extremely rare, occurring in 1 to 2 per 100,000, with chemotherapy options not well defined. Our case involved a 49-year-old female who had hepatic masses and metastasis to the lungs with a liver biopsy revealing HEH. After developing a rash from sorafenib, thalidomide was started with the progression of disease stabilized. Resection is only an option in 10% of the cases; therefore, chemotherapy is the only line of treatment. Newer chemotherapy alternatives are targeting angiogenesis via the vascular endothelial growth factor. Thalidomide was first used as an antiemetic, but, sadly, soon linked to phocomelia birth defects. Given the mechanism of action against angiogenesis, thalidomide has a valid role in vascular tumors. In conclusion, the use of thalidomide as chemotherapy is novel and promising, especially in the setting of a rare vascular liver tumor such as HEH.

  1. Constructal vascularized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  3. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in many cases hepatitis B and C can lead to permanent liver ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of Oral Surgery, Gian ... training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ..... primary care physicians following the Department of.

  4. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  6. Hepatitis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, F.U.; Amin, A.; Yasmin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of viral hepatitis in general, spectrum of hepatitis E in particular, and to study the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with it. In this prospective study, total number of pregnant women was 4723, sera of 35 pregnant women having clinical jaundice in pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A , B, C and E viruses. Of the 35 pregnant women with jaundice HEV IgM were 60%,HA V IgM20%, Anti HCV 8.75%,Hbs Ag 5.71%, unexplained 5.71%. Amongst HEV 23.80% had hepatic encephalopathy DIC in 42.85%, PPH in 23.80%, renal failure in 9.52% an- maternal mortality in 4.76%. Approximately two third of pregnant women with HEV infection had preterm deliveries (76.19) % and perinatal mortality of 42.8%. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  7. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  8. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  9. Hepatostomy for central hepatic hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewertz, B.L.; Olsen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with central hepatic hematomas are presented. Hepatostomy tube drainage provided prompt healing of the cavities without complications. The technique is presented as a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection without compromising the established principles of management

  10. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  11. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Si; Xu, Changsheng; Ahuja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group

  12. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic ... indicates that the Brodsky–Lepage factorization scheme fails, independent of ..... A basic feature of *-initiated reactions is that most events are knocked out.

  13. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  14. Exclusion of pneumothorax by radionuclide lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported in which ventilation lung imaging was useful in excluding a large pneumothorax. This technique may be helpful in patients with emphysema in whom exclusion of pneumothorax by radiographic criteria might be difficult

  15. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2012-06-15

    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  16. Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlake, Bä rbel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double

  17. Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.

    - In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.

  18. Exclusion, Violence, and Community Responses in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Personal

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... similar conditions of social exclusion, different levels of violence can be explained because communities capacities to face violence. • Methodology: ... in El Salvador. • Mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques of research.

  19. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  20. Microcirculation of the liver and hepatic tumors: implication for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, O.

    2012-01-01

    Full text:To understand the microcirculation of the liver and hepatic tumors is important for the precise imaging diagnosis and intervention of hepatic diseases. In this presentation, blood flow imaging features of dynamic MDCT in various hepatic lesions or variations as described below will be discussed based on the angiography-assisted CT imaging and pathophysiologic correlations. (1) Portal venous obstruction (segmental staining) and microangioarchtecture of the liver; Because of compensatory blood flow from the hepatic artery to the distal portion of the portal vein through the peribiliary vascular plexus (PBP), the obstructed segment shows early enhancement on dynamic CT (segmental staining). In diffuse intrahepatic portal vein obstruction, peripheral (zone) enhancement can be seen, resulting in 'central hypertrophy' in chronic stage. (2) Pseudolesion and/or pseudotumor due to third inflow into the liver; According to CT during arterial portography (CTAP)-based analysis, the third inflow includes flow from an aberrant right gastric vein (or pancreatico-duodeno-gastric vein), cystic veins, veins of Sappey, and aberrant left gastric vein. These veins usually connect directly to the intrahepatic portal venules. The areas receiving the third inflow often show pseudolesions or pseudotumors. (3) Microcirculation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dynamic MDCT features; By single level dynamic thin-section CT during the bolus injection of a small amount of contrast medium, we revealed in vivo hemodynamics in hypervascular classical HCC, namely, the arterial blood flow into the tumor drains into surrounding hepatic sinusoids (corona enhancement, wash out). Histological examination revealed continuity between a tumor sinusoid and a portal venule in the pseudocapsule (encapsulated HCC) or surrounding hepatic sinusoids (HCC without pseudocapsule). The drainage area is the first site of the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC, and daughter nodules are commonly seen in this

  1. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  2. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  3. Trends in a changing vascular practice environment for members of the Society for Vascular Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mika A. B.; Satiani, Bhagwan; Lohr, Joann M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To survey the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) membership with regard to practice trends related to work effort, employment status, practice ownership, endovascular cases, and anticipated changes in practice in the near future. Methods A survey questionnaire was developed to gather information about member demographics and practice, hours worked, full-time (FT) or part-time status, employment status, practice ownership, competition for referrals, proportion of endovascular vs open procedures, and anticipated changes in practice in the next 3 years. We used SurveyMonkey and distributed the survey to all active vascular surgeon (VS) members of the SVS. Results The response rate was 207 of 2230 (10.7%). Two thirds were in private practice, and 21% were in solo practice. Twenty-four percent were employed by hospitals/health systems. Those VS under the age of 50 years were more likely to exclusively practice vascular surgery compared with VS over the age of 50 years (P = .0003). Sixty-eight of the physicians (32.7%) were between 50 and 59 years old, 186 (90.3%) were men, 192 (92.8%) worked FT (>36 hours of patient care per week), and almost two thirds worked >60 hours per week. Those in physician-owned practices worked >40 hours of patient care per week more often than did FT employed VS (P = .012). Younger VS (age 50% of their workload being endovascular compared with older VS (age ≥50 years; P 40 hours of patient care per week than are FT employed VS. Longitudinal surveys of SVS members are imperative to help tailor educational, training, and practice management offerings, guide governmental activities, advocate for issues important to members, improve branding initiatives, and sponsor workforce analyses. PMID:23254185

