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Sample records for hepatic inflammatory infiltrate

  1. Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration.

    Piao, Chunmei; Cai, Lun; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Song, Wenchao; Du, Jie

    2015-04-24

    Complement 5a (C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines generate C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells were further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the inflammatory microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Complement 5a Enhances Hepatic Metastases of Colon Cancer via Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-mediated Inflammatory Cell Infiltration*

    Piao, Chunmei; Cai, Lun; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Song, Wenchao; Du, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Complement 5a (C5a), a potent immune mediator generated by complement activation, promotes tumor growth; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains unclear. We demonstrate that C5a contributes to tumor metastases by modulating tumor inflammation in hepatic metastases of colon cancer. Colon cancer cell lines generate C5a under serum-free conditions, and C5a levels increase over time in a murine syngeneic colon cancer hepatic metastasis model. Furthermore, in the absence of C5a receptor or upon pharmacological inhibition of C5a production with an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, tumor metastasis is severely impaired. A lack of C5a receptor in colon cancer metastatic foci reduces the infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and the role for C5a receptor on these cells were further verified by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Moreover, C5a signaling increases the expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and the anti-inflammatory molecules arginase-1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, but is inversely correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, which suggests a mechanism for the role of C5a in the inflammatory microenvironment required for tumor metastasis. Our results indicate a new and potentially promising therapeutic application of complement C5a inhibitor for the treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:25739439

  3. Fine-needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease.

    Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M

    1999-12-01

    Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.

  4. Inflammatory angiomyolipoma of the liver: a rare hepatic tumor

    Liu Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Angiomyolipoma (AML is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the tumor, composed of a varying heterogeneous mixture of three tissue components: blood vessels, smooth muscle and adipose cells. Hepatic AML may demonstrate a marked histological diversity. We herein present one case of hepatic AML exhibiting prominent inflammatory cells in the background, which happened in a 61-year-old Chinese female patient, without signs of tuberous sclerosis. Histologically, the striking feature was the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells in the background, including small lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosnophils. The tumor cells were spindled and histiocytoid in shape, with slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, and arranged along the vessels or scattered among the inflammatory background. Sinusoid structure was obviously seen in the tumor. Mature adipocytes and thick-walled blood vessels were focally observed at the boundaries between the tumor and surrounding liver tissues. The tumor cells were positive immunostaining for HMB-45, Melan-A, and smooth muscle actin. The inflammatory AML should be distinguished from other tumors with inflammatory background such as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and follicular dendritic cell tumor and deserves wider recognition for its occurrence as a primary hepatic tumor. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1828633072762370

  5. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltrate in human dental pulpitis.

    Bruno, K F; Silva, J A; Silva, T A; Batista, A C; Alencar, A H G; Estrela, C

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the microscopic characteristics and densities (per mm(2) ) of tryptase(+) mast cells, CD4(+) T helper lymphocytes, CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes, foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes, CD20(+) B lymphocytes, CD68(+) macrophages, and CD31(+) blood vessels in human dental pulpitis (n=38) and healthy pulpal tissue (n=6). The pulps of 38 human teeth with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis were removed by pulpectomy. The pulp tissue was immersed in 10% buffered formalin for evaluation using light microscopy. Tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, foxp3, CD20, CD68, and CD31 expressions were analysed using immunohistochemistry; other microscopic features, such as intensity of inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition, were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin stain. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at α=5%. Two microscopic patterns of pulpitis were found: group 1 (G1) (n=15) had an intense inflammatory infiltrate and mild collagen deposition; conversely, group 2 (G2) (n=23) had a scarce inflammatory infiltrate and intense collagen deposition. The numbers of CD68(+) macrophages (P=0.004) and CD20(+) B (P=0.068) lymphocytes and the density of blood vessels (P=0.002) were higher in G1 than in G2. However, a similar number of CD4(+) and CD45RO(+) T lymphocytes was found in both groups (P>0.05). When present, tryptase(+) mast cells were equally distributed in G1 and G2, whereas foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes were detected in 59% and 14% of the samples of G1 and G2. Controls exhibited lower numbers of foxp3, tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, CD68 and CD20 positive cells than G1 and G2. Irreversible pulpitis had distinct microscopic features with important quantitative and qualitative differences in inflammatory cell infiltration. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Inflammatory Cell Infiltrates in Acute and Chronic Thoracic Aortic Dissection.

    Wu, Darrell; Choi, Justin C; Sameri, Aryan; Minard, Charles G; Coselli, Joseph S; Shen, Ying H; LeMaire, Scott A

    2013-12-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a highly lethal cardiovascular disease. Injury to the intima and media allows pulsatile blood to enter the media, leading to dissection formation. Inflammatory cells then infiltrate the site of aortic injury to clear dead cells and damaged tissue. This excessive inflammation may play a role in aneurysm formation after dissection. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared aortic tissues from patients with acute TAD (n = 11), patients with chronic TAD (n = 35), and donor controls (n = 20) for the presence of CD68+ macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, and CD3+ T lymphocytes. Tissue samples from patients with acute or chronic TAD generally had significantly more inflammatory cells in both the medial and adventitial layers than did the control samples. In tissues from patients with acute TAD, the adventitia had more of the inflammatory cells studied than did the media. The pattern of increase in inflammatory cells was similar in chronic and acute TAD tissues, except for macrophages, which were seen more frequently in the adventitial layer of acute TAD tissue than in the adventitia of chronic TAD tissue. The inflammatory cell content of both acute and chronic TAD tissue was significantly different from that of control tissue. However, the inflammatory cell profile of aneurysmal chronic TAD was similar to that of acute TAD. This may reflect a sustained injury response that contributes to medial degeneration and aneurysm formation.

  7. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  8. NATURAL KILLER T CELLS IN HEPATIC LEUCOCYTE INFILTRATES IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT PROCESS AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    O. V. Lebedinskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology, topography, and immunohistochemical features of leukocyte infiltrates were studied in various sites of the liver samples from the patients with metastatic disease, been affected by hepatitis B and C viruses at different degree of activity. Liver of СВА mice with implanted САО-1 tumour was also under study. Histochemical, and functional features, as well as immune phenotype of these cells were investigated. It has been shown that the major fraction of leukocyte infiltrates, mostly associated with implanted tumours in experimental mice, and in the areas adjacent to the tumor in humans, like as on the peak of viral hepatitis activity, is composed of lymphocytes. They are presented by large numvers of activated proliferating and differentiating cells bearing specific antigens, as well as natural killers and T-lymphocytes, possessing high-level killer activity towards NK-sensitive, and autologous lines of cancer cells. Hence, the results of our study, generally, confirm the data from literature reporting on existence of a special lymphocyte subpopulation, NKT cells, in human or murine liver affected by hepatitis virus or malignant tumors. The data concerning functional properties of these cells may be used for development of immunotherapy methods of viral diseases and oncological conditions complicated by liver metastases.

  9. Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine CXCL16 diminishes liver macrophage infiltration and steatohepatitis in chronic hepatic injury.

    Alexander Wehr

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, resulting in steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. Modulating inflammatory mediators such as chemokines may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for NAFLD. We recently demonstrated that the chemokine receptor CXCR6 promotes hepatic NKT cell accumulation, thereby controlling inflammation in experimental NAFLD. In this study, we first investigated human biopsies (n = 20, confirming that accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages is a hallmark of progressive NAFLD. Moreover, CXCR6 gene expression correlated with the inflammatory activity (ALT levels in human NAFLD. We then tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of CXCL16 might hold therapeutic potential in NAFLD, using mouse models of acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4- and chronic methionine-choline-deficient (MCD diet-induced hepatic injury. Neutralizing CXCL16 by i.p. injection of anti-CXCL16 antibody inhibited the early intrahepatic NKT cell accumulation upon acute toxic injury in vivo. Weekly therapeutic anti-CXCL16 administrations during the last 3 weeks of 6 weeks MCD diet significantly decreased the infiltration of inflammatory macrophages into the liver and intrahepatic levels of inflammatory cytokines like TNF or MCP-1. Importantly, anti-CXCL16 treatment significantly reduced fatty liver degeneration upon MCD diet, as assessed by hepatic triglyceride levels, histological steatosis scoring and quantification of lipid droplets. Moreover, injured hepatocytes up-regulated CXCL16 expression, indicating that scavenging functions of CXCL16 might be additionally involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Targeting CXCL16 might therefore represent a promising novel therapeutic approach for liver inflammation and steatohepatitis.

  10. Gamma Delta T-Cells Regulate Inflammatory Cell Infiltration of the Lung after Trauma-Hemorrhage

    2015-06-01

    suggesting a role for this T- cell subset in both innate and acquired immunity (7, 8). Studies have shown that +% T cells are required for both controlled...increased infiltration of both lymphoid and myeloid cells in WT mice after TH-induced ALI. In parallel to +% T cells , myeloid cells (i.e., monocytes...GAMMA DELTA T CELLS REGULATE INFLAMMATORY CELL INFILTRATION OF THE LUNG AFTER TRAUMA-HEMORRHAGE Meenakshi Rani,* Qiong Zhang,* Richard F. Oppeltz

  11. Correlation between inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial lining in 214 cases of periapical cysts.

    Alcantara, Bárbara Albertini Roquim; Carli, Marina Lara de; Beijo, Luiz Alberto; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periapical cysts, identify their clinical and microscopic features and correlate their microscopic features with the inflammatory infiltrate present in the lesion site. A total of 214 cases were collected over a 10-year period. Clinical data, including gender, age, race, symptoms and location of the lesion, were recorded. Two independent examiners with no prior knowledge of the patients' clinical data conducted the microscopic evaluations. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's or chi-square tests at a 5% level of significance. The results showed that periapical cysts were more prevalent in white women, with a mean age of 35 years, and in the anterosuperior region. The majority of the lesions were lined by atrophic cystic epithelium, which was associated with moderate inflammatory infiltrate in the cystic capsule (p periapical cysts lined by atrophic epithelium are related to the presence of moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate.

  12. Doppler waveforms of the hepatic veins in children with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    Uzun, Hakan; Yazici, Burhan; Erdogmus, Besir; Kocabay, Kenan; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yazgan, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL) on the Doppler waveform pattern in the hepatic veins of obese children. Methods: In this prospective study, 59 patients with diffuse FIL and 45 normal healthy children who served as control group underwent hepatic vein B-mod and duplex Doppler sonography. The Doppler sonography spectrum of the right hepatic vein was classified into three groups: triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform, and monophasic or flat waveform. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the phasicity of hepatic venous flow between patients and control subjects (p < 0.001). The Doppler flow pattern in the right hepatic vein was triphasic in 28 (47.5%), biphasic in 28 (47.5%), and monophasic in 3 (5%) children with fatty liver, while it was triphasic in 43 (95.6%) and biphasic in 2 (4.4%) control subjects. There was an inverse correlation between the sonographic grade of fatty infiltration of the liver and the phasicity of hepatic venous flow (r = -0.479, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Abnormal right hepatic vein Doppler waveform, biphasic as well as monophasic, can be seen in healthy obese children with diffuse FIL.

  13. A histopathologic analysis of chronic inflammatory infiltrate in patients of h. pylori associated chronic gastritis

    Khalid, H.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between H. pylori density with severity of chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Pathology (Histopathology), Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad, from Nov 2011 to Nov 2012. Methodology: Gastric antral biopsies of H. pylori associated chronic gastritis were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and relevant clinical information were collected. First hundred biopsies of H. pylori associated chronic gastritis were assessed for density of H. pylori and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. istopathological features like lymphoid aggregates, ulcer slough, superficial epithelial damage, dysplasia and nuclear reactive changes were simply assessed in case of their presence or absence. Results: A significant moderate positive correlation was found between grades of H. pylori and chronic inflammatory infiltrate (rs= 0.636). Insignificant correlation was found with lymphoid aggregates, superficial epithelial damage, dysplasia and nuclear reactive changes. Conclusion: In conclusion this study corroborated the determination of histopathological parameters and depicted that, the greater the density of H. pylori infection, the greater the degrees of chronic inflammatory infiltrate. (author)

  14. Correlation between inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial lining in 214 cases of periapical cysts

    Barbara Albertini Roquim Alcantara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periapical cysts, identify their clinical and microscopic features and correlate their microscopic features with the inflammatory infiltrate present in the lesion site. A total of 214 cases were collected over a 10-year period. Clinical data, including gender, age, race, symptoms and location of the lesion, were recorded. Two independent examiners with no prior knowledge of the patients' clinical data conducted the microscopic evaluations. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's or chi-square tests at a 5% level of significance. The results showed that periapical cysts were more prevalent in white women, with a mean age of 35 years, and in the anterosuperior region. The majority of the lesions were lined by atrophic cystic epithelium, which was associated with moderate inflammatory infiltrate in the cystic capsule (p < 0.01, with a diffuse localization pattern (p = 0.03 and absence of neutrophils (p = 0.01. Our findings suggest that periapical cysts lined by atrophic epithelium are related to the presence of moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate.

  15. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  16. Down-regulation of inflammatory mediator synthesis and infiltration of inflammatory cells by MMP-3 in experimentally induced rat pulpitis.

    Takimoto, Koyo; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Koizumi, Yu; Yamamoto, Mioko; Nakashima, Misako; Suda, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 is a member of the MMP family that degrades the extracellular matrix. Application of MMP-3 to injured pulp tissue induces angiogenesis and wound healing, but its anti-inflammatory effects are still unclear. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory functions of MMP-3 in vitro and in vivo. Nitric oxide and inflammatory mediator synthesis in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in the presence or absence of MMP-3. The mouse Mmp3 (mMmp3) expression vector containing full length cDNA sequence of mMmp3 or cDNA sequence of mMmp3 missing the signal peptide and pro-peptide regions was transfected to RAW264, a mouse macrophage cell line, and NO synthesis and inflammatory mediator expression were evaluated. Pulpal inflammation was histologically and immunohistochemically evaluated in a rat model of incisor pulpitis induced by the application of LPS for 9 hours in the presence or absence of MMP-3. NO and pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis promoted by LPS was significantly down-regulated by MMP-3 in vitro. The full length of mMmp3 down-regulated the LPS-induced NO synthesis and chemical mediator mRNA expression, however the mMmp3 missing the signal peptide failed to block the NO synthesis induced by LPS. The numbers of major histocompatibility complex class II+ and CD68+ cells, which infiltrated into the rat incisor pulp tissues in response to the topical application of LPS, were significantly decreased by the application of MMP-3 in vivo. These results indicate that MMP-3 possesses anti-inflammatory functions, suggesting its potential utility as an anti-inflammatory agent for pulpal inflammation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are periodontal bacterial profiles and placental inflammatory infiltrate in pregnancy related to birth outcomes?

    Mesa, Francisco; Pozo, Elena; Blanc, Vanessa; Puertas, Alberto; Bravo, Manuel; O'Valle, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether periodontal clinical parameters, periodontal bacterial profiles, and inflammatory infiltrate in placental chorionic villi are associated with adverse pregnancy results. The authors designed an observational case-control study in 244 postpartum females: mothers with preterm/low-birth weight newborns (n = 91 cases) and mothers with full-term, normal-weight infants (n = 153 controls). Sociodemographic, gynecologic, and periodontal variables were gathered for all participants. Data on placental inflammatory infiltrate in biopsies from 68 cases and 65 controls and the gingival bacterial profile in mothers with periodontitis were gathered, detecting associations with bivariate analyses and constructing a multiple logistic regression model with the number of positive inflammatory cells as the dependent variable. Periodontal values were significantly worse in cases versus controls. Numbers of leukocyte subsets per square millimeters in maternal and fetal vascular spaces were similar between cases and controls. CD45 in maternal placental space was related to the presence of periodontitis (P = 0.029) but not to case or control group (P = 0.264). The anaerobic and commensal bacterial profile in mothers with periodontitis was similar between the groups. Periodontal disease was more severe and a periodontitis diagnosis more frequent in mothers with preterm or low-birth weight versus normal delivery. No differences in anaerobic or commensal bacterial profile were found between mothers with periodontitis in the two groups. Local placental factors, such as the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate and slightly higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the females with these adverse pregnancy outcomes, may be related to a subclinical proinflammatory status that could contribute to triggering premature labor.

  18. A case of alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating focal fatty infiltration of the liver on computed tomography

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Kato, Masayoshi; Nagai, Tadayuki; Kametani, Tomio; Horigami, Tateyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Tanino, Mikio

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a newly recognized entity that may be confused with primary neoplasm or tumor metastasis on computed tomography. We report a 31-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism. Physical examination revealed jaundice, marked hepatomegaly and ascites. Laboratory studies revealed mild elevation of bilirubin, AlP, GOT, γ-GTP and marked leukocytosis. Abdominal CT showed a large area of decreased density in the right lobe. The radionuclide scan demonstrated the area of diminished activity located in the central portion of the right lobe. Ultrasonography demonstrated high echoic mass shadows in the right lobe. The rapid disappearance of the low density area on CT was recognized. The liver biopsy specimen revealed fatty metamorphosis, alcoholic hyaline bodies, pericellular fibrosis and mild lobular disorganization. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat CT scans are useful in diagnosis. (author)

  19. Hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Yildirim, Tulin; Torun, Dilek; Tercan, Fahri; Kizilkilic, Osman; Niron, E. Alp

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 40 patients with diffuse FIL and 50 normal healthy adults who served as control group underwent hepatic vein (HV) Doppler ultrasonography. The patients with the diagnosis of FIL were 23 men (57.5%) and 17 women aged 30-62 years (mean age ± S.D., 42 ± 12 years). Subjects in the control group were 27 men (54%) and 23 women aged 34-65 years (mean age ± S.D., 45 ± 14 years). The diagnosis of FIL was confirmed with computed tomography density measurements. The waveforms of HV were classified into three groups: regular triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform without a reverse flow, and monophasic or flat waveform. Etiological factors for FIL were diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia and obesity (body mass index > 25). Serum lipid profile was obtained from all the patients with FIL. Results: Seventeen of the 40 patients (43%) with FIL had an abnormal HV Doppler waveform, whereas only one of the 50 (2%) healthy subjects had an abnormal waveform. The difference in the distribution of normal Doppler waveform pattern between the patients and the control group was significant (P 0.05). There was not any correlation between the degree of fat infiltration and the hepatic vein waveform pattern (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Patients with fatty liver has a high rate of an abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform pattern which can be biphasic or monophasic. We could not find a relation between the etiological factors for FIL and the occurrence of an abnormal HV Doppler waveform

  20. Intraoperative crystalloid overload leads to substantial inflammatory infiltration of intestinal anastomoses-a histomorphological analysis.

    Kulemann, Birte; Timme, Sylvia; Seifert, Gabriel; Holzner, Philipp A; Glatz, Torben; Sick, Olivia; Chikhladze, Sophia; Bronsert, Peter; Hoeppner, Jens; Werner, Martin; Hopt, Ulrich T; Marjanovic, Goran

    2013-09-01

    It has been shown that crystalloid fluid-overload promotes anastomotic instability. As physiologic anastomotic healing requires the sequential infiltration of different cells, we hypothesized this to be altered by liberal fluid regimes and performed a histomorphological analysis. 36 Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=8-10 rats/group) and treated with either liberal (+) or restrictive (-) perioperative crystalline (Jonosteril = Cry) or colloidal fluid (Voluven = Col). Anastomotic samples were obtained on postoperative day 4, routinely stained and histophathologically reviewed. Anastomotic healing was assessed using a semiquantitative score, assessing inflammatory cells, anastomotic repair and collagenase activity. Overall, the crystalloid overload group (Cry (+)) showed the worst healing score (P < 0.01). A substantial increase of lymphocytes and macrophages was found in this group compared to the other three (P < 0.01). Both groups that received colloidal fluid (Col (+) and Col (-)) as well as the group that received restricted crystalloid fluid resuscitation (Cry (-)) had better intestinal healing. Collagenase activity was significantly higher in the Cry (+) group. Intraoperative infusion of high-volume crystalloid fluid leads to a pathological anastomotic inflammatory response with a marked infiltration of leukocytes and macrophages resulting in accelerated collagenolysis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction in an experimental periodontitis

    Liu, Lihua [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Chengzhang, E-mail: l56cz@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cai, Cia [Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Zhejiang University, 395 Yan An Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Xiang, Junbo [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cao, Zhengguo, E-mail: jery7677@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: CypA is able to regulate inflammatory responses and MMPs production via interaction with its cell surface receptor, EMMPRIN. This study aimed to address the possible association of CypA with pathological inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues, and whether CypA-EMMPRIN interaction exists in periodontitis. Materials and methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligation according to our previous method. Histological and radiographic examinations were performed. Western blot was used to detect CypA and EMMPRIN expressions in gingival tissues. Immunohistochemistry was applied for CypA, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, as well as cell markers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophil. CypA expression, alveolar bone loss, and inflammatory infiltrations were quantified followed by correlation analyses. Results: Western blot revealed that CypA and EMMRPIN expressions were dramatically elevated in inflamed gingival tissues (ligature group) as compared to healthy gingival tissues (control group). The enhanced CypA and EMMPRIN expressions were highly consistent in cell localization on seriate sections. They were permanently co-localized in infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as osteoclasts and osteoblasts in interradicular bone, but rarely expressed by infiltrating neutrophils. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions were also sharply increased in inflamed gingiva. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mainly over-expressed by macrophages, while MMP-1 was over-produced by fibroblasts and infiltrating cells. The number of CypA-positive cells was strongly correlated with the ACJ-AC distance (r = 0.839, p = 0.000), the number of macrophages (r = 0.972, p = 0.000), and the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.951, p = 0.000). Conclusion: CypA is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction of periodontitis. CypA-EMMPRIN interaction may exist in these pathological processes.

  2. INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATION IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA OF PATIENTS WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-ASSOCIATED GASTRIC DYSPLASIA AND CANCER

    М. V. Vusik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of inflammatory infiltrate in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric dysplasia (n=56 and gastric cancer (n=50 with different levels of humoral immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and EBV viral load were studied. In patients with dysplasia of the gastric mucosa, the increase in antibody titers to VCA IgG leaded to a significant decrease in the level of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages and an increase in the number of eosinophils and plasma cells. When the levels of IgA to viral capsid antigen (VCA and IgG to EBV early antigens (EA were increased, the number of neutrophils in the composition of the cellular infiltrate was significantly decreased. In gastric cancer patients with different levels of humoral immune response to EBV, the number of plasma cells and eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the tumor was decreased when increasing the titers of IgG to VCA and IgA to VCA. When VCA/IgA titer was high, the number of neutrophils in a tumor was decreased and the proportion of macrophages was slightly increased. The data obtained can serve as additional criteria for indentifying markers for viral infection of the gastric mucosa.

  3. Atypical Squamous Cells in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology: Microbiology, Inflammatory Infiltrate, and Human Papillomavirus-DNA Testing.

    Gomes de Oliveira, Geilson; Eleutério, Renata Mirian Nunes; Silveira Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Giraldo, Paulo César; Eleutério, José

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between atypical squamous cells (ASC) and inflammatory infiltrate and vaginal microbiota using cervical liquid-based cytological (SurePath®) and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) tests. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 6-year database from a laboratory in Fortaleza (Brazil). Files from 1,346 ASC cases were divided into subgroups and results concerning inflammation and vaginal microorganisms diagnosed by cytology were compared with HR-HPV test results. An absence of specific microorganisms (ASM) was the most frequent finding (ASC of undetermined significance, ASC-US = 74%; ASC - cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, ASC-H = 68%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (ASC-US = 20%; ASC- H = 25%) and Candida spp. (ASC-US = 6%; ASC-H = 5%). Leukocyte infiltrate was present in 71% of ASC-US and 85% of ASC-H (p = 0.0040), and in these specific cases HR-HPV tests were positive for 65 and 64%, respectively. A positive HR-HPV test was relatively more frequent when a specific microorganism was present, and Candida spp. was associated with HR-HPV-positive results (p = 0.0156), while an ASM was associated with negative HR-HPV results (p = 0.0370). ASC-US is associated with an absence of inflammation or vaginosis, while ASC-H smears are associated with Trichomonas vaginalis and inflammatory infiltrate. A positive HR-HPV is associated with Candida spp. in ASC cytology. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Type, Frequency, and Spatial Distribution of Immune Cell Infiltrates in CNS Germinomas: Evidence for Inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Mechanisms.

    Zapka, Pia; Dörner, Evelyn; Dreschmann, Verena; Sakamato, Noriaki; Kristiansen, Glen; Calaminus, Gabriele; Vokuhl, Christian; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2018-02-01

    Central nervous system germinomas are characterized by a massive immune cell infiltrate. We systematically characterized these immune cells in 28 germinomas by immunophenotyping and image analysis. mRNA expression was analyzed by Nanostring technology and in situ RNA hybridization. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were composed of 61.8% ± 3.1% (mean ± SE) CD3-positive T cells, including 45.2% ± 3.5% of CD4-positive T-helper cells, 23.4% ± 1.5% of CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, 5.5% ± 0.9% of FoxP3-positive regulatory T cells, and 11.9% ±1.3% PD-1-positive TILs. B cells accounted for 35.8% ± 2.9% of TILs and plasma cells for 9.3% ± 1.6%. Tumor-associated macrophages consisted of clusters of activated PD-L1-positive macrophages and interspersed anti-inflammatory macrophages expressing CD163. Germinoma cells did not express PD-L1. Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers and cytokines was high and comparable to mRNA levels in lymph node tissue. IFNG and IL10 mRNA was detected in subfractions of TILs and in PD-L1-positive macrophages. Taken together, the strong immune reaction observed in germinomas involves inflammatory as well as various suppressive mechanisms. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 and infiltration of cytotoxic T cells are biomarkers predictive of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies, constituting a rationale for possible novel treatment approaches. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  6. SREBP-1c overactivates ROS-mediated hepatic NF-κB inflammatory pathway in dairy cows with fatty liver.

    Li, Xinwei; Huang, Weikun; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Xiliang; Lei, Lin; Yuan, Xue; Sun, Guoquan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Liu, Guowen

    2015-10-01

    Dairy cows with fatty liver are characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation and a severe inflammatory response. Sterol receptor element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) are components of the main pathways for controlling triglyceride (TG) accumulation and inflammatory levels, respectively. A previous study demonstrated that hepatic inflammatory levels are positively correlated with hepatic TG content. We therefore speculated that SREBP-1c might play an important role in the overactivation of the hepatic NF-κB inflammatory pathway in cows with fatty liver. Compared with healthy cows, cows with fatty liver exhibited severe hepatic injury and high blood concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Hepatic SREBP-1c-mediated lipid synthesis and the NF-κB inflammatory pathway were both overinduced in cows with fatty liver. In vitro, treatment with non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) further increased SREBP-1c expression and NF-κB pathway activation, which then promoted TG and inflammatory cytokine synthesis. SREBP-1c overexpression overactivated the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in hepatocytes by increasing ROS content and not through TLR4. Furthermore, SREBP-1c silencing decreased ROS content and further attenuated the activation of the NEFA-induced NF-κB pathway, thereby decreasing TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β synthesis. SREBP-1c-overexpressing mice exhibited hepatic steatosis and an overinduced hepatic NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that SREBP-1c enhances the NEFA-induced overactivation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway by increasing ROS in cow hepatocytes, thereby further increasing hepatic inflammatory injury in cows with fatty liver. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Proquazone: a treatment for lymphocytic infiltration of the skin. Comparative study with 2 other nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Johansson, E A

    1987-01-01

    15 patients with lymphocytic infiltration of the skin (LIS) were treated with the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drug proquazone [1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-7-methyl-2(IH)]. In contrast to other NSAI drugs proquazone is a nonacidic compound which is known to be a potent prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Of the 15 patients 8 were healed completely with proquazone; in half of these patients lesions recurred but healed with reintroduction of the drug. Two patients remained symptom-free with a small maintenance dose. Two patients showed a partial remission. The treatment was discontinued in 3 patients, in 2 of them because of side effects and in 1 because of lack of response. Two other NSAI drugs, both known to be potent prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, namely indomethacin and ibuprofen, were tried, however without effect. The present study indicates that proquazone should be considered in the treatment of LIS.

  8. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-κB activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed α4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-κB–mediated cytokine production and α4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms. PMID:26483397

  9. Hepatic hemangiomas with peritumoral sparing of fatty infiltration in hepatic steatosis: findings on contrast-enhanced MR imaging and on sonography

    Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Kyoung Won; Won, Hyung Jin

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to determine the frequency of peritumoral sparing of fatty infiltration (PTSF) around hepatic hemangioma in hepatic steatosis and to evaluate the finding of these tumors on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and on sonography. This study included 76 hemangiomas in 67 patients suffering with hepatic steatosis. A diagnosis of hemangioma was based on the histologic findings, hemangioma SPECT or a compatible enhancement pattern on the dynamic contrast-enhanced MR study. For chemical shifting, PTSF was defined when there wasn't any decrease in signal intensity of the liver parenchyma on the opposed-phase images as compared with the in-phase images, and this intensity appeared as a hyperintense area around the tumor. We evaluated the frequency of PTSF and we analyzed if the presence of PTSF was related to the tumor size, the rapidity of enhancement or an associated arterioportal shunt. Among those, sonographic images were available in 55 hemangiomas. We also evaluated the sonographic appearances of hemangiomas with PTSF. Of the 76 hemangiomas, PTSF was noted on the MR chemical-shift images in 57 hemangiomas (75%). There was no significant relationship between tumor size and the presence of PTSF (ρ = .578). However, this finding was more frequently found in high-flow hemangiomas than in the slow-flow ones (ρ = .0038) and it was also related to the presence of associated arterioportal shunt (ρ = .0158). Sonographically, hemangiomas with PTSF were commonly surrounded by a peritumoral low-echoic area (28/41, 68%); these tumors more frequently showed a thin high-echoic rim on sonography than did the tumors without this finding (ρ = .0055). PTSF is commonly seen in hemangiomas in hepatic steatosis patients. Hepatic hemangiomas with PTSF tend to show rapid enhancement on dynamic MR imaging and this is accompanied by arterioportal shunt. They tend to be seen as an iso-or low-echoic mass with a thin high-echoic rim on sonography, and the mass is commonly

  10. Hepatic hemangiomas with peritumoral sparing of fatty infiltration in hepatic steatosis: findings on contrast-enhanced MR imaging and on sonography

    Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Kyoung Won; Won, Hyung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    We wanted to determine the frequency of peritumoral sparing of fatty infiltration (PTSF) around hepatic hemangioma in hepatic steatosis and to evaluate the finding of these tumors on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and on sonography. This study included 76 hemangiomas in 67 patients suffering with hepatic steatosis. A diagnosis of hemangioma was based on the histologic findings, hemangioma SPECT or a compatible enhancement pattern on the dynamic contrast-enhanced MR study. For chemical shifting, PTSF was defined when there wasn't any decrease in signal intensity of the liver parenchyma on the opposed-phase images as compared with the in-phase images, and this intensity appeared as a hyperintense area around the tumor. We evaluated the frequency of PTSF and we analyzed if the presence of PTSF was related to the tumor size, the rapidity of enhancement or an associated arterioportal shunt. Among those, sonographic images were available in 55 hemangiomas. We also evaluated the sonographic appearances of hemangiomas with PTSF. Of the 76 hemangiomas, PTSF was noted on the MR chemical-shift images in 57 hemangiomas (75%). There was no significant relationship between tumor size and the presence of PTSF ({rho} = .578). However, this finding was more frequently found in high-flow hemangiomas than in the slow-flow ones ({rho} = .0038) and it was also related to the presence of associated arterioportal shunt ({rho} = .0158). Sonographically, hemangiomas with PTSF were commonly surrounded by a peritumoral low-echoic area (28/41, 68%); these tumors more frequently showed a thin high-echoic rim on sonography than did the tumors without this finding ({rho} = .0055). PTSF is commonly seen in hemangiomas in hepatic steatosis patients. Hepatic hemangiomas with PTSF tend to show rapid enhancement on dynamic MR imaging and this is accompanied by arterioportal shunt. They tend to be seen as an iso-or low-echoic mass with a thin high-echoic rim on sonography, and the mass is

  11. Associations between inflammatory cells infiltrating the ethmoid sinus mucosa, and nasal polyp size and grade of ethmoid sinus opacification on CT images in chronic sinusitis

    Imajima, Naotoshi; Watanabe, So; Furuta, Atsuko; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Naohiro; Mochizuki, Yuichiro; Suzaki, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the types and numbers of inflammatory cells that infiltrated the ethmoid sinus mucosa in cases of chronic sinusitis in order to identify any associations with nasal polyp size and the grade of ethmoid sinus opacification on computer tomography images. The subjects were patients with chronic sinusitis who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Seventeen subjects also had bronchial asthma as a complication (six with aspirin-induced asthma, 11 with another form of asthma) and 24 did not have bronchial asthma as a complication (16 with allergic rhinitis, 8 with chronic sinusitis alone). The nasal polyps in the patients with bronchial asthma were significantly larger than those in the patients without bronchial asthma. Investigation of the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells according to polyp size revealed significantly more eosinophils as polyp size increased. In addition, infiltration of significantly more mast cells was observed when the polyps were large. Assessment of the grade of opacification of the ethmoid sinuses on computer tomography images showed a significantly higher grade of opacification in the patients with bronchial asthma than in the patients without bronchial asthma. Comparisons between the grade of opacification of the ethmoid sinuses and the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells revealed significantly more infiltrating eosinophils and mast cells in the patients with intense ethmoid sinus opacification. The above findings suggest that eosinophils and mast cells play a major role in forming the persistent inflammation of the sinus mucosa and nasal polyp tissue of patients with chronic sinusitis complicated by bronchial asthma. (author)

  12. The localisation of treponemes and characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate in skin biopsies from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws

    Engelkens, H. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Judanarso, J.; Vuzevski, V. D.; van Lier, J. B.; Godschalk, J. C.; van der Sluis, J. J.; Stolz, E.

