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Sample records for hepatic calcification visible

  1. Rapid progression of massive hepatic calcification visible by CT: The case of a dialysed patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorycki, T.; Szarmach, A.; Szymanska-Dubowik, A.

    2008-01-01

    There have been single reported cases of patients with diffuse hepatic calcifications revealed 4-36 months after the first examination in the course of hemodialysis-treated renal failure, severe heart failure, shock liver, primary amyloidosis, or corticosteroid administration. In the presented case, many different factors for liver calcification and dynamic tomographic manifestation are seen. A 23-year-old man who was on hemodialysis because of acute renal failure after a motor vehicle accident (multiorgan trauma) with occurrence of hypovolemic shock was admitted to the hospital's intensive care unit presenting with clostridial infection of the lower extremities. During his stay at a prior hospital, ultrasonography did not reveal hepatic lesions. He underwent 22 sessions of treatment with hyperbaric oxygen as well as several necrectomies and amputation of both lower limbs. Abdominal CT performed three weeks after the accident demonstrated diffuse hepatic calcification which was later confirmed during autopsy. Liver parenchymal calcifications may be related to elevated calcium-phosphorus products in the uremic state and after multiple bone fractures and possible ischemic liver injury. Although a definitive explanation for the unusually short time of the appearance of liver calcification was not obtained, it may be related to many factors acting synergistically. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is of unknown significance in this process. CT plays a basic role in detecting and assessing liver calcifications forming both diffuse lesions and those with well-defined borders. Diffuse calcifications revealed by CT must be analyzed together with the patient's history, especially considering renal and heart failure, bone fractures, states of shock, and treatment. Diffuse liver calcifications in these patients after respiratory therapy and transfusions when no subcapsular hematoma is found should be considered of metabolic origin. (author)

  2. Diffuse Hepatic Calcifications in a Transfusion-Dependent Patient with Beta-Thalassemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic calcification is usually associated with infectious, vascular, or neoplastic processes in the liver. We report the first case of beta-thalassemia major with isolated diffuse hepatic calcification in a 23 year old woman, who had been transfusion-dependent since the age of 6 months. She was referred to our center with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed diffuse hepatic calcification in the right, left, and caudate lobes of the liver. Her medical history disclosed hypoparathyroidism as well as chronic hepatitis C virus infection, which was successfully treated but led to early micronodular cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Other studies done to search for the cause of hepatic calcification failed to reveal any abnormalities. We suspect that hypoparathyroidism caused liver calcification, and should be, therefore, considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic calcification if other causative factors have been ruled out.

  3. Association of conjunctival and corneal calcification with vascular calcification among hepatitis-C-seropositive hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouSeif, Khaled; Sany, Dawlat; Elshahawy, Yasser; Seddik, Ayman; Rahman, Khedr; Gaber, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC) and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification. A total of 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in our hospital were included in this study. Patients underwent a complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure, and CCC was looked for by slit lamp and fundoscopy. CCC was graded according to modified Porter and Crombie classification system described by Tokuyama et al. Helical computerized tomographic chest examination was used to evaluate the grading of AAC. Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained. There was significant difference between seropositive (n = 51) and seronegative patients (n = 49) regarding grading of AAC and CCC (P <0.001). Significant positive correlation was found between grading of CCC, AAC, age (P <0.001), duration on HD (P <0.001), HCV-antibody positivity (P <0.001), serum calcium level (P <0.001), serum phosphorus level (P <0.001), calcium × phosphorus product (P <0.001), and i-parathormone level (P < 0.001). In addition, CCC grading positively correlated with AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing HD infected with the HCV have high degree of CCC, AAC, and mineral metabolism disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC evaluation is an easy, fast, non-invasive method, and might be used as an indirect indicator to detect vascular calcification in patients undergoing MHD.

  4. Association of conjunctival and corneal calcification with vascular calcification among hepatitis-C-seropositive hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled AbouSeif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification. A total of 100 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD in our hospital were included in this study. Patients underwent a complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure, and CCC was looked for by slit lamp and fundoscopy. CCC was graded according to modified Porter and Crombie classification system described by Tokuyama et al. Helical computerized tomographic chest examination was used to evaluate the grading of AAC. Demographic, hematological, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained. There was significant difference between seropositive (n = 51 and seronegative patients (n = 49 regarding grading of AAC and CCC (P <0.001. Significant positive correlation was found between grading of CCC, AAC, age (P <0.001, duration on HD (P <0.001, HCV-antibody positivity (P <0.001, serum calcium level (P <0.001, serum phosphorus level (P <0.001, calcium × phosphorus product (P <0.001, and i-parathormone level (P < 0.001. In addition, CCC grading positively correlated with AAC. Our results suggest that patients undergoing HD infected with the HCV have high degree of CCC, AAC, and mineral metabolism disorder. The strong correlation between CCC and AAC indicates that CCC evaluation is an easy, fast, non-invasive method, and might be used as an indirect indicator to detect vascular calcification in patients undergoing MHD.