  4. The Impact of Host Metabolic Factors on Treatment Outcome in Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvidou Savvoula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data suggest that chronic hepatitis C has to be considered a metabolic disease further to a viral infection. The aim of this study was to elaborate on the complex interactions between hepatitis C virus, host metabolic factors, and treatment response. Methods. Demographic, virological, and histological data from 356 consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. Hepatic steatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance were examined in relation to their impact on treatment outcome. Comparison between genotype 1 and 3 patients was performed to identify differences in the determinants of hepatic steatosis. Results. Histological evidence of hepatic steatosis was found in 113 patients, distributed in 20.3%, 9.0%, and 2.5% for grades I, II, and III, respectively. Hepatic steatosis was associated with past alcohol abuse (P=0.003 and histological evidence of advanced fibrosis (P<0.001. Older age (OR 2.51, P=0.002, genotype (OR 3.28, P<0.001, cirrhosis (OR 4.23, P=0.005, and hepatic steatosis (OR 2.48, P=0.001 were independent predictors for nonresponse. Correlations of hepatic steatosis with alcohol, insulin resistance, and fibrosis stage were found similar for both genotypes 1 and 3. Conclusions. Host metabolic factors may predict treatment outcome, and this impact remains significant even in genotype 3, where steatosis has been believed to be exclusively virus related.

  5. Miscellaneous Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysms after Pylorus Preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ung Rae; Lee, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Catholic of Daegu University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Eun Joung; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To assess the feasibility and safety of the endovascular treatment of ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms after pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Thirteen patients with hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after PPPD were enrolled. Various endovascular techniques were used depending on the sites and morphologies of the pseudoaneurysms. Five cases were treated by coil embolization, five with stent-graft, one by thrombin injection and coil embolization, one with stent-graft and coil embolization, and one with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) injection. Computed tomography scans and liver function test were performed after the procedures. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and bleeding cessation was achieved in all patients. In four patients that underwent coil or NBCA embolization of the hepatic artery, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were markedly elevated. Two of these four patients with narrowing of the portal vein due to surrounding hematoma died of hepatic infarction or hepatic abscess. In other nine patients, AST and ALT were unchanged. In the 11 surviving patients, normal hepatic function and complete pseudoaneurysm disappearance were achieved during follow-up. Endovascular treatment of ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms can be considered as a feasible and safe method. However, complete occlusion of the hepatic artery with coils should be avoided in patients with inadequate portal flow.

  6. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  7. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  8. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  9. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  10. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  11. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  12. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressloff, Paul C; Karamched, Bhargav R

    2016-01-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states. (paper)

  13. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  14. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  15. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2005-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera

  16. Determination of risk factors for hepatitis B and C in male patients suffering from chronic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waquaruddin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B and C is common in Pakistan and various risk factors are attributable to its spread. One thousand and fifty consecutive male cases suffering from chronic liver disease (327 HBV and 723 HCV were selected from the OPD of public sector hospital and a private clinic dealing exclusively with the liver patients. To compare the results 723 age and gender matched controls were selected from the blood transfusion services of the public sector hospital. A standard questionnaire was filled for all patients and controls which included the information on possible risk factors. Findings Family history of liver disease was significantly higher (43% and 34% in HBV and HCV positive cases as compared to 5% in controls [odds ratio 15.6; 95% Confidence Interval CI: 10.1 -- 24.1, 10.9; 95% Confidence Interval CI: 7.3 -- 16.4] and same trend was seen for death due to liver disease in the family. Majority 74% hepatitis B positive cases had their shaves done at communal barbers but this practice was equally prevalent amongst controls (68%, thus negating it as a possible risk factor, but there is a significant risk with p Conclusion Injections, surgery and dental treatment appear as major risk factors for the transmission of hepatitis B and C in the community. Massive health care awareness drives need to be done for both health care providers and the public to reduce this menace.

  17. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  18. Limb vascular function in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Gliemann, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Throughout life, women are subjected to both acute fluctuations in sex hormones, associated with the menstrual cycle, and chronic changes following the onset of menopause. Female sex hormones, and in particular estrogen, strongly influence cardiovascular function such as the regulation of vascular...... studies. Physical activity should be recommended for women of all ages, but the most essential timing for maintenance of vascular health may be from menopause and onwards....

  19. Facial vascular malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, F.O.; Lallemand, D.; Chaumont, P.; Teillac, D.; Manach, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience with conventional and digital angiography of vascular malformations of the head and neck in children. 22 hemangioendotheliomas, 8 venous angiomas, and 3 arteriovenous fistula were studied. 22 patients were embolised. DSA offers many advantages during the diagnostic as well as during the therapeutic phase of angiography. Embolization appears to have a major role in treatment of such vascular malformations. (orig.)

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Hepatic Artery with Intra-aneurysmal Glue (N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate) Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Ashwin; Banait, Swati; Babhad, Sudeep; Kanchankar, Niraj; Nimade, Pradeep; Panchal, Chintan

    2007-01-01

    A 40-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, presented with acute epigastric pain. Selective celiac arteriography showed a pseudoaneurysm arising from the common hepatic artery. We hereby describe a technical innovation where complete pseudoaneurysm exclusion was seen after intra-aneurysmal N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (glue) injection with preservation of antegrade hepatic arterial flow and conclude that intra-aneurysmal liquid injection may have potential as a therapeutic option to reconstruct a defective vessel wall and thereby maintain the antegrade flow

  1. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  2. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  3. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  4. Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nicole; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The gambling industry has offered self-exclusion programs for quite a long time. Such measures are designed to limit access to gaming opportunities and provide problem gamblers with the help they need to cease or limit their gambling behaviour. However, few studies have empirically evaluated these programs. This study has three objectives: (1) to observe the participation in an improved self-exclusion program that includes an initial voluntary evaluation, phone support, and a mandatory meeting, (2) to evaluate satisfaction and usefulness of this service as perceived by self-excluders, (3) to measure the preliminary impact of this improved program. One hundred sixteen self-excluders completed a questionnaire about their satisfaction and their perception of the usefulness during the mandatory meeting. Among those participants, 39 attended an initial meeting. Comparisons between data collected at the initial meeting and data taken at the final meeting were made for those 39 participants. Data showed that gamblers chose the improved self-exclusion program 75% of the time; 25% preferred to sign a regular self-exclusion contract. Among those who chose the improved service, 40% wanted an initial voluntary evaluation and 37% of these individuals actually attended that meeting. Seventy percent of gamblers came to the mandatory meeting, which was a required condition to end their self-exclusion. The majority of participants were satisfied with the improved self-exclusion service and perceived it as useful. Major improvements were observed between the final and the initial evaluation on time and money spent, consequences of gambling, DSM-IV score, and psychological distress. The applicability of an improved self-exclusion program is discussed and, as shown in our study, the inclusion of a final mandatory meeting might not be so repulsive for self-excluders. Future research directives are also proposed.