    1993-01-01

    To study the localisation of treponemes and to analyse the inflammatory infiltrate in biopsy specimens from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws. Skin biopsies originating from human lesions of primary (29x) or secondary (15x) syphilis (Rotterdam), or early yaws

  13. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  14. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  15. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Eliângela de Castro Côbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon. The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega, the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+, scarce macrophages (CD68+, and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+.

  16. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Côbo, Eliângela de Castro; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Micheletti, Adilha Misson; Crema, Eduardo; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus) and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon). The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega), the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+), scarce macrophages (CD68+), and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+). PMID:22131997

  17. Vascular Endothelial-Targeted Therapy Combined with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Induces Inflammatory Intratumoral Infiltrates and Inhibits Tumor Relapses after Surgery

    Brendan F. Judy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most effective therapy for cancer in the United States, but disease still recurs in more than 40% of patients within 5 years after resection. Chemotherapy is given postoperatively to prevent relapses; however, this approach has had marginal success. After surgery, recurrent tumors depend on rapid neovascular proliferation to deliver nutrients and oxygen. Phosphatidylserine (PS is exposed on the vascular endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment but is notably absent on blood vessels in normal tissues. Thus, PS is an attractive target for cancer therapy after surgery. Syngeneic mice bearing TC1 lung cancer tumors were treated with mch1N11 (a novel mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets PS, cisplatin (cis, or combination after surgery. Tumor relapses and disease progression were decreased 90% by combination therapy compared with a 50% response rate for cis alone (P = .02. Mice receiving postoperative mch1N11 had no wound-related complications or added systemic toxicity in comparison to control animals. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the effects of mch1N11 were associated with a dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly granulocytes. This strategy was independent of the adaptive immune system. Together, these data suggest that vascular-targeted strategies directed against exposed PS may be a powerful adjunct to postoperative chemotherapy in preventing relapses after cancer surgery.

  18. Vascular endothelial-targeted therapy combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy induces inflammatory intratumoral infiltrates and inhibits tumor relapses after surgery.

    Judy, Brendan F; Aliperti, Louis A; Predina, Jarrod D; Levine, Daniel; Kapoor, Veena; Thorpe, Philip E; Albelda, Steven M; Singhal, Sunil

    2012-04-01

    Surgery is the most effective therapy for cancer in the United States, but disease still recurs in more than 40% of patients within 5 years after resection. Chemotherapy is given postoperatively to prevent relapses; however, this approach has had marginal success. After surgery, recurrent tumors depend on rapid neovascular proliferation to deliver nutrients and oxygen. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is exposed on the vascular endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment but is notably absent on blood vessels in normal tissues. Thus, PS is an attractive target for cancer therapy after surgery. Syngeneic mice bearing TC1 lung cancer tumors were treated with mch1N11 (a novel mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets PS), cisplatin (cis), or combination after surgery. Tumor relapses and disease progression were decreased 90% by combination therapy compared with a 50% response rate for cis alone (P = .02). Mice receiving postoperative mch1N11 had no wound-related complications or added systemic toxicity in comparison to control animals. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the effects of mch1N11 were associated with a dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly granulocytes. This strategy was independent of the adaptive immune system. Together, these data suggest that vascular-targeted strategies directed against exposed PS may be a powerful adjunct to postoperative chemotherapy in preventing relapses after cancer surgery.

  19. Hepatic inflammatory biomarkers and its link with obesity and chronic diseases.

    Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina; Santos Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-05-01

    The low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are two events that could be present in varying degrees, on obesity and chronic diseases. The degree of subclinical inflammation can be gauged by measuring the concentrations of some inflammatory biomarkers, including the hepatic origin ones. Some of those biomarkers are sialic acid, α1-antitrypsin and the C-terminal fragment of alpha1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, homocystein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. To approach the relation between adiposity and hepatic inflammatory markers, and to assess the possible associations between hepatic inflammatory biomarkers and obesity, as well as their capacity of predicting chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherotrombotic cardiovascular diseases. We used electronic scientific databases to select articles without restricting publication year. The sialic acid predicts the chance increase to become type 2 diabetic independently of BMI. Moreover, the α1-antitripsin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen and haptoglobulin biomarkers, seem predict the chance increase to become type 2 diabetic, dependently, of BMI. So, this process could be aggravated by obesity. The concentrations of fibrinogen, homocystein and PAI-1 increase proportionally to insulin resistance, showing its relation with metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance state) and with type 2 diabetes. In relation to cardiovascular diseases, every biomarkers reported in this review seem to increase the risk, becoming useful in add important prognostic. This review integrates the knowledge concerning the possible interactions of inflammatory mediators, in isolation or in conjunction, with obesity and chronic diseases, since these biomarkers play different functions and follow diverse biochemical routes in human body metabolism. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. CCR5 and CXCR3 are dispensable for liver infiltration, but CCR5 protects against virus-induced T-cell-mediated hepatic steatosis

    Holst, P J; Orskov, C; Qvortrup, K

    2007-01-01

    CCR5 and CXCR3 are important molecules in regulating the migration of activated lymphocytes. Thus, the majority of tissue-infiltrating T cells found in the context of autoimmune conditions and viral infections express CCR5 and CXCR3, and the principal chemokine ligands are expressed within inflam...... of CCR5 is associated with the induction of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunopathology consisting of marked hepatic microvesicular steatosis....

  1. Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice.

    Shechter, Ravid; London, Anat; Varol, Chen; Raposo, Catarina; Cusimano, Melania; Yovel, Gili; Rolls, Asya; Mack, Matthias; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Jung, Steffen; Schwartz, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Although macrophages (MPhi) are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally homogenous. Given the massive accumulation in the injured spinal cord of activated resident microglia, which are the native immune occupants of the central nervous system (CNS), the recruitment of additional infiltrating monocytes from the peripheral blood seems puzzling. A key question that remains is whether the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi contribute to repair, or represent an unavoidable detrimental response. The hypothesis of the current study is that a specific population of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi is functionally distinct from the inflammatory resident microglia and is essential for recovery from SCI. We inflicted SCI in adult mice, and tested the effect of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi on the recovery process. Adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras were used to functionally distinguish between the resident microglia and the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi. We followed the infiltration of the monocyte-derived MPhi to the injured site and characterized their spatial distribution and phenotype. Increasing the naïve monocyte pool by either adoptive transfer or CNS-specific vaccination resulted in a higher number of spontaneously recruited cells and improved recovery. Selective ablation of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi following SCI while sparing the resident microglia, using either antibody-mediated depletion or conditional ablation by diphtheria toxin, impaired recovery. Reconstitution of the peripheral blood with monocytes resistant to ablation restored the lost motor functions. Importantly, the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi displayed a local anti-inflammatory

  2. A novel collaborative representation and SCAD based classification method for fibrosis and inflammatory activity analysis of chronic hepatitis C

    Cai, Jiaxin; Chen, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhu, Nenghui; Qiu, Xuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to analysis the fibrosis stage and inflammatory activity grade of chronic hepatitis C, a novel classification method based on collaborative representation (CR) with smoothly clipped absolute deviation penalty (SCAD) penalty term, called CR-SCAD classifier, is proposed for pattern recognition. After that, an auto-grading system based on CR-SCAD classifier is introduced for the prediction of fibrosis stage and inflammatory activity grade of chronic hepatitis C. The proposed method has been tested on 123 clinical cases of chronic hepatitis C based on serological indexes. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines for the classification of fibrosis stage and inflammatory activity grade of chronic hepatitis C.

  3. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Henzler, Dietrich; Tacke, Josef

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied (γ = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  4. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  5. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  6. A Novel Platelet Activating Factor Receptor Antagonist Reduces Cell Infiltration and Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Mice Exposed to Desiccating Conditions after PRK

    Salomon Esquenazi

    2009-01-01

    Results. Confocal microscopy showed an increased number of reflective structures in the corneal epithelium after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with vehicle as compared to eyes treated with LAU-0901. Significant decrease of COX-2 and Arginase I expression and reduced alpha SMA cells was observed after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with LAU-0901. Discussion: Exposure of mice to a DE after PRK increases the epithelial turnover rate. PAF is involved in the inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory cytokines that follow PRK under DE.

  7. Hilar Inflammatory Pseudotumour with Hepatic Artery Atheroma- mimicker of Klatskin Tumour.

    Rastogi, Archana; Bihari, Chhagan; Gupta, Nalini; Deka, Pranjal; Kumar, Arvind; Negi, Sanjay Singh; Arora, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumour of hilar biliary structures is an extremely rare benign lesion that can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Clinical presentation and imaging findings often pose diagnostic difficulties. Main histopathological findings are the presence of myofibroblastic spindle cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes without cellular atypia or atypical mitotic figures. We describe a case of 62 year old male who presented with surgical obstructive jaundice. Imaging revealed a mass lesion involving the biliary confluence with upstream dilatation of biliary tree. Diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with type III hilar block was made. Intraoperately hilar mass lesion was found which was encasing right hepatic artery with no evidence of metastasis. The patient underwent Right hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy with complete common bile duct (CBD) excision with Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy. Unexpectedly histopathological examination showed no evidence of malignancy and revealed hilar inflammatory pseudotumour with hepatic artery atherosclerosis. Preoperative imaging, operative management, pathologic diagnosis and literature review are being presented in view of rarity of the case.

  8. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  9. Do serum ALAT values reflect the inflammatory activity in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis?

    Cahen, D. L.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Blok, A. P.; Oosting, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in 40 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, to assess whether serum alanine aminotransferase reflects the inflammatory process in the liver. Twenty liver biopsy specimens were included for each disease. Five histological aspects were scored: periportal

  10. Effect of contrast-enhanced ultrasound on differential diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and arterial phase enhanced hepatic inflammatory lesions

    Shanshan Yin; Qiuli Cui; Kun Yan; Wei Yang; Wei Wu; Liping Bao; Minhua Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate differential diagnosis between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and arterial phase enhanced hepatic inflammatory lesions in patients without liver cirrhosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).Methods:ICC and hepatic inflammatory lesions cases with CEUS and pathological diagnosis between Sep 2013 and Oct 2016 were investigated retrospectively.Imaging features of conventional ultrasound and CEUS were analyzed.The parameters of time intensity curve (TIC),including the arrival time,peak intensity (PI) in the lesions,the starting time for washout,and the intensity difference at 3 min (△I3) after contrast agent infection between the lesion and the liver parenchyma,were compared between ICC and hepatic inflammatory lesions.Results:Twenty-five ICC and fifteen inflammatory patients were included in this study.Seventeen ICC (68.0%) and two inflammatory cases (13.3%) showed bile duct dilatation on conventional ultrasound.Using CEUS,three ICC cases (12.0%) were misdiagnosed as inflammatory lesions and three inflammatory lesions (20.0%) as ICC;two ICC (8.0%) and one inflammatory case (6.7%) could not be made definite diagnosis.Washout started at 34.5±3.5 s and 61.5± 12.9 s for ICC and inflammatory lesions respectively (P<0.001).The intensity difference between lesion and liver parenchyma at 3 min after contrast agent injection was 10.8±3.1 dB in ICC and 4.2±2.3 dB in inflammatory group (P<0.00 1).The sensitivity and specificity differentiating ICC and inflammatory lesions were 76% and 87% if the cut-offvalue of the intensity difference was 7.7 dB.Conclusions:Combined with TIC analysis,and particularly with the characteristic of the early-starting and obvious washout in ICC,CEUS can be useful in differential diagnosis between hepatic inflammatory lesions and ICC.

  11. A Hepatic GAbp-AMPK Axis Links Inflammatory Signaling to Systemic Vascular Damage

    Katharina Niopek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased pro-inflammatory signaling is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Although both inflammatory and energy substrate handling processes represent critical layers of metabolic control, their molecular integration sites remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the heterodimerization interface between the α and β subunits of transcription factor GA-binding protein (GAbp as a negative target of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α signaling. TNF-α prevented GAbpα and β complex formation via reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to the non-energy-dependent transcriptional inactivation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β1, which was identified as a direct hepatic GAbp target. Impairment of AMPKβ1, in turn, elevated downstream cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatocyte-specific ablation of GAbpα induced systemic hypercholesterolemia and early macro-vascular lesion formation in mice. As GAbpα and AMPKβ1 levels were also found to correlate in obese human patients, the ROS-GAbp-AMPK pathway may represent a key component of a hepato-vascular axis in diabetic long-term complications.

  12. Morphologic mimickers of Cryptococcus occurring within inflammatory infiltrates in the setting of neutrophilic dermatitis: a series of three cases highlighting clinical dilemmas associated with a novel histopathologic pitfall.

    Ko, Jennifer S; Fernandez, Anthony P; Anderson, Kyle A; Burdick, Laura M; Billings, Steven D; Procop, Gary W; McMahon, James T; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Piliang, Melissa P

    2013-01-01

    A neutrophil-predominant inflammatory infiltrate in a cutaneous biopsy can be associated with a broad spectrum of diseases. Here we describe three cases showing a neutrophil-predominant dermal infiltrate admixed with abundant acellular bodies surrounded by capsule-like vacuolated spaces, which strikingly mimicked Cryptococcus. Two cases occurred within the settings of underlying hematologic malignancies; the third case was associated with immune dysregulation. Two patients were acutely ill in the medical intensive care unit. Fungal work-up, including cultures and multiple stains were negative. Because of clinical deterioration in these patients, transmission electron microscopy was pursued to definitively rule out fungal infection. In both cases, characteristics most compatible with autolysing human cells, not Cryptococcus, were identified. Chemotherapy and high-dose steroids were given, but both patients eventually succumbed to their diseases. To the best of our knowledge, these represent the first reported cases of autolysing human cells mimicking Cryptococcus organisms within neutrophilic infiltrates. They highlight the therapeutic dilemmas arising with histopathologic mimics, as well as the importance of thorough investigation to distinguish mimickers from true infectious organisms. We believe recognition of this microscopic pitfall will be useful to dermatopathologists faced with similar findings in the future, and may prevent unnecessary delay of appropriate therapy in acutely ill patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. IL-15 up-regulates the MMP-9 expression levels and induces inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in polymyositis through regulating the NF-kB pathway.

    Yan, Wang; Fan, Weinv; Chen, Caijing; Wu, Yunqin; Fan, Zhenyi; Chen, Jiaqi; Chen, Zhaoying; Chen, Huimin

    2016-10-10

    This study was aimed to research the effects of IL-15 on inducing inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in polymyositis (PM) through the NF-kB pathway, and whether IL-15 was able to further regulate MMP-9 expression levels. Prepared PM cells, collected from the patients suffering from PM, were administered to SD rats. Also, a group of healthy SD rats was undergoing the same treatment as the control group. The test animals were treated with either anti-IL-15, IL-15, MMP-9 siRNA or ERK1/2 inhibitor. The blood toxicological parameters creatine kinase (CK) and CD163 were tested by using ELISA and immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, NF-kB expression in macrophages was measured by immunocytochemical assay. To measure the degree of cell infiltration the Transwell assay was performed. Lastly, western blot and zymography were carried out to compare MMP-9 and ERK expression levels between the two groups, both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that S-CK, IL-15 and IL-15Rα levels increased rapidly after the conventional treatment was introduced to the PM infected SD rats. The PM model establishment and IL-15 treatment significantly increased the expressions of IL-15Rα, MMP-9, p-ERK and p-IKBα. However, the same effect can be suppressed by using anti-IL-15, MMP-9 siRNA or ERK1/2 inhibitor (P kB in the macrophages. IL-15 is able to significantly regulate the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in PM patients through affecting the NF-kB pathway and MMP-9 expression levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipids induce hepatic NKT cells deficiency through activation-induced cell death.

    Tongfang Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD through alternation of liver innate immune response. AIMS: The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. METHODS: Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. RESULTS: High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. CONCLUSION: High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.

  15. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipids induce hepatic NKT cells deficiency through activation-induced cell death.

    Tang, Tongfang; Sui, Yongheng; Lian, Min; Li, Zhiping; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.

  16. Hepatitis

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  17. Antilipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice Hepatic Tissues after Chronic Ethanol Feeding

    Areum Cha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata root extract in mice with alcohol-induced fatty liver and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Ethanol was introduced into the liquid diet by mixing it with distilled water at 5% (wt/v, providing 36% of the energy, for nine weeks. Among the three different fractions prepared from the C. lanceolata root, the C. lanceolata methanol extract (CME exhibited the most remarkable attenuation of alcohol-induced fatty liver with respect to various parameters such as hepatic free fatty acid concentration, body weight loss, and hepatic accumulations of triglyceride and cholesterol. The hepatic gene and protein expression levels were analysed via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CME feeding significantly restored the ethanol-induced downregulation of the adiponectin receptor (adipoR 1 and of adipoR2, along with their downstream molecules. Furthermore, the study data showed that CME feeding dramatically reversed ethanol-induced hepatic upregulation of toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated signaling cascade molecules. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of CME against alcoholic fatty livers of mice appear to be with adenosine- and adiponectin-mediated regulation of hepatic steatosis and TLR-mediated modulation of hepatic proinflammatory responses.

  18. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    Fang, Qilu; Zhao, Leping; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali; Li, Zhaoyu; Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao; Li, Dan; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment

  19. A novel chalcone derivative attenuates the diabetes-induced renal injury via inhibition of high glucose-mediated inflammatory response and macrophage infiltration

    Fang, Qilu [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhao, Leping [Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yali [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Zhaoyu [Department of International High School, Shanghai Jiaotong University Nanyang Affiliated (Kunshan) School, Minhang District, Shanghai (China); Pan, Yong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Wang, Jingying; Tong, Chao [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Dan, E-mail: yqyyld@163.com [Department of Nephrology, the Affiliated Yueqing Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Researches on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new opportunities for the treatment of DN. We previously found a chalcone derivative L6H21 could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine release from macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate whether L6H21 could ameliorate the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells and attenuate the inflammation-mediated renal injury. According to the results, L6H21 showed a great inhibitory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and macrophage adhesion via down-regulation of NF-κB/MAPKs activity in high glucose-stimulated renal NRK-52E cells. Further, in vivo oral administration with L6H21 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/2 days showed a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, which subsequently contributed to the inhibition on renal macrophage infiltration, the reduction of serum creatinine and BUN levels, and the improvement on the fibrosis and pathological changes in the renal tissues of diabetic mice. These findings provided that chalcone derived L6H21 may be a promising anti-inflammatory agent and have the potential in the therapy of diabetic nephropathy, and importantly, MAPK/NF-κB signaling system may be a novel therapeutic target for human DN in the future. - Highlights: • Inflammation plays a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. • Compound L6H21 reduced the high glucose-mediated inflammation in NRK-52E cells. • Compound L6H21 attenuated the inflammation-mediated renal injury. • L6H21 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPKs. • MAPKs/NF-κB may be a novel therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy treatment.

  20. Effects of dietary resveratrol supplementation on hepatic and serum pro-/anti-inflammatory activity in juvenile GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Zheng, Yao; Zhao, Zhixiang; Wu, Wei; Song, Chao; Meng, Shunlong; Fan, Limin; Bing, Xuwen; Chen, Jiazhang

    2017-08-01

    Dietary resveratrol (RES) supplementation may have some pharmacological effects including anti-inflammation. Previous studies have shown that Kupffer cell activation and apoptosis induction increases the transcription of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of 0.1 or 0.3 g/kg RES as a dietary supplement in juvenile freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The results showed that hepatic and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) significantly decreased and increased while anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the RES-treated groups. The expression of serum and hepatic IgM and anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-10] and its inverse inhibitor interferon (IFN)-γ significantly increased while pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription significantly decreased. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed intestinal deformation, irregular goblet cells, and apoptotic cells in the 0.3 g/kg RES groups. RES (0.3 g/kg) also induced necrosis, apoptosis, reduction in Kupffer cell number, compressed sinusoids, and deformation of epidermal cells in the liver of the treated groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that high doses of RES were absorbed in the gut and then damaged the liver and intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A novel platelet activating factor receptor antagonist reduces cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators in mice exposed to desiccating conditions after PRK.

    Esquenazi, Salomon; He, Jiucheng; Li, Na; Bazan, Nicolas G; Esquenazi, Isi; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2009-01-01

    To study the contribution of a novel PAF receptor antagonist LAU-0901 in the modulation of the increased inflammatory response in mice exposed to dessicating conditions (DE) after PRK. Eighty 13-14 week old female Balb/C mice were used. They were divided into two groups: One group was treated with LAU-0901 topical drops. The other group was treated with vehicle. In each group ten mice served as controls and ten were placed in DE. The other twenty mice underwent bilateral PRK and were divided in two additional groups: ten mice remained under normal conditions (NC) and the other ten were exposed to DE. After 1 week all animals underwent in vivo confocal microscopy, immunostaining and western blotting analysis. Confocal microscopy showed an increased number of reflective structures in the corneal epithelium after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with vehicle as compared to eyes treated with LAU-090). Significant decrease of COX-2 and Arginase I expression and reduced alpha SMA cells was observed after PRK and exposure to DE in eyes treated with LAU-0901. Exposure of mice to a DE after PRK increases the epithelial turnover rate. PAF is involved in the inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory cytokines that follow PRK under DE.

  2. Giant Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp of the Hepatic Flexure of Colon Presenting with an Acute Abdomen

    Ashish Lal Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp (IFP of the colon is an exceedingly rare condition. Since 1952 till now only 32 cases have been reported worldwide of which only 5 were giant (>4 cm polyps mostly found in the caecum (15 cases with only 3 in the descending colon. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old female with no previous illness presented to the emergency unit with an acute onset pain over the right hypochondrium for 3 days associated with intermittent fever and anorexia. As she had evidence of localized peritonitis she underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and subsequently an exploratory laparotomy. A mass measuring 8 × 7 × 5 cm arising from the hepatic flexure of colon was noted. Right hemicolectomy with ileotransverse anastomosis was performed. The mass was subsequently reported to be IFP. Conclusion. IFP is a very rare condition with clinical presentation depending upon its size and location. Definitive diagnosis is possible with histopathological examination of tissue aided by immunohistochemical studies. Surgical resection has been the most common method of treatment especially for large and giant colonic IFPs owing to challenges in terms of diagnosis and technical difficulties associated with endoscopic methods.

  3. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis in radiological studies. Part I: Formation of inflammatory infiltrates within the synovial membrane

    Iwona Sudoł‑Szopińska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiology and varied course, which in the majority of patients leads to partial disability or to permanent handicap. Its characteristic trait is a persistent inflammation of the synovial membrane and the formation of an invasive synovial tissue, called the pannus, which in time leads to destruction of the cartilage, subchondral bone tissue, and the soft tissue of the affected joint(s. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is complex and involves cells of both innate and adaptive immunity, a network of various cytokines and an immunoregulatory dysfunction. An important role in the discovery of rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis was played by magnetic resonance imaging, which showed the disease process to extend beyond the synovium into the bone marrow. Many studies have shown a strict correlation between the vascularity of the synovium (assessed through the power Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations, bone marrow edema and the clinical, laboratory and histopathological parameters of rheumatoid arthritis. From the current understanding of rheumatoid arthritis, bone erosions could occur from two directions: from the joint cavity and from the bone marrow. With power Doppler ultrasound, as well as in magnetic resonance imaging, it is possible to visualize the well-vascularized pannus and its destructive effects on joint structures and ligaments. In addition, the magnetic resonance study shows inflammatory and destructive changes within the bone marrow (bone marrow edema, inflammatory cysts, and erosions. Bone marrow edema occurs in 68–75% of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and is considered to be a predictor of rapid disease progression.

  4. Study of the relationship between mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and Ki-67 and basement membrane and extracellular matrix protein expression in radicular cysts.

    Mourão, R V C; Júnior, E C Pinheiro; Barros Silva, P G; Turatti, E; Mota, M R L; Alves, A P N N

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and the expression of a proliferative immunomarker (Ki-67) as well as to evaluate basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins (laminin and collagen type IV) in radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts (DC). Immunohistochemical analyses were performed in heavily inflamed radicular cysts (HIRC), slightly inflamed radicular cysts (SIRC) and DC (n = 20) using Ki-67 (Dako(®) , 1 : 50), anticollagen type IV (DBS(®) , 1 : 40) and antilaminin (DBS(®) , 1 : 20). The data were analysed using anova/Tukey's test (Ki-67) and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (collagen type IV and laminin) (P collagen type IV in the basement membrane of the SIRC group was significantly more continuous (P = 0.0475) than in the HIRC group. DC had significantly less collagen type IV in extracellular matrix immunoexpression than HIRC and SIRC (P = 0.0246). Laminin was absent in the basement membrane in the SIRC and DC groups, and the extracellular matrix of the HIRC was weak and punctate. The presence of inflammatory factors in the radicular cyst wall modified the expression of proliferation factors in the epithelial lining and the expression of collagen type IV and laminin in the basement membrane, but did not modify extracellular matrix behaviour in radicular cysts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. IDH2 Deficiency Aggravates Fructose-Induced NAFLD by Modulating Hepatic Fatty Acid Metabolism and Activating Inflammatory Signaling in Female Mice

    Jeong Hoon Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fructose is a strong risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, resulting from the disruption of redox systems by excessive reactive oxygen species production in the liver cells. Of note, recent epidemiological studies indicated that women are more prone to developing metabolic syndrome in response to fructose-sweetened beverages. Hence, we examined whether disruption of the redox system through a deletion of NADPH supplying mitochondrial enzyme, NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2, exacerbates fructose-induced NAFLD conditions in C57BL/6 female mice. Wild-type (WT and IDH2 knockout (KO mice were treated with either water or 34% fructose water over six weeks. NAFLD phenotypes and key proteins and mRNAs involved in the inflammatory pathway (e.g., NF-κB p65 and IL-1β were assessed. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose compared to the WT counterpart. Neutrophil infiltration was observed only in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose. Furthermore, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and expression of IL-1β was remarkably upregulated in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose, and expression of IκBα was decreased by fructose treatment in both WT and IDH2 KO groups. For the first time, we report our novel findings that IDH2 KO female mice may be more susceptible to fructose-induced NAFLD and the associated inflammatory response, suggesting a mechanistic role of IDH2 in metabolic diseases.

  6. Adipocytokines, hepatic and inflammatory biomarkers and incidence of type 2 diabetes. the CoLaus study.

    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is contradictory information regarding the prognostic importance of adipocytokines, hepatic and inflammatory biomarkers on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The objective was to assess the prognostic relevance of adipocytokine and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein - CRP; interleukin-1beta - IL-1β; interleukin-6- IL-6; tumour necrosis factor-α - TNF-α; leptin and adiponectin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Prospective, population-based study including 3,842 non-diabetic participants (43.3% men, age range 35 to 75 years, followed for an average of 5.5 years (2003-2008. The endpoint was the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: 208 participants (5.4%, 66 women developed type 2 diabetes during follow-up. On univariate analysis, participants who developed type 2 diabetes had significantly higher baseline levels of IL-6, CRP, leptin and γGT, and lower levels of adiponectin than participants who remained free of type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for a validated type 2 diabetes risk score, only the associations with adiponectin: Odds Ratio and (95% confidence interval: 0.97 (0.64-1.47, 0.84 (0.55-1.30 and 0.64 (0.40-1.03 for the second, third and forth gender-specific quartiles respectively, remained significant (P-value for trend = 0.05. Adding each marker to a validated type 2 diabetes risk score (including age, family history of type 2 diabetes, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate, presence of hypertension, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and serum uric acid did not improve the area under the ROC or the net reclassification index; similar findings were obtained when the markers were combined, when the markers were used as continuous (log-transformed variables or when gender-specific quartiles were used. CONCLUSION: Decreased adiponectin levels are associated with an increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes, but they seem to add little

  7. Osteopontin deficiency delays inflammatory infiltration and the onset of muscle regeneration in a mouse model of muscle injury

    Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon

    2013-01-01

    Osteopontin is secreted by skeletal muscle myoblasts and stimulates their proliferation. Expression of osteopontin in skeletal muscle is upregulated in pathological conditions including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and recent evidence suggests that osteopontin might influence the course of this disease. The current study was undertaken to determine whether osteopontin regulates skeletal muscle regeneration. A whole muscle autografting model of regeneration in osteopontin-null and wild-type mice was used. Osteopontin expression was found to be strongly upregulated in wild-type grafts during the initial degeneration and subsequent early regeneration phases that are observed in this model. Grafted muscle from osteopontin-null mice degenerated more slowly than that of wild-type mice, as determined by histological assessment, fibre diameter and fibre number. The delayed degeneration in osteopontin-null grafts was associated with a delay in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Centrally nucleated (regenerating muscle fibres also appeared more slowly in osteopontin-null grafts than in wild-type grafts. These results demonstrate that osteopontin plays a non-redundant role in muscle remodelling following injury.

  8. Thiamine potentiates chemoprotective effects of ibuprofen in DEN induced hepatic cancer via alteration of oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanism.

    Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Khan, Ruqaiyah; Rana, Poonam; Kumar, Vikas; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Zamzami, Mazin A; Anwar, Firoz

    2017-06-01

    Present study, was an effort to scrutinize the molecular and biochemical role of ibuprofen and thiamine combination in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in Wistar rats. Single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg) was used for induction of HCC in rats. The rats were divided into eight various groups. DEN induced rats were treated with pure ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) and thiamine in combination for the period of 12th weeks. The protocol was terminated after the 16th week. Exposure of DEN up-regulated the levels of different serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme level, Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) and reduced the level of High density lipoprotein (HDL) in Wistar rats along with the alteration in pro-inflammatory cytokines viz., interlukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with decrease in body weight. Macroscopic evaluation, revealed DEN group rats confirmed the expansion of hepatic nodules, which were reduced by the individual treatment of ibuprofen and thiamine, but the synergistic treatment of ibuprofen and thiamine confirm the significant reduction of hepatic nodules. Further, this combination possesses the significant chemoprotective effect in DEN-induced HCC by restoring the hepatic enzymes and other biomarkers along with an alteration in pro-inflammatory cytokines. The above result concludes that ibuprofen and thiamine combination possess potent anti-cancerous activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Predicts a Poor Clinical Outcome in Dogs with a Primary Hepatitis.

    Scott Kilpatrick

    Full Text Available Primary hepatopathies are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The underlying aetiology of most cases of canine hepatitis is unknown. Consequently, treatments are typically palliative and it is difficult to provide accurate prognostic information to owners. In human hepatology there is accumulating data which indicates that the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a common and debilitating event in patients with liver diseases. For example, the presence of SIRS has been linked to the development of complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE and is associated with a poor clinical outcome in humans with liver diseases. In contrast, the relationship between SIRS and clinical outcome in dogs with a primary hepatitis is unknown. Seventy dogs with histologically confirmed primary hepatitis were enrolled into the study. Additional clinical and clinicopathological information including respiratory rate, heart rate, temperature, white blood cell count, sodium, potassium, sex, presence of ascites, HE score, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin and red blood cell concentration were available in all cases. The median survival of dogs with a SIRS score of 0 or 1 (SIRS low was 231 days compared to a median survival of 7 days for dogs with a SIRS score of 2, 3 or 4 (SIRS high (p<0.001. A Cox proportional hazard model, which included all other co-variables, revealed that a SIRS high score was an independent predictor of a poor clinical outcome. The effect of modulating inflammation on treatment outcomes in dogs with a primary hepatitis is deserving of further study.

  10. A TLR4/MD2 fusion protein inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in hepatic stellate cells

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brandl, Katharina; Fink, Marina; Gross, Philipp; Taura, Kojiro; Gaebele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Falk, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In injured liver they are the main extracellular matrix protein producing cell type and further perpetuate hepatic injury by secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Since LPS-mediated signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as key fibrogenic signal in HSCs we aimed to test TLR4 as potential target of therapy via ligand-binding soluble receptors. Incubation of human HSCs with a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of TLR4 and MD2 which binds LPS inhibited LPS-induced NFκB and JNK activation. TLR4/MD2 abolished LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, and RANTES in HSCs. In addition, TLR4/MD2 fused to human IgG-Fc neutralized LPS activity. Since TLR4 mutant mice are resistant to liver fibrosis, the TLR4/MD2 soluble receptor might represent a new therapeutic molecule for liver fibrogenesis in vivo

  11. M2 Macrophages Play Critical Roles in Progression of Inflammatory Liver Disease in Hepatitis C Virus Transgenic Mice.

    Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Kimura, Kiminori; Tokunaga, Yuko; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Tateno, Chise; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages in liver tissue are widely defined as important inflammatory cells in chronic viral hepatitis due to their proinflammatory activity. We reported previously that interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) play significant roles in causing chronic hepatitis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) transgenic mice (S. Sekiguchi et al., PLoS One 7:e51656, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051656). In addition, we showed that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing an HCV nonstructural protein (rVV-N25) could protect against the progression of chronic hepatitis by suppression of macrophage activation. Here, we focus on the role of macrophages in liver disease progression in HCV transgenic mice and examine characteristic features of macrophages following rVV-N25 treatment. The number of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) CD11c(-) CD206(+) (M2) macrophages in the liver of HCV transgenic mice was notably increased compared to that of age-matched control mice. These M2 macrophages in the liver produced elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. rVV-N25 infection suppressed the number and activation of M2 macrophages in liver tissue. These results suggested that inflammatory cytokines produced by M2-like macrophages contribute to the induction of chronic liver inflammation in HCV transgenic mice. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of rVV-N25 might be induced by the suppression of the number and activation of hepatic macrophages. HCV causes persistent infections that can lead to chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma; the search for an HCV curative is the focus of ongoing research. Recently, effective anti-HCV drugs have been developed; however, vaccine development still is required for the prevention and therapy of infection by this virus. We demonstrate here that M2 macrophages are important for the pathogenesis of HCV-caused liver diseases and additionally show that M2 macrophages contribute to the therapeutic mechanism observed following r

  12. 24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid ameliorates inflammatory response and liver fibrosis in a murine model of hepatic schistosomiasis.

    Sombetzki, Martina; Fuchs, Claudia D; Fickert, Peter; Österreicher, Christoph H; Mueller, Michaela; Claudel, Thierry; Loebermann, Micha; Engelmann, Robby; Langner, Cord; Sahin, Emine; Schwinge, Dorothee; Guenther, Nina D; Schramm, Christoph; Mueller-Hilke, Brigitte; Reisinger, Emil C; Trauner, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Intrahepatic granuloma formation and fibrosis characterize the pathological features of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Based on previously observed substantial anti-fibrotic effects of 24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) in Abcb4/Mdr2(-/-) mice with cholestatic liver injury and biliary fibrosis, we hypothesized that norUDCA improves inflammation-driven liver fibrosis in S. mansoni infection. Adult NMRI mice were infected with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and after 12 weeks received either norUDCA- or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-enriched diet (0.5% wt/wt) for 4 weeks. Bile acid effects on liver histology, serum biochemistry, key regulatory cytokines, hepatic hydroxyproline content as well as granuloma formation were compared to naive mice and infected controls. In addition, effects of norUDCA on primary T-cell activation/proliferation and maturation of the antigen-presenting-cells (dendritic cells, macrophages) were determined in vitro. UDCA as well as norUDCA attenuated the inflammatory response in livers of S. mansoni infected mice, but exclusively norUDCA changed cellular composition and reduced size of hepatic granulomas as well as TH2-mediated hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Moreover, norUDCA affected surface expression level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of macrophages and dendritic cells as well as activation/proliferation of T-lymphocytes in vitro, whereas UDCA had no effect. This study demonstrates pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of norUDCA compared to UDCA in S. mansoni induced liver injury, and indicates that norUDCA directly represses antigen presentation of antigen presenting cells and subsequent T-cell activation in vitro. Therefore, norUDCA represents a promising drug for the treatment of this important cause of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary hepatic actinomycosis mimicking a tumor (inflammatory pseudotumor: Case report and literature review

    Ayşe Batirel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis often manifests with abscesses in the cervicofacial region. Hepatic involvement occurs usually secondary to an intraabdominal infection. “Isolated or primary hepatic actinomycosis (PHA defines actinomycosis in which the source of infection cannot be demonstrated elsewhere. Herein, we aimed to highlight hepatic actinomycosis in the differential diagnosis of hepatic mass lesions, and also its occurrence even in patients without underlying risk factors. A 24-year-old man, who presented with epigastric and right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and had a tumor-like mass in the liver was admitted to our hospital. He had no predisposing risk factors or comorbidities. We reviewed all the cases with PHA, who had no predisposing risk factors, in English medical literature from 1993 to 2014. Actinomycotic hepatic pseudotumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solitary liver lesions even in patients without any predisposing factors. Multi-disciplinary approach is important in the diagnosis and management. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(2: 79-84

  14. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    Cakir, Banu; Kirbas, Ismail; Demirhan, Beyhan; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla; Bozkurt, Alper; Ozcay, Figen; Coskun, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  15. Hyperammonemia and systemic inflammatory response syndrome predicts presence of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    Mickey S Tivers

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver disease. The pathogenesis of he is incompletely understood although ammonia and inflammatory cytokines have been implicated as key mediators. To facilitate further mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of HE, a large number of animal models have been developed which often involve the surgical creation of an anastomosis between the hepatic portal vein and the caudal vena cava. One of the most common congenital abnormalities in dogs is a congenital portosystemic shunt (cpss, which closely mimics these surgical experimental models of HE. Dogs with a cPSS often have clinical signs which mimic clinical signs observed in humans with HE. Our hypothesis is that the pathogenesis of HE in dogs with a cPSS is similar to humans with HE. The aim of the study was to measure a range of clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters, which have been linked to the development of HE in humans, in dogs with a cPSS and a known HE grade. One hundred and twenty dogs with a cPSS were included in the study and multiple regression analysis of clinical, haematological and biochemical variables revealed that plasma ammonia concentrations and systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores predicted the presence of HE. Our findings further support the notion that the pathogenesis of canine and human HE share many similarities and indicate that dogs with cPSS may be an informative spontaneous model of human HE. Further investigations on dogs with cPSS may allow studies on HE to be undertaken without creating surgical models of HE thereby allowing the number of large animals used in animal experimentation to be reduced.

  16. Gold nanoparticles administration induces disarray of heart muscle, hemorrhagic, chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant research efforts on cancer therapy, diagnostics and imaging, many challenges remain unsolved. There are many unknown details regarding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs and biological systems. The structure and properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs make them useful for a wide array of biological applications. However, for the application of GNPs in therapy and drug delivery, knowledge regarding their bioaccumulation and associated local or systemic toxicity is necessary. Information on the biological fate of NPs, including distribution, accumulation, metabolism, and organ specific toxicity is still minimal. Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of NPs are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GNPs on histological alterations of the heart tissue of rats in an attempt to identify and understand the toxicity and the potential role of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Methods A total of 40 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats received 50 μl infusions of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups: 6 GNP-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusions of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively. Results In comparison with the respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses produced heart muscle disarray with a few scattered chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, foci of hemorrhage with extravasation of red blood cells, some scattered cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels. None of the above alterations were observed in the heart muscle of any member of the control group. Conclusions The alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of GNPs were size-dependent, with smaller ones inducing greater affects, and were also related to the time exposure to

  17. Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Pan, Zhiyun; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Wang, Guiyang; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Jun; Yan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes have been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage in experimental models of liver injury and fibrosis. However, less is known about monocyte infiltration in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In the present study, we demonstrated that CD68+ hepatic macrophages and MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies as compared with normal liver tissue. In addition, CLD patients with higher inflammatory grading scores had more CD68+ macrophages and MAC387+ monocytes infiltration in their livers compared to those with lower scores. Significantly more MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were found in the liver tissue of CLD patients with higher fibrotic staging scores compared to those with lower scores. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies. MCP-1 staining scores were significantly positively associated with the numbers of MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes in CLD patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that infiltrating monocytes may play a pathological role in exacerbating chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. MCP-1 may be involved in the monocyte infiltration and progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD.

  18. Measurement of hepatic volume and effective blood flow with radioactive colloids: Evaluation of development in liver diseases

    Fujii, M.; Uchino, H.; Kyoto Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in hepatic volume and the blood flow effectively perfusing the liver parenchyma were studied as an assessment of the severity of liver diseases. Hepatic effective blood flow was estimated as the hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive colloids, obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic fractional clearance was normal or not markedly decreased in patients with acute hepatitis which had developed favorably, but was severely decreased in patients with fulminant hepatitis. In liver diseases, the ratio of hepatic volume to fractional clearance was found to increase as the clearance decreased. In subjects with normal clearance, hepatic fractional clearance was correlated significantly with liver volume, indicating that hepatic effective blood flow is proportional to parenchymal volume in an unanesthetized, resting state. In biopsied cases changes in volume and blood flow accorded well with changes indicated by morphological criteria. In chronic persistent hepatitis, effective hepatic blood flow is not diminished. However, hepatic blood flow were observed between the cirrhosis or chronic aggressive hepatitis, and normal control groups. Extension of chronic inflammatory infiltration into the parenchyma distinguishes chronic aggressive hepatitis from chronic persistent hepatitis. Architecture is often disturbed in the former. These changes should be accompanied by disturbance of microcirculation. The present study indicates that the decrease in effective hepatic blood flow in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis has two aspects: one is a summation of microcirculatory disturbances, and the other is a decrease in liver cell mass. (orig.)

  19. Inflammatory Biomarkers and Liver Histopathology in Non-Uremic and Uremic Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Bengu Tatar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between hepatic activity index (HAI and fibrosis score (FS with inflammation biomarkers in non-uremic and uremic hepatitis C positive patients. Methods: Fifty chronic hepatitis C (cHepC positive patients, having a liver biopsy were included in this study. Liver biopsies were scored according to modified ISHAC scoring system. 25 healthy controls of similar age and gender were also enrolled as control group. Serum YKL-40, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, thrombocyte/lymphocyte ratio (PLR, CRP and Immunoglobulin (IgG, A and M levels were used to determine inflammation. AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI score was also evaluated. According to biopsy findings patients were divided into 2 groups: low (0–2 and severe (3–6 FS. Results: Patients with cHepC had increased inflammation compared to the healthy controls. End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients had higher levels of inflammation markers (NLR, IgG, CRP and YKL-40 and lower HCV RNA levels, HAI and FS compared to non-uremic patients. When patients were grouped into 2 according to FS as mild and severe, IgG (p < 0.001, YKL-40 (p = 0.02 levels and APRI score (p = 0.002 were significantly higher compared to mild FS (p = 0.002. YKL-40 levels (t value: 3.48; p = 0.001 and APRI score (t value: 4.57, p < 0.001 were found as independent associated with FS in non-uremic patients. However, in adjusted models, only APRI score (t value: 3.98, p = 0.002 was an independent associated with FS in ESRD patients. Conclusion: In non-uremic cHepC patients, YKL-40 levels and APRI score may be valuable markers of FS. In ESRD patients, there is not sufficient data for prediction of HAI and FS. In these patients, APRI score may provide better information.

  20. Asiatic Acid Exhibits Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities against Lipopolysaccharide and d-Galactosamine-Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Hongming Lv

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are essential for the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. Asiatic acid (AA, which is a pentacyclic triterpene that widely occurs in various vegetables and fruits, has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS and d-galactosamine (GalN-induced FHF and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings suggested that AA treatment effectively protected against LPS/d-GalN-induced FHF by lessening the lethality; decreasing the alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α production, malondialdehyde formation, myeloperoxidase level and reactive oxygen species generation (i.e., H2O2, NO, and O2−, and increasing the glutathione and superoxide dismutase contents. Moreover, AA treatment significantly inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway activation via the partial induction of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4 protein expressions, which are involved in inflammatory responses. Furthermore, AA treatment dramatically induced the expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, heme oxygenase-1, and NAD (P H: quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, which are largely dependent on activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through the induction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β phosphorylation. Accordingly, AA exhibited protective roles against LPS/d-GalN-induced FHF by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB activation via the partial induction of PDCD4 and upregulation of Nrf2 in an AMPK/GSK3β pathway activation-dependent manner.

  1. [Morphologic characteristic of chronic toxic hepatitis for treatment with Neoselen].

    Isroilov, R I; Salikhodzhaeva, U Sh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the given research work was to study the features of morphologic changes arising for treatment of chronic hepatitis with Neoselen. It was established a picture of chronic active hepatitis in the liver of rats with the following development of chronic persisting hepatitis by the 40 daily administration of heliotrine and its transmission into cirrhosis in a certain part of animals. Hepatic cirrhosis has a small nodal portal character by its pathognomonic morphologic signs. A noticeable remittance of destructive necrotic changes in hepatic parenchymatous elements and reduction in a volume of proliferative inflammatory infiltration with an acceleration in process of its fibrozation in only periportal zones of hepatic lobules found to be for treatment of chronic hepatitis with Neoselen. That prevents from transmission of chronic hepatitis into cirrhosis in a greater part of animals that is a morphologic evidence of importance of selenium in a restorative process of biologic membranes and its involvement in a remittance process of destructive and inflammatory changes in the liver and prevention from development of agressive hepatitis and its transmission into cirrhosis.

  2. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver: CT findings

    Lee, Kang Mo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Rho, Ji Young; Park, Ki Han; Yun, Ki Jung; Kim, Chang Keun; Won, Jong Jin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Suh, Jae Hee; Auh, Yong Ho

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the CT features of inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver with histopathologic correlation. The CT features of 14 cases (ten patients) with pathologically proven inflammatory hepatic pseudotumor were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with resected and biopsy specimens. The size of lesions ranged between 2.0 and 7.0cm (mean, 3.7 cm); On unenhanced CT, the masses were seen as ill-defined hypodense lesions, while on contrast-enhanced CT they were heterogeneous and multiseptated, with enhancement of internal septa and peripheral wall (n=3D10). In four lesions, central low density and peripheral homogeneous enhancement were seen. On histopathological correlation, the central hypoattenuated area corresponded to chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates with foamy histiocytes, plasmacytes, and lymphocytes, while the hyperattenuated peripheral wall and internal septa represented dense fibrosis. In patients in whon CT shows a heterogeneous enhancing mass, inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver should be included in differential diagnosis

  3. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    ; Aetiopathogenesis; Lymphocyte disease; Cellular immune attack; Histocompatibility lymphocyte antigen, Immunosuppressive therapy, Cyclosporine, transplantasi hatiAbstractAutoimmune hepatitis is a severe and inflammatory disease of the liver of unknown etiology carrying high morbidity and mortality. All ages and genders are concerned with a peak of incidence in girls in prepubertal age, even if the diseaseTINJAUAN PUSTAKA2has been diagnosed as early as 6 months. Autoimmune hepatitis may be classified in two major subgroups on a presence of a specific set of autoantibodies: smooth muscle antibody (SMA mostly with anti-actin specificity and/or by antinuclear antibody (ANA in type 1 and liver-kidney microsome antibody (LKM1 and/or the anti-liver cytosol in type 2. The histological hallmark is “interface hepatitis”, with a mononuclear cell infiltrate in the portal tracts, variable degrees of necrosis, and progressive fibrosis. The disease follows a chronic but fluctuating course usually progressing to cirrhosis and liver failure.The most frequent type onset is similar to that of an acute viral hepatitis with acute liver failure in some patients; about a third of patients have an insidious onset with progressive fatigue and jaundice while 10-15% are asymptomatic and are accidentally discovered by the finding of hepatomegaly and/or an increase of serum aminotransferase activity. There is a female predominance in both. LKM1-positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have immunoglobulin A (IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups.Corticosteroids alone or in conjunction with azathioprine are the treatment of choice inducing remission in over 90% of patients. An alternative therapeutic strategy is cyclosporine. Withdrawal of immunosuppression is associated with high risk

  4. Effect of Qianggan Pills combined with antiviral treatment on the fibrosis indexes, immune and inflammatory response in patients with compensated hepatitis b cirrhosis

    Hong-Gang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Qianggan Pills combined with antiviral treatment on the fibrosis indexes, immune and inflammatory response in patients with compensated hepatitis b cirrhosis. Methods: A total of 88 patients with compensated hepatitis b cirrhosis treated in our hospital between April 2013 and March 2016 were collected and divided into observation group and control group according to single blind randomized control. Observation group of patients accepted Qianggan Pills combined with antiviral treatment and control group of patients received antiviral treatment alone. After 6 months of treatment, chemiluminescence method was used to detect serum fibrosis indexes, flow cytometer was used to detect peripheral blood T lymphocyte subset levels, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect serum levels of inflammatory factors. Results: Before treatment, differences in fibrosis indexes, immune and inflammatory response indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients; after 6 months of treatment, serum LN, HA and Ⅳ-C levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, peripheral blood CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte levels as well as CD4+/CD8+ ratio were higher than those of control group, and CD8+ T lymphocyte level was lower than that of control group; serum PCT and CRP levels were lower than those of control group while IL-10 and IL-13 levels were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Qianggan Pills combined with antiviral treatment can inhibit the fibrosis process, strengthen the body's immune function and also relieve systemic inflammatory response in patients with compensated hepatitis b cirrhosis.

  5. Subcutaneous adipose tissue macropage infiltration is associated with hepatic and visceral fat deposition, hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of NF-kB stress pathway

    The goal was to examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), Beta-cell function, and SAT gene expression. SAT biopsies were obtained from...

  6. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  7. Changes of serum levels of prealbumin (PAB), cholinesterase (CHE), total bile acid (TBA) and ALT as related to the severity of inflammatory process and hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic virus B hepatitis

    Chi Xiaoxia; Chen Jianxiong; Xiong Ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlationship between the serum levels of PAB, CHE, TBA, ALT and the severity of the disease process in patients with chronic virus B hepatitis. Methods: Serum levels of PAB, CHE, ALT (with biochemical methods) and TBA (with RIA) were examined in 93 patients with biopsy proven virus B hepatitis and 46 controls. Results: The 93 patients were of two groups: a less advanced group (n=51) and a more advanced group (n=42). Serum TBA, ALT levels were significnatly higher and serum PAB, CHE levels were significantly lower in the more advanced group than those in the less advanced group (P 0 to s 4 . Changes of levels of ALT were of no regular pattern, but serum levels of TBA regularly increased and levels of PAB, CHE regularly decreased as the fibrosis grading proceeded from s 0 to s 4 and the differences between the levels in s 4 and any other grading were significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Combined determination of these serum markers might reflect the degree of inflammatory process and hepatic fibrosis in patients with virus B hepatitis, leading to earlier detection of cirrhosis. (authors)

  8. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Lokender Kumar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2 indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  9. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti-inflammatory

  10. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  11. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  12. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    Cakir, Banu [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: banutopcu@yahoo.com; Kirbas, Ismail [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: drismailk@yahoo.com; Demirhan, Beyhan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pathology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: beyhand@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@gmail.com; Bozkurt, Alper [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: abozkurt78@hotmail.com; Ozcay, Figen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: fozcay@baskent.edu.tr; Coskun, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: mcoskun@baskent-ank.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  13. [Chronic active hepatitis: clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic correlation].

    Subauste, M C

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study over 26 female patients with chronic active hepatitis was made. The mean age was 39 years old, the mean length of illness of 8 months; 5 patients had positive markers for hepatitis B. Patients were selected with the grade of histological activity: 8 patients had a mild form from disease (2A) and 16 with a severe one (2B). The predominant group was 2B. Severe inflammatory infiltration was the hallmark and multiobulillar necrosis, bridging, eosinophils and hiperplasia of kuppfer cells were found only in this group. Clinical features range from hepatic manifestations to systemic ones. Chronic active hepatitis may present with cholestasis, but the latter is not always related with the grade of activity. Group 2B had elevated aminotransferases and a low concentration for protrobine.

  14. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  15. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Curative Effects of Thiacremonone against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatic Failure via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines Production and Infiltration of Cytotoxic Immune Cells and Kupffer Cells

    Yu Ri Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP; N-acetyl-p-aminophenol cause severe hepatotoxicity after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2E1. This study was undertaken to examine the preventive effects of thiacremonone, a compound extracted from garlic, on APAP-induced acute hepatic failure in male C57BL/6J. Mice received with 500 mg/kg APAP after a 7-day pretreatment with thiacremonone (10–50 mg/kg. Thiacremonone inhibited the APAP-induced serum ALT and AST levels in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly reduced the restricted area of necrosis and inflammation by administration of APAP. Thiacremonone also inhibited the APAP-induced depletion of intracellular GSH, induction of nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of P450 2E1. After APAP injection, the numbers of Kupffer cells, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T cells were elevated, but the elevated cell numbers in the liver were reduced in thiacremonone pretreated mice. The expression levels of I-309, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-7, and IL-17 were increased by APAP treatment, which were inhibited in thiacremonone pretreated mice. These data indicate that thiacremonone could be a useful agent for the treatment of drug-induced hepatic failure and that the reduction of cytotoxic immune cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine production may be critical for the prevention of APAP-induced acute liver toxicity.

  17. Transcriptome analysis on the inflammatory cell infiltration of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in bama minipigs induced by a long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    Jihan Xia

    Full Text Available Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05, Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05, eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05 and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05 between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and

  18. Ascorbic acid deficiency stimulates hepatic expression of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Horio, Fumihiko; Kiyama, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Misato; Kawai, Kaori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2006-02-01

    ODS rat has a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid biosynthesis and is a useful animal model for elucidating the physiological role of ascorbic acid. We previously demonstrated by using ODS rats that ascorbic acid deficiency changes the hepatic gene expression of acute phase proteins, as seen in acute inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on the production of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), in ODS rats. Male ODS rats (6 wk of age) were fed a basal diet containing ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg diet) or a diet without ascorbic acid for 14 d. Obvious symptoms of scurvy were not observed in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the serum concentration of CINC-1 on d 14. The liver and spleen CINC-1 concentrations in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats were significantly elevated to 600% and 180% of the respective values in the control rats. However, the lung concentration of CINC-1 was not affected by ascorbic acid deficiency. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the hepatic mRNA level of CINC-1 (to 480% of the value in the control rats), but not the lung mRNA level. These results demonstrate that ascorbic acid deficiency elevates the serum, liver and spleen concentrations of CINC-1 as seen in acute inflammation, and suggest that ascorbic acid deficiency stimulate the hepatic CINC-1 gene expression.

  19. Benznidazole, the trypanocidal drug used for Chagas disease, induces hepatic NRF2 activation and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of sepsis

    Lambertucci, Flavia; Motiño, Omar; Villar, Silvina; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Luján Alvarez, María de; Catania, Viviana A; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Quiroga, Ariel Darío; Francés, Daniel Eleazar; Ronco, María Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms on sepsis progression are linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular antioxidant capacity. Previous studies demonstrated that benznidazole (BZL), known for its antiparasitic action on Trypanosoma cruzi, has immunomodulatory effects, increasing survival in C57BL/6 mice in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mechanism by which BZL inhibits inflammatory response in sepsis is poorly understood. Also, our group recently reported that BZL is able to activate the nuclear factor erytroide-derived 2-Like 2 (NRF2) in vitro. The aim of the present work was to delineate the beneficial role of BZL during sepsis, analyzing its effects on the cellular redox status and the possible link to the innate immunity receptor TLR4. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of BZL on Nrf2 regulation and TLR4 expression in liver of mice 24 hours post-CLP. BZL was able to induce NRF2 nuclear protein localization in CLP mice. Also, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the NRF2 nuclear accumulation and induction of its target genes. In addition, BZL prompted a reduction in hepatic CLP-induced TLR4 protein membrane localization, evidencing its immunomodulatory effects. Together, our results demonstrate that BZL induces hepatic NRF2 activation with the concomitant increase in the antioxidant defenses, and the attenuation of inflammatory response, in part, by inhibiting TLR4 expression in a murine model of sepsis. - Highlights: • BZL improves survival rate after polymicrobial sepsis • BZL enhances hepatic NRF2 nuclear accumulation in a model of sepsis, in part, by a mechanism dependent on PKC activation • BZL-enhanced NRF2 induction regulates antioxidant enzymes and increases antioxidant cellular defenses in sepsis • BZL blocks liver ROS production and ROS-induced TLR4 plasma membrane expression in septic mice

  20. Anti-inflammatory function of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcoholic hepatitis through glucocorticoid receptor related nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Li, Jingwei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Congyuan; Heng, Yang; Zhang, Meijin; Hu, Jinfeng; Wei, Guining; Li, Yueting; Chen, Naihong

    2015-09-15

    Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. Since ancient times, ginseng has been used as one kind of treatment drug or tonic in China and even other eastern countries like Korea and Japan. Pharmacological active chemical ingredients and its extract of ginseng are a mixture of triterpenoid saponins, collectively called ginsenosides. Among them, ginsenoside Rg1 is the most pharmacological active one. Based on prior experimental results and the understanding of alcoholic hepatitis, the major aim of this study is to investigate whether Rg1 is beneficial in a rodent model mimic alcoholic hepatic injury associated with binge drinking and explore the underlying possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given oral consumption of 6g/kg alcohol 1h after treated with Rg1 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. According to our data, Rg1 treatment significantly reversed the high mortality rate induced by alcohol consumption and also alleviated liver impairment as evidenced by the decrease of serum parameters. Meanwhile, histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic groups showed hepatocellular impairment but restored in Rg1-treated groups. Overproductive inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by Rg1 in alcohol-intoxicated mouse livers. In addition, changes of GR related NF-κB pathway, including phospho-IκB-α, were also modulated to normal levels. This study demonstrates that Rg1 might promote GR mediating the repression of NF-κB and inhibit the inflammatory reactions in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benznidazole, the trypanocidal drug used for Chagas disease, induces hepatic NRF2 activation and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of sepsis

    Lambertucci, Flavia [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Motiño, Omar [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols, CSIC-UAM, Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Villar, Silvina [Instituto de Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, UNR, Suipacha 531, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Luján Alvarez, María de; Catania, Viviana A [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Martín-Sanz, Paloma [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols, CSIC-UAM, Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Quiroga, Ariel Darío; Francés, Daniel Eleazar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Ronco, María Teresa, E-mail: ronco@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2017-01-15

    Molecular mechanisms on sepsis progression are linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular antioxidant capacity. Previous studies demonstrated that benznidazole (BZL), known for its antiparasitic action on Trypanosoma cruzi, has immunomodulatory effects, increasing survival in C57BL/6 mice in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mechanism by which BZL inhibits inflammatory response in sepsis is poorly understood. Also, our group recently reported that BZL is able to activate the nuclear factor erytroide-derived 2-Like 2 (NRF2) in vitro. The aim of the present work was to delineate the beneficial role of BZL during sepsis, analyzing its effects on the cellular redox status and the possible link to the innate immunity receptor TLR4. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of BZL on Nrf2 regulation and TLR4 expression in liver of mice 24 hours post-CLP. BZL was able to induce NRF2 nuclear protein localization in CLP mice. Also, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the NRF2 nuclear accumulation and induction of its target genes. In addition, BZL prompted a reduction in hepatic CLP-induced TLR4 protein membrane localization, evidencing its immunomodulatory effects. Together, our results demonstrate that BZL induces hepatic NRF2 activation with the concomitant increase in the antioxidant defenses, and the attenuation of inflammatory response, in part, by inhibiting TLR4 expression in a murine model of sepsis. - Highlights: • BZL improves survival rate after polymicrobial sepsis • BZL enhances hepatic NRF2 nuclear accumulation in a model of sepsis, in part, by a mechanism dependent on PKC activation • BZL-enhanced NRF2 induction regulates antioxidant enzymes and increases antioxidant cellular defenses in sepsis • BZL blocks liver ROS production and ROS-induced TLR4 plasma membrane expression in septic mice.