  5. A new technique for localization of hepatic tumors that are poorly visible with CT fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrive, Lionel; Azizi, Louisa; Monnier-Cholley, Laurence; Lewin, Maite; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Beaussier, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a new technique for localization of hepatic tumors that are poorly visible with CT fluoroscopy. Forty-three hepatocellular carcinomas were not visible with CT fluoroscopy. A 22-gauge Chiba end-hole needle was inserted in the approximate location of a lesion estimated on the basis of anatomical landmarks demonstrated on both previous MR and CT images. We injected 3 ml of a mixture of nonionic contrast material and saline solution. Following the first injection, contrast solution filled the hepatic lesion in 29 of 43 cases. In 8 of 43 cases, contrast solution was distributed in the normal surrounding liver. In 7 of these 8 cases, repositioning allowed us to adjust the needle in the tumor. In the other 6 of 43 cases, contrast solution spread within capsule or pseudocapsule (pattern 3). In all 6 cases, repositioning allowed to adjust the needle in the tumor. This new technique allows an accurate localization of hepatic tumors that are poorly visible with CT fluoroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Hepatocellular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claus; Frifelt, J J

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy of a twenty year old girl dying from complications of renal and cardiac failure demonstrated severe hepatocellular calcification, a rare finding. The pathogenesis is thought to be a combination of dystrophic calcification caused by severe centrilobular necrosis and metastatic calcificatio...

  7. TU-E-217BCD-06: Cone Beam Breast CT with a High Resolution Flat Panel Detector-Improvement of Calcification Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Zhong, Y; Lai, C; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the advantage of a high resolution flat panel detector for improving the visibility of microcalcifications (MCs) in cone beam breast CT Methods: A paraffin cylinder was used to simulate a 100% adipose breast. Calcium carbonate grains, ranging from 125-140 μm to 224 - 250 μm in size, were used to simulate the MCs. Groups of 25 same size MCs were embedded at the phantom center. The phantom was scanned with a bench-top CBCT system at various exposure levels. A 75μm pitch flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer) with 500μm thick CsI scintillator plate was used as the high resolution detector. A 194 μm pitch detector (Paxscan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) was used for reference. 300 projection images were acquired over 360° and reconstructed. The images were reviewed by 6 readers. The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and averaged for comparison. The visibility was plotted as a function of the estimated dose level for various MC sizes and detectors. The MTFs and DQEs were measured and compared. For imaging small (200 μm and smaller) MCs, the visibility achieved with the 75μm pitch detector was found to be significantly higher than those achieved with the 194μm pitch detector. For imaging larger MCs, there was little advantage in using the 75μm pitch detector. Using the 75μm pitch detector, MCs as small as 180 μm could be imaged to achieve a visibility of 78% with an isocenter tissue dose of ∼20 mGys versus 62% achieved with the 194 μm pitch detector at the same dose level. It was found that a high pitch flat panel detector had the advantages of extending its imaging capability to higher frequencies thus helping improve the visibility when used to image small MCs. This work was supported in part by grants CA104759, CA13852 and CA124585 from NIH-NCI, a grant EB00117 from NIH-NIBIB, and a subcontract from NIST-ATP. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  9. Calcification in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamochi, Kazuya; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ochiai, Atsushi; Yoshida, Junji; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Nagai, Kanji; Nishiwaki, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of intratumoral calcification in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and to review computed tomography (CT) and histological findings. From August 1992 through March 2000, 35 out of 1183 surgically resected lung cancer patients were histologically diagnosed as having LCNEC at our institute. We reviewed the pain radiographs and CT scans of these 35 LCNEC patients. In LCNEC cases with intratumoral calcification, we examined the size, number, distribution and pattern of intratumoral calcifications visible on the CT scans and the histological features. Three cases (9%) exhibited calcification. The calcifications were recognized by CT scans alone. The CT scans showed punctate or eccentric intratumoral calcifications, which are considered to be a malignant feature, in all three cases. In two cases, the calcifications were histologically confirmed to be located within the necrotic areas of a tumor nest. We found three LCNEC cases with intratumoral calcification. The prevalence of LCNEC calcification was similar to that in previous reports on lung cancer. The mechanism of the intratumoral calcification in our LCNEC cases is speculated to be dystrophic calcification. (author)

  10. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Stephen J.; Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla; Farman, Allan G.; Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson χ 2 were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  12. Computed tomography of calcification of the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Churl Min; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Soon Yong

    1981-01-01

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are rarely found at routine autopsies and in skull radiographs. CT is superior to the plain skull radiographs in detecting intracranial attenuation differences and may be stated to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of intracranial calcifications. Of 5985 brain CT scans performed in Kyung Hee University Hospital during past 3 years, 36 cases were found to have high attenuation lesions suggesting calcifications within basal ganglia. 1. The incidence of basal ganglia calcification on CT scan was about 0.6%. 2. Of these 36 cases, 34 cases were bilateral and the remainder was unilateral. 3. The plain skull films of 23 cases showed visible calcification of basal ganglia in 3 cases (13%). 4. No specific metabolic disease was noted in the cases

  13. Growth Pattern of Atherosclerotic Calcifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lene Lillemark; Ganz, Melanie; Dam, Erik

    2008-01-01

    of the calcifications are matched longitudinally using thin plate spline registration and area overlap calculations. The growth of the calcifications is measured by the distribution of the geometry statistics of the calcifications. The method was evaluated on 135 subjects with a total number of 611 calcifications. Our...