  5. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  6. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  7. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    positivity rates in these patients, accounting for nearly 24-. 28% of cases. .... Author. Punjab. Blood donors. 44,064. ELISA. 1.09%. Gupta et al 2004. Delhi. Voluntary blood ... contribution of hepatitis C in these disease conditions is summarized ...

  8. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  9. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  10. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  11. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  12. Anatomical variations of hepatic arterial system, coeliac trunk and renal arteries: an analysis with multidetector CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurel, M S; Battal, B; Bozlar, U; Nural, M S; Tasar, M; Ors, F; Saglam, M; Karademir, I

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine the anatomical variations in the coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system and the renal arteries in patients who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta for various reasons. A total of 100 patients were analysed retrospectively. The coeliac trunk, hepatic arterial system and renal arteries were analysed individually and anatomical variations were recorded. Statistical analysis of the relationship between hepatocoeliac variations and renal artery variations was performed using a chi(2) test. There was a coeliac trunk trifurcation in 89% and bifurcation in 8% of the cases. Coeliac trunk was absent in 1%, a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk was seen in 1% and a splenomesenteric trunk was present in 1%. Hepatic artery variation was present in 48% of patients. Coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arterial variation was present in 23 (39.7%) of the 58 patients with normal renal arteries, and in 27 (64.3%) of the 42 patients with accessory renal arteries. There was a statistically significant correlation between renal artery variations and coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system variations (p = 0.015). MDCT angiography permits a correct and detailed evaluation of hepatic and renal vascular anatomy. The prevalence of variations in the coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arteries is increased in people with accessory renal arteries. For that reason, when undertaking angiographic examinations directed towards any single organ, the possibility of variations in the vascular structure of other organs should be kept in mind.

  13. Alteration of hepatic structure and oxidative stress induced by intravenous nanoceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Michael T., E-mail: mttsen01@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Lu, Xiaoqin, E-mail: x0lu0003@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Duan, Xiaoxian, E-mail: x0duan02@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hardas, Sarita S., E-mail: sarita.hardas@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Sultana, Rukhsana, E-mail: rsult2@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Wu, Peng, E-mail: peng.wu@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Dept of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Graham, Uschi, E-mail: graham@caer.uky.edu [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Butterfield, D. Allan, E-mail: dabcns@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Yokel, Robert A., E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of nanoceria applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives, and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of nanoceria exposure have yet to be fully defined, which gave us the impetus to examine its systemic biodistribution and biological responses. An extensively characterized nanoceria (5 nm) dispersion was vascularly infused into rats, which were terminated 1 h, 20 h or 30 days later. Light and electron microscopic tissue characterization was conducted and hepatic oxidative stress parameters determined. We observed acute ceria nanoparticle sequestration by Kupffer cells with subsequent bioretention in parenchymal cells as well. The internalized ceria nanoparticles appeared as spherical agglomerates of varying dimension without specific organelle penetration. In hepatocytes, the agglomerated nanoceria frequently localized to the plasma membrane facing bile canaliculi. Hepatic stellate cells also sequestered nanoceria. Within the sinusoids, sustained nanoceria bioretention was associated with granuloma formations comprised of Kupffer cells and intermingling CD3{sup +} T cells. A statistically significant elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was seen at 1 and 20 h, but subsided by 30 days after ceria administration. Further, elevated apoptosis was observed on day 30. These findings, together with increased hepatic protein carbonyl levels on day 30, indicate ceria-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress, respectively. Such observations suggest a single vascular infusion of nanoceria can lead to persistent hepatic retention of particles with possible implications for occupational and therapeutic exposures. -- Highlights: ► Time course study on nanoceria induced hepatic alterations in rats. ► Serum AST elevation indicated acute hepatotoxicity. ► Ceria is retained for up to 30 days in Kupffer cells

  14. ''Follow that quark!'' (and other exclusive stories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are considered to be the basic constituents of matter. In a series of recent experiments, Carroll studied exclusive reactions as a means of determining the interactions between quarks. Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) is the modern theory of the interaction of quarks. This theory explains how quarks are held together via the strong interaction in particles known as hadrons. Hadrons consisting of three quarks are called baryons. Hadrons made up of a quark and an antiquark are called mesons. In his lecture, Carroll describes what happens when two hadrons collide and scatter to large angles. The violence of the collision causes the gluons that bind the quarks in a particular hadron to temporarily lose their grip on particular quarks. Quarks scramble toward renewed unity with other quarks, and they undergo rearrangement, which generally results in additional new particles. A two-body exclusive reaction has occurred when the same number of particles exist before and after the collisions. At large angles these exclusive reactions are very rare. The labels on the quarks known as flavor enable the experimenter to follow the history of individual quarks in detail during these exclusive reactions. Carroll describes the equipment used in the experiment to measure short distance, hard collisions at large angles. The collisions he discusses occur when a known beam of mesons or protons collide with a stationary proton target. Finally, Carroll summarizes what the experiments have shown from the study of exclusive reactions and what light some of their results shed on the theory of QCD

  15. Hepatitis C virus induces a prediabetic state by directly impairing hepatic glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, Hervé; Imache, Mohamed Rabah; Polyte, Jacqueline; Gaudin, Aurore; Mercey, Marion; Donati, Flora; Baudesson, Camille; Higgs, Martin R; Picard, Alexandre; Magnan, Christophe; Foufelle, Fabienne; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-08-04