  2. Hepatic Warm Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Increase in Pulmonary Capillary Filtration Is Ameliorated by Administration of a Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Inhibitor and Leukotriene D4 Antagonist (MK-571) Through Reducing Neutrophil Infiltration and Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Yeh, D Y-W; Yang, Y-C; Wang, J-J

    2015-05-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the major complication subsequent to liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after resection or transplantation of liver. Hallmarks of HPS include increases in pulmonary leukotrienes and neutrophil recruitment and infiltrating across capillaries. We aimed to investigate the protective efficacy of MK-571, a multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 inhibitor and leukotriene D4 agonist, against hepatic I/R injury-associated change in capillary filtration. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were evenly divided into a sham-operated group, a hepatic I/R group, and an MK-571-treated I/R group. MK-571 was administered intraperitoneally 15 min before hepatic ischemia and every 12 hours during reperfusion. Ischemia was conducted by occluding the hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 min, followed by removing the clamps and closing the incision. Forty-eight hours after hepatic ischemia, we assessed the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) through the use of in vitro-isolated, perfused rat lung preparation. We also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). Lung inflammation and oxidative stress were evaluated by use of tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and malondialdehyde levels and lavage differential macrophage and neutrophil cell count. Hepatic I/R injury markedly increased Kfc, W/D, PCBAL, tissue TNF-α level, and differential neutrophil cell count (P < .05). MK-571 treatment reduced neutrophil infiltration and lung inflammation and improved pulmonary capillary filtration, collectively suggesting lung protection. Treatment with MK-571 before and during hepatic ischemia and reperfusion protects lung against pulmonary capillary barrier function impairment through decreasing pulmonary lung inflammation and lavage neutrophils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carvedilol Improves Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis in the Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by Regulating Kuppfer Cells and Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of carvedilol (CARV in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury.Liver injury was induced by gavage administration of alcohol (7 g/kg for 28 consecutive days. Eighty Wistar rats were pretreated with oral CARV at 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg or with saline 1 h before exposure to alcohol. Liver homogenates were assayed for interleukin (IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α level as well as for myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity and liver triglyceride (TG levels were also assayed. Immunohistochemical analyses of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/ligand (RANK/RANKL, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS1, the Kupffer cell marker IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, superoxide dismutase (SOD-1, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1 expression were performed. Confocal microscopy analysis of IL-1β and NF-κB expression and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for TNFα, PCI, PCIII, and NF-κB were performed.CARV treatment (5 mg/kg during the alcohol exposure protocol was associated with reduced steatosis, hepatic cord degeneration, fibrosis and necrosis, as well as reduced levels of AST (p < 0.01, ALT (p < 0.01, TG (p < 0.001, MPO (p < 0.001, MDA (p < 0.05, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α, both p < 0.05, and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p < 0.001 and GSH (p < 0.05, compared to the alcohol-only group. Treatment with CARV 5 mg/kg also reduced expression levels of COX-2, RANK, RANKL, IBA-1, and ICAM-1 (all p < 0.05, while increasing expression of SOCS1, SOD-1, and GPx-1 (all p < 0.05 and decreasing expression of IL-1β and NF-κB (both, p < 0.05. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that mRNA production of TNF-α, procollagen type I (PCI, procollagen

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  5. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably

  6. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.

  7. Liver macrophages: friend or foe during hepatitis B infection?

    Faure-Dupuy, Suzanne; Durantel, David; Lucifora, Julie

    2018-05-17

    The Hepatitis B virus chronically infects the liver of 250 million people worldwide. Over the past decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of Hepatitis B virus life cycle in hepatocytes. Beside these parenchymal cells, the liver also contains resident and infiltrating myeloid cells involved in immune responses to pathogens and much less is known about their interplay with Hepatitis B virus. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current knowledge of the role of liver macrophages (including Kupffer cells and liver monocyte-derived macrophages), in HBV infection. While it is still unclear if liver macrophages play a role in the establishment and persistence of HBV infection, several studies disclosed data suggesting that HBV would favour liver macrophage anti-inflammatory phenotypes and thereby increase liver tolerance. In addition, alternatively activated liver macrophages might also play in the long term a key role in hepatitis B associated pathogenesis, especially through the activation of hepatic stellate cells. Therapies aiming at a transient activation of pro-inflammatory liver macrophages should therefore be considered for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. An experimental study on combined transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization and retrograde hepatic venous embolization

    Wang Maoqiang; Zhang Jinshan; Xing Zhanhai

    1997-01-01

    The experimental study is aimed at achieving the effect of hepatic tumor and tumor-bearing lobar or segmental resection by using combined transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization and retrograde hepatic venous embolization (THAE-RHVE) in experimental study. THAE-RHVE was carried out in 8 mongrel dogs. Hepatic arterial embolization was performed by injecting lipiodol followed by gelatin sponge particles, following complete occlusion of the hepatic vein with balloon catheter. Retrograde hepatic venous embolization (RHVE) was then performed by injecting a mixture of absolute ethanol and meglumini diatrizoatis (MD) via the inflated balloon catheter. Ethanol and MD were combined with a ratio of 1:1. RHVE alone was performed in 4 dogs as control. The animals were followed up for 1∼8 weeks with liver function test, CT, gross and microscopic examinations. There was no technical failure or procedural complications. Transient elevation of AST and ALT levels was seen immediately in both groups after the procedure. Follow-up CT after 3 weeks showed dense lipiodol accumulation in the embolized lobe or segment and the corresponding portal branches in the THAE-RHVE animals. At 1 week after THAE-RHVE, complete coagulation necrosis was seen at histologic examination in the embolized lobe. The hepatic vein and portal branches of the embolized area had thickened walls and were filled with thrombus. At 2 weeks, granulomatous tissue and inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the necrotic area could be seen. At 4∼8 weeks, marked atrophy of the embolized lobe was found, and the necrotic area was progressively reducing in size and being replaced by fibrosis. In the control group, incomplete segmental coagulated necrosis was seen and the necrosis area wa smaller than that of THAE-REVE. Hepatic lobectomy or segmentectomy can be achieved with THAE-RHVE. This new method is safe and easy, and may be useful in the treatment of HCC

  10. Effects of parenteral infusion with medium-chain triglycerides and safflower oil emulsions on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    Yeh, S; Chao, C; Lin, M; Chen, W

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) versus safflower oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were divided into two groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300kcal/kg/day with 40% of the non-protein energy provided as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or a mixture of MCT and soybean oil (9:1) (MO). After receiving TPN for 6 days, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, whereas control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: MCT control group (MOC, n= 8), MCT sepsis group (MOS, n= 8), safflower oil control group (SOC, n= 8), and safflower oil sepsis group (SOS, n= 11). The results of the study demonstrated that the MOS group had lower hepatic lipids than did the SOS group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS than in the SOC group, but no differences in these two amino acids were observed between the MOC and MOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in septic groups than in those without sepsis despite whether MCT or safflower oil was infused. Plasma glutamine and alanine levels, however, did not differ between septic and non-septic groups either in the SO or MO groups. No differences in interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukotriene B(4)concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction is septic rats preinfused MCT is not as obvious as those preinfused safflower oil. Compared with safflower oil, TPN with MCT administration has better effects on

  11. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  12. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  13. The effect of HIV infection and HCV viremia on inflammatory mediators and hepatic injury-The Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Sheila M Keating

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection induces inflammation and while it is believed that HIV co-infection enhances this response, HIV control may reduce inflammation and liver fibrosis in resolved or viremic HCV infection. Measurement of systemic biomarkers in co-infection could help define the mechanism of inflammation on fibrosis and determine if HIV control reduces liver pathology. A nested case-control study was performed to explore the relationship of systemic biomarkers of inflammation with liver fibrosis in HCV viremic and/or seropositive women with and without HIV infection. Serum cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and cell adhesion molecules were measured in HIV uninfected (HIV-, n = 18, ART-treated HIV-controlled (ARTc, n = 20, uncontrolled on anti-retroviral therapy (ARTuc, n = 21 and elite HIV controllers (Elite, n = 20. All were HCV seroreactive and had either resolved (HCV RNA-; <50IU/mL or had chronic HCV infection (HCV RNA+. In HCV and HIV groups, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio (APRI was measured and compared to serum cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. APRI correlated with sVCAM, sICAM, IL-10, and IP-10 levels and inversely correlated with EGF, IL-17, TGF-α and MMP-9 levels. Collectively, all HCV RNA+ subjects had higher sVCAM, sICAM and IP-10 compared to HCV RNA-. In the ART-treated HCV RNA+ groups, TNF-α, GRO, IP-10, MCP-1 and MDC were higher than HIV-, Elite or both. In ARTuc, FGF-2, MPO, soluble E-selectin, MMP-9, IL-17, GM-CSF and TGF-α are lower than HIV-, Elite or both. Differential expression of soluble markers may reveal mechanisms of pathogenesis or possibly reduction of fibrosis in HCV/HIV co-infection.

  14. Hepatitis C

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  15. Protective effect of bioactivity guided fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation via inhibiting inflammatory markers and oxidative stress

    Raghuram Kandimalla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF, chloroform (ZJCF, ethyl acetate (ZJEAF, water (ZJWF and residue (ZJMR. In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD and CAT and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β and Il-10 in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of Z. jujuba root bark as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.

  16. An Agent-Based Model of a Hepatic Inflammatory Response to Salmonella: A Computational Study under a Large Set of Experimental Data.

    Shi, Zhenzhen; Chapes, Stephen K; Ben-Arieh, David; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2016-01-01

    We present an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate a hepatic inflammatory response (HIR) in a mouse infected by Salmonella that sometimes progressed to problematic proportions, known as "sepsis". Based on over 200 published studies, this ABM describes interactions among 21 cells or cytokines and incorporates 226 experimental data sets and/or data estimates from those reports to simulate a mouse HIR in silico. Our simulated results reproduced dynamic patterns of HIR reported in the literature. As shown in vivo, our model also demonstrated that sepsis was highly related to the initial Salmonella dose and the presence of components of the adaptive immune system. We determined that high mobility group box-1, C-reactive protein, and the interleukin-10: tumor necrosis factor-α ratio, and CD4+ T cell: CD8+ T cell ratio, all recognized as biomarkers during HIR, significantly correlated with outcomes of HIR. During therapy-directed silico simulations, our results demonstrated that anti-agent intervention impacted the survival rates of septic individuals in a time-dependent manner. By specifying the infected species, source of infection, and site of infection, this ABM enabled us to reproduce the kinetics of several essential indicators during a HIR, observe distinct dynamic patterns that are manifested during HIR, and allowed us to test proposed therapy-directed treatments. Although limitation still exists, this ABM is a step forward because it links underlying biological processes to computational simulation and was validated through a series of comparisons between the simulated results and experimental studies.

  17. Adaptive immunity in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Longhi, Maria Serena; Ma, Yun; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The histological lesion of interface hepatitis, with its dense portal cell infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and plasma cells, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Immunohistochemical studies, focused on the phenotype of inflammatory cells infiltrating the liver parenchyma, have shown a predominance of alphabeta-T cells. Amongst these cells, the majority have been CD4 helper/inducers, while a sizeable minority have consisted of CD8 cytotoxic/suppressors. Lymphocytes on non-T cell lineage included natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages and B lymphocytes. For autoimmunity to arise, the self-antigenic peptide, embraced by an human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule, must be presented to an uncommitted T helper (T(H)0) lymphocyte by professional antigen-presenting cells. Once activated and according to the presence in the milieu of interleukin 12 (IL-12) or IL-4, T(H)0 lymphocytes can differentiate into T(H)1 cells, which are pivotal to macrophage activation; enhance HLA class I expression, rendering liver cells vulnerable to CD8 T-cell attack; and induce HLA class II expression on hepatocytes; or they can differentiate into T(H)2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13, cytokines favouring autoantibody production by B lymphocytes. Autoantigen recognition is tightly controlled by regulatory mechanisms, such as those exerted by CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells. Numerical and functional regulatory T cell impairment characterises AIH and permits the perpetuation of effector immune responses with ensuing persistent liver destruction. Advances in the study of autoreactive T cells stem mostly from AIH type 2, where the main autoantigen, cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6), is known to enable characterisation of antigen-specific immune responses. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Infiltration SuDS Map

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  19. Kupffer cells hasten resolution of liver immunopathology in mouse models of viral hepatitis.

    Giovanni Sitia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kupffer cells (KCs are widely considered important contributors to liver injury during viral hepatitis due to their pro-inflammatory activity. Herein we utilized hepatitis B virus (HBV-replication competent transgenic mice and wild-type mice infected with a hepatotropic adenovirus to demonstrate that KCs do not directly induce hepatocellular injury nor do they affect the pathogenic potential of virus-specific CD8 T cells. Instead, KCs limit the severity of liver immunopathology. Mechanistically, our results are most compatible with the hypothesis that KCs contain liver immunopathology by removing apoptotic hepatocytes in a manner largely dependent on scavenger receptors. Apoptotic hepatocytes not readily removed by KCs become secondarily necrotic and release high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1 protein, promoting organ infiltration by inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils. Overall, these results indicate that KCs resolve rather than worsen liver immunopathology.

  20. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Sangeeta Palaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

  1. A study on the Regenerative Effect of Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimentally Induced Hepatic Damage In Albino Rats.

    Shoeib, Heba Mamdoh; Keshk, Walaa Arafa; Foda, Abdallah Mahmoud; Abo El Noeman, Saad El-Deen Abd Elfatah

    2018-02-14

    Hepatic fibrosis is a worldwide health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no effective therapy for hepatic fibrosis. So that the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible regenerative effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatic damage. Eighty albino rats were included; 40 were used for PRP preparation and 40 were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group); group II (PRP control); group III (TAA- intoxicated in a dose of 200 mg ∕ kg body weight/twice weekly for 7 weeks, intra-peritoneal and group IV (TAA-intoxicated+ PRP treated). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were immunoassayed in addition to peroxinitrite level, NADPH-quinine oxido-reductase-1 (NQO1) enzyme activity and liver function. PRP treatment showed significant improvement in hepatic function, decreased MIP-1α and peroxinitrite level. Meanwhile, significant increase in NQO1 enzyme activity and cAMP level were observed. The histopathological results confirmed the laboratory results with improvement of hepatic architecture except for some inflammatory cellular infiltrates. PRP has the ability to protect against TAA-induced liver damage possibly by improving redox status, liver histopathological architecture, disruption of the inflammatory and fibrotic response induced by TAA.

  2. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi; Ishii, Yasushi.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T 2 -weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author)

  3. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T{sub 2}-weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author).

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  6. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Th-17 cells infiltrate the liver in human biliary atresia and are related to surgical outcome.

    Hill, Richard; Quaglia, Alberto; Hussain, Munther; Hadzic, Nedim; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego; Davenport, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA), a cholangiopathy of unknown etiology is associated with intrahepatic mononuclear cell infiltrate. An abnormal reaction to viral exposure has been hypothesized in some cases. We aimed to investigate the nature of the CD4+ hepatic infiltrate in defined clinical variants of BA by quantification of inflammatory cell components. Liver biopsies of infants obtained at Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE) were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies to Tbet, GATA-3, FOXP3 and interleukin (IL) 17, identifying Th-1, Th-2, Tregs and Th-17 cells respectively. T cells were counted with the aid of a graticule. Data are reported as median (range) of cells per high-power-field (×400) and compared using nonparametric statistical tests with P≤0.05 regarded as significant. Liver biopsies from BA (n=37) and age-matched cholestatic controls (e.g. alpha-1-anti trypsin deficiency, Alagilles syndrome, n=12) were investigated. BA infants were divided into three groups: cytomegalovirus IgM +ve (CMV; n=9); BA splenic malformation (BASM; n=9) and isolated BA (IBA; n=19). All T-cell subsets were present in the portal tracts, with an overrepresentation of Th-1 (PTh-17 (PTh-2 (P=0.94) or Tregs (P=0.15), compared to controls. Th-1 cells predominated in the CMV group; (18 [7-37] vs. 3 [0-14] [BASM] and vs. 5 [3-23] [IBA]; PTh-17 cells. The degree of Th-1 cell infiltrate inversely correlated with platelet count (rS=-0.49; PTh-17 cells were fewer (6 [2-11] vs. 11 [8-20]; P=0.02) in infants who cleared their jaundice (n=15, Th-17 cells infiltrate the liver in BA and are associated with a worse surgical outcome; a Th-1 profile predominates in CMV-associated BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional role of monocytes and macrophages for the inflammatory response in acute liver injury

    Henning W Zimmermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury (ALI or even acute liver failure (ALF. Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1-beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2 as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g. endothelial or hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g. via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g. via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+ monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1 are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF.

  9. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  10. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  12. Viral Hepatitis

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  13. Hepatitis B

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  14. Decline and infiltrated lung

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  15. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  16. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  17. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  19. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver occurring during the course of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: A case report

    Naruhiko Honmyo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: HCV-related HCC has a high rate of multicentric recurrence. Our experience suggests that, when a hepatic lesion is suspected to be HCC, surgical resection should be considered for curative treatment and to rule out malignancy, even if the lesion may be an IPT.

  20. Zingerone Suppresses Liver Inflammation Induced by Antibiotic Mediated Endotoxemia through Down Regulating Hepatic mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peritonitis Mouse Model

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy....

  1. Emodin Protects Against Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis in Mice Through Inhibiting Activation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Jihua Xue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the effects of emodin on concanavalin A (Con A-induced hepatitis in mice and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: A fulminant hepatitis model was established successfully by the intravenous administration of Con A (20 mg/kg to male Balb/c mice. Emodin was administered to the mice by gavage before and after Con A injection. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, numbers of CD4+ and F4/80+ cells infiltrated into the liver, and amounts of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and NF-γB in mouse livers and RAW264.7 and EL4 cells were measured. Results: Pretreatment with emodin significantly protected the animals from T cell-mediated hepatitis, as shown by the decreased elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, as well as reduced hepatic necrosis. In addition, emodin pretreatment markedly reduced the intrahepatic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a, interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, integrin alpha M (ITGAM, chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 and chemokine (CXC motif receptor 2 (CXCR2. Furthermore, emodin pretreatment dramatically suppressed the numbers of CD4+ and F4/80+ cells infiltrating into the liver as well as the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-γB in Con A-treated mouse livers and RAW264.7 and EL4 cells. Conclusion: The results indicate that emodin pretreatment protects against Con A-induced liver injury in mice; these beneficial effects may occur partially through inhibition of both the infiltration of CD4+ and F4/80+ cells and the activation of the p38 MAPK-NF-γB pathway in CD4+ T cells and macrophages.

  2. Primary Hepatic Amyloidosis: Report of an Unusual Case Presenting as a Mass

    Son, Rak Chae; Chang, Jae Chun; Choi, Joon Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic involvement of amyloidosis is common. Diffuse infiltration with hepatomegaly is a usual radiologic finding of hepatic amyloidosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of amyloidosis involving the liver that presented as a mass.

  3. Hepatic expression of inflammatory genes and microRNAs in pigs with high “cholesteryl ester transfer protein” (CETP) activity

    Cirera, Susanna; Tørsleff, Benedicte C Juul; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    levels (designated as CETP-high and CETP-low, respectively). Furthermore, breed and gender differences were also investigated. We found significant difference (P hepatic expression levels of several mRNAs and microRNAs between the CETP-high and -low groups (C5, IL1RN, IL18, and miR-223-5p......) promoting the redistribution of cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma proteins. Moreover, obesity and ORD are often linked with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to detect...... differences in the hepatic expression of genes involved in low-grade inflammation and of obesity- and cholesterol-related microRNAs in two mixed breed populations of pigs (Yorkshire-Göttingen minipig, YM and Duroc-Göttingen minipig, DM) including males and females, with extreme phenotypes for CETP activity...

  4. A recurrence of Guillain-Barr and eacute; syndrome or a case of acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in the course of chronic hepatitis B?

    Guner Celik Koyuncu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by distal/proximal weakness, which shows gradual progression over a period of 8 weeks or longer. Guillan-Barre Syndrome is a condition characterized by acute monophasic paralysis typically following an infectious assault, and it usually peaks in severity over 3-4 weeks at most. Although rare, there are acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy cases that show progression over a period shorter than 4 weeks, as is the case in Guillan-Barre Syndrome .This report discusses a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a HBsAg-positive patient, which started as Guillan-Barre Syndrome but showed 3 recurrences within 6 months, each with rapidly progressing quadriplegia, respiratory arrest, and elevated liver enzymes and HBV DNA. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 782-786

  5. [Autoimmune hepatitis in a girl with presence of anti-LKM1 antibodies].

    Larraín, F; Miquel, J F; González, S

    1997-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease characterized by dense mononuclear cell infiltrate in the portal tract, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver-specific autoantibodies and increased levels of gammaglobulins in the absence of a known etiology. Three subgroups of autoimmune hepatitis have been recognized, depending on the nature of the autoantibody present in the serum: Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, associated with smooth-muscle (SMA) or antinuclear antibody (ANA) seropositivity; type 2, with anti-liver/kidney microsome antibody (anti-LKM1), and type 3, with the absence of ANA, SMA and anti-LKM1 and presence of other autoantibodies such as anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA). Subtypes of chronic autoimmune hepatitis have clinically different features and prognoses. An 8 year old female patient presented mild jaundice of insidious onset. The liver was tender and enlarged. Serologic markers for A, B, C, E, Epstein Barr and cytomegalovirus were negative. The liver biopsy showed a histological picture consistent with chronic active hepatitis. High titers of anti-liver/kidney-microsome antibody were found by indirect immunofluorescence test, and this finding was confirmed by Western blot against specific liver microsome antigens. Therapy with prednisolone induced a clinical and biochemical remission after four weeks. The suspension of therapy under strict medical control produced a rapid relapse of clinical and biochemical features. The reinitiation of prednisolone was successful, and an alternate-day program was started and maintained until 8 months follow-up.

  6. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  7. Duodenal Hemorrhage from Pancreatic Cancer Infiltration Controlled through Combination Therapy with Gemcitabine and S-1

    Ryoji Takada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 2.6% of pancreatic cancer patients have the primary manifestation of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is not feasible to stop the duodenal hemorrhage caused by the pancreatic cancer infiltration. A 43-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer with multiple hepatic metastases and duodenal infiltration was administered gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy. During the chemotherapy, initially, bleeding occurred due to duodenal infiltration. However, we continued the chemotherapy and duodenal infiltration was markedly reduced in size and did not rebleed. Aggressive chemotherapy contributed to maintenance of performance status as well as improvement of quality of life for the patient.

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  9. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4−/− model

    Reiter, Florian P.; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena; Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Denk, Gerald U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D 3 -deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D 3 -administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D 3 has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH) 2 -vitamin D 3 inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen ® -assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4 −/− (Abcb4 −/− )-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4 −/− -mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4 −/− -mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has no effect on biliary fibrosis after 4 weeks

  10. 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4{sup −/−} model

    Reiter, Florian P., E-mail: florian.reiter@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris [Institute of Pathology, University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 36, D-80337 Munich (Germany); Rust, Christian [Department of Medicine I, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder, Romanstr. 93, D-80639 Munich (Germany); Trauner, Michael [Hans Popper Laboratory of Molecular Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Denk, Gerald U. [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany)

    2015-04-03

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D{sub 3}-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D{sub 3}-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D{sub 3} has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen{sup ®}-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4{sup −/−} (Abcb4{sup −/−})-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has

  11. Alleviative effects from boswellic acid on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury - Corrected and republished from: Biomedicine (Taipei). 2016 Jun; 6 (2): 9. doi: 10.7603/s40681-016-0009-1PMCID: PMC4864770.

    Chen, Lung-Che; Hu, Li-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2017-06-01

    Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver. BA intake at both doses alleviated subsequent APAP-induced oxidative stress by retaining GSH content, decreasing ROS and GSSG formations, reserving activity and expression of GR and HO-1 in liver, and lowering hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity and expression. APAP treatment enhanced hepatic levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BA pre-intake diminished APAP-induced release of those inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. APAP up-regulated hepatic protein expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4, MyD88, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50, NF-κB p65 and JNK. BA pre-intake at both doses suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-JNK, and only at 0.1% down-regulated hepatic TLR-3, TLR-4 and MyD88 expression. APAP led to obvious foci of inflammatory cell infiltration in liver, determined by H&E stain. BA intake at both doses attenuated hepatic inflammatory infiltration. These findings support that boswellic acid is a potent hepato-protective agent. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  12. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  14. Diagnostic value of MHC class I staining in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    Pas, J. van der; Hengstman, G.J.D.; Laak, H.J. ter; Borm, G.F.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of mononuclear cellular infiltrates in skeletal muscle tissue is the histological cornerstone of the diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). However, these infiltrates are not always present. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether MHC class I antigen expression on

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  16. Xenon-133 retention in hepatic steatosis - correlation with liver biopsy in 45 patients: concise communication

    Ahmad, M.; Perrillo, R.P.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Donati, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    This study presents the results of comparison of hepatic fat content with hepatic xenon retention in 45 patients. The degree of hepatic Xe-133 retention was measured during pulmonary ventilation studies. The amount of hepatic steatosis was graded 0 to 4+ on histologic liver sections obtained by needle or surgical biopsy. There was agreement between the amount of hepatic xenon retention determined scintigraphically and the degree of steatosis determined histologically. These results suggest that Xe-133 retention in the liver provides a simple means of evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver. The potential of this technique as a noninvasive means of investigating hepatic fatty infiltration is discussed

  17. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns’ index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods

    DONG, DAO-RAN; HAO, MEI-NA; LI, CHENG; PENG, ZE; LIU, XIA; WANG, GUI-PING; MA, AN-LIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns’ index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty-one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G≥2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S≥2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=−0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of these

  19. Cytokines: their pathogenic and therapeutic role in chronic viral hepatitis Citoquinas: papel patogénico y terapéutico de las hepatitis crónicas víricas

    J. R. Larrubia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines make up a network of molecules involved in the regulation of immune response and organ functional homeostasis. Cytokines coordinate both physiological and pathological processes occurring in the liver during viral infection, including infection control, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses interfere with the complex cytokine network brought about by the immune system and liver cells in order to prevent an effective immune response, capable of viral control. This situation leads to intrahepatic sequestration of nonspecific inflammatory infiltrates that release proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn favor chronic inflammation and fibrosis. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as interferon alpha may result in viral clearance during persistent infection, and revert this process.

  20. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Mandal, Mili; Gardner, Carol R.; Sun, Richard; Choi, Hyejeong; Lad, Sonali; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b + infiltrating Ly6G + granulocytic and Ly6G − monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G + cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G − cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80 + ) and immature (F4/80 − ) pro-inflammatory Ly6C hi macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C lo ) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3 + macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen and the bone marrow. • Hepatotoxicity is reduced in

  1. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Mandal, Mili, E-mail: milimandal@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gardner, Carol R., E-mail: cgardner@pharmacy.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sun, Richard, E-mail: fishpower52@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, Hyejeong, E-mail: choi@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Lad, Sonali, E-mail: sonurose92@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mishin, Vladimir, E-mail: mishinv@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b{sup +} infiltrating Ly6G{sup +} granulocytic and Ly6G{sup −} monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G{sup +} cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G{sup −} cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80{sup +}) and immature (F4/80{sup −}) pro-inflammatory Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C{sup lo}) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3{sup +} macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen and the

  2. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor......-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD...

  3. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  4. Histological Remission during Corticosteroid Therapy of Overlapping Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Autoimmune Hepatitis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Shinichiroh Fukuda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Concurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a rare condition that is challenging to diagnosis, due to the relatively high prevalence of autoantibodies in NASH. It is also difficult to determine the most effective treatment as corticosteroids are likely to worsen NASH despite being effective in the treatment of AIH. In this case report, we present a female diagnosed with NASH-AIH overlap with accompanying diabetes mellitus, who successfully achieved normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase levels following prednisolone therapy and weight loss. A follow-up liver biopsy performed 40 months after the initial diagnosis showed only minimal inflammatory infiltrates in the portal area without any NASH histology. Resolution of NASH, in conjunction with a reduction in hepatic fibrosis, might suggest that prednisolone itself does not aggravate steatohepatitis, but rather prevents disease progression. Appropriate immunosuppressive treatment may therefore be an important component of the optimum therapy for NASH-AIH overlap.

  5. [A case of anti-LKM 1 positive autoimmune hepatitis accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Hae Kyung; Park, Tae Il; John, Byung Min; Kang, Sung Hwan; Lee, Yoon Serk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Uh Joo; Lee, Tae Seung; Yoon, Gwi Ok

    2008-03-01

    Overlap of autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a comparatively rare condition. Although both autoimmune hepatitis and SLE can share common autoimmune features such as polyarthralgia, hypergammaglobulinemia and positive ANA, it has been considered as two different entities. We report a case of anti-LKM1 positive autoimmune hepatitis who developed SLE two years later. The presence of interface hepatitis with lymphoplasma cell infiltrates and rosette formation points to the autoimmune hepatitis rather than SLE hepatitis. Autoimmune hepatitis is infrequently accompanied by SLE, therefore, it could be recommended to investigate for SLE in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

  6. The Occurrence of Primary Hepatic Adenoma in Deceased Donor Renal Transplant Recipient

    Yu-Tso Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Main findings: We reported a case of new-onset, multi-focal hepatic adenoma in an 18 year-old man with no classic risk factors occurring forty months after a renal transplant from a cadaver donor. Histopathology of the adenoma was examined and genotype and phenotype were also analyzed. Histopathologic examination of the adenoma showed no malignancy. Genotype and phenotype analysis revealed no HNF1α or β-catenin gene mutations and no inflammatory infiltration. The patient was well and disease-free postoperatively. Case hypothesis: Hepatic adenoma occurs mostly in those taking oral contraceptives or androgenic-anabolic steroids or in those with hereditary diseases. Hepatic adenoma in a renal transplant recipient is rare and has only been reported in one case with glycogen storage disease type Ia. Immunosuppressive treatment might have contributed to the development of the neoplasm. Promising future implications: Although malignant change occurs most often in β-catenin gene mutation hepatic adenoma, surgical resection of the adenoma in a patient under immunosuppressive therapy should be considered in order to avoid the possibility of malignant transformation or hemorrhagic rupture.

  7. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  8. Adiponectin but not leptin is involved in early hepatic disease in morbidly obese patients.

    Hindle, Anna Katharine; Edwards, Claire; Mendonsa, Alisha; Rojkind, Marcos; McCaffrey, Tim; Fu, Sidney; Brody, Fred

    2010-07-01

    Pathologic changes in the liver are common in morbidly obese patients, and insulin resistance may potentiate the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study investigates the impact of leptin and adiponectin in morbidly obese diabetic and nondiabetic patients with regard to histopathologic changes in the liver. Thirty-seven morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery with liver biopsies were enrolled in the study. Fourteen were diabetic and 23 were nondiabetic. Intraoperative liver tissue was sent for histopathologic analysis and extraneous intraoperative tissue was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was extracted and RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine relative gene expression levels. The data were analyzed using a logarithmic transformation and normalized by 18S ribosome expression. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis with p < or = 0.05 as significant. Adiponectin expression was downregulated 4.4-fold (p < or = 0.05) in liver samples with evidence of inflammation on pathology. When hepatic inflammation was evaluated separately, there were no statistically significant differences in adiponectin levels between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, overall adiponectin levels in hepatic samples of diabetic patients were 3.8-fold higher than those of nondiabetic patients (p < or = 0.05). There were no significant differences in leptin levels regardless of hepatic pathology or diabetic status. This study illustrates that there is a downregulation of adiponectin in morbidly obese patients with inflammatory infiltrates in the liver. Variations in adiponectin levels could be an indicator of disease progression since inflammatory infiltrates are commonly associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in morbidly obese patients. Currently, we are using human myofibroblasts derived from livers of morbidly obese people to further

  9. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  10. Localized scleroderma and regional inflammatory myopathy.