  14. Dual-energy digital mammography for calcification imaging: Scatter and nonuniformity corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammographic images of small calcifications, which are often the earliest signs of breast cancer, can be obscured by overlapping fibroglandular tissue. We have developed and implemented a dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM) technique for calcification imaging under full-field imaging conditions using a commercially available aSi:H/CsI:Tl flat-panel based digital mammography system. The low- and high-energy images were combined using a nonlinear mapping function to cancel the tissue structures and generate the dual-energy (DE) calcification images. The total entrance-skin exposure and mean-glandular dose from the low- and high-energy images were constrained so that they were similar to screening-examination levels. To evaluate the DE calcification image, we designed a phantom using calcium carbonate crystals to simulate calcifications of various sizes (212-425 μm) overlaid with breast-tissue-equivalent material 5 cm thick with a continuously varying glandular-tissue ratio from 0% to 100%. We report on the effects of scatter radiation and nonuniformity in x-ray intensity and detector response on the DE calcification images. The nonuniformity was corrected by normalizing the low- and high-energy images with full-field reference images. Correction of scatter in the low- and high-energy images significantly reduced the background signal in the DE calcification image. Under the current implementation of DEDM, utilizing the mammography system and dose level tested, calcifications in the 300-355 μm size range were clearly visible in DE calcification images. Calcification threshold sizes decreased to the 250-280 μm size range when the visibility criteria were lowered to barely visible. Calcifications smaller than ∼250 μm were usually not visible in most cases. The visibility of calcifications with our DEDM imaging technique was limited by quantum noise, not system noise

  15. [Disk calcifications in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L

    1985-05-01

    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children.

  16. Calcific shoulder joint periarthritis. Disappearance of calcifications after laser therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussetti, P; Moroso, P; Palazzo, C

    1986-01-01

    The authors report their results in the laser therapy of 30 calcific joint periarthritis. In two out of the ten radiographed cases, at the end of therapy, the complete disappearance of calcifications has been shown and in one case a decrease in calcification volume has been demonstrated. In the follow up after 6 months, 80% of clinically checked patients had no painful relapse.

  17. Radiological patterns of thyroid calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Sim, Do Chul; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the various patterns of calcification demonstrated in the anterior and lateral neck roentgenograms of 213 unselected patients with thyroid enlargement. The patterns of thyroid calcifications were correlated with clinical, surgical and histological findings. The results were as follows: 1. Of 213 cases of thyroid enlargement, 180 cases were benign and 168 cases were female. 2. The calcification rate was high in the chronic thyroid enlargement. 3. The incidence of calcification was 30.2% in the malignancy and 17.2% in the benign disease. There was no calcification in the Hashimoto's disease. 4. The nodular calcification was demonstrated in the both benign and malignant disease but curvilinear calcification was predominantly seen in benign disease.

  18. Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S.

    1981-01-01

    Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is an imflammation of the longus colli muscle tendon which is located on the anterior surface of the verterbral column extending from the atlas to the third thoracic vertebra. The acute inflammatory condition is selflimiting with symptoms consisting of a gradually increasing neck pain often associated with throat pain and difficulty swallowing. The pain is aggravated by head and neck movement. Clinically the condition can be confused with retropharyngeal absecess, meningitis, infectious spondylitis, and post-traumatic muscle spasm. The radiographic features of this condition consist of pre-vertebral soft tissue swelling from C1 to C4 and amorphous calcific density in the longus colli tendon anterior to the body of C2 and inferior to the anterior arch of C1. (orig.)

  19. Medial arterial calcification, calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification in a diabetic patient with severe autonomic neuropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Medial arterial calcification (Monckeberg\\'s arteriosclerosis) is well described in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. There is also a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. We describe a diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy and extensive medial arterial calcification who also had calcification of the aortic valve and of the mitral valve annulus. We propose that autonomic neuropathy may play a role in calcification of these structures at the base of the heart.