    Virus-related type 2 diabetes is commonly observed in individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Our aim was to unravel these mechanisms using FL-N/35 transgenic mice expressing the full HCV ORF. We observed that these mice displayed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. We also found that Glut-2 membrane expression was reduced in FL-N/35 mice and that hepatocyte glucose uptake was perturbed, partly accounting for the HCV-induced glucose intolerance in these mice. Early steps of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, from IRS2 to PDK1 phosphorylation, were constitutively impaired in FL-N/35 primary hepatocytes via deregulation of TNFα/SOCS3. Higher hepatic glucose production was observed in the HCV mice, despite higher fasting insulinemia, concomitant with decreased expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Akt kinase activity was higher in HCV mice than in WT mice, but Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 at serine 256, which triggers its nuclear exclusion, was lower in HCV mouse livers. These findings indicate an uncoupling of the canonical Akt/FoxO1 pathway in HCV protein-expressing hepatocytes. Thus, the expression of HCV proteins in the liver is sufficient to induce insulin resistance by impairing insulin signaling and glucose uptake. In conclusion, we observed a complete set of events leading to a prediabetic state in HCV-transgenic mice, providing a valuable mechanistic explanation for HCV-induced diabetes in humans. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Historical perspective: eponyms of vascular radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPoce, Jason; Jimenez, Guillermo; Weintraub, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms are ubiquitous throughout the medical literature, especially the radiology lexicon. In particular, vascular radiology is replete with dozens of eponyms named after pathologic and anatomic features and various medical devices. Several disease processes are known exclusively by their eponyms or by both their eponyms and their descriptive names. Although some authors advocate abandoning eponyms in favor of more descriptive terms, the established history and common use of eponyms make it unlikely that they will disappear from the vocabulary. Radiologists should be familiar with both the eponymous and descriptive names of disease processes to ensure effective communication and prevent erroneous identification. Study of these eponyms provides information about these disease processes and other medical knowledge for use in daily practice. In addition, biographic information about the pertinent physicians can yield insights into the sometimes surprising origins of these eponyms. The authors provide biographic sketches of these physicians and discuss the clinical relevance of the anatomic features, malformations, and syndromes that bear their names. ©RSNA, 2014.

  17. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  18. Pulsatile versus steady infusions for hepatic artery chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Wright, K.C.; Chaynsangavej, C.; Gianturco, C.; Lamki, L.; Wallace, S.

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic artery chemotherapy for unresectable liver tumors requires an even distribution of the drugs in the tumor or vascular bed. This cannot be determined angiographically because the drugs are infused at a much lower rate than the contrast media. It is easy, however, to determine the quality of the perfusion by injecting a small volume of Tc-99m MAA in one of the side ports while chemotherapeutic agent is being infused at the same rate. Usually this shows a uniform, satisfactory distribution of isotope. Occasionally, however, some areas fail to receive Tc-99m in spite of what appears to be a good position of the catheter tip. Since ''streaming'' of the infused drugs has been blamed for their uneven distribution, the authors decided to compare the usual steady flow infusions with infusions made pulsatile by the addition of a pulsing device (Gianturco Pump) attached to the infusion tubing. Eighty-three patients were studied with steady as well as pulsatile infusions. In 16 of these patients the perfusion pattern was definitely changed by the pulsatile infusion. In one patient the pulsatile mode resulted in an unwanted gastric perfusion. In 5 patients the distribution was improved in one hepatic lobe and in 10 patients it was improved in both lobes. These results show that hepatic artery perfusions can occasionally be improved by pulsing the infusate. However, pulsing can produce the unwanted perfusion of extra-hepatic areas

  19. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, J; Berucci, C; Cargnelli, M; Ishiwatari, T; Bartalucci, S; Bragadireanu, M; Curceanu, C; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Bertolucci, S; Matteo, S Di; Egger, J-P; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10 −29 – 10 −30 , thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented

  20. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i.......e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers...

  1. Exclusive vector meson production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuba, Dorota [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration; ZEUS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    The exclusive photoproduction of {Upsilon} has been studied with the ZEUS detector in ep collisions at HERA. The exponential slope, b, of the |t|-dependence of the cross section, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, has been measured. This constitutes the first measurement of the |t|-dependence of the {gamma}p{yields}{Upsilon}p cross section. The differential crosssections as a function of t at lower energies of {gamma}p centre-of-mass has been studied in exclusive diffractive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons with the H1 detector. The exclusive electroproduction of two pions has been measured by the ZEUS experiment. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {rho}, {rho} Prime and . {rho}'' vector-meson states.

  2. Exclusive vector meson production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuba, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The exclusive photoproduction of Υ has been studied with the ZEUS detector in ep collisions at HERA. The exponential slope, b, of the |t|-dependence of the cross section, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, has been measured. This constitutes the first measurement of the |t|-dependence of the γp→Υp cross section. The differential crosssections as a function of t at lower energies of γp centre-of-mass has been studied in exclusive diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ mesons with the H1 detector. The exclusive electroproduction of two pions has been measured by the ZEUS experiment. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the ρ, ρ′ and . ρ'' vector-meson states.

  3. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  4. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). OCA decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during TAA-administration and reversed fibrosis in established cirrhosis. Portal pressure decreased through reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance. This was paralleled by decreased expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines (transforming growth-factor β, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor) as well as markers of hepatic cell turn-over, by blunting effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1). In vitro, OCA inhibited both LSEC and Kupffer cell activation; while HSC remained unaffected. This related to NF-κB inhibition via up-regulated IκBα. In conclusion, OCA inhibits hepatic inflammation in toxic cirrhotic rats resulting in decreased HSC activation and fibrosis. PMID:27634375

  5. Impact of new imaging methods on the evaluation of focal hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Tsutomu

    1982-01-01

    I discus the experience at Kanazawa University Hospital with the newer imaging methods (RI, US, CT) and how they have influenced the angiographic workup of patients with hepatic mass. Hepatic angiography is no longer performed a diagnosis of hepatic cyst and the US has been valuable for it. The combination of CT or US, and AFP has been associated with the decrease in the number of hepatic angiography for the advanced hepatoma. In contrast to the advanced, angiography has to be performed actively to demonstrate the small foci for the patient with a strong clinical suspicion. The conventional celiac angiography and hepatic angiography were not always able to detect small foci measuring less than 2 cm in diameter, due to vascular proliferation which cannot be distinctly identified by conventional angiography. In these cases infusion hepatic angiography enhanced the detection of the foci. We routinely rely on CT as a valuable supplement prior to surgical management, for obtaining more exact information as to the extent of hepatoma. The dynamic CT with bolus injection enables us to make exact diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver without performing of hepatic angiography. Also CT arteriography and dynamic CT have the advantage over the conventional CT in the correct diagnosis of small hepatoma. (author)

  6. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  7. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  8. 78 FR 55687 - Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially Exclusive or Non-Exclusive License of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially..., 2012 Entitled ''Tie-Down and Jack Fitting Assembly for Helicopter'' AGENCY: Department of the Army, [email protected]us.army.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The patent application relates to the aviation platforms...