    Zivković, Saša A; Freiberg, William; Lacomis, David; Domsic, Robyn T; Medsger, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory myopathy is rare in localized scleroderma. We report 2 new cases of regional inflammatory myopathy associated with localized scleroderma and review 10 reported cases of localized scleroderma associated with an inflammatory myopathy with regional muscle involvement, more often in the upper extremities. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated or normal. Histopathology often showed perimysial inflammation and plasma cell infiltration. These cases demonstrate that inflammatory myopathy should be considered in patients with localized scleroderma and regional muscle weakness, pain or atrophy. Muscle biopsy can confirm the diagnosis of myositis, which if identified, will require anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive therapy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Bladder: Report of Two Cases

    Kim, Han Na; Oh, Soon Nam; Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Young Joon; Byun, Jae Young; Jung, Chan Kwon; Choi, Yeong Jin [Catholic University of Korea St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare condition of unknown origin. Pathologically, the lesion is composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by an inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. We report two cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder which showed different imaging features and was falsely diagnosed as malignant tumors. We discuss the imaging findings along with a literature review

  12. Treatment of patients with severe autoimmune hepatitis

    Larsen, Finn Stolze

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a progressive inflammatory diseases of unknown origin that is characterised by a necro-inflammatory and fibrotic process and may result in liver failure or uncompensated liver cirrhosis. Normally AIH is responsive to immunosuppressive therapy, and treatment aims...... and tacrolimus) might salvage patients from transplantation. Mycophenolate mofetil may also improve liver tests and reduce the requirement for corticosteroids. Besides, sirolimus is effective for treatment of de novo autoimmune hepatitis that sometimes develops after liver transplantation. Initial experience...

  13. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Sabry A. El-Khodery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  15. Activating transcription factor 3 is a target molecule linking hepatic steatosis to impaired glucose homeostasis.

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Keon Jae; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Gyu Hee; Lee, DaeYeon; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Song, Eun Hyun; Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Bong-Jo; Suh, Young Ho; Roh, Gu Seob; Gao, Bin; Kim, Won; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) contributes to impaired glucose tolerance, leading to type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the precise mechanisms and target molecules that are involved remain unclear. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with β-cell dysfunction that is induced by severe stress signals in T2D. We aimed to explore the exact functional role of ATF3 as a mechanistic link between hepatic steatosis and T2D development. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were utilized for animal experiments. An in vivo-jetPEI siRNA delivery system against ATF3 was used for loss-of-function experiments. We analyzed the baseline cross-sectional data derived from the biopsy-proven NAFLD registry (n=322). Human sera and liver tissues were obtained from 43 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and from seven healthy participants. ATF3 was highly expressed in the livers of ZDF rats and in human participants with NAFLD and/or T2D. Insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis were associated with increased ATF3 expression and decreased fatty acid oxidation via mitochondrial dysfunction and were attenuated by in vivo ATF3 silencing. Knockdown of ATF3 also ameliorated glucose intolerance, impaired insulin action, and inflammatory responses in ZDF rats. In patients with NAFLD and/or T2D, a significant positive correlation was observed between hepatic ATF3 expression and surrogate markers of T2D, mitochondrial dysfunction, and macrophage infiltration. Increased hepatic ATF3 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis and incident T2D; therefore, ATF3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD and hepatic steatosis-induced T2D. Hepatic activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) may play an important role in oxidative stress-mediated hepatic steatosis and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model and in human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, ATF3 may be a useful biomarker for

  16. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  20. Evaluation of local immune response to Fasciola hepatica experimental infection in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes of goats immunized with Sm14 vaccine antigen

    Ricardo E Mendes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Protection against Fasciola hepatica in goats immunized with a synthetic recombinant antigen from Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein 14 (rSm14 was investigated by assessing worm burdens, serum levels of hepatic enzymes, faecal egg count and hepatic damage, which was evaluated using gross and microscopic morphometric observation. The nature of the local immune response was assessed by examining the distribution of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes along with IgG+, IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes (HLN. The goats used consisted of group 1 (unimmunized and uninfected, group 2 [infected control - immunized with Quillaia A (Quil A] and group 3 (immunized with rSm14 in Quil A and infected, each containing seven animals. Immunization with rSm14 in Quil A adjuvant induced a reduction in gross hepatic lesions of 56.6% (p < 0.001 and reduced hepatic and HLN infiltration of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes as well as IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells (p < 0.05. This is the first report of caprine immunization against F. hepatica using a complete rSm14 molecule derived from S. mansoni. Immunization reduced hepatic damage and local inflammatory infiltration into the liver and HLN. However, considering that Quil A is not the preferential/first choice adjuvant for Sm14 immunization, further studies will be undertaken using the monophosphoryl lipid A-based family of adjuvants during clinical trials to facilitate anti-Fasciolavaccine development.

  1. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  3. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A- induced hepatitis in mice

    Luo Q

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aims to reveal the effect of galangin on Concanavalin A (ConA-induced hepatitis (CIH, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to clarify the related mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with galangin followed by ConA challenge. Results indicated that galangin inhibited ConA-induced liver damage. Mice pretreated with galangin showed more reduction of liver damage when compared with control mice pretreated with vehicle solution. In galangin-pretreated mice with induced CIH, increases in serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12 were dramatically attenuated, and chemokines and adhesion molecules like interferon inducible protein-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expressions in liver were decreased. Moreover, CIH mice pretreated with galangin showed less leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in the liver. Further, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin may be attributed to its modulation of crucial inflammatory signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B and interferon-gamma/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Collectively, these findings suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of galangin in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo. Keywords: galangin, Concanavalin A

  5. Hepatitis C

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  9. Dendritic Cells Limit Fibro-Inflammatory Injury in NASH

    Henning, Justin R.; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Rehman, Adeel; Fallon, Nina C.; Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Ochi, Atsuo; Barilla, Rocky; Jamal, Mohsin; Deutsch, Michael; Greco, Stephanie; Ego-Osuala, Melvin; Saeed, Usama Bin; Rao, Raghavendra S.; Badar, Sana; Quesada, Juan P.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most common etiology of chronic liver dysfunction in the United States and can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Inflammatory insult resulting from fatty infiltration of the liver is central to disease pathogenesis. Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen presenting cells with an emerging role in hepatic inflammation. We postulated that DC are important in the progression of NASH. We found that intrahepatic DC expand and mature in NASH liver and assume an activated immune-phenotype. However, rather than mitigating the severity of NASH, DC depletion markedly exacerbated intrahepatic fibro-inflammation. Our mechanistic studies support a regulatory role for DC in NASH by limiting sterile inflammation via their role in clearance of apoptotic cells and necrotic debris. We found that DC limit CD8+ T cell expansion and restrict Toll-like receptor expression and cytokine production in innate immune effector cells in NASH, including Kupffer cells, neutrophils, and inflammatory monocytes. Consistent with their regulatory role in NASH, during the recovery phase of disease, ablation of DC populations results in delayed resolution of intrahepatic inflammation and fibroplasia. Conclusion Our findings support a role for DC in modulating NASH. Targeting DC functional properties may hold promise for therapeutic intervention in NASH. PMID:23322710

  10. GSK-3β Inhibition Attenuates CLP-Induced Liver Injury by Reducing Inflammation and Hepatic Cell Apoptosis

    Hui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver dysfunction has been known to occur frequently in cases of sepsis. Excessive inflammation and apoptosis are pathological features of acute liver failure. Recent studies suggest that activation of glycogen synthase kinase- (GSK- 3β is involved in inflammation and apoptosis. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of GSK-3β inhibition on polymicrobial sepsis-induced liver injury and to explore the possible mechanisms. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, and SB216763 was used to inhibit GSK-3β in C57BL/6 mice. GSK-3β was activated following CLP. Administration of SB216763 decreased mortality, ameliorated liver injury, and reduced hepatic apoptosis. The inhibition of GSK-3β also reduced leukocyte infiltration and hepatic inflammatory cytokine expression and release. Moreover, GSK-3β inhibition suppressed the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB but enhanced the transcriptional activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB in the liver. In in vitro studies, GSK-3β inhibition reduced inflammatory cytokine production via modulation of NF-κB and CREB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GSK-3β blockade protects against CLP-induced liver via inhibition of inflammation by modulating NF-κB and CREB activity and suppression of hepatic apoptosis.

  11. Shedding light on inflammatory pseudotumor in children: spotlight on inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Lai, Lillian M.; Kao, Simon C.S.; Moritani, Toshio; Clark, Eve; Ishigami, Kousei; Sato, Yutaka [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); McCarville, M.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kirby, Patricia [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bahrami, Armita [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Pathology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a generic term used to designate a heterogeneous group of inflammatory mass-forming lesions histologically characterized by myofibroblastic proliferation with chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Inflammatory pseudotumor is multifactorial in etiology and generally benign, but it is often mistaken for malignancy given its aggressive appearance. It can occur throughout the body and is seen in all age groups. Inflammatory pseudotumor has been described in the literature by many organ-specific names, resulting in confusion. Recently within this generic category of inflammatory pseudotumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor has emerged as a distinct entity and is now recognized as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and occurring mostly in children. We present interesting pediatric cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors given this entity's tendency to occur in children. Familiarity and knowledge of the imaging features of inflammatory pseudotumor can help in making an accurate diagnosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary radical surgery. (orig.)

  12. Hepatic Kaposi sarcoma. Sonographic and computed tomographic aspects

    Defalque, D.; Menu, Y.; Nahum, H.; Matheron, S.; Girard, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is most often multicentric and extensive. Hepatic involvement is unusual and asymptomatic. An anicteric cholestasis may exist. Ultrasonography shows a pedicular echogenic infiltration and a heterogeneous parenchyma with small hyperechoic nodules. On CT, these hypodense lesions are related to the involvement of the hepatic pedicle. This is linked to angiosarcomatous tumorous tissue infiltration of the liver evolving along portal branches. In a patient suffering from cutaneous or digestive Kaposi sarcoma lesions, these radiological aspects are suggestive of hepatic involvement [fr

  13. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  14. Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in amelioration of experimental autoimmune hepatitis following activation of TRPV1 receptors by cannabidiol.

    Venkatesh L Hegde

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are getting increased attention as one of the main regulatory cells of the immune system. They are induced at sites of inflammation and can potently suppress T cell functions. In the current study, we demonstrate how activation of TRPV1 vanilloid receptors can trigger MDSCs, which in turn, can inhibit inflammation and hepatitis.Polyclonal activation of T cells, following injection of concanavalin A (ConA, in C57BL/6 mice caused acute hepatitis, characterized by significant increase in aspartate transaminase (AST, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver, leading to severe liver injury. Administration of cannabidiol (CBD, a natural non-psychoactive cannabinoid, after ConA challenge, inhibited hepatitis in a dose-dependent manner, along with all of the associated inflammation markers. Phenotypic analysis of liver infiltrating cells showed that CBD-mediated suppression of hepatitis was associated with increased induction of arginase-expressing CD11b(+Gr-1(+ MDSCs. Purified CBD-induced MDSCs could effectively suppress T cell proliferation in vitro in arginase-dependent manner. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of purified MDSCs into naïve mice conferred significant protection from ConA-induced hepatitis. CBD failed to induce MDSCs and suppress hepatitis in the livers of vanilloid receptor-deficient mice (TRPV1(-/- thereby suggesting that CBD primarily acted via this receptor to induce MDSCs and suppress hepatitis. While MDSCs induced by CBD in liver consisted of granulocytic and monocytic subsets at a ratio of ∼2∶1, the monocytic MDSCs were more immunosuppressive compared to granulocytic MDSCs. The ability of CBD to induce MDSCs and suppress hepatitis was also demonstrable in Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced liver injury.This study demonstrates for the first time that MDSCs play a critical role in attenuating acute inflammation in the liver, and that agents

  15. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin, E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Papiewski, Andrzej [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Clinic of Vascular Surgery (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  16. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin; Papiewski, Andrzej; Szubert, Wojciech; Szopiński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  17. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  18. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-06-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author).

  19. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-01-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author)

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  1. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  3. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  4. Imaging-based quantification of hepatic fat: methods and clinical applications.

    Ma, Xiaozhou; Holalkere, Nagaraj-Setty; Kambadakone R, Avinash; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver disease comprises a spectrum of conditions (simple hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis with inflammatory changes, and end-stage liver disease with fibrosis and cirrhosis). Hepatic steatosis is often associated with diabetes and obesity and may be secondary to alcohol and drug use, toxins, viral infections, and metabolic diseases. Detection and quantification of liver fat have many clinical applications, and early recognition is crucial to institute appropriate management and prevent progression. Histopathologic analysis is the reference standard to detect and quantify fat in the liver, but results are vulnerable to sampling error. Moreover, it can cause morbidity and complications and cannot be repeated often enough to monitor treatment response. Imaging can be repeated regularly and allows assessment of the entire liver, thus avoiding sampling error. Selection of appropriate imaging methods demands understanding of their advantages and limitations and the suitable clinical setting. Ultrasonography is effective for detecting moderate or severe fatty infiltration but is limited by lack of interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. Computed tomography allows quantitative and qualitative evaluation and is generally highly accurate and reliable; however, the results may be confounded by hepatic parenchymal changes due to cirrhosis or depositional diseases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with appropriate sequences (eg, chemical shift techniques) has similarly high sensitivity, and MR spectroscopy provides unique advantages for some applications. However, both are expensive and too complex to be used to monitor steatosis. (c) RSNA, 2009.

  5. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  6. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  7. Protective effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract on concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice.

    Wang, Tingting; Men, Ruoting; Hu, Mingxing; Fan, Xiaoli; Yang, Xiaoxue; Huang, Xiaojun; Ye, Tinghong; Yang, Li

    2018-04-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of an unknown etiology, glucocorticoid therapy is currently recognized as an effective treatment for AIH, but conventional application and patient compliance are both hindered by its side effects. The exploration of the AIH pathogenesis and the searching for the new candidate drugs that exert potential activity and low toxicity are urgently needed. Pomegranate peel extract (PoPx) is a natural extract of Punica granatum and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of PoPx on the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis in a mouse model that is well established at 12h after tail vein injection with a dose of 20 mg/kg of ConA. C57BL/6 female mice were pretreated with PoPx (250 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) followed by a ConA challenge. Pretreatment with PoPx significantly alleviated ConA-induced liver injury by down-regulating the levels of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and cytokine, including TNF-α, interferon (IFN) -γ and interleukin (IL)-6. Moreover, liver hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining displayed a lighter inflammatory infiltration around the portal area in the PoPx-pretreated mice. In addition, the flow cytometry (FCM) data showed that the immune response in the liver was died down in the PoPx-pretreated condition. Specially, pretreatment with PoPx reduced the infiltration of activated CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in the liver. Taken together, these findings contributed to a better understanding of the actions of PoPx against acute AIH and indicated that PoPx might be a potential compound in treating T cell-mediated autoimmune liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  9. Modulation of thioacetamide-induced hepatic inflammations, angiogenesis and fibrosis by andrographolide in mice.

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Chang, Hen-Hong; Wen, Chorng-Kai; Huang, Tse-Hung; Chang, Ya-Shu

    2014-12-02

    Liver fibrosis is a complex disease in which several pathological processes, such as inflammation and angiogenesis, are closely integrated. We hypothesised that treatment with the pharmacological agent, andrographolide (AP), which has multiple mechanisms of action, will provide a greater understanding of the role of AP during the multiple pathological processes that occur in advanced liver disease. Liver fibrogenesis was induced in mice using thioacetamide (TAA), which was administrated for 6 weeks. Andrographolide (5, 20 or 100mg/kg) was then given once daily following TAA injection. Liver collagen was examined using hydroxyproline and α-SMA, while the inflammatory response was quantified by Western blot and RT-PCR assays. Liver angiogenesis, neutrophil infiltration and hypoxia were assessed using CD11b+, vWF and HIF-1α immunostaining. Mice with liver injuries that were treated with andrographolide showed improved inflammatory response and diminished angiogenesis and hepatic fibrosis. Andrographolide treatment inhibited liver neutrophil infiltration, while a decreased in TNF-α and COX-2 signalling indicated macrophage activation. Andrographolide decreased overall liver hypoxia, as shown by the downregulation of hypoxia-inducible cascade genes, such as VEGF. Andrographolide treatment resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic fibrogenesis, α-SMA abundance, and TGF-βR1 expression. The present results suggest that multi-targeted therapies directed against angiogenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis should be considered for the treatment of advanced liver injury. They further suggest that andrographolide treatment may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  11. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  12. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  15. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  16. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  17. Gold nanoparticles administration induced prominent inflammatory, central vein intima disruption, fatty change and Kupffer cells hyperplasia

    Abdelhalim Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in nanotechnology have identified promising candidates for many biological, biomedical and biomedicine applications. They are being increasingly exploited for medical uses and other industrial applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs on inflammatory cells infiltration, central vein intima disruption, fatty change, and Kupffer cells hyperplasia in the hepatic tissue in an attempt to cover and understand the toxicity and the potential threat of their therapeutic and diagnostic use. Methods A total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 μl of GNPs infusion of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups, 12 GNPs-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusion of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, size 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively; while groups 4, 5 and 6 received infusion of 100 μl GNPs of size 10 nm, size 20 nm and 50 nm, respectively. Results In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced alterations in the hepatocytes, portal triads and sinusoids. The alterations in the hepatocytes were mainly vacuolar to hydropic degeneration, cytopasmic hyaline vacuolation, polymorphism, binucleation, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and necrosis. In addition, inflammatory cell infiltration, Kupffer cells hyperplasia, central veins intima disruption, hepatic strands dilatation and occasional fatty change together with a loss of normal architechiture of hepatic strands were also seen. Conclusions The alterations induced by the administration of GNPs were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more affects and related with time exposure of GNPs. These alterations might be an indication of injured hepatocytes due to GNPs toxicity that became unable to deal with the

  18. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    LASSABATERE, Laurent; ANGULO JARAMILLO, R; GOUTALAND, David; LETELLIER, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; WINIARSKI, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  19. Features of Hepatitis in Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia: Clinical and Histopathologic Study.

    Patel, Kalyani R; Bertuch, Alison; Sasa, Ghadir S; Himes, Ryan W; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame. All 7 patients of HAA had significant elevations in aminotransferases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia at initial presentation. Echoing liver function indices, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction-type endothelial injury was seen histomorphologically. Autoimmune hepatitis serology such as anti-F-actin, anti-liver/kidney microsome, and hypergammaglobulinemia was negative in all patients. Five of 7 patients (71.4%) had, however, elevated antinuclear antibody, all with a speckled pattern. Hepatitis virus serology was negative in all patients. By immunohistochemical staining, the lobular CD8/CD4 lymphocyte ratio was markedly elevated in all of the initial samples with significant reduction in this ratio (P = 0.03) in 3 patients post treatment (ursodiol, antibiotics, and/or immunosuppressive therapy). Hepatitis preceding HAA is characterized by marked elevation of aminotransferases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, elevated antinuclear antibody with a speckled pattern, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction morphology, and CD8 dominant lobular infiltrates. The present study suggests HAA may result from cytotoxic T-cell-mediated sinusoidal endothelial and hepatocytic injury.

  20. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  1. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Scarring Trachoma Indicates Infiltration by Natural Killer and Undefined CD45 Negative Cells.

    Hu, Victor H; Luthert, Philip J; Derrick, Tamsyn; Pullin, James; Weiss, Helen A; Massae, Patrick; Mtuy, Tara; Makupa, William; Essex, David; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J; Burton, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The phenotype and function of immune cells infiltrating the conjunctiva in scarring trachoma have yet to be fully characterized. We assessed tissue morphology and immunophenotype of cellular infiltrates found in trachomatous scarring compared to control participants. Clinical assessments and conjunctival biopsy samples were obtained from 34 individuals with trachomatous scarring undergoing trichiasis surgery and 33 control subjects undergoing cataract or retinal detachment surgery. Biopsy samples were fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for assessment of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. Immunohistochemical staining of single markers on individual sections was performed to identify cells expressing CD3 (T-cells), CD4 (helper T-cells), CD8 (suppressor/cytotoxic T-cells and Natural Killer, NK, cells), NCR1 (NK cells), CD20 (B-cells), CD45 (nucleated hematopoietic cells), CD56 (NK and T-cells), CD68 (macrophages/monocytes) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells). The degree of scarring was assessed histologically using cross-polarized light to visualize collagen fibres. Scarring, regardless of clinical inflammation, was associated with increased inflammatory cell infiltrates on H&E and CD45 staining. Scarring was also associated with increased CD8+ and CD56+ cells, but not CD3+ cells, suggestive of a NK cell infiltrate. This was supported by the presence of NCR1+ cells. There was some increase in CD20+ cells, but no evidence for increased CD4+, CD68+ or CD83+ cells. Numerous CD45 negative cells were also seen in the population of infiltrating inflammatory cells in scarred conjunctiva. Disorganization of the normal collagen architecture was strongly associated with clinical scarring. These data point to the infiltration of immune cells with a phenotype suggestive of NK cells in conjunctival trachomatous scarring. A large proportion of CD45 negative inflammatory cells were also present. Future work should

  2. Clonal dominance among T-lymphocyte infiltrates in arthritis

    Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.; Krane, S.M.; Amento, E.P.; Colvin, R.B.; Duquesnoy, R.J.; Kurnick, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders

  3. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  4. Xanthomatous infiltration of ankle tendons

    Kelman, C.G.; Disler, D.G.; Kremer, J.M.; Jennings, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of type II hyperbetalipoproteinemia in a patient whose diagnosis had been previously unrecognized, and who had previously been misdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and later gout. Radiographic and MR imaging features of the patient's ankles were pronounced but otherwise typical of xanthomatous infiltration. Radiologic assessment can be useful in permitting a specific diagnosis to be made in patients with periarticular and tendinous swelling. (orig.). With 4 figs

  5. Inflammatory cell phenotypes in AAAs; their role and potential as targets for therapy

    Dale, Matthew A; Ruhlman, Melissa K.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. AAA is typically an asymptomatic disease and caused approximately 15,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Previous studies have examined both human and murine aortic tissue for the presence of various inflammatory cell types. Studies show that in both human and experimental AAAs, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages, occurs in the damaged aortic wall. These cells have t...

  6. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  7. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  8. Dihydroartemisinin counteracts fibrotic portal hypertension via farnesoid X receptor-dependent inhibition of hepatic stellate cell contraction.

    Xu, Wenxuan; Lu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Yao, Shunyu; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a frequent pathological symptom occurring especially in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current paradigms indicate that inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and contraction is anticipated to be an attractive therapeutic strategy, because activated HSC dominantly facilitates an increase in intrahepatic vein pressure through secreting extracellular matrix and contracting. Our previous in vitro study indicated that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibited contractility of cultured HSC by activating intracellular farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, the effect of DHA on fibrosis-related portal hypertension still requires clarification. In this study, gain- and loss-of-function models of FXR in HSC were established to investigate the mechanisms underlying DHA protection against chronic CCl 4 -caused hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. Immunofluorescence staining visually showed a decrease in FXR expression in CCl 4 -administrated rat HSC but an increase in that in DHA-treated rat HSC. Serum diagnostics and morphological analyses consistently indicated that DHA exhibited hepatoprotective effects on CCl 4 -induced liver injury. DHA also reduced CCl 4 -caused inflammatory mediator expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. These improvements were further enhanced by INT-747 but weakened by Z-guggulsterone. Noteworthily, DHA, analogous to INT-747, significantly lowered portal vein pressure and suppressed fibrogenesis. Experiments on mice using FXR shRNA lentivirus consolidated the results above. Mechanistically, inhibition of HSC activation and contraction was found as a cellular basis for DHA to relieve portal hypertension. These findings demonstrated that DHA attenuated portal hypertension in fibrotic rodents possibly by targeting HSC contraction via a FXR activation-dependent mechanism. FXR could be a target molecule for reducing portal hypertension during hepatic fibrosis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. The inflammatory microenvironment in colorectal neoplasia.

    McLean, Mairi H; Murray, Graeme I; Stewart, Keith N; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N Ashley G; Drew, Janice E; El-Omar, Emad M

    2011-01-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.

  10. The Inflammatory Microenvironment in Colorectal Neoplasia

    McLean, Mairi H.; Murray, Graeme I.; Stewart, Keith N.; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L.; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N. Ashley G.; Drew, Janice E.; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified. PMID:21249124

  11. The inflammatory microenvironment in colorectal neoplasia.

    Mairi H McLean

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5 are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.

  12. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  13. Tolerance induction to cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase by hepatic AAV gene transfer: implications for antigen presentation and immunotoxicity.

    Ashley T Martino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic gene transfer, in particular using adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors, has been shown to induce immune tolerance to several protein antigens. This approach has been exploited in animal models of inherited protein deficiency for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. Adequate levels of transgene expression in hepatocytes induce a suppressive T cell response, thereby promoting immune tolerance. This study addresses the question of whether AAV gene transfer can induce tolerance to a cytoplasmic protein.AAV-2 vector-mediated hepatic gene transfer for expression of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase (beta-gal was performed in immune competent mice, followed by a secondary beta-gal gene transfer with E1/E3-deleted adenoviral Ad-LacZ vector to provoke a severe immunotoxic response. Transgene expression from the AAV-2 vector in approximately 2% of hepatocytes almost completely protected from inflammatory T cell responses against beta-gal, eliminated antibody formation, and significantly reduced adenovirus-induced hepatotoxicity. Consequently, approximately 10% of hepatocytes continued to express beta-gal 45 days after secondary Ad-LacZ gene transfer, a time point when control mice had lost all Ad-LacZ derived expression. Suppression of inflammatory T cell infiltration in the liver and liver damage was linked to specific transgene expression and was not seen for secondary gene transfer with Ad-GFP. A combination of adoptive transfer studies and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated induction of Treg that actively suppressed CD8(+ T cell responses to beta-gal and that was amplified in liver and spleen upon secondary Ad-LacZ gene transfer.These data demonstrate that tolerance induction by hepatic AAV gene transfer does not require systemic delivery of the transgene product and that expression of a cytoplasmic neo-antigen in few hepatocytes can induce Treg and provide long-term suppression of inflammatory responses and immunotoxicity.

  14. Long-term soft drink and aspartame intake induces hepatic damage via dysregulation of adipocytokines and alteration of the lipid profile and antioxidant status.

    Lebda, Mohamed A; Tohamy, Hossam G; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary intake of fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a role in lipid storage and induction of liver injury. Therefore, this study intended to explore the expression of adipocytokines and its link to hepatic damage. Rats were assigned to drink water, cola soft drink (free access) and aspartame (240 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 2 months. The lipid profiles, liver antioxidants and pathology, and mRNA expression of adipogenic cytokines were evaluated. Subchronic intake of soft drink or aspartame substantially induced hyperglycemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia, as represented by increased serum glucose, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with obvious visceral fatty deposition. These metabolic syndromes were associated with the up-regulation of leptin and down-regulation of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression. Moreover, alterations in serum transaminases accompanied by hepatic oxidative stress involving induction of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels are indicative of oxidative hepatic damage. Several cytoarchitecture alterations were detected in the liver, including degeneration, infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis, predominantly with aspartame. These data suggest that long-term intake of soft drink or aspartame-induced hepatic damage may be mediated by the induction of hyperglycemia, lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress with the involvement of adipocytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. When is the last time you looked for diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis ...

    Data synthesis: Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren's syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren's syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren's which are CD4+.

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  7. Hepatitis C

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  9. Hepatitis A

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  14. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  18. Promoting effect of adipocytokine, apelin, on hepatic injury in ...

    Marwa N. Emam

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... and inflammatory markers, pancreatic and hepatic MPO activity with ..... ment, and possibly mediated by an apelin-induced reduction ... So targeting the ape- .... Adenoviral delivery of human and viral IL-10 in murine sepsis.

  19. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  20. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells leads to spontaneous chronic inflammatory liver disease.

    Weng, Xiufang; He, Ying; Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Liao, Chia-Min; Tan, Xiaosheng; Balakumar, Arjun; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2017-10-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are CD1d-restricted innate-like T cells that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike the well-characterized invariant/type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells with a diverse T cell receptor repertoire are poorly understood. This study defines the pathogenic role of type II NKT cells in the etiology of chronic liver inflammation. Transgenic mice with the Lck promoter directing CD1d overexpression on T cells in Jα18 wild-type (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + ; type I NKT cell sufficient) and Jα18-deficient (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o , type I NKT cell deficient) mice were analyzed for liver pathology and crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells. CD1d expression on T cells in peripheral blood samples and liver sections from autoimmune hepatitis patients and healthy individuals were also examined. Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o and Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + mice developed similar degrees of liver pathology resembling chronic autoimmune hepatitis in humans. Increased CD1d expression on T cells promoted the activation of type II NKT cells and other T cells. This resulted in T h 1-skewing and impaired T h 2 cytokine production in type II NKT cells. Dysfunction of type II NKT cells was accompanied by conventional T cell activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a hepatic T/B lymphocyte infiltration, elevated autoantibodies and hepatic injury in Lck-CD1dTg mice. A similar mechanism could be extended to humans as CD1d expression is upregulated on activated human T cells and increased presence of CD1d-expressing T cells was observed in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Our data reveals enhanced crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells, leading to a T h 1-skewed inflammatory milieu, and consequently, to the development of chronic autoimmune liver disease. Lay summary: CD1d overexpression on T cells enhances crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells, resulting in their aberrant activation and leading to the

  2. Interleukin-1 inhibition facilitates recovery from liver injury and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis in mice.

    Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Petrasek, Jan; Gyogyosi, Benedek; Bala, Shashi; Csak, Timea; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration contribute to liver failure in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key inflammatory cytokine in the pathobiology of AH. The role of IL-1 in liver regeneration in the recovery phase of alcohol-induced liver injury is unknown. In this study, we tested IL-1 receptor antagonist to block IL-1 signalling in a mouse model of acute-on-chronic liver injury on liver inflammation and hepatocyte regeneration in AH. We observed that inhibition of IL-1 signalling decreased liver inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and resulted in enhanced regeneration of hepatocytes and increased rate of recovery from liver injury in AH. Our novel findings suggest that IL-1 drives sustained liver inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration even after cessation of ethanol exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Long-Time Choledochal Clamping in Wistar Rats Causes Biliary Obstruction Progressing to Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Jorge, G D L; Tártaro, R R; Escanhoela, C A F; Boin, I D F S F

    2016-09-01

    Biliary complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hepatic surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate late liver alterations after a long period of choledochal clamping in Wistar rats. Ten male Wistar rats, weighing 304 grams, anesthetized with sodium thiopental (25 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) intravenously, were distributed into 2 groups: the choledochal clamping group (CCG) and the operation sham group (OSG), with 5 animals each submitted to an abdominal incision. In the CCG, the choledochal was isolated, dissected, and clamped with a microvascular clamp for 40 minutes. After this occlusion time, the clamp was removed and the incision was closed. In the OSG the animals, under normal conditions, were submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy for choledochal manipulation. In all animals, after the 31st day, a hepatic biopsy was carried out for histology and blood biochemical tests: total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA, Unicamp, No. 2511-1). In the CCG, 100% of the animals showed bile duct dilatation, ductular proliferation, and portal inflammatory infiltrate; 60% showed regenerative nodule formation; and 80% had porta-porta septa and foci of necrosis, all of which were not found in the OSG. All CCG group biochemical tests had significant increases (P Wistar rats caused hepatic dysfunction and biochemical and histological injuries with degrees of distortion to the hepatic architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates clarithromycin- and methotrexate-induced intestinal and hepatic injury in rats.