  20. Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, I.; Mendoza, M.; Aperribay, M.; Recondo, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in peri articular muscular attachments. It usually develops in extremities, most often in shoulders and hips. Although the incidence is much lower, it has been reported to occur in the neck region, where it involves the tendons insertion of the longs colli muscle. We present a case of acute neck pain caused by a calcareous deposition in the tendon of the longs colli muscle, producing inflammation. We describe the clinical and radiologic features (plain radiography, CT,MRI) associated with this entire. (Author) 7 refs

  1. Carotid artery calcification in ischemic stroke patients detected in standard dental panoramic radiographs - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, P.; Kiliaridis, S.; Leemann, B.; Schimmel, M.; Muller, F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Examine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications in standard dental panoramic radiographs (OPT), their association to gender, medical history and oral status. Assess the predictive value of a dental OPT in early diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Material and Methods: Fourteen patients admitted to Geneva University Hospital for recent ischemic stroke and stenosis of the carotid artery confirmed by Duplex sonography. All OPTs were digitised and subsequently assessed independently by two operators. Results: From 21 carotid artery calcifications detected with Doppler sonography 15 were visible on the corresponding OPT, most of them on the right side (n=11). No correlation was found between the side of calcification and cerebral lesion. Hypertension and periodontal disease were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Dentists who either detect carotid artery calcifications in OPTs or see patients with severe periodontitis should consider a prophylactic specialist examination. (authors)

  2. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, S.E.P.; Aikawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  3. Calcification in a pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.M.; Johnson, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive calcification in a rapidly growing malignant mixed mesothelioma of the pleura was observed on plain radiography and computed tomography of the chest in a patient with a long history of asbestos exposure and chronic renal failure

  4. Calcifications simulating peroneus longus tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A. de; Illum, F.; Joergensen, J.

    1984-01-01

    In two patients with sprains of the ankle joint calcification adjacent to the posterior tibial margin was evident in the lateral projection of a standard radiographic examination. Calcifying peroneus longus tendinitis was suggested. Further tangential views and computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed, however, that the calcifications in both patients were located in the tibial insertion of the posterior and inferior tibio-fibular ligament. In such cases, a correct diagnosis will avoid unnecessary treatment for a non-existent tendinitis. (orig.)

  5. Micro-calcification detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, M.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use in an x-ray scanning system to indicate the presence of minute objects too small for satisfactory visual resolution. The detector signal is electronically analyzed to obtain changes in the x-ray beam attributable to the minute objects and a visible marker is generated on the display in response to the signal analyzer. (U.K.)

  6. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metens, Thierry [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Moreno, Christophe [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatopancreatology, and Digestive Oncology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  7. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metens, Thierry; Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso; Moreno, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm 2 ) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm 2 images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  8. Sudden death in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta with arterial medial and myocardial calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bongiovann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner. The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus. Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium, pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy. All the other organs, including gross vessels, were macroscopically normal. The heart showed histologically large, multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery. Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes. The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media. In veterinary medicine, arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification, as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia. However, today, the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis, rather than a mere passive process.

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  10. Diagnosis of calcification on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Kleine, L.J.; McMillan, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    A wide variety of normal and pathologic factors may induce intraabdominal calcification. In general, the most reliable indication of the cause of a calcification is its location; therefore, if the affected organ can be identified the radiographic diagnosis is often straightforward or, at least, limited to relatively few possibilities. With this principle in mind, a series of patients with abdominal calcification are described for the purpose of illustrating the appearance of calcification of various abdominal organs. In addition, etiology for the calcification in each patient is discussed. Certain extraabdominal calcifications which may be seen on abdominal radiographs are also mentioned

  11. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinetti, A.; Sessa, M.; Falzone, A.; Della Sala, S.W. [Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rovereto, TN (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain. Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons may be complicated by adjacent bone erosion and subsequent migration of calcific deposits within the bone resulting in marrow inflammation. Bone marrow involvement is not readily visible using X-ray and ultrasound (US) and further testing is necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive technique that can detect a focal bone T1 and T2-weighted hypointensity with bone marrow edema-like signal and cortical erosion. These findings can mislead the radiologist by suggesting an infectious or neoplastic lesion, often requiring further evaluation with computed tomography (CT) and biopsy. We report two cases of patients with shoulder pain in which different radiological approaches were used with pathological confirmation in one of them. In the first case, MRI revealed significant bone involvement in the head of the humerus and cortical erosion of the greater tuberosity. A CT examination and a biopsy was necessary for a final diagnosis of inflammatory bone reaction from intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications. In the second case, similar MRI findings prompted re-evaluation of imaging to make a diagnosis of intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications, obviating the need to perform CT and biopsy. We illustrate MRI signs of this complication that we think would allow to narrow the differential diagnosis potentially avoiding biopsy and additional CT examinations. (orig.)

  12. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinetti, A.; Sessa, M.; Falzone, A.; Della Sala, S.W.

    2018-01-01

    Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain. Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons may be complicated by adjacent bone erosion and subsequent migration of calcific deposits within the bone resulting in marrow inflammation. Bone marrow involvement is not readily visible using X-ray and ultrasound (US) and further testing is necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive technique that can detect a focal bone T1 and T2-weighted hypointensity with bone marrow edema-like signal and cortical erosion. These findings can mislead the radiologist by suggesting an infectious or neoplastic lesion, often requiring further evaluation with computed tomography (CT) and biopsy. We report two cases of patients with shoulder pain in which different radiological approaches were used with pathological confirmation in one of them. In the first case, MRI revealed significant bone involvement in the head of the humerus and cortical erosion of the greater tuberosity. A CT examination and a biopsy was necessary for a final diagnosis of inflammatory bone reaction from intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications. In the second case, similar MRI findings prompted re-evaluation of imaging to make a diagnosis of intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications, obviating the need to perform CT and biopsy. We illustrate MRI signs of this complication that we think would allow to narrow the differential diagnosis potentially avoiding biopsy and additional CT examinations. (orig.)