  9. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-13

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  10. Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs

  11. Exclusion Statistics in Conformal Field Theory Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, K.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new method for investigating the exclusion statistics of quasiparticles in conformal field theory (CFT) spectra. The method leads to one-particle distribution functions, which generalize the Fermi-Dirac distribution. For the simplest SU(n) invariant CFTs we find a generalization of Gentile parafermions, and we obtain new distributions for the simplest Z N -invariant CFTs. In special examples, our approach reproduces distributions based on 'fractional exclusion statistics' in the sense of Haldane. We comment on applications to fractional quantum Hall effect edge theories. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  13. Dysregulated hepatic expression of glucose transporters in chronic disease: contribution of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase to hepatic glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sumera; Liaskou, Evaggelia; Fear, Janine; Garg, Abhilok; Reynolds, Gary; Claridge, Lee; Adams, David H; Newsome, Philip N; Lalor, Patricia F

    2014-12-15

    Insulin resistance is common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) are also increased in these patients. The amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of transporters to the cell membrane in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. We aimed to document human hepatocellular expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and to determine if VAP-1 activity influences receptor expression and hepatic glucose uptake. Quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to study human liver tissue and cultured cells. We also used tissue slices from humans and VAP-1-deficient mice to assay glucose uptake and measure hepatocellular responses to stimulation. We report upregulation of GLUT1, -3, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, and -13 in CLD. VAP-1 expression and enzyme activity increased in disease, and provision of substrate to hepatic VAP-1 drives hepatic glucose uptake. This effect was sensitive to inhibition of VAP-1 and could be recapitulated by H2O2. VAP-1 activity also altered expression and subcellular localization of GLUT2, -4, -9, -10, and -13. Therefore, we show, for the first time, alterations in hepatocellular expression of glucose and fructose transporters in CLD and provide evidence that the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 modifies hepatic glucose homeostasis and may contribute to patterns of GLUT expression in chronic disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  15. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

  16. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling facilitates liver repair from acute ethanol-induced injury in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwen Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 h induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. Although inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ameliorated hepatic steatosis and attenuated hepatic angiogenesis that accelerated after the ethanol treatment. qPCR showed that hepatic stellate cells are the first liver cell type to increase the expression of VEGF ligand and receptor genes in response to ethanol exposure. Both hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells, but not hepatic parenchymal cells, expressed kdrl upon ethanol exposure and were likely the direct targets of Kdrl inhibition. Ethanol-induced steatosis and fibrogenesis still occurred in cloche mutants that have hepatic stellate cells but lack hepatic endothelial cells, and Kdrl inhibition suppressed both phenotypes in the mutants. These results suggest that VEGF signaling mediates interactions between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes that lead to steatosis. Our study demonstrates the involvement of VEGF signaling in regulating sustained liver injuries after acute alcohol exposure. It also provides a proof of principle of using the

  17. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  18. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  19. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  20. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  1. Vascular malforma- tions part 1 — normal and abnormal vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    to form the primitive vascular plexus. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels by sprouting or splitting of ... The differentiation of primitive vessels into arteries, veins or capillaries is determined by flow patterns .... identify, but it is probable that as time progresses further specific genetic defects related to the development ...

  2. Genetic Regulation of Vascular Development: Building the Zebrafish Vascular Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.J.M. Herpers (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe extensive networks of blood and lymphatic vessels within the vertebrate body are essential for the transport and delivery of fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells, and play important roles in facilitating immune responses. The development of the vascular tree requires a highly

  3. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  4. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  5. Giant hepatic artery aneurysm associated with immunoglobulin G4-related disease successfully treated using a liquid embolic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Michele; Virgilio, Edoardo; Laurino, Florindo; Orgera, Gianluigi; Mene, Paolo; Pirozzi, Nicola; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Cavallini, Marco [St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The occurrence of a giant hepatic artery aneurysm (GHAA) in a patient with systemic vasculitis is very rare. Herein, we describe our endovascular treatment experience of a GHAA associated with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) consisting primarily of a liquid embolic injection and deployment of a vascular plug.

  6. Hepatic gene expression and plasma albumin concentration related to outcome after attenuation of a congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, A.; Penning, L.C.; Rothuizen, J.; Brinkhof, B.; Weber, M.F.; van Sluijs, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS), the outcome after CPSS attenuation is difficult to predict but is most likely related to hepatic and vascular proliferation that follows the attenuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of shunt localization

  7. Giant hepatic artery aneurysm associated with immunoglobulin G4-related disease successfully treated using a liquid embolic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Michele; Virgilio, Edoardo; Laurino, Florindo; Orgera, Gianluigi; Mene, Paolo; Pirozzi, Nicola; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Cavallini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of a giant hepatic artery aneurysm (GHAA) in a patient with systemic vasculitis is very rare. Herein, we describe our endovascular treatment experience of a GHAA associated with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) consisting primarily of a liquid embolic injection and deployment of a vascular plug

  8. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  9. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  10. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  11. Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimski, D S; Taboada, J

    1995-03-01

    Feline IHL is a severe hepatopathy that can be treated by aggressive nutritional support. Until the underlying mechanisms of protein and lipid metabolism are understood in both healthy and ill cats, dietary therapy remains supportive. It is likely that the pathogenesis of IHL in cats is multifactorial, involving both increased fatty acid mobilization to the liver and a defect in oxidation of fatty acids or removal of VLDL. It is also possible that individual variation may play a role in the development of this disease in cats undergoing starvation. Continued studies will focus on the unique pathways of hepatic metabolism in the cat, and how these pathways are altered, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and clinical disease. Hopefully, these studies can be applied to the prevention or treatment of IHL in cats.

  12. Exclusive breastfeedingand postnatal changes in maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding (EBFing) practice on maternal anthropometry during the first 6months of birth. Measurement of weight, height, triceps skin-fold thickness (TST), and mid-arm circumference (MAC) was carried out in a matched cohort of women practicing EBFing and those using other ...

  13. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...