    Duman, Deniz Güney; Kumral, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir; Ercan, Feriha; Deniz, Mustafa; Can, Güray; Cağlayan Yeğen, Berrak

    2013-08-28

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. We aimed to investigate whether S. boulardii could alter the effects of clarithromycin (CLA) and methotrexate (MTX) on oro-caecal intestinal transit and oxidative damage in rats. Rats were divided into two groups receiving a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) or CLA (20 mg/kg per d) for 1 week. Groups were treated with either saline or S. boulardii (500 mg/kg) twice per d throughout the experiment. The control group was administered only saline. Following decapitation, intestinal transit and inflammation markers of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were measured in intestinal and hepatic tissues. CLA and MTX increased intestinal transit, while S. boulardii treatment slowed down CLA-facilitated transit back to control level. Both MTX and CLA increased lipid peroxidation while depleting the antioxidant GSH content in the hepatic and ileal tissues. Conversely, lipid peroxidation was depressed and GSH levels were increased in the ileal and hepatic tissues of S. boulardii-treated rats. Increased ileal neutrophil infiltration due to MTX and CLA treatments was also reduced by S. boulardii treatment. Histological analysis supported that S. boulardii protected intestinal tissues against the inflammatory effects of both agents. These findings suggest that S. boulardii ameliorates intestinal injury and the accompanying hepatic inflammation by supporting the antioxidant state of the tissues and by inhibiting the recruitment of neutrophils. Moreover, a preventive effect on MTXinduced toxicity is a novel finding of S. boulardii, proposing it as an adjunct to chemotherapy regimens.

  5. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    The main function of erythropoietin (EPO) is to maintain red blood cell mass, but in recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a wider biological role not solely related to erythropoiesis, e.g. angiogenesis and tissue protection. EPO is produced in the liver during fetal life, but the main...... production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal......, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory...

  6. Hepatitis B Foundation

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  7. What Is Hepatitis?

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  8. Glucocorticosteroids for people with alcoholic hepatitis

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Varganova, Daria L; Casazza, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a form of alcoholic liver disease, characterised by steatosis, necroinflammation, fibrosis, and potential complications to the liver disease. Typically, alcoholic hepatitis presents in people between 40 and 50 years of age. Alcoholic hepatitis can be resolved...... if people abstain from drinking, but the risk of death will depend on the severity of the liver damage and abstinence from alcohol. Glucocorticosteroids are used as anti-inflammatory drugs for people with alcoholic hepatitis. Glucocorticosteroids have been studied extensively in randomised clinical trials...... in order to assess their benefits and harms. However, the results have been contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticosteroids in people with alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through electronic searches in Cochrane Hepato-Biliary's (CHB) Controlled...

  9. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  10. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  11. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE-/- Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway.

    Xu, Zhe-Rong; Li, Jin-You; Dong, Xin-Wei; Tan, Zhong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Xie, Qiang-Min; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  12. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Zhe-Rong Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs. Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis.

  13. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The major cause of hepatic diseases is metal pollution. Among the potent toxic ... inflammatory (Mutoh et al., 2000), anti-mutagenic (Steele et al., 2000) .... in the hepatic SOD, CAT, and GPX activities. Values are mean .... tional activity in colon cancer cells: structure–activity relationship. J. Cancer Res.

  14. Comparison of hepatic fibrosis models and associated hepatic fibronectin expression in Wistar rats treated by bile duct ligation and CCl4

    LIU Xiaoya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare serum biochemical parameters, liver pathology, and fibronectin (FN expression in Wister rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. MethodsNinety healthy male Wister rats were assigned to CCl4 model (n=44, CCl4 control (n=6, BDL model (n=30, and BDL control groups (n=10. Animal models of hepatic fibrosis were established by intraperitoneal injection of olive oil solution containing 50% CCl4 in the CCl4 model group and by BDL in the BDL group. General conditions of rats were examined. Expression of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, total bilirubin (TBil, and direct bilirubin (DBil was measured by biochemical analysis. Expression of serum hyaluronic acid (HA and laminin (LN was measured by ELISA assay. Pathological changes in liver tissue were examined through hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining. Expression of FN was assayed by immunohistochemistry. Comparison between groups was made by t test. ResultsSerum biochemical analysis showed that TBil and DBil levels in BDL model rats increased to and maintained at relatively high levels from day 7 after surgery (P<0.05; these two parameters in CCl4 model rats increased gradually from week 2 and peaked at week 8 after injection (P<0.05. The indicators of hepatic fibrosis, i.e., HA and LN levels, were significantly higher in the BDL model group than in the CCl4 model group. Pathologically, the CCl4 model group showed diffuse fatty degeneration of liver cells, with extremely significant fiber interval formation in the portal area - portal area or the portal area - central vein; the BDL model group showed coexistence of significant intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fiber interval formation. In the BDL model group, FN expression was dispersive and irregular with thin fibrous tissues; in the CCl4 model group, FN was mostly expressed in the interlobular septa

  15. Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Radiology has gained importance in the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography is usually the first imaging modality for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Unenhanced CT with or without dual kVp measurement and MRI with in and out of phase sequence can allow objective evaluation of hepatic steatosis. However, none of the imaging modalities can differentiate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/fatty liver disease from simple steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis is important in donor evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation and hepatic surgery. Recently, one-stop shop evaluation of potential liver donors has become possible by CT and MRI integrating vascular, parenchymal, volume and steatosis evaluation. Moreover hepatic steatosis (diffuse, multinodular, focal, subcortical, perilesional, intralesional, periportal and perivenular), hypersteatosis and sparing (geographic, nodular and perilesional or peritumoral) can cause diagnostic problems as a pseudotumor particularly in the evaluation of oncology patients. Liver MRI is used as a problem-solving tool in these patients. In this review, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing, quantifying hepatic steatosis and solutions for diagnostic problems associated with fatty infiltration and sparing.

  16. Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    Radiology has gained importance in the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography is usually the first imaging modality for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Unenhanced CT with or without dual kVp measurement and MRI with in and out of phase sequence can allow objective evaluation of hepatic steatosis. However, none of the imaging modalities can differentiate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/fatty liver disease from simple steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis is important in donor evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation and hepatic surgery. Recently, one-stop shop evaluation of potential liver donors has become possible by CT and MRI integrating vascular, parenchymal, volume and steatosis evaluation. Moreover hepatic steatosis (diffuse, multinodular, focal, subcortical, perilesional, intralesional, periportal and perivenular), hypersteatosis and sparing (geographic, nodular and perilesional or peritumoral) can cause diagnostic problems as a pseudotumor particularly in the evaluation of oncology patients. Liver MRI is used as a problem-solving tool in these patients. In this review, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing, quantifying hepatic steatosis and solutions for diagnostic problems associated with fatty infiltration and sparing

  17. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content.

    Mehta, Sanjeev-R; Thomas, E-Louise; Bell, Jimmy-D; Johnston, Desmond-G; Taylor-Robinson, Simon-D

    2008-06-14

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo (1)H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis (e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  18. Primary hepatic lymphoma presenting as fulminant hepatic failure with hyperferritinemia: A case report

    Haider Fyeza S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary hepatic lymphoma is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually presents with constitutional symptoms, hepatomegaly and signs of cholestatic jaundice. Diffuse hepatic infiltration is uncommon and presentation with acute hepatic failure even more rare. The presence of markedly elevated ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process and suggest alternative diagnoses. We present the case of a middle-aged woman exhibiting pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia and rapidly deteriorating to develop acute hepatic failure. Her initial clinical picture led to a working diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease with probable hemophagocytic syndrome before her worsening liver function necessitated a percutaneous liver biopsy and establishment of the final diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma. Conclusion Primary hepatic lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy and its manifestation as progressive hepatitis or acute fulminant hepatic failure can be difficult to diagnose. The presence of constitutional symptoms, pancytopenia and high ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process. A liver biopsy early in the course of liver dysfunction may establish the diagnosis without a higher risk of bleeding complications seen once liver failure sets in.

  19. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  2. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection, cryoglobulinemia, and peripheral neuropathy: a case report

    Vigani A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is essentially hepatotropic but its manifestations can extend beyond the liver. It can be associated with autoimmune diseases, such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, and lymphoproliferative disorders. The mechanisms that trigger these manifestations are not completely understood. We describe a 48-year-old man with chronic HCV infection (circulating HCV RNA and moderate hepatitis as indicated by liver biopsy, cryoglobulinemia, and sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis of multineuropathy was confirmed by clinical examination and electromyographic tests. A nerve biopsy revealed an inflammatory infiltrate in the perineurial space and signs of demyelination and axonal degeneration. The patient had no improvement of neurological symptoms with the use of analgesics and neuro-modulators. He was then treated with interferon-alpha (3 million units subcutaneously, 3 times per week and ribavirin (500 mg orally, twice a day for 48 weeks. Six months after the end of therapy, the patient had sustained viral response (negative HCV RNA and remission of neurological symptoms, but cryoglobulins remained positive. A review of the literature on the pathogenesis and treatment of neurological manifestations associated with HCV infection is presented. This report underscores the need for a thorough evaluation of HCV-infected patients because of the possibility of extrahepatic manifestations. Antiviral treatment with interferon and ribavirin can be effective and should be considered in patients with neurological complications associated with HCV infection.

  4. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  5. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  6. Hepatitis E in liver biopsies from patients with acute hepatitis of clinically unexplained origin.

    Uta eDrebber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a small RNA virus and the infectious agent of hepatitis E that occurs worldwide either as epidemics in Asia caused by genotype 1 and 2 or as sporadic disease in industrialized countries induced by genotype 3 and 4. The frequency might be underestimated in central Europe as a cause of acute hepatitis. Therefore, we analyzed on liver biopsies, if cases of acute hepatitis with clinically unknown or obscure diagnosis were actually caused by the infection with HEV.We included 221 liver biopsies retrieved from the files of the institute of pathology during the years 2000 till 2010 that were taken from patients with acute hepatitis of obscure or doubtful diagnosis. From all biopsies RNA was extracted, prepared, and subjected to RT-PCR with specific primers. Amplified RNA was detected in 7 patients, sequenced and the genotype 3 could be determined in four of the seven of positive specimens from 221 samples. Histopathology of the biopsies revealed a classic acute hepatitis with cholestatic features and in some cases confluent necrosis in zone 3. Histology in a cohort of matched patients was less severe and showed more eosinophils. The analysis of the immune response by subtyping of liver infiltrating lymphocytes showed circumstantial evidence of adaptive immune reaction with CD 8 positive CTLs being the dominant lymphocyte population.In conclusion, in doubtful cases of acute hepatitis of unknown origine hepatitis E virus infection should be considered as etiology in central Europe. We demonstrate for the first time that the diagnosis can be made in paraffin-embedded liver biopsies reliably when no serum is available and also the genotype can be determined. The analysis of the immune response by subtyping of liver infiltrating lymphocytes indicates an adaptive mechanism suggesting in analogy with HAV, HBV and HCV that the virus itself is not cytopathic but liver damage is due to immune reaction.

  7. Hepatitis E

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  8. Hepatic haemangioma

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  9. Hepatitis B

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  10. Chronic hepatitis

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  11. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  15. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a quantitative MRI study.

    Floris, S; Blezer, E L A; Schreibelt, G; Döpp, E; van der Pol, S M A; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Nicolay, K; Dijkstra, C D; de Vries, H E

    2004-03-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive cellular infiltration in the development of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis. Cerebrovascular leakage and monocytes infiltrates were separately monitored by quantitative in vivo MRI during the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance enhancement of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), reflecting vascular leakage, occurred concomitantly with the onset of neurological signs and was already at a maximal level at this stage of the disease. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the presence of the serum-derived proteins such as fibrinogen around the brain vessels early in the disease, whereas no cellular infiltrates could be detected. MRI further demonstrated that Gd-DTPA leakage clearly preceded monocyte infiltration as imaged by the contrast agent based on ultra small particles of iron oxide (USPIO), which was maximal only during full-blown EAE. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical investigation revealed that USPIOs were present in newly infiltrated macrophages within the inflammatory lesions. To validate the use of USPIOs as a non-invasive tool to evaluate therapeutic strategies, EAE animals were treated with the immunomodulator 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, which ameliorated clinical scores. MRI showed that the USPIO load in the brain was significantly diminished in lovastatin-treated animals. Data indicate that cerebrovascular leakage and monocytic trafficking into the brain are two distinct processes in the development of inflammatory lesions during multiple sclerosis, which can

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    van den Berg, AP

    Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necro-inflammatory disease of the liver. Early recognition is important in order to prevent the development of cirrosis. This review discusses recent developments in the fields of diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of AIH. Methods: Relevant

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis in children in Eastern Denmark

    Vitfell-Pedersen, Joanna; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Müller, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in childhood is a progressive chronic inflammatory liver disease. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and biochemical characteristics of 33 paediatric patients diagnosed as having AIH with earlier described cohorts, and to examine the effect of early...

  18. Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic ...

    Sapucaia nuts ( Lecythis pisonis ) modulate the hepatic inflammatory and antioxidant metabolism activity in rats fed high-fat diets. ... that “sapucaia” could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and as a protector agent for the examined animals. Keywords: Sapucaia nuts, inflammation, oxidative stress, gene expression ...

  19. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  20. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  1. Modeling snowmelt infiltration in seasonally frozen ground

    Budhathoki, S.; Ireson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In cold regions, freezing and thawing of the soil govern soil hydraulic properties that shape the surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The partitioning of snowmelt into infiltration and runoff has also important implications for integrated water resource management and flood risk. However, there is an inadequate representation of the snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils in most land-surface and hydrological models, creating the need for improved models and methods. Here we apply, the Frozen Soil Infiltration Model, FroSIn, which is a novel algorithm for infiltration in frozen soils that can be implemented in physically based models of coupled flow and heat transport. In this study, we apply the model in a simple configuration to reproduce observations from field sites in the Canadian prairies, specifically St Denis and Brightwater Creek in Saskatchewan, Canada. We demonstrate the limitations of conventional approaches to simulate infiltration, which systematically over-predict runoff and under predict infiltration. The findings show that FroSIn enables models to predict more reasonable infiltration volumes in frozen soils, and also represent how infiltration-runoff partitioning is impacted by antecedent soil moisture.

  2. Hepatic amebiasis

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  3. Hepatic amebiasis

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  4. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  5. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  6. The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

    Perry, Rachel J; Samuel, Varman T.; Petersen, Kitt Mia Falck

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its downstream sequelae, hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, are rapidly growing epidemics, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates, and soaring health-care costs. Developing interventions requires a comprehensive understanding...... of the mechanisms by which excess hepatic lipid develops and causes hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Proposed mechanisms implicate various lipid species, inflammatory signalling and other cellular modifications. Studies in mice and humans have elucidated a key role for hepatic diacylglycerol...... activation of protein kinase Cε in triggering hepatic insulin resistance. Therapeutic approaches based on this mechanism could alleviate the related epidemics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes....

  7. Suppressions of Serotonin-Induced Increased Vascular Permeability and Leukocyte Infiltration by Bixa orellana Leaf Extract

    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO, indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg−1 prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats’ paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg−1. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.

  8. Chemotherapy in patients with hepatic failure

    Roldán, G.; Sosa, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of chemotherapy in the liver may manifest as hepatocyte dysfunction with chemical hepatitis, veno-occlusive disease or chronic fibrosis. The hepatocyte dysfunction is caused by direct effect of the drug or its metabolites evidencing by increased bilirubin and liver enzymes (Sgot, SGPT). Prolonged effect leads to cholestasis and fatty infiltration. This dysfunction is concomitant enhanced by viral infection, liver metastases and other drugs as antiemetics. The vast majority of the indicated drugs in a cancer patient, cytostatics, antiemetics, analgésios, anticonvulsants, etc, are metabolized in the liver. The evidence of abnormal hepatocyte function in a patient in which involves chemotherapy raises the need for dose modification indicated and / or discontinuation. The aim of this paper is to review existing information on the use of cytostatics in cancer patients with hepatic impairment, classifying drugs according to their potential hepato toxicity and recommended dose modification in patients with hepatic dysfunction

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis in children.

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2002-08-01

    AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.

  10. The effects of herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats and HepG2 cells.

    Yoon, Seolah; Kim, Jeongjun; Lee, Hyunghee; Lee, Haerim; Lim, Jonghoon; Yang, Heejeong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2017-01-04

    Hepatic steatosis has risen rapidly in parallel with a dramatic increase in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)), composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata, regulates hepatic steatosis and inflammation. The effects of GGH(4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and HepG2 cells were examined using Oil red O, hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. Administration of GGH(4) to OLETF rats improved hepatic steatosis and lowered serum levels of alanine transaminase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids. GGH(4) increased mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation enzymes (ACOX, HD, CPT-1, and MCAD) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenesis genes (FAS, ACC1, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c) in the liver of OLETF rats. In addition, infiltration of inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (CD68, TNFα, and MCP-1) in liver tissue were reduced by GGH(4). Treatment of HepG2 cells with a mixture of oleic acid and palmitoleic acid induced significant lipid accumulation, but GGH(4) inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating the expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and lipogenic genes. GGH(4) also increased PPARα reporter gene expression. These effects of GGH(4) were similar to those of the PPARα activator fenofibrate, whereas the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GGH(4) inhibits obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and that this process may be mediated by regulation of the expression of PPARα target genes and lipogenic genes. GGH(4) also suppressed obesity

  11. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  12. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune hepatitis Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la hepatitis autoinmune

    Maycos Leandro Zapata Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic, progressive disease, more frequent in women than in men, and of unknown etiology. Histologically, it is characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration in the portal tract, and biochemically by elevation of transaminases, hypergammaglobulinemia, and the presence of liver specific autoantibodies. Response to immunosuppressive treatment is generally good and the resolution of inflammation, both biochemically and histologically, is achieved in 87% of patients in 3 years after immunosuppressive treatment is started. Several studies have shown that in the absence of treatment the disease progresses rapidly to fibrosis, and the mortality rate is higher than 80% in the 5 years following diagnosis in untreated patients. Nevertheless, even if the patient has liver fibrosis, treatment decreases the inflammatory response and the histological progression of fibrosis. Life expectancy of patients who respond to treatment exceeds 90% at 10 years, and is 80% at 20 years; however, 10-15% of patients do not have satisfactory response to medical treatment. Standard treatment and new therapeutic options are reviewed in this article. La hepatitis autoinmune (HAI es una enfermedad crónica, progresiva, más frecuente en mujeres y de etiología desconocida, caracterizada histológicamente por infiltrado de células mononucleares en el tracto portal y bioquímicamente por hipertransaminasemia e hipergamaglobulinemia y por la presencia de autoanticuerpos específicos para el hígado. La respuesta al tratamiento inmunosupresor es generalmente buena y la resolución tanto bioquímica como histológica de la inflamación se logra en el 87% de los pacientes en tres años después de haber iniciado dicho tratamiento. Diversos estudios han demostrado que, en ausencia de tratamiento, la enfermedad lleva rápidamente a fibrosis y la tasa de mortalidad es mayor del 80% a los cinco años del diagnóstico. Por el contrario, si el paciente ya

  14. ARGINASE 2 DEFICIENCY RESULTS IN SPONTANEOUS STEATOHEPATITIS: A NOVEL LINK BETWEEN INNATE IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND HEPATIC DE NOVO LIPOGENESIS

    Navarro, Laura A.; Wree, Alexander; Povero, Davide; Berk, Michael P.; Eguchi, Akiko; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Papouchado, Bettina G.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Feldstein, Ariel E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Innate immune activation has been postulated as a central mechanism for disease progression from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis in obesity-related fatty liver disease. Arginase 2 competes with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for its substrate and the balance between these two enzymes plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses and macrophage activation. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that arginase 2 deficiency in mice favors progression from isolated hepatic steatosis, induced by high fat feeding to steatohepatitis. METHODS Arginase 2-knockout (Arg2−/−) mice were studied for changes in liver histology and metabolic phenotype at baseline and after a short term course (7 week) feeding with a high fat (HFAT) diet. In additional experiments, Arg2−/− mice received tail vein injections of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (CLOD) over a three-week period to selectively deplete liver macrophages. RESULTS Unexpectedly, Arg2−/− mice showed profound changes in their livers at baseline characterized by significant steatosis as demonstrated with histological and biochemical analysis. These changes were independent of systemic metabolic parameters and associated with marked increase mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Liver injury and inflammation were present with elevated serum ALT, marked infiltration of F4/80 positive cells, and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory genes. HFAT feeding exacerbated these changes. Macrophage depletion after CLOD injection significantly attenuated lipid deposition and normalized lipogenic mRNA profile of livers from Arg2−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS This study identifies arginase 2 as novel link between innate immune responses, hepatic lipid deposition, and liver injury. PMID:25234945

  15. Fish oil alleviated high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via regulating hepatic lipids metabolism and metaflammation: a transcriptomic study.

    Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; Li, Qi; He, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Intake of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to be beneficial against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to gain further understanding of the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against NAFLD. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON), a Western style high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WD), or a WD diet containing fish oil (FOH) for 16 weeks respectively. The development of liver steatosis and fibrosis were verified by histological and biochemical examination. Hepatic transcriptome were extracted for RNA-seq analysis, and particular results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The consumption of fish oil significantly ameliorated WD-induced dyslipidemia, transaminase elevation, hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis showed that long-term intake of fish oil restored the expression of circadian clock-related genes per2 and per3, which were reduced in WD fed animals. Fish oil consumption also corrected the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, such as Srebf1, Fasn, Scd1, Insig2, Cd36, Cyp7a1, Abcg5, Abcg8 and Pcsk9. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation genes Mcp1, Socs2, Sema4a, and Cd44 in the FOH group were lower than that of WD group, implying that fish oil protects the liver against WD-induced hepatic inflammation. The present study demonstrates fish oil protects against WD-induced NALFD via improving lipid metabolism and ameliorating hepatic inflammation. Our findings add to the current understanding on the benefits of n-3 PUFAs against NAFLD.

  16. Histopathology of IgG4-Related Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4-Related Hepatopathy in IgG4-Related Disease.

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Ishizu, Yoji; Zen, Yoh; Harada, Kenichi; Umemura, Takeji

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease involving many organs; it includes IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory pseudotumor in the hepatobiliary system. Two types of hepatic parenchymal involvement have been reported in IgG4-RD: IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and IgG4-hepatopathy. Moreover, only three cases of IgG4-related AIH have been reported. Immunoglobulin G4-related AIH is clinicopathologically similar to AIH, except for an elevated serum IgG4 level and heavy infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the liver tissue. Interestingly, IgG4-related AIH can be complicated by well-known IgG4-RD(s). Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy, which includes various histopathological lesions encountered in the liver of patients with type I autoimmune pancreatitis, is classified into five histological categories: portal inflammation, large bile duct damage, portal sclerosis, lobular hepatitis, and cholestasis. Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy is currently a collective term covering hepatic lesions primarily or secondarily related to IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the liver is not immune to IgG4-RD, and at least two types of hepatic involvement in IgG4-RD have been reported: IgG4-related AIH and IgG4-hepatopathy. Additional studies are required to clarify their precise clinical significance with respect to IgG4-RD and inherent liver diseases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Hepatic NAD(+) deficiency as a therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing.

    Zhou, Can-Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao-Bing; Li, Guo-Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian-Ying; Li, Zhi-Yong; Guan, Yun-Feng; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is an important risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Hepatic concentrations of NAD(+) , protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD(+) biosynthesis, were compared in middle-aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD(+) decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild-type and H247A dominant-negative, enzymically-inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN-NAMPT) given normal or high-fat diet (HFD). Hepatic NAD(+) level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT-controlled NAD(+) salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle-age DN-NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD(+) reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro-inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α-SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD(+) deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. These results provide the first evidence that ageing-associated NAD(+) deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD(+) substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Hepatic NAD+ deficiency as a therapeutic target for non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing

    Zhou, Can‐Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao‐Bing; Li, Guo‐Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian‐Ying; Li, Zhi‐Yong; Guan, Yun‐Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Ageing is an important risk factor of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Experimental Approach Hepatic concentrations of NAD+, protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD+ biosynthesis, were compared in middle‐aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD+ decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild‐type and H247A dominant‐negative, enzymically‐inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN‐NAMPT) given normal or high‐fat diet (HFD). Key Results Hepatic NAD+ level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT‐controlled NAD+ salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle‐age DN‐NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD+ reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro‐inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α‐SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD+ precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD+ deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus‐mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. Conclusions and Implications These results provide the first evidence that ageing‐associated NAD+ deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD+ substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. PMID:27174364

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  20. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  1. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  2. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  3. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  4. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  5. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  6. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  7. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  8. Extracolic-infiltrative lesions of the sigmoid colon and recto-sigmoid junction

    Krestin, G.P.; Beyer, D.; Lorenz, R.

    1983-06-01

    The problems of extracolic-infiltrative lesions of the sigmoid colon and recto-sigmoid junction are discussed, based on representative case studies. Because of the localisation of these bowel segments in the lower peritoneal cavity, they can be reached by direct infiltration of contiguous tumors - especially carcinoma of the ovary - or by seeding into the pouch of Douglas and the sigmoid mesocolon. In many cases characteristic roentgen-morphologic features indicate a secondary infiltration, but inflammatory and malignant lesions have to be differentiated. The differential-diagnosis must consider also diverticulitis, endometriosis and extracolic growth of colonic carcinoma. Additional ultrasonography and computed tomography may help to clear topographical relations and to detect direct and indirect signs of peritoneal carcinomatosis and abscess.

  9. Extracolic-infiltrative lesions of the sigmoid colon and recto-sigmoid junction

    Krestin, G.P.; Beyer, D.; Lorenz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of extracolic-infiltrative lesions of the sigmoid colon and recto-sigmoid junction are discussed, based on representative case studies. Because of the localisation of these bowel segments in the lower peritoneal cavity, they can be reached by direct infiltration of contiguous tumors - especially carcinoma of the ovary - or by seading into the pouch of Douglas and the sigmoid mesocolon. In many cases characteristic roentgen-morphologic features indicate a secondary infiltration, but inflammatory and malignant lesions have to be differentiated. The differential-diagnosis must consider also diverticulitis, endometriosis and extracolic growth of colonic carcinoma. Additional ultrasonography and computed tomography may help to clear topographical relations and to detect direct and indirect signs of peritoneal carcinomatosis and abscess. (orig.)

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  11. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  12. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  13. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  14. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  15. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  16. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  17. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  18. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  19. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  20. Disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system, hematological parameters, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver of co-exposed rats to aluminium and acrylamide.

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Kallel, Choumous; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-07-05

    The individual toxic effects of aluminium and acrylamide are well known but there are no data on their combined effects. The present study was undertaken to determine (i) hematological parameters during individual and combined chronic exposure to aluminium and acrylamide (ii) correlation of oxidative stress in erythrocytes with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage and histopathological changes in the liver. Rats were exposed to aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to AlCl3 or/and ACR provoked an increase in MDA, AOPP, H2O2 and a decrease in GSH and NPSH levels in erythrocytes. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased in all treated rats. Our results showed that all treatments induced an increase in WBC, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and a decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht. While MCV, MCH, MCHC remained unchanged. Hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines expression including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β was increased suggesting leucocytes infiltration in the liver. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel only in the liver of co-exposed rats to AlCl3 and ACR treatment. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in erythrocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Histological and immunohistochemical effects of Curcuma longa on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells after cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

    El-Mansy, A A; Mazroa, S A; Hamed, W S; Yaseen, A H; El-Mohandes, E A

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a target for toxic chemicals such as cadmium (Cd). When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and transformed into myofibroblast-like cells, which are responsible for liver fibrosis. Curcuma longa has been reported to exert a hepato-protective effect under various pathological conditions. We investigated the effects of C. longa administration on HSC activation in response to Cd induced hepatotoxicity. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group 1 (control), group 2 (Cd treated), group 3 (C. longa treated) and group 4 (Cd and C. longa treated). After 6 weeks, liver specimens were prepared for light and electron microscopy examination of histological changes and immunohistochemical localization of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a specific marker for activated HSC. Activated HSC with a positive αSMA immune reaction were not detected in groups 1 and 3. Large numbers of activated HSC with αSMA immune reactions were observed in group 2 in addition to Cd induced hepatotoxic changes including excess collagen deposition in thickened portal triads, interlobular septa with hepatic lobulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, a significant increase in Kupffer cells and degenerated hepatocytes. In group 4, we observed a significant decrease in HSC that expressed αSMA with amelioration of the hepatotoxic changes. C. longa administration decreased HSC activation and ameliorated hepatotoxic changes caused by Cd in adult rats.

  2. The nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure can induce hepatic inflammation involving in a JAK–STAT signalling pathway

    Hong, Jie [Soochow University, Department of Applied Biology, School of Basic Medical and Biological Sciences (China); Hong, Fashui, E-mail: hongfsh-cn@sina.com [Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture and Environmental Protection (China); Ze, Yuguan; Zhang, Yu-Qing, E-mail: sericult@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University, Department of Applied Biology, School of Basic Medical and Biological Sciences (China)

    2016-06-15

    TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) have unique physiochemical properties and thus are widely used in daily life. However, these nanoparticles also have potential toxic effects in humans and animals, and the issue of the security TiO{sub 2} NPs has also gained prominence. In this article, mice were administered a gavage instillation of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight TiO{sub 2} NPs (5–6 nm) for 90 days. We investigated whether TiO{sub 2} NPs activate the JAK–STAT signalling pathway, causing nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced hepatic toxicity. The results demonstrated that with increasing doses of TiO{sub 2} NPs the body weights of the mice body decreased, and the liver index, liver dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis increased. Moreover, liver inflammation was accompanied by increased expression of Janus kinase 2, the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, purinergic receptor-7, and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78 and decreased expression of suppressors of cytokine signalling-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha. In summary, the activation of the JAK–STAT pathway may be involved in the hepatic inflammation induced by chronic nano-TiO{sub 2} toxicity.

  3. Studies on the hepatic hemodynamics of the patients with fatty liver by hepatic blood flow mapping

    Kubo, Shuichi; Okajima, Tugio; Yamazaki, Yasurou

    1991-01-01

    To investigate intrahepatic hemodynamics of the patients with fatty liver, the time to reach maximal enhancement (PT) of every 3 x 3 pixel was depicted by a gray scale throughout an area of maximal horizontal slice of CT of the liver to obtain blood flow mapping of the liver, and compared with those of normal, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Mottles of deep gray, light gray or black pixels were distributed throughout the liver slice of fatty liver. Although the mean PT of a ROI of fatty liver was longer than normal and shorter than that of cirrhosis and the same as that of chronic hepatitis, the map of fatty liver was different from that of chronic hepatitis. When the distribution of PT was expressed by their histogram, it was known that PT of fatty liver had a wider range than that of chronic hepatitis. The range was the same as that of cirrhosis. In one case of fatty liver, the deep gray pixels was increased when fatty infiltration of the liver was improved. It was concluded that the intrahepatic blood flow of fatty liver was impaired in a way not similar to chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, which could be clearly seen by hepatic blood flow mapping, and which seemed to be reversible with the improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  4. Interleukin-17 exacerbates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Tang, Y; Bian, Z; Zhao, L; Liu, Y; Liang, S; Wang, Q; Han, X; Peng, Y; Chen, X; Shen, L; Qiu, D; Li, Z; Ma, X

    2011-11-01

    Mechanisms associated with the progression of simple steatosis to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain undefined. Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) play a critical role in regulating inflammatory processes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and because T helper type 17 (Th17) functionally oppose T(reg)-mediated responses, this study focused on characterizing the role of Th17 cells using a NAFLD mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Mice in the HF group had a significantly higher frequency of liver Th17 cells compared to ND-fed mice. Neutralization of interleukin (IL)-17 in HF mice ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury reflected by decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and reduced inflammatory cell infiltrates in the liver. In vitro, HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of free fatty acids (FFA; oleic acid and palmitic acid) for 24 h and IL-17 developed steatosis via insulin-signalling pathway interference. IL-17 and FFAs synergized to induce IL-6 production by HepG2 cells and murine primary hepatocytes which, in combination with transforming growth factor (TGF-β), expanded Th17 cells. It is likely that a similar process occurs in NASH patients, as there were significant levels of IL-17(+) cell infiltrates in NASH patient livers. The hepatic expression of Th17 cell-related genes [retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR)γt, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23] was also increased significantly in NASH patients compared to healthy controls. Th17 cells and IL-17 were associated with hepatic steatosis and proinflammatory response in NAFLD and facilitated the transition from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Strategies designed to alter the balance between Th17 cells and T(regs) should be explored as a means of preventing progression to NASH and advanced liver diseases in NAFLD patients. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for

  5. Measuring the relative extent of pulmonary infiltrates by hierarchical classification of patient-specific image features

    Tsevas, S.; Iakovidis, D. K.