  13. A Novel Method for Determining Calcification Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maidment, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    Breast calcifications can be divided into two broad categories. Type I are composed of calcium oxylate while type II calcifications all have some phosphorus content most typically calcium hydroxyapatite...

  14. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  15. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  16. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  17. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa R.; Pandey, Tarun; Badawi, Mona H.

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification. (orig.)

  18. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa R. [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Radiology Department, Little Rock, AR (United States); Badawi, Mona H. [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    2008-01-15

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification. (orig.)

  19. Calcification of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Nishikawa, J.; Sasaki, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Peritoneal calcification is noted in peritoneal dissemination from serious cystoadenocarcinoma of the ovary, pseudomyxoma peritonei and meconium peritonitis. This article discusses a case of peritoneal disseminated calcification from gastric carcinoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report in English literature of gastric cancer showing peritoneal calcification. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  20. Cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.C., E-mail: ecferguson@hotmail.co [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Berkowitz, E.A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Many types of cardiac and pericardial calcifications identified on chest radiographs can be recognized and distinguished based on characteristic locations and appearances. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of detecting cardiac and pericardial calcifications on chest radiographs, and to illustrate and describe the various types of calcifications that may be encountered and how they may be differentiated from one another. Each type of cardiac and pericardial calcification is discussed, its location and appearance described, and its significance explained. Recognizing and understanding these calcifications is important as they are often encountered in daily practice and play an important role in patient care.

  1. Thymoma calcification: Is it clinically meaningful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkaied Homam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among anterior mediastinal lesions, thymoma is the most common. Thymomas are tumors of thymic epithelial cell origin that are distinguished by inconsistent histological and biologic behavior. Chest imaging studies typically show a round or lobulated tumor in the anterior mediastinum. Calcifications in thymomas are classically punctuate or amorphous, positioned within the lesion. Chest computed tomography (CT features suggesting higher risk thymoma consist of tumor heterogeneity, vascular involvement, lobulation, pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy, and pleural manifestations. Imaging findings have an imperfect ability to predict stage and prognosis for thymoma patients. Our objective is to highlight the clinical implications of thymoma calcifications on the diagnosis, clinical manifestation and prognosis. A pubmed and google search was performed using the following words: thymoma calcification, calcified thymus, mediastinal calcification, anterior mediastinal calcification, and calcified thymoma. After reviewing 370 articles, 32 eligible articles describing thymoma calcifications were found and included in this review. Although the presence of thymus calcifications was more common in patients with invasive thymomas, they were present in significant portion of non-invasive thymomas. The presence of calcifications was not a significant factor in differentiating between benign and malignant thymoma. As a result, the type, location, size or other characteristics of thymus gland calcifications were not relevant features in clinical and radiologic diagnosis of thymoma. The histopathological diagnosis is still the only possible way to confirm the neoplastic nature of thymoma. All types of thymomas should be evaluated and managed independently of the presence of calcifications.

  2. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  3. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  4. Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis. [Radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S.

    1981-12-01

    Calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is an imflammation of the longus colli muscle tendon which is located on the anterior surface of the verterbral column extending from the atlas to the third thoracic vertebra. The acute inflammatory condition is selflimiting with symptoms consisting of a gradually increasing neck pain often associated with throat pain and difficulty swallowing. The pain is aggravated by head and neck movement. Clinically the condition can be confused with retropharyngeal absecess, meningitis, infectious spondylitis, and post-traumatic muscle spasm. The radiographic features of this condition consist of pre-vertebral soft tissue swelling from C1 to C4 and amorphous calcific density in the longus colli tendon anterior to the body of C2 and inferior to the anterior arch of C1.

  5. Calcification process dynamics in coral primary polyps as observed using a calcein incubation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcification processes are largely unknown in scleractinian corals. In this study, live confocal imaging was used to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the calcification process in aposymbiotic primary polyps of the coral species Acropora digitifera. The fluorophore calcein was used as a calcium deposition marker and a visible indicator of extracellular fluid distribution at the tissue-skeleton interface (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM in primary polyp tissues. Under continuous incubation in calcein-containing seawater, initial crystallization and skeletal growth were visualized among the calicoblastic cells in live primary polyp tissues. Additionally, the distribution of calcein-stained SCM and contraction movements of the pockets of SCM were captured at intervals of a few minutes. Our experimental system provided several new insights into coral calcification, particularly as a first step in monitoring the relationship between cellular dynamics and calcification in vivo. Our study suggests that coral calcification initiates at intercellular spaces, a finding that may contribute to the general understanding of coral calcification processes.