  14. 40 CFR 503.6 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. (i) Drinking water treatment sludge. This part does not... water or ground water used for drinking water. (j) Commercial and industrial septage. This part does not... DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.6 Exclusions. (a) Treatment processes. This part does...

  15. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast-Feeding At Jimma, Ethiopia. Teklebrhan Tema. Abstract. No abstract - Available on PDF. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Exclusive production of W pairs in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00002838

    2014-01-01

    We report the results on the search for exclusive production of $W$ pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a $W$ pairs, ${pp\\to p\\,W^{+}W^{-}\\,p\\to p\\,\

  18. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil

    2013-01-01

    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and an upper limit on the cross section is set to 1.18 pb with 95% confidence level for $E_{T}(\\gamma)>$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(\\gamma)|$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(e)|$ 11.5 GeV, $p_{\\textrm{T}}(\\mu)>$ 4 GeV and $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 4 GeV, $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 20 GeV. Moreover, the study of the tail of the dilepton transverse momentum distribution resulted in model-independent upper limits for the anomalous quartic gauge couplings, which are of the order of 10$^{-4}$.

  19. Exclusive production of $W$ pairs in CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; CMS

    2014-01-01

    We report the results on the search for exclusive production of $W$ pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a $W$ pairs, ${pp\\to p\\,W^{+}W^{-}\\,p\\to p\\,\

  20. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  1. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  2. Counterfactual overdetermination vs. the causal exclusion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, Georg

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show that a counterfactual approach to causation is not sufficient to provide a solution to the causal exclusion problem in the form of systematic overdetermination. Taking into account the truthmakers of causal counterfactuals provides a strong argument in favour of the identity of causes in situations of translevel, causation.

  3. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  4. 46 CFR 504.4 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... foreign country. (19) Action taken on special docket applications pursuant to § 502.271 of this chapter...

  5. 10 CFR 830.2 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the Department of Transportation; (d) Activities conducted under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of... ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.2 Exclusions. This part does not apply to: (a) Activities that are regulated through a license by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or a State under an Agreement with...

  6. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  7. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  8. Urban violence and exclusion in the DRC

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    support, children from impoverished households, many of whom are uneducated, are adding to the ... The goal of this study was to identify the dynamic interplay among poverty/exclusion ... The lack of public lighting and access points to water exposes girls to .... work together to develop more inclusive economic and social.

  9. 40 CFR 68.126 - Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.126 Exclusion. Flammable Substances Used as Fuel or Held for Sale as Fuel at Retail Facilities. A flammable substance... substance is used as a fuel or held for sale as a fuel at a retail facility. [65 FR 13250, Mar. 13, 2000] ...

  10. The Exclusive Pursuit of Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ivor

    2005-01-01

    Despite its best intentions, social exclusion has grown rather than diminished under New Labour's education policies. In order to understand this, Ivor Goodson argues that we need to engage with the history of the formal curriculum and the long and continuing fight over what counts as proper knowledge. Taking science and environmental science as…

  11. 27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion, in whole or in part occurs: (1) When a practice by an industry member, whether direct, indirect, or... tie or link between the industry member and retailer or by any other means of industry member control...

  12. Research progress in hepatic cavernous hemangiomas: a comprehensive review with graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yong; Zhang Xuejun; Ouyang Xuehui; Chao Lumeng

    2012-01-01

    The common benign tumor of the liver, cavernous hemangioma, has already been confirmed, both embryologically and pathologically, to be not a neoplasm, but a congenital vascular malformation of the liver which is resulted from the arrested development of hepatic sinusoids at embryologic stage. This paper aims to make a comprehensive description of the cavernous hemangiomas of the liver, including the lesion's blood supply, the hemodynamics, the imaging features, the classification and its interventional therapy. The relevant example illustrations, figures and graphics are accompanied with the text in order to provide the readers with an complete and up-to-date understanding of the hepatic cavernous hemangiomas. (authors)

  13. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  14. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibody in Portuguese Travelers: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sónia; Tejo, Sandra; Ferreira, Eugénia; Trindade, Luís; Rabadão, Eduardo; Marques, Nuno; Saraiva da Cunha, José

    2017-08-31

    In Portugal, the prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection has decreased in the past decades, especially in young adults. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus in a population observed in our Travel Clinic. Antibodies against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus were tested using standard enzyme immunoassay in patients older than 18. The exclusion criteria were: prior vaccination for hepatitis A virus, previous diagnosis of infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and/or human immunodeficiency virus, foreign travelers and long-term expatriates. We applied an epidemiological survey and data was statistically analyzed with SPSS® 18.0. In the 665 travelers studied, natural immunity to hepatitis A virus was present in 57.6% (n = 383). They were stratified into 8 age groups and for each one hepatitis A immunity was clarified: 5.0% (n = 1) in 18 - 25 years, 32.3% (n = 21) in 26 - 30 years, 40.9% (n = 47) in 31 - 35 years, 45.8% (n = 54) in 36 - 40 years, 68.7% (n = 79) in 41 - 45 years, 70.1% (n = 68) in 46 - 50 years, 80.8% (n = 63) in 51 - 55 years and 87.7% (n = 50) over 56 years old. In those who accepted further screening, positivity for hepatitis B core antibody was found in 0.6% (n = 3) travelers, hepatitis C virus infection in 1.1% (n = 6) and human immunodeficiency virus infection in 0.5% (n = 3) whose previous status was unknown. The most frequent travel destination was sub-Saharan Africa (72.6%; n = 483). We found 49.1% (n = 260) travelers under 50 years old susceptible to hepatitis A virus infection and for those between 40 and 50 years, 30.7% (n = 65) still need vaccine protection. Across age groups there is a trend towards lower prevalence of hepatitis A virus antibody, in particular among youngsters, when compared with older Portuguese studies.

  16. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  17. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  18. Image Quality in Vascular Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.