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are common radiological findings indicating the filling of airspaces with fluid, inflammatory exudates, or cells. They are most common in cases of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, atelectasis, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, whereas their extent is usually correlated with the extent or the severity of the underlying disease. In this paper we propose a novel pattern recognition framework for the measurement of the extent of pulmonary infiltrates in routine chest radiographs. The proposed framework follows a hierarchical approach to the assessment of image content. It includes the following: (a) sampling of the lung fields; (b) extraction of patient-specific grey-level histogram signatures from each sample; (c) classification of the extracted signatures into classes representing normal lung parenchyma and pulmonary infiltrates; (d) the samples for which the probability of belonging to one of the two classes does not reach an acceptable level are rejected and classified according to their textural content; (e) merging of the classification results of the two classification stages. The proposed framework has been evaluated on real radiographic images with pulmonary infiltrates caused by bacterial infections. The results show that accurate measurements of the infiltration areas can be obtained with respect to each lung field area. The average measurement error rate on the considered dataset reached 9.7% ± 1.0%.

  6. Isolated Liver Hilar Infiltration by IgG4 Inflammation Mimicking Cholangiocarcinoma

    Laurent Bochatay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease represents a heterogeneous group of disease characterized by infiltration of various tissues by IgG4 plasmocytes. In case of liver infiltration, this condition classically mimics primary sclerosing cholangitis or multifocal cholangiocarcinoma due to inflammation that preferentially affects the intra- and extrahepatic bile duct. Diagnostic criteria have recently been reviewed in order to better define the disease and help physicians make the diagnosis. Herein, we present the case of a patient who died after liver surgery for suspected cholangiocarcinoma that finally turned out to be IgG4-associated liver disease, a condition being out of current consensual criteria. The patient presented with progressive cholestasis identified by MR cholangiography as an isolated hilar mass responsible for dilatation of the left and right intrahepatic bile duct suspicious for a Klatskin tumor. The IgG4 blood level was normal as was biliary cytology. The patient underwent right portal embolization followed by right extended hepatectomy. Pathologic examination found no tumor but intense fibrosclerotic infiltration with a marked inflammatory infiltrate characterized by IgG4-positive plasmocytes. Despite immunosuppressive treatment, cholestasis was never controlled and successive biopsies of the remaining liver showed progressive cholestasis, liver infiltrate and no bile duct regeneration. The patient finally presented an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage leading to death 4 months after hepatectomy and appropriate immunosuppressive therapy.

  7. Combined adenovirus-mediated artificial microRNAs targeting mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 protect against fulminant hepatic failure in mice.

    Dong Xi

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF has a poor prognosis with high in-hospital mortality. Hepatic and circulating inflammatory cytokines, such as fibrinogen like protein 2 (fgl2, FasL/Fas, and TNFα/TNFR1, play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ACLF. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of recombinant adenoviral vectors carrying constructed DNA code for non-native microRNA (miRNA targeting mouse fgl2 (mfgl2 or both mFas and mTNFR1 on murine hepatitis virus (MHV-3-induced fulminant hepatitis in BALB/cJ mice. Artificial miRNA eukaryotic expression plasmids against mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 were constructed, and their inhibitory effects on the target genes were confirmed in vitro. pcDNA6.2-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA,which expresses miRNA against both mFas and mTNFR1 simultaneously,was constructed. To construct a miRNA adenovirus expression vector against mfgl2, pcDNA6.2-mfgl2-miRNA was cloned using Gateway technology. Ad-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA was also constructed by the same procedure. Adenovirus vectors were delivered by tail-vein injection into MHV-3-infected BALB/cJ mice to evaluate the therapeutic effect. 8 of 18 (44.4% mice recovered from fulminant viral hepatitis in the combined interference group treated with Ad-mfgl2-miRNA and Ad-mFas-mTNFR1-miRNA. But only 4 of 18 (22.2% mice receiving Ad-mfgl2-miRNA and 3 of 18 (16.7% mice receiving Ad-mFas-mTNFR1- miRNA survived. These adenovirus vectors significantly ameliorated inflammatory infiltration, fibrin deposition, hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis, and prolonged survival time. Our data illustrated that combined interference using adenovirus-mediated artificial miRNAs targeting mfgl2, mFas, and mTNFR1 might have significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of fulminant hepatitis.

  8. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis

    Hegazy, Sahar K; El-Bedewy, Mohamed; Yagi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic effects of aloe vera in patients with liver fibrosis. METHODS: Aloe vera high molecular weight fractions (AHM) were processed by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with microwave and far infrared-ray radiation. Fifteen healthy volunteers as the control group and 40 patients were included. The patients were randomly subdivided into two equal groups: the conventional group was treated with placebo (starch), and AHM group was treated with 0.15 gm/d AHM, both for 12 consecutive weeks. The patients were investigated before and after treatment. Serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver were assayed and the expression of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: At the start of the study, the hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed fibro-proliferated bile ductules, thick fibrous septa and dense inflammatory cellular infiltration in the patients before treatment. The use of AHM for 12 wk significantly ameliorated the fibrosis, inhibited the inflammation, and resulted in minimal infiltration and minimal fibrosis compared to the conventional group. The enzyme activities of the liver (ALT, AST and ALP) were attenuated after treatment in both groups, and the decrease in the AHM group was more significant as compared with the conventional group. Similar to the AST, the MDA levels were significantly higher before treatment, and were attenuated after treatment in both groups. In contrast, the hepatic glutathione content in the patients were decreased significantly in the AHM group compared to the controls. The serum levels of the fibrosis markers (HA, TGF-β and MMP-2) were also reduced

  9. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns' index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods.

    Dong, Dao-Ran; Hao, Mei-Na; Li, Cheng; Peng, Ze; Liu, Xia; Wang, Gui-Ping; Ma, An-Lin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns' index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty‑one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G≥2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal‑Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S≥2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal‑Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=‑0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of

  10. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  11. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers...... on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo...... hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P

  12. The interaction of inflammatory cells in granuloma faciale

    Takeshi Nakahara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by single or multiple reddish-brown cutaneous plaques or nodules. Although this condition is benign, its clinical course is extremely chronic with poor response to therapy. The typical histopathological features of GF include vasculitis with mixed cellular infiltration; however, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we describe the case of a 76-year-old man with GF resistant to topical steroids. Biopsy of the lesion revealed i dense mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrates of lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and eosino­phils, ii mild perivascular nuclear dust and swollen endothelium of blood vessels, and iii a narrow Grenz zone beneath the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated mixed cellular infiltrates intermixed with CD1a+ dendritic cells, CD68+ histiocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  13. Inflammatory cell phenotypes in AAAs; their role and potential as targets for therapy

    Dale, Matthew A; Ruhlman, Melissa K.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. AAA is typically an asymptomatic disease and caused approximately 15,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Previous studies have examined both human and murine aortic tissue for the presence of various inflammatory cell types. Studies show that in both human and experimental AAAs, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages, occurs in the damaged aortic wall. These cells have the ability to undergo phenotypic modulation based on microenvironmental cues, potentially influencing disease progression. Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T cells and classically activated macrophages dominate the landscape of aortic infiltrates. The skew to pro-inflammatory phenotypes alters disease progression and plays a role in causing chronic inflammation. The local cytokine production and presence of inflammatory mediators, such as extracellular matrix breakdown products, influence the uneven balance of the inflammatory infiltrate phenotypes. Understanding and developing new strategies that target the pro-inflammatory phenotype could provide useful therapeutic targets for a disease with no current pharmacological intervention. PMID:26044582

  14. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice

    Nayara Simon Gonzalez Schumacher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1 treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes.

  15. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice).

    Schumacher, Nayara Simon Gonzalez; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-10-09

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes.

  16. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Salem, Mohammad; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Advantages in understanding the role of the inflammatory pathways in IBD and an inadequate response to conventional therapy in a large portion of patients, has over the last two decades lead to new therapies which includes the TNF inhibitors (TNFi), designed to target and neutralise the effect of TNF-α. TNFi have shown to be efficient in treating moderate to severe CD and UC. However, convenient alternative therapeutics targeting other immune pathways are needed for patients with IBD refractory to conventional therapy including TNFi. Indeed, several therapeutics are currently under development, and have shown success in clinical trials. These include antibodies targeting and neutralising interleukin-12/23, small pharmacologic Janus kinase inhibitors designed to block intracellular signaling of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD therapy and highlighted the new promising therapies available. As stated in this paper several new treatment options are under development for the treatment of CD and UC, however, no drug fits all patients. Hence, optimisations of treatment regimens are warranted for the benefit of the patients either through biomarker establishment or other rationales to maximise the effect of the broad range of mode-of-actions of the present and future drugs in IBD.

  18. Hepatic radiography

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  19. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    target organ of the immune  response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure.

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis.

    Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  20. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  1. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  2. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  3. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  4. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  5. Quantitative assessment of the hepatic metabolic volume product in patients with diffuse hepatic steatosis and normal controls through use of FDG-PET and MR imaging: a novel concept.

    Bural, Gonca G; Torigian, Drew A; Burke, Anne; Houseni, Mohamed; Alkhawaldeh, Khaled; Cucchiara, Andrew; Basu, Sandip; Alavi, Abass

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hepatic standardized uptake values (SUVs) and hepatic metabolic volumetric products (HMVP) between patients of diffuse hepatic steatosis and control subjects with normal livers. Twenty-seven subjects were included in the study (13 men and 14 women; age range, 34-72 years). All had 18F-2-fluoro-2-D-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans with an interscan interval of 0-5 months. Twelve of 27 subjects had diffuse hepatic steatosis on MRI. The remaining 15 were selected as age-matched controls based on normal liver parenchyma on MRI. Mean and maximum hepatic SUVs were calculated for both patient groups on FDG-PET images. Hepatic volumes were measured from MRI. HMVP in each subject was subsequently calculated by multiplication of hepatic volume by mean hepatic SUV. HMVPs as well as mean and maximum hepatic SUVs were compared between the two study groups. HMVPs, mean hepatic SUVs, and maximum hepatic SUVs were greater (statistically significant, p < 0.05) in subjects with diffuse hepatic steatosis compared to those in the control group. The increase in HMVP is the result of increased hepatic metabolic activity likely related to the diffuse hepatic steatosis. The active inflammatory process related to the diffuse hepatic steatosis is the probable explanation for the increase in hepatic metabolic activity on FDG-PET study.

  6. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Jiao, Shu-Fan; Sun, Kai; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Xue; Cai, Ning; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xu, Long-Mei; Kong, Xian-Ming; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-01-08

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci.

  7. Rare Case of Vasculitis of the Hepatic Artery.

    Mali, Padmavathi; Muduganti, Sudheer R; Goldberg, Jerry

    2015-12-01

    Vasculitis is an accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes in the blood vessels with reactive damage to mural structures. Isolated vasculitis of the gastrointestinal tract without systemic involvement is rare. We report a unique case of a female patient who presented with abdominal pain, and was found, on serology, to have elevated inflammatory markers without autoantibodies. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was suggestive of vasculitis of the hepatic artery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case, to date, of vasculitis of hepatic artery. © 2015 Marshfield Clinic.

  8. Anetoderma occurring after hepatitis B vaccination

    Teixeira Marta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anetoderma is an elastolytic disorder of unknown origin. To our knowledge, anetoderma secondary to hepatitis B immunization has been described only once in the literature, in two siblings vaccinated at the same time. We describe, what we believe to be an additional case of such a rare disorder in a 21-year-old man. He presented with white spots and papules on his neck, upper limbs, and trunk, that had developed gradually within the last 6 years without any symptoms. The initial lesions were red macules, which gradually enlarged in size and number, becoming pale. Biopsy of a sack-like lesion revealed normal epidermis, and a discrete mononuclear infiltrate throughout the dermis. Association of anetoderma with hepatitis B vaccination is speculated here, as suggested by history of vaccination two weeks prior to the onset of skin eruption, and ruling out other possible causes of anetoderma.

  9. Hepatitis E-induced severe myositis.

    Mengel, Annerose M; Stenzel, Werner; Meisel, Andreas; Büning, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Asian and African countries but is rarely reported in Western countries. Although there are some prominent neurological manifestations, HEV is rarely recognized by neurologists. This is a case report of myositis induced by HEV. We report the life-threatening case of a 57-year-old man with flaccid tetraparesis due to myositis, acute hepatitis, and renal failure caused by HEV infection. Muscle biopsy revealed scattered myofiber necrosis with a diffuse, mild lymphomonocytic infiltrate in the endomysium and perimysium. Because the patient suffered from an acute HEV infection with a rapidly progressive course of severe myopathy, we started ribavirin treatment. He recovered partially within 3 weeks and recovered fully within 6 months. This case highlights a neurological manifestation of endemic HEV infection with severe myositis in a patient with alcoholic chronic liver disease. Ribavirin treatment is effective in severe HEV infection and may also lead to rapid neurological recovery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  11. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  12. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in chronic liver disease evaluated in relation to hepatic fibrosis

    Ohno, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Ohtomo, Kuni

    1990-01-01

    In 21 patients with chronic liver disease, the ratio of liver to muscle signal intensity on T 1 -weighted images was negatively correlated with the progression of hepatic fibrosis defined according to findings by laparoscopy and liver biopsy, and differentiated six patients with early chronic hepatitis from eight with liver cirrhosis. On T 2 -weighted images, the number of low intensity nodules comparable in size to regenerating nodules surrounded by connective tissues showed a positive correlation with stage. When hepatic fibrosis with no necrosis or fat infiltration was induced in rats, T 2 values were positively correlated with hepatic hydroxyproline content, though there was no such correlation for T 1 values. These results suggest that MR imaging may be useful for determining the progression of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. T 2 values may directly reflect hepatic fibrosis. (author)

  14. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes: an intriguing player in the survival of colorectal cancer patients

    Lardon Filip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that both local and systemic inflammatory responses play an important role in the progression of a variety of solid tumors. Colorectal cancer results from the cumulative effect of sequential genetic alterations, leading to the expression of tumor associated antigens possibly inducing a cellular anti-tumor immune response. It is well recognized that cytotoxic lymphocytes constitute one of the most important effector mechanisms of anti-tumor-immunity. However, their potential prognostic influence in colorectal cancer remains controversial. Aim of the study was to examine infiltration of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in colorectal cancer and their prognostic potential. Two-hundred-fifteen colorectal cancer cases, previously analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI, were selected for immunohistochemical detection of CD3+, CD8+ infiltration and the expression of granzyme B. Prognostic relevance was assessed by survival analysis. Results Strong correlations were found between the infiltration of lymphocytes and several clinicopathological variables. Survival analysis revealed that intra-epithelial infiltration of CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and stromal infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes had a major impact on the patients' overall survival in the univariate analysis, however independent of their association with MSI-status. In addition, it was also demonstrated that there was an important disease specific survival advantage for patients with microsatellite stable (MSS tumors containing intraepithelial CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. When samples were analyzed for colon cancer and rectal cancer separately, the results of the overall population were confirmed in colon cancer only. When entered into a multiple Cox regression analysis adjusting for other possible important confounding factors, the strong impact of lymphocyte infiltration on overall survival was not maintained. Only early stage and young age

  15. Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma

    2018-01-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/19/2018 Poster 01/19/2018-01/21/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Plasmacytoma...Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Capt Eden, Rina Se. TASK NUMBER Sf

  16. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  17. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  18. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  19. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  20. Placental Growth Factor Contributes to Liver Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Fibrosis in Mice by Promoting Hepatic Macrophage Recruitment and Activation

    Xi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Placental growth factor (PlGF, a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family, mediates wound healing and inflammatory responses, exerting an effect on liver fibrosis and angiogenesis; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. The aims of this study are to identify the role of PlGF in liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL in mice and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. PlGF small interfering RNA (siRNA or non-targeting control siRNA was injected by tail vein starting 2 days after BDL. Liver inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs activation were examined. Our results showed that PlGF was highly expressed in fibrotic livers and mainly distributed in activated HSCs and macrophages. Furthermore, PlGF silencing strongly reduced the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis, and inhibited the activation of HSCs. Remarkably, PlGF silencing also attenuated BDL-induced hepatic angiogenesis, as evidenced by attenuated liver endothelial cell markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor immunostaining and genes or protein expression. Interestingly, these pathological ameliorations by PlGF silencing were due to a marked reduction in the numbers of intrahepatic F4/80+, CD68+, and Ly6C+ cell populations, which were reflected by a lower expression of these macrophage marker molecules in fibrotic livers. In addition, knockdown of PlGF by siRNA inhibited macrophages activation and substantially suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in fibrotic livers. Mechanistically, evaluation of cultured RAW 264.7 cells revealed that VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 mainly involved in mediating the role of PlGF in macrophages recruitment and activation, since using VEGFR1 neutralizing antibody blocking PlGF/VEGFR1 signaling axis significantly inhibited macrophages migration and inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate

  1. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  2. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  3. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  4. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    A. I. Berishvili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompetent tumor-infiltrating cells. We found that expression of HLA-DR is in negative correlation with MUC-1 expression and lymphoid cells tumor infiltration is asso- ciated with the increase in T-cell subpopulations.

  5. A small solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst causing an intra-hepatic bile duct stricture: a case report

    Hong Taeho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an unusual presentation of a small hepatic cyst causing cholangitis. Case presentation A 70-year-old Asian man was hospitalized for aggravated chronic pain in the right upper portion of his abdomen. Fever developed after admission. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hepatobiliary enzymes, inflammatory markers and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 without hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated dilatation of the left intra-hepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the right intra-hepatic bile ducts were normally filled with contrast medium, but the left intra-hepatic bile ducts were not seen in the confluence. A left hepatectomy was performed because a hidden malignancy could not be excluded. The surgical findings showed no tumor around the bile duct but rather a 2 cm cyst in segment four of Couinaud's category of the liver around the hilum. The pathology report was a solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst compressing the bile duct. Conclusion A very small solitary hepatic cyst might cause hepatic duct stricture if it is located near the hepatic hilum, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic duct stricture.

  6. Diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Paolo; Ferri, Silvia; Pappas, Georgios; Quarneti, Chiara; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B; Muratori, Luigi

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive hepatitis, characterized by interface hepatitis with lymphoplasmacellular infiltrates on liver biopsy, high serum globulin level and circulating autoantibodies. It is classified into two types, according to autoantibody profile: type 1 is characterized by anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle (SMA) antibodies; type 2 by anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM-1) antibodies. AIH affects all ages, may be asymptomatic, frequently has an acute onset, and can present as fulminant hepatitis. The diagnosis of AIH is based on a scoring system codified by an international consensus. Corticosteroids alone or in conjunction with azathioprine is the treatment of choice in patients with AIH and results in remission induction in over 80% of patients. Alternative proposed strategies in patients who have failed to achieve remission on standard therapy or patients with drug toxicity include the use of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, budesonide or mycophenolate mofetil. Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice in managing decompensated disease, however AIH can recur or develop de novo after liver transplantation.

  7. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  8. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  9. Protective action of the immunomodulator ginsan against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via control of oxidative stress and the inflammatory response

    Shim, Ji-Young; Kim, Mi-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Doo; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunomodulator ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver injury. BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with ginsan 24 h prior to CCl 4 administration. Serum liver enzyme levels, histology, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and several cytokines/chemokines were subsequently evaluated. Ginsan treatment markedly suppressed the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and hepatic histological necrosis increased by CCl 4 treatment. Ginsan inhibited CCl 4 induced lipid peroxidation through the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) downregulation. The hepatoprotective effect of ginsan was attributed to induction of anti-oxidant protein contents, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as restoration of the hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration. The marked increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-2β, KC) in CCl 4 treated mice was additionally attenuated by ginsan, thereby preventing leukocyte infiltration and local inflammation. Our results suggest that ginsan effectively prevent liver injury, mainly through downregulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  10. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  11. Hepatitis virus panel

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  12. Hepatitis B - children

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  13. Hepatitis E Virus

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  14. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  15. Hepatitis A Test

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  16. Hepatic falciform artery

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  17. Hepatitis A -- children

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  18. Investigations into the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of ...

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of the ethanolic extract and fractions of Citrus sinensis stem-bark, investigate and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the most active fraction (EAF) of the ethanolic extract against acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury.

  19. Immune infiltrates as predictive markers of survival in pancreatic cancer patients

    Maria Pia eProtti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The tumor microenvironment is composed by multiple cell types, molecular factors and extracellular matrix forming a strong desmoplastic reaction, which is a hallmark of the disease. A complex cross-talk between tumor cells and the stroma exists with reciprocal influence that dictates tumor progression and ultimately the clinical outcome. In this context, tumor infiltrating immune cells through secretion of chemokine and cytokines exert an important regulatory role. Here we review the correlation between the immune infiltrates, evaluated on tumor samples of pancreatic cancer patients underwent surgical resection, and disease free and/or overall survival after surgery. Specifically, we focus on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, mast cells and macrophages that all contribute to a Th2-type inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment. In these patients tumor immune infiltrates not only do not contribute to disease eradication but rather the features of Th2-type inflammation and immunosuppression is significantly associated with more rapid disease progression and reduced survival.

  20. Change of hepatic volume after selective bile duct ligation: an experimental study in the rabbit

    Lee, Hye Won; Yoon, Yup; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Rim, Hyeong Teck; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Seok Hwan

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bile duct obstuction in the development of atrophy of the liver, using an animal model. Seven rabbits were divided into two groups: group 1(n=3D5), in which there was selective bile duct ligation, and group 2(n=3D2), which underwent a sham operation. Each group was evaluated using CT for changes in hepatic volume after selective bile duct ligation or a sham operation. In group I, the diameter of dilated bile duct was measured 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after bile duct ligation, while gross and histologic change were evaluated in all cases. In group 1, bile duct dilatation was seen on CT two weeks after selective bile duct ligation, and did not change significantly during follow-up. In four of five cases, CT revealed no evidence of significant atrophy of the involved segment. Pathologic specimens, however, revealed dilatation of the bile duct, periductal fibrosis, infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells, and periportal fibrosis. One of five cases showed segmental liver atrophy after selective bile duct ligation. In addion to the above pathologic findings, there was obstruction of the portal vein by foreign body reaction. In group 2, no evidence of dilated bile duct or liver atrophy was revealed by CT or pathologic specimen after a sham operation. During long-term follow-up of 16 weeks, obstruction of the bile duct did not play a major role in the development of lobar atrophy in the rabbit.=20

  1. Role of berberine in ameliorating Schistosoma mansoni-induced hepatic injury in mice

    Mohamed A Dkhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Berberine chloride (BER, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been used in vivo for its antiparasitic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this study, the protective effect of BER and praziquantel has been compared for the extent of schistosomiasis-induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue of mice. RESULTS: S. mansoni was able to induce inflammation and injury to the liver, evidenced (i by an increase in inflammatory cellular infiltrations, dilated sinusoids and vacuolated hepatocytes, (ii by decreased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase in the liver homogenate, (iii by increased production of nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and (iv by lowered glutathione levels and decreased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during BER treatment. In particular, berberine counteracted the S. mansoni-induced loss of glutathione and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it is concluded that berberine could ameliorate pre-existing liver damage and oxidative stress conditions due to schistosomiasis.

  2. A murine model of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: Xenoimmunization with human antigens.

    Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Vitozzi, Susana; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-04-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by an immune-mediated injury of the hepatic parenchyma of unknown pathogenesis. Type 2 AIH is identified by the presence of anti-liver-kidney microsomes type 1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. The current study shows that a murine model of AIH can be generated by DNA immunization against type 2 AIH self-antigens (P450 2D6 and formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase). A pCMV plasmid containing the N-terminal region of mouse CTLA-4 and the antigenic region of human CYP2D6 (672-1,377 bp) and human formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD; 1,232-1,668 bp) was used for DNA immunization of C57BL/6 female mice. Immunized mice showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), with peaks at 4 and 7 months postinjection. Periportal, portal, and intralobular liver inflammatory infiltrates were observed at histology. Mainly CD4+ lymphocytes, but also CD8+ and B lymphocytes, were found in the liver. Cytotoxic-specific T cells were found in both the liver and spleen of these animals. Mice developed anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 antibodies of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) subclass, against specific mouse autoantigens. The ALT levels correlated with both the presence of anti-LKM1/anti-LC1 antibodies and the presence of liver necroinflammation. In conclusion, in mice, DNA immunization against human autoantigens breaks tolerance and induces an autoimmune liver disease. Molecular mimicry between foreign and self-antigens explains the liver injury. This model of AIH resembles human type 2 AIH and will be helpful for the study of its pathogenesis.

  3. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  4. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  5. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  6. Aberrant hepatic artery

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  7. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant cows on a dairy farm.

    Wentink, G H; van Dijk, S; Goedegebuure, S A; Vos, J; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    A syndrome very similar to hepatic lipidosis is described in dairy cows during the dry period. After being sent to pasture the animals did not eat well for undetermined reasons. The disease phenomena were mainly observed in animals carrying twins. At post mortem examination severe falty infiltration was found in the 3 animals made available for post mortem examination. Increase of the energy supply to the dry cows by addition of maize silage to the ration prevented new cases.

  8. Hepatic involvement of histiocytic sarcoma: CT and MRI findings

    Kubo, Takatosh; Ohtomo, Kuni [Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ora, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu [Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically.

  9. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    Kubo, Takatoshi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ota, Yasunori [Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Tojo, Arinobu [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yoshida, Hideo [Department of Gastroenterology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Kato, Naoya [Advanced Medical Science, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiyasu [Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically.

  10. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically

  11. Hepatitis viruses overview

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  12. Hepatitis B Test

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  13. Hepatic arterial embolization in the management of blunt hepatic trauma: indications and complications.

    Letoublon, Christian; Morra, Irene; Chen, Yao; Monnin, Valerie; Voirin, David; Arvieux, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to clarify the role of hepatic arterial embolization (AE) in the management of blunt hepatic trauma. Retrospective observational study of 183 patients with blunt hepatic trauma admitted to a trauma referral center over a 9-year period. The charts of 29 patients (16%) who underwent hepatic angiography were reviewed for demographics, injury specific data, management strategy, angiographic indication, efficacy and complications of embolization, and outcome. AE was performed in 23 (79%) of the patients requiring angiography. Thirteen patients managed conservatively underwent emergency embolization after preliminary computed tomography scan. Six had postoperative embolization after damage control laparotomy and four had delayed embolization. Arterial bleeding was controlled in all the cases. Sixteen patients (70%) had one or more liver-related complications; temporary biliary leak (n=11), intra-abdominal hypertension (n=14), inflammatory peritonitis (n=3), hepatic necrosis (n=3), gallbladder infarction (n=2), and compressive subcapsular hematoma (n=1). Unrecognized hepatic necrosis could have contributed to the late posttraumatic death of one patient. AE is a key element in modern management of high-grade liver injuries. Two principal indications exist in the acute postinjury phase: primary hemostatic control in hemodynamically stable or stabilized patients with radiologic computed tomography evidence of active arterial bleeding and adjunctive hemostatic control in patients with uncontrolled suspected arterial bleeding despite emergency laparotomy. Successful management of injuries of grade III upward often entails a combined angiographic and surgical approach. Awareness of the ischemic complications due to angioembolization is important.

  14. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)

    Weichselbaum, R.C.; Feeney, D.A.; Hayden, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

  15. Macrophage-independent T cell infiltration to the site of injury-induced brain inflammation

    Fux, Michaela; van Rooijen, Nico; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    We have addressed the role of macrophages in glial response and T cell entry to the CNS after axonal injury, by using intravenous injection of clodronate-loaded mannosylated liposomes, in C57BL6 mice. As expected, clodronate-liposome treatment resulted in depletion of peripheral macrophages which...... delay in the expansion of CD45(dim) CD11b(+) microglia in clodronate-liposome treated mice, but macrophage depletion had no effect on the percentage of infiltrating T cells in the lesion-reactive hippocampus. Lesion-induced TNFalpha mRNA expression was not affected by macrophage depletion, suggesting...... that activated glial cells are the primary source of this cytokine in the axonal injury-reactive brain. This identifies a potentially important distinction from inflammatory autoimmune infiltration in EAE, where macrophages are a prominent source of TNFalpha and their depletion prevents parenchymal T cell...

  16. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  17. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  18. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  19. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  20. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  1. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  2. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  3. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  4. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  5. Reduced lymphoid response to skin allotransplants in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Wentink, G H; van den Ingh, T S; Rutten, V P; Müller, K E; Wensing, T

    1999-04-01

    The immune responsiveness of cows with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in comparison to control cows with a normal liver fat content was tested by applying skin allotransplants to the skin of the back of cows on day 3 after parturition. Immunoreactivity was determined by semiquantitative counting of the number of infiltrating lymphocytes in the recipient skin adjacent to the allotransplants during a period of 21 days. There were more invading lymphocytes in samples from control cows than there were in samples from cows with hepatic lipidosis. It was concluded that cows with hepatic lipidosis have a reduced lymphoid response to skin allotransplants.

  6. Bile acids induce hepatic stellate cell proliferation via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    Svegliati-Baroni, G; Ridolfi, F; Hannivoort, R; Saccomanno, S; Homan, M; De Minicis, S; Jansen, PLM; Candelaresi, C; Benedetti, A; Moshage, H

    Background B Aims: Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation is a key event in the development of liver fibrosis. In many liver diseases, HSCs are exposed to inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and bile acids. Although inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species are known to

  7. Bile acids induce hepatic stellate cell proliferation via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Ridolfi, Francesco; Hannivoort, Rebekka; Saccomanno, Stefania; Homan, Manon; de Minicis, Samuele; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Candelaresi, Cinzia; Benedetti, Antonio; Moshage, Han

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation is a key event in the development of liver fibrosis. In many liver diseases, HSCs are exposed to inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and bile acids. Although inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species are known to

  8. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1 Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or...

  9. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  10. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  11. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  12. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

    Suzuki Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers. Results At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52% as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  13. Chemotactic and inflammatory responses in the liver and brain are associated with pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus infection in the mouse.