  6. Arterial calcification: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2013-07-31

    There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic plaque burden, with angiography studies showing very high sensitivity but poor specificity of CAC score for predicting obstructive disease. Nevertheless, there are objections to CAC screening because of uncertainties and lack of studies showing improved outcome. Furthermore, histopathology studies indicate that heavily calcified plaque is unlikely to result in a CV event, while the vulnerable plaque tends to be uncalcified or 'mixed', suggesting that calcification may be protective. This scenario highlights a number of paradoxes, which may indicate that the association between CAC and CV events is spurious, following from the adoption of CAC as a surrogate for high plaque burden, which itself is a surrogate for the presence of vulnerable plaque. Since studies indicate that arterial calcification is a complex, organised and regulated process similar to bone formation, there is no particular reason why it should be a reliable indicator of either the plaque burden or the risk of a future CV event. We suggest that it is time to divorce arterial calcification from atherosclerosis and to view it as a distinct pathology in its own right, albeit one which frequently coexists with atherosclerosis and is related to it for reasons which are not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  8. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  9. CT screened arterial calcification as a risk factor for mortality after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De'Ath, Henry D; Oakland, Kathryn; Brohi, Karim

    2016-10-10

    Arterial calcification on Computerised Tomography (CT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease. It is predictive of future adverse cardiac events and mortality in many disease states. The incidence of arterial disease and its impact on outcomes of the injured is not known. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of arterial calcification in trauma patients, and establish its impact on mortality. A retrospective cohort study of all injured patients aged over 45 years presenting to a major trauma centre over a 34-month period. The presence and quantity of coronary, aortic and abdominal arterial calcification on admission CT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis was established, and the association between cardiovascular disease and in-hospital mortality following trauma was determined. Five hundred ninety-one patients were included in the study. Cardiac calcium was visible on 432 (73 %) scans, and abdominal arterial calcification on 472 (79.9 %). Fifty (8.5 %) patients died. Patients with Superior Mesenteric (SMA) and Common Iliac Artery calcification had a significantly higher mortality than those without (p < 0.01). In multivariarate analysis, only SMA calcification was independently associated with mortality (OR 2.462, 95 % CI 1.08-5.60, p = 0.032). Coronary calcium demonstrated no independent statistical relationship with death (Left Anterior Descending Artery OR 1.189, 95 % CI 0.51-2.78, Circumflex OR 1.290, 95 % CI 0.56-2.98, Right Coronary Artery OR 0.483, 95 % CI 0.21-1.10). This study has demonstrated that the identification of arterial calcification on admission CT scans of trauma patients is possible. Calcification was common, and present in around three-quarters of injured individuals over the age of 45 years. SMA calcium was an independent predictor of mortality. However, whilst the presence of arterial calcium demonstrated a tendency towards lower survival, this association was not significant in other territories

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  12. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  13. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  14. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  15. Acute Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis in an Unusual Location: a Case Report in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Atlantoaxial Subluxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Uhm, Wan Sik [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is defined as inflammation of the longus colli muscle and is caused by the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals, which usually involves the superior oblique fibers of the longus colli muscle from C1-3. Diagnosis is usually made by detecting amorphous calcification and prevertebral soft tissue swelling on radiograph, CT or MRI. In this report, we introduce a case of this disease which was misdiagnosed as a retropharyngeal tuberculous abscess, or a muscle strain of the ongus colli muscle. No calcifications were visible along the vertical fibers of the longus colli muscle. The lesion was located anterior to the C4-5 disc, in a rheumatoid arthritis patient with atlantoaxial subluxation. Calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle at this location in a rheumatoid arthritis patient has not been reported in the English literature.

  16. Intracranial calcification on paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, B.; Cavanagh, N.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the computed tomograms of 18000 children examined consecutively form the basis of an assessment of the diagnostic significance of intracranial calcification. The low incidence of physiological calcification in the pineal and choroid of about 2% up to the age of 8 years, but increasing 5-fold by the age of 15 years, is confirmed. Pathological calcification occurred in 1.6%, the commonest causes being neoplasms (43%), neuroectodermal syndromes (20%) and infections (12%). Diffuse basal ganglia calcification (15%) bore little relation to the diverse clinical symptomatology, and routine bio-chemical studies showed a disorder of metabolism to be present in only 6 cases. Calcification has not been previously noted in acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, Pertussis or Cocksackie encephalitis, infantile neuraxonal dystrophy, Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome or in the basal ganglia in neurofibromatosis. (orig.)

  17. Calcifications in the breast in Filaria loa infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, R. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    A 40-year-old patient underwent mammography for evaluation of a mass. Atypical calcifications were observed in the opposite breast. Two types of calcification were observed: One type was spiral-shaped and the other type rod-shaped. These calcifications were caused by Filaria loa. Parasitic calcifications in the breast are uncommon. (orig.).

  18. Atypical calcific tendinitis with cortical erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, E.J.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To present and discuss six cases of calcific tendinitis in atypical locations (one at the insertion of the pectoralis major and five at the insertion of the gluteus maximus).Patients and results. All cases were associated with cortical erosions, and five had soft tissue calcifications. The initial presentation was confusing and the patients were suspected of having infection or neoplastic disease.Conclusion. Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition. It is important to recognize the imaging features of this condition to avoid unnecessary investigation and surgery. (orig.)