    2005-01-01

    In vascular radiology, the radiologists use the radiological image to diagnose or treat a specific vascular structure. From literature, we know that related doses are high and that large dose variability exists between different hospitals. The application of the optimization principle is therefore necessary and is obliged by the new legislation. So far, very little fieldwork has been performed and no practical instructions are available to do the necessary work. It's indisputable that obtaining quantitative data is of great interest for optimization purposes. In order to gain insight into these doses and the possible measures for dose reduction, we performed a comparative study in 7 hospitals. Patient doses will be measured and calculated for specific procedures in vascular radiology and evaluated against their most influencing parameters. In view of optimization purposes, a protocol for dose audit will be set-up. From the results and conclusions in this study, experimentally based guidelines will be proposed, in order to improve clinical practice in vascular radiology

  19. Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, Miguel; Cambron, Melissa; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; De Keyser, Jacques

    Three types of vascular dysfunction have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). First, findings from epidemiological studies suggest that patients with MS have a higher risk for ischaemic stroke than people who do not have MS. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but might involve endothelial

  20. The influence of blood supply pattern of hepatic metastases on the short-term effect of TACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guowen; Liang Zhaoyu; Yu Xiaoping; Gu Shanzhi; Zhang Tiegang; He Qing; Xiong Zhengping; Huang Manping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the influence of blood supply pattern of hepatic metastases on the short-term effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: A total of 58 cases of liver metastases who had been treated with TACE were selected, the clinical data and short-term effects were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Based on the DSA findings, 58 cases of liver metastases were divided into the hypervascular pattern (n=14), the isovascular pattern (n=12) and the hypovascular pattern group (n=32). After TACE the clinical effective rate (CR + PR) of hypervascular, isovascular and hypo vascular pattern group was 92.9% (13 /14), 83.3% (10/12) and 9.4% (3/32) respectively, with a significant difference existing between hyper vascular and hypo vascular group as well as between iso vascular and hypo vascular group (P 0.05). The survival rate at half and one year after Tace treatment for all cases was 67.2% and 42.3%, respectively. The survival rate at half and one year for hyper vascular, iso vascular and hypo vascular group was 100% and 78.6%, 100% and 58.3%, 40.6% and 7.6%, respectively. A significant difference in the survival rate existed between hypervascular and hypovascular group as well as between isovascular and hypovascular group (P 0.05). Conclusion: TACE shows much better effectiveness for the hypervascular hepatic metastases, and it is very useful for making an appropriate therapeutic plan to distinguish the blood supply pattern of hepatic metastases. (authors)

  1. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis C Virus infection among hemophiliacs in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P Barbosa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the hepatitis C virus (HCV infection prevalence and risk factors in hemophiliacs in Central Brazil, 90 patients were interviewed and serum samples tested for HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies. An overall prevalence of 63.3% (CI 95%: 53.0-72.7 was found. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that number of blood transfusions was significantly associated with this infection. Most hemophiliacs received locally produced cryoprecipitate. All infected patients were transfused before the screening of blood units for anti-HCV. However, hemophiliacs who received exclusively screened cryoprecipitate were HCV negative. It confirms the expected decline in transfusion-acquired hepatitis C.

  3. Human liver segments: role of cryptic liver lobes and vascular physiology in the development of liver veins and left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Peeters, Mathijs M. J. P.; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Mommen, Greet M. C.; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    Couinaud based his well-known subdivision of the liver into (surgical) segments on the branching order of portal veins and the location of hepatic veins. However, both segment boundaries and number remain controversial due to an incomplete understanding of the role of liver lobes and vascular

  4. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Flow redistribution after the occlusion of intrahepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauenstein, T.C.; Heusner, T.A.; Antoch, G.; Hamami, M.; Bockisch, A.; Ertle, J.; Schlaak, J.F.; Gerken, G.

    2011-01-01

    Radioembolization using 90yttrium is an emerging therapy option for unresectable liver malignancies. In order to reduce the number of yttrium injections, endovascular occlusion of a segmental hepatic artery has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess whether sufficient vascular redistribution of the occluded liver segments through intrahepatic collaterals can be observed. 27 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 16) or hepatic metastases (n = 11) were studied. Hepatic angiography was performed on average 16 days prior to radioembolization. The segment II/III artery (n = 9) or the segment IV artery (n = 18) was occluded using coils. Technectium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) was injected into the right and the remaining part of the left hepatic artery in order to identify any hepatic volume not included in the perfused area. Patients underwent a SPECT/CT on average 1 h after the 99mTc-MAA injection. Two radiologists evaluated the SPECT/CT scans regarding the presence of non-perfused hepatic segments. Furthermore, hepatic perfusion was assessed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on the day of radioembolization. In 16 / 27 patients (59 %) a perfusion of the occluded liver segment was visible on the SPECT/CT scan. In 8 / 11 patients without flow redistribution at the time of the SPECT/CT, perfusion of the occluded segment through hepatic collaterals was observed during angiography prior to radioembolization. Hence, flow redistribution was eventually found in 24 / 27 patients (89 %). Flow redistribution after the occlusion of intrahepatic arteries prior to radioembolization can be successfully induced in the majority of patients with anatomical variants of the hepatic arteries. (orig.)

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  6. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  7. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  8. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rates, vascular access topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the vascular...

  9. Endovascular Exclusion of Renal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Rohr, Nils

    2005-01-01

    A patient who was operated for an abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years earlier presented with recently discovered iliac and renal artery aneurysms. The renal artery had an angulation of 90 o , but the aneurysm was successfully excluded using a covered vascular stent graft placed over an extrastiff guidewire. Even in cases of complex anatomy of a renal aneurysm, endovascular treatment should be considered. With development of more flexible and low-profile endoprosthesis with accurate deployment, these have become more usable

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  11. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  12. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  14. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  15. Diffuse Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Developed in a Patient with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Baron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE is an infrequent vascular tumor of endothelial origin that primarily occurs in women in the mid-fifth decade of life without underlying chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. Liver transplant should be the first-line of therapy in patients with large or diffuse unresectable tumors even in the presence of metastatic disease due to the favorable long-term outcome. We report the case of a 48-year-old female who complained of abdominal pain and weight loss. She has a history of cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis C (HCV and was treated with interferon and ribavirin with sustained virological response. Her work-up revealed multiple confluent infiltrating bilobar liver masses diagnosed as HEHE. She underwent a successful liver transplant without evidence of recurrent HCV infection. She developed cervical spine (C4-C6 HEHE metastases 4 years after transplant. She underwent surgical resection and local radiotherapy after resection with good clinical response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HEHE that developed in a patient with HCV cirrhosis successfully treated with antiviral therapy before transplant and liver transplant with good allograft function without evidence of recurrent liver tumor or HCV infection but developed metastases to the cervical spine 4 years after transplant.