    Kimberly K Gray

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a major human and animal pathogen associated with severe disease including hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but there is significant concern regarding its introduction into non-endemic regions and the potentially devastating effect to livestock populations with concurrent infections of humans. To date, there is little detailed data directly comparing the host response to infection with wild-type or vaccine strains of RVFV and correlation with viral pathogenesis. Here we characterized clinical and systemic immune responses to infection with wild-type strain ZH501 or IND vaccine strain MP-12 in the C57BL/6 mouse. Animals infected with live-attenuated MP-12 survived productive viral infection with little evidence of clinical disease and minimal cytokine response in evaluated tissues. In contrast, ZH501 infection was lethal, caused depletion of lymphocytes and platelets and elicited a strong, systemic cytokine response which correlated with high virus titers and significant tissue pathology. Lymphopenia and platelet depletion were indicators of disease onset with indications of lymphocyte recovery correlating with increases in G-CSF production. RVFV is hepatotropic and in these studies significant clinical and histological data supported these findings; however, significant evidence of a pro-inflammatory response in the liver was not apparent. Rather, viral infection resulted in a chemokine response indicating infiltration of immunoreactive cells, such as neutrophils, which was supported by histological data. In brains of ZH501 infected mice, a significant chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine response was evident, but with little pathology indicating meningoencephalitis. These data suggest that RVFV pathogenesis in mice is associated with a loss of liver function due to liver necrosis and hepatitis yet the long-term course of disease for those that

  14. [Lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver].

    Valdivielso Córtazar, E; Yáñez López, J A; Yáñez Gónzalez-Dopeso, L; Diz-Lois Palomares, M; González Conde, B; Alonso Aguirre, P

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a middle-aged woman with antecedents of cholecystectomy and several episodes of resi-dual coledocolitiasis resolved endoscopically. She attended Emergency Services due to a new clinical picture of abdo-minal pain and alteration of hepatic enzymes. Image tests showed lesions that suggested hepatic abscesses without ruling out a malign origin. Given this doubt it was decided to carry out a thick needle biopsy obtaining a diagnosis of an inflammatory pseudotumour of the liver related to IgG4-related disease. This is an infrequent entity but must be taken into consideration because - unlike malign pathology, which is the main differential diagnosis - its behaviour is benign, with a good evolution with medical treatment. That is why a suitable diagnosis is vital to avoid aggressive, diagnostic-therapeutic procedures.

  15. Preventive effects of indole-3-carbinol against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms: Role of gut-liver-adipose tissue axis.

    Choi, Youngshim; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2018-05-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage. Daily treatment with I3C alleviated EtOH-induced liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, but not steatosis, by attenuating elevated oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, CYP2E1, NADPH-oxidase, and protein acetylation with maintenance of mitochondrial complex I, II, and III protein levels and activities. I3C also restored the hepatic antioxidant capacity by preventing EtOH-induced suppression of glutathione contents and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 activity. I3C preventive effects were also achieved by attenuating the increased levels of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines, including IL1β, and neutrophil infiltration. I3C also attenuated EtOH-induced gut leakiness with decreased serum endotoxin levels through preventing EtOH-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis of enterocytes, and alteration of tight junction protein claudin-1. Furthermore, I3C alleviated adipose tissue inflammation and decreased free fatty acid release. Collectively, I3C prevented EtOH-induced liver injury via attenuating the damaging effect of ethanol on the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis. Therefore, I3C may also have a high potential for translational research in treating or preventing other types of hepatic injury associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Assessment of the effect of Allium sativum on serum nitric oxide level and hepatic histopathology in experimental cystic echinococcosis in mice.

    Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Ayman Nabil; Ahmed, Naglaa Samier

    2016-09-01

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on experimental cystic echinococcosis by measuring the serum nitric oxide level and studying hepatic histopathological changes. The experimental animals were divided into five groups, ten mice in each, group (I): prophylactic; group (II): therapeutic; group (III): prophylactic and therapeutic; group (IV): infected nontreated; group (V): non infected non treated. The results showed that serum nitric oxide was significantly increased as a result of infection in all infected groups compared to group V. Statistical significant difference was noted in serum nitrate level in group I at 1st and 8th week post infection compared to the same time interval in group IV. In group II, statistical significance was noticed only at the 1st week post infection. Statistical significant difference was noted in serum nitrate level in group III at 1st, 4th, 6th and 8th week post infection compared to same time interval in group IV. Hydatid cysts developed in livers of mice of group IV as early as 4 weeks of infection while no cysts were found in groups I,II and III. Histopathologically there were moderate pathological changes in group I and group II as hepatocytes showed moderate steatosis, moderate venous congestion and inflammatory cellular infiltrate with foci of degeneration and necrosis. While livers of mice of group III showed mild steatosis, mild venous congestion, mild inflammatory cellular infiltrate, no necrosis and no biliary hyperplasia. Accordingly, that garlic (Allium sativum) may be a promising phototherapeutic agent for cystic echinococcosis.

  17. Targeted adenovirus mediated inhibition of NF-kappa B-dependent inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo

    Kuldo, J. M.; Asgeirsdottir, S. A.; Zwiers, P. J.; Bellu, A. R.; Rots, M. G.; Schalk, J. A. C.; Ogawara, K. I.; Trautwein, C.; Banas, B.; Haisma, H. J.; Molema, G.; Kamps, J. A. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory diseases the endothelium expresses mediators responsible for harmful leukocyte infiltration. We investigated whether targeted delivery of a therapeutic transgene that inhibits nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction could silence the proinflammatory activation status of

  18. Comparison of infiltration models in NIT Kurukshetra campus

    Singh, Balraj; Sihag, Parveen; Singh, Karan

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the performance of infiltration models used to calculate the infiltration rate of the soils. Ten different locations were chosen to measure the infiltration rate in NIT Kurukshetra. The instrument used for the experimentation was double ring infiltrometer. Some of the popular infiltration models like Horton's, Philip's, Modified Philip's and Green-Ampt were fitted with infiltration test data and performance of the models was determined using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (C.C) and Root mean square error (RMSE) criteria. The result suggests that Modified Philip's model is the most accurate model where values of C.C, NSE and RMSE vary from 0.9947-0.9999, 0.9877-0.9998 to 0.1402-0.6913 (mm/h), respectively. Thus, this model can be used to synthetically produce infiltration data in the absence of infiltration data under the same conditions.

  19. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  20. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  1. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  2. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  3. Loss of miR-141/200c ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming multiple signaling pathways in NASH

    Tran, Melanie; Lee, Sang-Min; Shin, Dong-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of lipid droplets and inflammatory cell infiltration is the hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The roles of noncoding RNAs in NASH are less known. We aim to elucidate the function of miR-141/200c in diet-induced NASH. WT and miR-141/200c–/– mice were fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet for 2 weeks to assess markers of steatosis, liver injury, and inflammation. Hepatic miR-141 and miR-200c RNA levels were highly induced in human patients with NASH fatty liver and in WT MCD mice. miR-141/200c–/– MCD mice had reduced liver weights and triglyceride (TG) levels, which was associated with increased microsomal TG transfer protein (MTTP) and PPARα but reduced SREBP1c and FAS expression. Inflammation was attenuated and F4/80 macrophage activation was suppressed in miR-141/200c–/– mice, as evidenced by decreased serum aminotransferases and IL-6 and reduced hepatic proinflammatory, neutrophil, and profibrotic genes. Treatment with LPS in BM-derived macrophages isolated from miR-200c/141–/– mice polarized macrophages toward the M2 antiinflammatory state by increasing Arg1 and IL-10 levels while decreasing the M1 marker iNOS. In addition, elevated phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), p-AKT, and p-GSK3β and diminished TLR4 and p-mTOR/p-4EBP1 proteins were observed. Lipidomics and metabolomics revealed alterations of TG and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid species by miR-141/200c deficiency. In summary, miR-141/200c deficiency diminished NASH-associated hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming lipid and inflammation signaling pathways. PMID:29093267

  4. Human parvovirus B19 VP1u Protein as inflammatory mediators induces liver injury in naïve mice.

    Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chang, Shun-Chih; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Shi, Ya-Fang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogen known to be associated with many non-erythroid diseases, including hepatitis. Although B19V VP1-unique region (B19-VP1u) has crucial roles in the pathogenesis of B19V infection, the influence of B19-VP1u proteins on hepatic injury is still obscure. This study investigated the effect and possible inflammatory signaling of B19-VP1u in livers from BALB/c mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with VP1u-expressing COS-7 cells. The in vivo effects of B19-VP1u were analyzed by using live animal imaging system (IVIS), Haematoxylin-Eosin staining, gel zymography, and immunoblotting after inoculation. Markedly hepatocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and increased phosphorylation of p38, ERK, IKK-α, IκB and NF-κB (p-p65) proteins were observed in livers from BALB/c mice receiving COS-7 cells expressing B19-VP1u as well as the significantly increased CRP, IL-1β and IL-6. Notably, IFN-γ and phosphorylated STAT1, but not STAT3, were also significantly increased in the livers of BALB/c mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with VP1u-expressing COS-7 cells. These findings revealed the effects of B19-VP1u on liver injury and suggested that B19-VP1u may have a role as mediators of inflammation in B19V infection.

  5. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  6. Damaging role of neutrophilic infiltration in a mouse model of progressive tuberculosis.

    Marzo, Elena; Vilaplana, Cristina; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanessa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis was studied using an experimental model based on the C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain, which mimics the liquefaction of caseous necrosis occurring during active disease in immunocompetent adults. Mice were intravenously infected with 2 × 10(4) Colony Forming Units of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their histopathology, immune response, bacillary load, and survival were evaluated. The effects of the administration of drugs with anti-inflammatory activity were examined, and the C3H/HeN mouse strain was also included for comparative purposes. Massive intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltration led to rapid granuloma growth and coalescence of lesions into superlesions. A central necrotic area appeared showing progressive cellular destruction, the alveoli cell walls being initially conserved (caseous necrosis) but finally destroyed (liquefactive necrosis). Increasing levels of pro-inflammatory mediators were detected in lungs. C3HeB/FeJ treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and C3H/HeN animals presented lower levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6 and CXCL5, a lower bacillary load, better histopathology, and increased survival compared with untreated C3HeB/FeJ. The observation of massive neutrophilic infiltration suggests that inflammation may be a key factor in progression towards active tuberculosis. On the basis of our findings, we consider that the C3HeB/FeJ mouse model would be useful for evaluating new therapeutic strategies against human tuberculosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  8. Hepatitis in the United States

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  9. Inflammatory cell phenotypes in AAAs: their role and potential as targets for therapy.

    Dale, Matthew A; Ruhlman, Melissa K; Baxter, B Timothy

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. AAA is typically an asymptomatic disease and caused ≈15 000 deaths annually in the United States. Previous studies have examined both human and murine aortic tissue for the presence of various inflammatory cell types. Studies show that in both human and experimental AAAs, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, such as CD4(+) T cells and macrophages, occurs in the damaged aortic wall. These cells have the ability to undergo phenotypic modulation based on microenvironmental cues, potentially influencing disease progression. Proinflammatory CD4(+) T cells and classically activated macrophages dominate the landscape of aortic infiltrates. The skew to proinflammatory phenotypes alters disease progression and plays a role in causing chronic inflammation. The local cytokine production and presence of inflammatory mediators, such as extracellular matrix breakdown products, influence the uneven balance of the inflammatory infiltrate phenotypes. Understanding and developing new strategies that target the proinflammatory phenotype could provide useful therapeutic targets for a disease with no current pharmacological intervention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  11. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  12. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  13. [Treatment of lymphangioma with OK-432 infiltration].

    Rodríguez, J; Cáceres, F; Vargas, P

    2012-10-01

    The management of lymphangioma using sclerotherapy has proven to be an effective therapeutic. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil) in patients with lymphagioma. The study was performed from November 2010 to July 2011. Fifteen patients of both genders were diagnosed with lymphangioma, 12 days to 12 years old. All patients were infiltrated with OK-432. The studied variables were: previous surgery, localization, type of lymphangioma, number of effective injections, reduction of mass valued as excellent (100% reduction), good (reduction > 50%) and bad (reduction < 50%), presence of recurrence and complications. 40% of pacients had prior surgery and 53.3% were located in the cervical-face region. The type of macrocystic lymphangioma was present in 40% of the series, mixed type in 46.6% and microcystic type in 13.4%. The number of effective infiltrations were 3. In 6 cases (40%) the result was excellent in 5 cases (33.4%) the result was good and in 4 cases (26.6%). We had 1 recurrence (6.6%) and we haven't had complications. Injection of OK-432 in macrocystic lymphangioma and mixed had a safe therapeutic modality with satisfactory results. So it is a valid alternative to conventional surgery.

  14. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  15. Lichen planus secondary to hepatitis B vaccination

    Agrawal Akhilesh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of lichen planus (LP with liver diseases is now well established. Recent reports suggest that the hepatitis viruses may play a central role in this association. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination is much more unusual. A 19-year-old previously healthy male developed itchy violaceous papules and plaques over the upper extremities eight to ten days after the first injection of hepatitis B vaccine. He developed similar lesions over the upper trunk, neck and lower leg after the second and third injections. A skin biopsy showed a lichenoid tissue reaction. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF showed multiple colloid bodies and a strong continuous ragged basement membrane zone (BMZ band with fibrinogen. HbsAg by ELISA and anti-HCV antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with oral steroids and the lesions improved. LP is a pruritic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown origin. An increased prevalence of liver disease in patient with LP has been reported. Since the first case reported by Rebora in 1990, about 15 cases of LP occurring after hepatitis B vaccination have been reported in the literature irrespective of the type of vaccine used.

  16. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  17. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C.

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-08-14

    To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile. The study group consisted of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 9 healthy subjects. Total levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, osteopontin and insulin were measured using an ELISA kit. The hepatic expression of SOCS-3 was determined by the use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients without metabolic disorders compared to healthy controls (2.24 vs 0.59, P = 0.0003). Hepatic steatosis was observed in 32.2% of patients with HCV infection and was found in patients with increased HOMA-IR index (2.81 vs 1.99, P = 0.05) and reduced adiponectin level (5.96 vs 8.37, P = 0.04). Inflammatory activity (G ≥ 2) was related to increased osteopontin concentration (34.04 vs 23.35, P = 0.03). Advanced liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2) was associated with increased levels of omentin and osteopontin (436.94 vs 360.09, P = 0.03 and 32.84 vs 20.29, P = 0.03) and reduced resistin concentration (1.40 vs 1.74, P = 0.047). No correlations were reported between adipokine profile, HOMA-IR values and hepatic expression of the SOCS-3 gene. We speculated that no relationship between adipokines and HOMA-IR values may indicate that HCV can induce insulin resistance itself. Some adipokines appear to be biochemical markers of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroinflammation in hepatic encephalopathy: mechanistic aspects.

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Norenberg, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major neurological complication of severe liver disease that presents in acute and chronic forms. While elevated brain ammonia level is known to be a major etiological factor in this disorder, recent studies have shown a significant role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic HE. This review summarizes the involvement of ammonia in the activation of microglia, as well as the means by which ammonia triggers inflammatory responses in these cells. Additionally, the role of ammonia in stimulating inflammatory events in brain endothelial cells (ECs), likely through the activation of the toll-like receptor-4 and the associated production of cytokines, as well as the stimulation of various inflammatory factors in ECs and in astrocytes, are discussed. This review also summarizes the inflammatory mechanisms by which activation of ECs and microglia impact on astrocytes leading to their dysfunction, ultimately contributing to astrocyte swelling/brain edema in acute HE. The role of microglial activation and its contribution to the progression of neurobehavioral abnormalities in chronic HE are also briefly presented. We posit that a better understanding of the inflammatory events associated with acute and chronic HE will uncover novel therapeutic targets useful in the treatment of patients afflicted with HE.

  19. The chemokine Bv8/prokineticin 2 is up-regulated in inflammatory granulocytes and modulates inflammatory pain

    Giannini, Elisa; Lattanzi, Roberta; Nicotra, Annalisa; Campese, Antonio F.; Grazioli, Paola; Screpanti, Isabella; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Sacerdote, Paola; Negri, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil migration into injured tissues is invariably accompanied by pain. Bv8/prokineticin 2 (PK2), a chemokine characterized by a unique structural motif comprising five disulfide bonds, is highly expressed in inflamed tissues associated to infiltrating cells. Here, we demonstrate the fundamental role of granulocyte-derived PK2 (GrPK2) in initiating inflammatory pain and driving peripheral sensitization. In animal models of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced paw inflammation the developme...

  20. Adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis reduces neutrophil infiltration and necrosis in partial-thickness scald burns in mice.

    Bayliss, Jill; Delarosa, Sara; Wu, Jianfeng; Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Oluwatobi N; Su, Grace L; Hemmila, Mark; Krebsbach, Paul H; Cederna, Paul S; Wang, Stewart C; Xi, Chuanwu; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), present in thermally injured tissue, modulates the inflammatory response and causes significant tissue damage. The authors hypothesize that neutrophil infiltration and ensuing tissue necrosis would be mitigated by removing ATP-dependent signaling at the burn site. Mice were subjected to 30% TBSA partial-thickness scald burn by dorsal skin immersion in a water bath at 60 or 20°C (nonburn controls). In the treatment arm, an ATP hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, was applied directly to the site immediately after injury. Skin was harvested after 24 hours and 5 days for hematoxylin and eosin stain, elastase, and Ki-67 staining. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-β expression were measured through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. At 24 hours, the amount of neutrophil infiltration was different between the burn and burn + apyrase groups (P burn group at 24 hours and 5 days. TNF-α and IFN-β expression at 24 hours in the apyrase group was lower than in the burn group (P burn site allays the neutrophil response to thermal injury and reduces tissue necrosis. This decrease in inflammation and tissue necrosis is at least partially because of TNF-α and IFN-β signaling. Apyrase could be used as topical inflammatory regulators to quell the injury caused by inflammation.

  1. Taurine Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats Through Inhibition of TLR4/MyD88 Signaling.

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chen, Mu-Lin; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that overconsumption of ethanol contributes in many ways to the pathogenesis of hepatic injury. Although studies indicate that taurine decreases lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, the protective effect of taurine against alcohol-induced liver injury is still unclear. To clarify the precise signaling involved in the beneficial effect of taurine on alcohol-induced liver injury, rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) control (Ctl), (2) alcohol (Alc), (3) Alc+taurine (Tau), and (4) Alc+silymarin (Sil). The Tau and Sil groups had lower lymphocyte infiltration and significantly lower TLR-4/MyD88 and IκB/NFκB compared to the Alc group. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were also significantly lower in the Tau and Sil groups than in the Alc group. The experimental results indicated that hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced inflammation may be mediated by decreased TLR-4/MyD88 signaling.

  2. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  3. Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory ...

    Mariella

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... disorders linked to increased body weight and systemic .... Ultrafreezer (-80°C). .... Means (n = 6) followed by different letters in the same column are statistically .... nucleus (Cassidy et al., 2014; Maritim et al., 2003; Sadi.

  4. Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis) modulate the hepatic inflammatory ...

    Mariella

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... antioxidant and anti-inflamatory effects of this nut after its introduction into a control (AIN-93G) or ... fat diets increases the total amount of body lipids, and ..... physical exercise on lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant.

  5. The hepatic bridge.

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis C Test

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  7. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  8. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  9. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  10. Method of forming catalyst layer by single step infiltration

    Gerdes, Kirk; Lee, Shiwoo; Dowd, Regis

    2018-05-01

    Provided herein is a method for electrocatalyst infiltration of a porous substrate, of particular use for preparation of a cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The method generally comprises preparing an electrocatalyst infiltrate solution comprising an electrocatalyst, surfactant, chelating agent, and a solvent; pretreating a porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate; and applying the electrocatalyst infiltration solution to the porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate.

  11. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  12. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  13. Wound infiltration with local anesthetic after abdominal surgery

    Shah, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Haider, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect of analgesia with local wound infiltration with 20ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in post operative wounds with the control group having no infiltration. Patients were mobilized much earlier than in the control group while the demand of analgesics was considerably delayed in the study group. No any complications was noticed during local infiltration of wounds after abdominal surgery and is, therefore, applicable in routine surgery. (author)

  14. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  15. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  16. Association of autoimmune hepatitis and multiple sclerosis: a coincidence?

    Marta Sofia Mendes Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver inflammation resulting from deregulation of immune tolerance mechanisms. Multiple sclerosis is also an inflammatory disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. Here we present a case of an 18 year old female with multiple sclerosis was treated with glatiramer acetate and with interferon beta 1a at our hospital. Seven months after initiating treatment, liver dysfunction occurred. Clinical and laboratory findings were suggestive of drug-induced hepatitis, which led to discontinuation of treatment with interferon. Facing a new episode of acute hepatitis one year later, she was subjected to a liver biopsy, and the analysis of autoantibodies was positive for smooth muscle antibodies. Given the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis she started therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine, with good clinical and analytical response. Besides, the demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis became lower. In conclusion, there are only a few cases that describe the association of autoimmune hepatitis with multiple sclerosis, and there is a chance both diseases have the same autoimmune inflammatory origin.

  17. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  18. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  19. Forested infiltration areas (FIA; principles, experiences, perspectives

    G. Mezzalira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the origin and the main features of a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR measure known as Forested Infiltration Area (FIA, conceived by Veneto Agricoltura in 2007 and currently implemented at 7 pilot sites over the Vicenza Upper Plain in the Veneto region, with the financial and technical support of several public and private partners. In particular the outputs of the first recharge season (2013-2014 of two demonstrative FIA are presented and discussed (plants realized in 2013 by Consorzio di Bonifica Brenta within the framework of the Life Project AQUOR. The main peculiarities of the FIA measures are the multifunctionality guaranteed by the integration of hydraulic and biologic aspects, the high environmental compatibility and the friendly design and management.

  20. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  2. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  3. Vascularization and tissue infiltration of a biodegradable polyurethane matrix

    Ganta, Sudhakar R.; Piesco, Nicholas P.; Long, Ping; Gassner, Robert; Motta, Luis F.; Papworth, Glenn D.; Stolz, Donna B.; Watkins, Simon C.; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Urethanes are frequently used in biomedical applications because of their excellent biocompatibility. However, their use has been limited to bioresistant polyurethanes. The aim of this study was to develop a nontoxic biodegradable polyurethane and to test its potential for tissue compatibility. A matrix was synthesized with pentane diisocyanate (PDI) as a hard segment and sucrose as a hydroxyl group donor to obtain a microtextured spongy urethane matrix. The matrix was biodegradable in an aqueous solution at 37°C in vitro as well as in vivo. The polymer was mechanically stable at body temperatures and exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 67°C. The porosity of the polymer network was between 10 and 2000 µm, with the majority of pores between 100 and 300 µm in diameter. This porosity was found to be adequate to support the adherence and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and chondrocytes in vitro. The degradation products of the polymer were nontoxic to cells in vitro. Subdermal implants of the PDI–sucrose matrix did not exhibit toxicity in vivo and did not induce an acute inflammatory response in the host. However, some foreign-body giant cells did accumulate around the polymer and in its pores, suggesting its degradation is facilitated by hydrolysis as well as by giant cells. More important, subdermal implants of the polymer allowed marked infiltration of vascular and connective tissue, suggesting the free flow of fluids and nutrients in the implants. Because of the flexibility of the mechanical strength that can be obtained in urethanes and because of the ease with which a porous microtexture can be achieved, this matrix may be useful in many tissue-engineering applications. PMID:12522810

  4. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  5. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    Manfredni, S.

    1977-10-01

    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  6. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  7. [Notch signaling pathway participates in the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells into bile duct epithelial cells and progression of hepatic fibrosis in cholestatic liver fibrosis rat].

    Mu, Y P; Zhang, X; Xu, Y; Fan, W W; Li, X W; Chen, J M; Chen, G F; Liu, P

    2017-06-08

    Objective: To investigate differentiation direction of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) in cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF), and the role of Notch signaling pathway in the differentiation of HPCs. Methods: A CLF rat model was established by bile duct ligation (BDL) followed by monitoring changes of Notch signal pathway and the cellular origin of proliferating cholangiocytes. After intraperitoneal injection of DAPT (a Notch signaling inhibitor) after bile duct ligation, the progress of liver fibrosis and the proliferation of cholangiocytes after inhibition of the Notch pathway were analyzed. Results: Data showed that bile duct proliferation gradually increased along with inflammatory cell infiltration and proliferating bile duct cells surrounded by abundant collagen in the BDL group. Immunostaining confirmed markedly increased expression of CK19, OV6, Sox9 and EpCAM. In addition, RT-PCR results showed that Notch signaling pathway was activated significantly. Once the Notch signaling pathway was inhibited by DAPT, bile duct proliferation markedly suppressed along with significantly decreased the mRNA expression of CK19, OV6, Sox9 and EpCAM, compared with BDL group [(10.2±0.7) vs . (22.3±0.8), (7.6±1.5) vs . (18.1±3.7), (1.4±0.4) vs . (4.1±1.1), (1.3±0.3) vs . (5.0±1.4), respectively, P liver fibrosis was also reduced significantly. Conclusion: Notch signaling activation is required for HPCs differentiation into cholangiocytes in CLF and inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway may offer a therapeutic option for treating CLF.

  8. Clonorchis sinensis antigens alter hepatic macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo.

    Kim, Eun-Min; Kwak, You Shine; Yi, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ju Yeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2017-05-01

    Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs) resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cells stimulated with C. sinensis ESPs exhibited changes in cellular morphology. During the early stages of C. sinensis infection, hepatic macrophages preferentially differentiated into M1 macrophages; however, during the C. sinensis mature worm stage, when eggs are released, there were significant increases in the abundance of both M1 macrophages and alternatively activated hepatic macrophages (M2 macrophages). Moreover, there was a further increase in the M2 macrophage count during the fibrotic and cirrhotic stage of infection. Notably, this fibrotic and cirrhotic stage promoted a strong increase in the proportion of Arg-1-producing macrophages (M2 phenotype), which were associated with fibrosis and tissue repair in the liver. Our results suggest that the dynamic polarization of hepatic macrophages as C. sinensis infection progresses is related to the histological lesions present in liver tissue. Hepatic macrophages thus play an important role in local immunity during C. sinensis infection.

  9. Clonorchis sinensis antigens alter hepatic macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo.

    Eun-Min Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cells stimulated with C. sinensis ESPs exhibited changes in cellular morphology. During the early stages of C. sinensis infection, hepatic macrophages preferentially differentiated into M1 macrophages; however, during the C. sinensis mature worm stage, when eggs are released, there were significant increases in the abundance of both M1 macrophages and alternatively activated hepatic macrophages (M2 macrophages. Moreover, there was a further increase in the M2 macrophage count during the fibrotic and cirrhotic stage of infection. Notably, this fibrotic and cirrhotic stage promoted a strong increase in the proportion of Arg-1-producing macrophages (M2 phenotype, which were associated with fibrosis and tissue repair in the liver. Our results suggest that the dynamic polarization of hepatic macrophages as C. sinensis infection progresses is related to the histological lesions present in liver tissue. Hepatic macrophages thus play an important role in local immunity during C. sinensis infection.

  10. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  11. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  12. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  13. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  14. Assessment of hepatic fatty infiltration using dual-energy computed tomography: a phantom study

    Li, Jung-Hui; Tsai, Chang-Yu; Huang, Hsuan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the quantification of liver fat content (LFC). We prepared two phantoms: homogenized mixtures of porcine liver and fat and homogeneous mixtures of liver- and fat-equivalent solutions. Tubes containing mixtures with known fat concentrations were scanned on a dual-source CT scanner using two DE scanning protocols (80 kV/Sn140 kV and 100 kV/Sn140 kV). Attenuation curves obtained from DECT were used to describe attenuations of various degrees of LFC at different energies. LFC was calculated from DECT data and compared with the known LFC. The phantom made of liver/fat mixtures was not used for liver fat quantification because the increase of fat content did not show a decline of CT numbers. This may be due to inhomogeneity as observed in CT images. Attenuation curves obtained from two DE scanning protocols had the ability to discriminate small differences in fat concentrations. Our results also showed a strong correlation between DECT measurements and known LFC (R 2  > 0.99, P < 0.005). DECT will be a reliable tool for liver fat quantification. Furthermore, attenuation curves obtained from DECT data can be used for discriminating various degrees of LFC. (paper)

  15. Depth of Intestinal Wall Infiltration and Clinical Presentation of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Evaluation of 553 Consecutive Cases.

    Rossini, Roberto; Lisi, Giorgio; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Irene; Rettore, Lorenzo; Ruffo, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    Intestinal involvement in endometriosis was first described by Sampson in 1922. The reported incidence ranges between 3% and 37% in patients diagnosed with endometriosis. In literature, there are few studies that correlate the severity of endometriosis (in terms of intestinal infiltration) and its clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to review the correlation between the severity of symptoms, the depth of intestinal wall infiltration, and lymph node involvement in our tertiary referral center. We retrospectively analyzed 553 patients who had undergone intestinal resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis at our institution (Sacro Cuore Negrar Hospital) between 2004 and 2009. Based on intestinal wall infiltration, we divided patients into three groups (Group A: intestinal infiltration that reaches the muscle layer, Group B: infiltration to the submucosa, and Group C: endometriosis reaches the mucosa). Symptoms, intestinal stenosis, and positive lymph nodes were compared in the three groups with the chi-square test. No statistical correlation was found between symptoms and the intestinal wall infiltrations. The three groups were also compared on the basis of positive visceral lymph nodes and we did find a statistical difference (P = .05) in the lymph node count in the two main groups. There seems to be no statistically significant difference in symptoms between patients with different degrees of infiltration. Although visceral lymph node involvement has been occasionally described in literature, we found that it is related to submucosal infiltration.

  16. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  17. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from Acer tegmentosum.

    Yu, Tao; Lee, Jaehwi; Lee, Yong Gyu; Byeon, Se Eun; Kim, Min Ho; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Sun Gu; Cho, Jae Youl

    2010-03-02

    Acer tegmentosum has been traditionally used for folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders such as hepatitis, hepatic cancer, and hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, we demonstrate the ethno-pharmacological activity of Acer tegmentosum in in vitro and in vivo inflammatory conditions. The 70% ethanol extract (At-EE) of Acer tegmentosum dose-dependently diminished the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)E(2), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages, by a transcriptional mechanism. At-EE also suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activator protein (AP)-1, and cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB), and simultaneously blocked their upstream inflammatory signalling cascades, including Akt, p38, and JNK. Furthermore, At-EE protected against LPS-induced cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and neutralized reactive species generation. In agreement with the in vitro results, orally administered At-EE strongly ameliorated ear oedema formation induced by arachidonic acid. At-EE displays strong anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, contributing to its major ethno-pharmacological role such as anti-hepatitis remedy and may be applicable to novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Apoptosis of infiltrating T cells in the central nervous system of mice infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

    Oleszak, Emilia L.; Hoffman, Brad E.; Chang, J. Robert; Zaczynska, Ewa; Gaughan, John; Katsetos, Christos D.; Platsoucas, Chris D.; Harvey, Nile

    2003-01-01

    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), DA strain, induces in susceptible strain of mice a biphasic disease consisting of early acute disease followed by late chronic demyelinating disease. Both phases of the disease are associated with inflammatory infiltrates of the central nervous system (CNS). Late chronic demyelinating disease induced by TMEV serves as an excellent model to study human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. During early acute disease, the virus is partially cleared from the CNS by CD3 + T cells. These T cells express Fas, FasL, negligible levels of Bcl-2 proteins and undergo activation-induced cell death as determined by TUNEL assay leading to resolution of the inflammatory response. In contrast, during late chronic demyelinating disease, and despite dense perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrates, only very few cells undergo apoptosis. Mononuclear cells infiltrating the CNS express Bcl-2. It appears that the lack of apoptosis of T cells during late chronic demyelinating disease leads to the accumulation of these cells in the CNS. These cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of the demyelinating disease

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Gesa eWeise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.