  19. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2011-01-01

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  20. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2011-09-15

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  1. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masayuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Kimura, Hirohiko

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  2. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  3. Isolated splenic calcifications in two patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixandre, A.; Cugat, A.; Ruiz, A.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Tardaguila, F.

    2002-01-01

    Calcification of the walls of the veins of the portal hypertension (PHT) (1-0), is uncommon. Calcification of the intra splenic vessels is exceptional. We report two cases of isolated calcification of intra splenic vessels, without calcification of the splenoportal venous axis, in patients with liver cirrhosis and PHT. The calcification was not clear. Computed tomography identified the calcification as linear tubular, branched structures located in the wall of intra splenic vessels. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed signs of cirrhosis and PHT but did not show the splenic classifications because of technical limitations. The cause of these calcifications was sustained PHT due to chronic liver disease. (Author) 15 refs

  4. The role of calcification for staging cystic echinococcosis (CE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosch, Waldemar; Kauffmann, Guenter W. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaenisch, Thomas [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital of Heidelberg, Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The prevalence of calcified cysts and the significance of calcification as a sign of cyst inactivity in cystic echinococcosis (CE) was evaluated. Seventy-eight patients (36 females, 42 males, mean age 40.8 {+-} 16.9 years) with CE, having a total of 137 abdominal cysts (116 hepatic, three splenic, one renal and 17 peritoneal cysts), were diagnosed and followed-up by ultrasound during and after albendazole treatment or as part of the watch-and-wait approach recording changes in the cyst wall and content. In 48 patients with 94 cysts, computed tomography (CT) imaging was additionally available and was correlated with ultrasound findings. Cyst wall calcification was classified into (1) ''sprinkled'', (2) ''eggshell-like'', and (3) ''circular''. Calcification of the cyst wall and/or cyst content was detected in 67 echinococcal cysts (48.9% of all cysts) in 39 patients (15 females, 24 males, mean age 40.8 {+-} 14.8 years). Of the total of 67 calcified cysts, only 23 were compatible with WHO type CE5, 18 with WHO type CE4. Judged by cyst content, the remaining 26 were of WHO type CE1, CE2 and CE3 (n = 1, n = 8, and n = 17, respectively). During a mean period of 34.3 months ({+-}21.3 months) the majority of cysts (n = 32) did not exhibit any change in cyst content and wall properties. Fourteen cysts showed signs of progressive involution, five cysts (all of WHO type CE3) of renewed activity defined by recurring fluid collection. In 16 cysts, no follow-up was available due to surgery or drop out. Calcification of the cyst is not restricted to the inactive WHO cyst types CE4 and CE5, but occurs in all stages and in up to 50% of cysts. The completeness and, most importantly, the stability of consolidation of cyst content over time predicts cyst inactivity more reliably. (orig.)

  5. Breast skin calcifications: Mammographic recognition and confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.E.; Gatewood, O.M.B.; Gayler, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors found microcalcifications in the skin of the breast to occur in 8% of patients undergoing mammography, a prevalence much higher than what has been previously reported. Usually in incidental finding, breast skin calcifications are readily recognized when they are multiple, bilateral, coarse, or polygonal with a central radiolucency; when they are located in a peripheral portion of the breast on at least one view, or when they are serendipitously imaged within the skin. One hundred patients with breast skin calcifications were studied. In 15 patients in whom clustered dermal calcifications simulated parenchymal microcalcifications, template-guided tangential views permitted precise skin localization. Three of those patients had been referred for needle localization before biopsy and four after failed biopsy for clustered microcalcifications. Dermal calcifications can pose a vexing problem in the management of microcalcifications of the breast. A high index of suspicion is warrented in order to forestall unnecessary or unsuccessful biopsies

  6. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, P; Bardin, T; Laredo, J D; Ziza, J M; D'Anglejan, G; Lansaman, J; Bucki, B; Forest, M; Kuntz, D

    1994-05-01

    To determine the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion. The records of 6 patients with paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis and adjacent bone cortex erosion were reviewed. Calcific tendinitis involved the linea aspera in 4 patients, the bicipital groove in 1 patient, and the deltoid insertion in another. Calcium deposits were associated with cortical bone erosions, revealed on plain radiographs in 4 patients and computed tomography scans in 2. Bone scans were performed in 2 patients and showed local hyperfixation of the isotope. In 4 patients, suspicion of a neoplasm led to a biopsy. Calcium deposits appeared to be surrounded by a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells. Apatite crystals were identified by transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis in 1 surgical sample. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion is an uncommon presentation of apatite deposition disease.

  7. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki.