  16. Vascular neurocognitive disorders and the vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V. Albu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds. This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age, alcohol consumption, cerebral atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis. Several studies show that efficient management of the vascular risk factors can prevent the expression and/ or progression of dementia. Thus, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular physical exercise, decreasing dietary fat, multivitamin supplementation, adequate control of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, and social integration and mental stimulation in the elderly population are important factors in preventing or limiting the symptoms of dementia, a disease with significant individual, social, and economic implications.

  17. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  18. Poverty and Social Exclusion in India : Women

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Mehta, Soumya Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes the poverty and social exclusion of Women in India. The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in the status of women and girls, yet the cultural roots of gender inequality are still strong and affect a range of outcomes. The high salaries and independent lifestyles of women in urban India have captured public imagination. Yet progress has been very uneven and ...

  19. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  20. Exclusive nonleptonic B→VV decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2009-01-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B→VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R L ) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R perpendicular ) for B→D*D (s) * decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  1. Exclusive photoproduction of Υ mesons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-03-01

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction γ p → Υ p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb -1 . The measurement covers the kinematic range 60 2 2 , where W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and Q 2 is the photon virtuality. These results, which represent the analysis of the full ZEUS data sample for this channel, are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  2. Exclusive hadron production in two photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, M.

    1986-02-01

    This paper summarises experimental results on exclusive hadron production in two photon collisions at electron positron storage rings and attempts some interpretation. Experimental know how is described and new suggestions are made for future analyses. New model calculations on resonance form factors and pair production amplitudes are presented. The two photon vertex is decomposed such that experiments can be parameterised with the minimal number of free parameters. Selection rules for off shell photon collisions are given in addition to Yang's theorems. (orig.)

  3. Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Malecek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.

  4. Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Muhamad; Badziag, Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

    2011-01-01

    Which is the simplest logical structure for which there is quantum nonlocality? We show that there are only three bipartite Bell inequalities with quantum violation associated with the simplest graph of relationships of exclusivity with a quantum-classical gap. These are the most elementary logical Bell inequalities. We show that the quantum violation of some well-known Bell inequalities is related to them. We test the three Bell inequalities with pairs of polarization-entangled photons and r...

  5. Integration et exclusion des communautes : La curieuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les données que nous y présentons procèdent d'une démarche méthodologique qui a consisté à combiner la recherche documentaire et l'observation des pratiques sportives de diverses communautés aussi bien à l'échelle locale que globale. Mots clés : Sport, société, socialisation, intégration, exclusion. English Abstract.

  6. On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x B . We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)

  7. On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France); Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Univ. de Liege, Inst. de Physique, Liege (Belgium); Teryaev, O.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x{sub B}. We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)

  8. Solving satisfiability using inclusion-exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Using Maple, we implement a SAT solver based on the principle of inclusion-exclusion and the Bonferroni inequalities. Using randomly generated input, we investigate the performance of our solver as a function of the number of variables and number of clauses. We also test it against Maple's built-in tautology procedure. Finally, we implement the Lov\\'asz local lemma with Maple and discuss its applicability to SAT.

  9. Fast pion production in exclusive neutrino processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.; Komachenko, Yu.Ya.; Khlopov, M.Yu.

    1980-01-01

    Single pion production in exclusive neutrino reactions with small momentum transfer to nucleon, induced by neutrino scattering on virtual mesons (reggeons), is considered. The estimation of the contributions to process νA → μπA where A is a nucleon or the target nucleus made by various virtual mesons is presented. In the experimental investigation of such processes the contributions of different mesons may be singled out, thus providing information on the weak; meson-pion (reggeon-pion) transitions

  10. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  11. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range

  12. Exclusion and Control in the Carceral State

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Theorists of punishment typically construe the criminal justice system as the means to achieve retribution or to deter or otherwise prevent crime. But a close look at the way the American penal system actually operates makes clear the poor fit between these more conventional explanations and the realities of American penal practice. Taking actual practice as its starting point, this essay argues instead that the animating mission of the American carceral project is the exclusion and control o...

  13. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  14. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we formulate particle filter-based object tracking as an exclusive sparse learning problem that exploits contextual information. To achieve this goal, we propose the context-aware exclusive sparse tracker (CEST) to model particle appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group} dictionaries that can contain contextual information. With context, CEST is less prone to tracker drift. Interestingly, we show that the popular L₁ tracker [1] is a special case of our CEST formulation. The proposed learning problem is efficiently solved using an accelerated proximal gradient method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. To make the tracker much faster, we reduce the number of learning problems to be solved by using the dual problem to quickly and systematically rank and prune particles in each frame. We test our CEST tracker on challenging benchmark sequences that involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that CEST consistently outperforms state-of-the-art trackers.

  15. Measurement of exclusive processes with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive vector meson photoproduction is studied in ultra-peripheral pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. The cross sections are measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, extending the energy range explored by H1 and ZEUS Experiments at HERA. In addition, the differential cross sections ($d\\sigma/d\\left |t\\right|$), where $\\left |t\\right|\\approx p^{2}_{T}$ is the squared transverse momentum of produced vector mesons, are measured and the slope parameters are obtained. The results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. We also report a measurement of the exclusive or quasi-exclusive $W^{+}W^{-}$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV ($7$ TeV) using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ ($5.5$fb$^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. Finally, the latest p...

  16. Density profiles of the exclusive queuing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The exclusive queuing process (EQP) incorporates the exclusion principle into classic queuing models. It is characterized by, in addition to the entrance probability α and exit probability β, a third parameter: the hopping probability p. The EQP can be interpreted as an exclusion process of variable system length. Its phase diagram in the parameter space (α,β) is divided into a convergent phase and a divergent phase by a critical line which consists of a curved part and a straight part. Here we extend previous studies of this phase diagram. We identify subphases in the divergent phase, which can be distinguished by means of the shape of the density profile, and determine the velocity of the system length growth. This is done for EQPs with different update rules (parallel, backward sequential and continuous time). We also investigate the dynamics of the system length and the number of customers on the critical line. They are diffusive or subdiffusive with non-universal exponents that also depend on the update rules.

  17. Aspiration sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled lesions in the liver that generally arise as congenital anomalies. Prevalence is estimated between 3 and 18%. Overall, cysts are benign and asymptomatic. However, hepatic cysts can increase to a volume of several liters as a result of continuous fluid production by the

  18. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  19. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  20. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.