    1987-01-01

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion. (author)

  8. Topical thrombin-related corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Irkeç, Murat; Alaçal, Sibel; Söylemezoğlu, Figen

    2006-09-01

    To report a highly unusual case of corneal calcification after brief intraoperative use of topical thrombin. A 44-year-old man underwent sclerouvectomy for ciliochoroidal leiomyoma, during which 35 UNIH/mL lyophilized bovine thrombin mixed with 9 mL of diluent containing 1500 mmol/mL calcium chloride was used. From the first postoperative day, corneal and anterior lenticular capsule calcifications developed, and corneal involvement slightly enlarged thereafter. A year later, 2 corneal punch biopsies confirmed calcification mainly in the Bowman layer. Topical treatment with 1.5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly restored corneal clarity. Six months later, a standard extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens placement improved visual acuity to 20/60. This case suggests that topical thrombin drops with elevated calcium concentrations may cause acute corneal calcification in Bowman layer and on the anterior lens capsule.

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  10. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  11. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  12. Calcific myonecrosis: keys to early recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holobinko, Newt J.; Scerpella, Patrick R.; Hojnowski, Leonard; Damron, Timothy A.

    2003-01-01

    Calcific myonecrosis is a rare, late sequela of trauma occurring almost exclusively in the lower extremity which may be confused with an aggressive primary neoplasm. The platelike mineralization pattern seen on radiographs is characteristic but not widely recognized by clinicians. Three cases of calcific myonecrosis are reported, unique in that two presented for care following infection and that one had extended to involve the muscle compartments of the foot, a previously unreported site. (orig.)

  13. Tumor-like calcifications with scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.; Kulenkampff, H.A.; Kortenhaus, H.

    1987-01-01

    In patients with progressive scleroderma, interstitial calcifications are present to a varying extent. They are mostly located in the soft tissues of the fingers, resembling points, commas or dashes. They may also appear as 'calcinosis universalis' and reach a considerable size. Thus they mimic proliferative tumors. Scintigraphy, proving the existence of further calcifications can be helpful. We report the case of a female patient who presented with such a 'pseudotumor' of unusual size, site and extent in the lumbar region. (orig.) [de

  14. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Michael J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease

  15. Sudden death in a captive meerkat(Suricata suricatta) with arterial medial and myocardial calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Bongiovann; Nicola Di Girolamo; Leonardo Della Salda; Marcella Massimi; Mariarita Romanucci; Paolo Selleri

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner.The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus.Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium,pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy.All the other organs,including gross vessels,were macroscopically normal.The heart showed histologically large,multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery.Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes.The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media.In veterinary medicine,arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification,as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia.However,today,the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis,rather than a mere passive process.

  16. Diagnostic value of CT on hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Zhang Xuelin; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge; Zhong Qun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess CT manifestations and diagnostic value in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Methods: Ten cases of hepatic tuberculosis proved by hepatic biopsy or surgical specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This group of hepatic tuberculosis included three types. (1) Five cases of miliary hepatic tuberculosis demonstrated that the liver swelled diffusely associated with multiple miliary low attenuations, and showed no enhancement after contrast agents administration. (2) Three cases of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis depicted multiple hypodensity areas or mixed density regions in the liver. The extension of lesions reduced in arterial phase, and a ring-like enhancement was displayed in the portal phase. (3) One case of hepatic tuberculoma illustrated solitary space occupying lesion accompanied with central necrosis. The envelope was thin and smooth which enhanced slightly after injecting Gd-DTPA. Another one was hepatic abscess and depicted fluid-fluid level inside the lesion. Conclusions: The CT manifestations of miliary hepatic tuberculosis lack of characteristics, it is hard to make the diagnosis clear-cut unless integrating the medical history and lab test. The 'powder calcification' findings of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis is propitious to draw a qualitative diagnosis. And the feature of hepatic tuberculomas with fluid- fluid level is in favor of making a differential diagnosis against parallel tumors. (authors)

  17. Aortic valve calcifications on chest films: how much calcium do I need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Dohmen, Guido; Koos, Ralf

    2011-08-01

    Aortic valve calcifications (AVC) as seen on conventional chest films or on CT are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS). The absence of AVC on chest films does not exclude high grade AVS. The aim of this study was to analyse if there is a threshold for the detection of AVC from conventional chest films in patients suffering from high grade AVS. The explanted aortic valves of 29 patients (16 male, mean age 72.3 +/- 11.5 years) with high grade AVS were examined by dual-source CT. AVC were quantified using the Agatston AVC score. In all patients conventional chest films obtained the day before surgery were evaluated for the presence of AVC. Results were analysed with students t-test, Spearman's rank correlation and ROC analysis. On conventional chest films AVC were visible in 18 patients. On CT all specimen presented with AVC with an Agatston AVC score ranging from 40.7 to 1870 (mean 991.3 +/- 463.1). In patients with AVC visible on chest films the AVC score was significantly higher (1264.0 +/- 318.2) when compared with patients without visible calcifications (544.9 +/- 274.4; P AVC score and the visibility of AVC on chest films (r = 0.781). ROC analysis identified an ideal threshold of 718 for AVC score to separate conventional chest films with and without visible AVC. Unlike in coronary calcifications, there is a threshold for identifying AVC from conventional chest films. This finding may be of diagnostic value, as conventional chest films may be used to semiquantitatively evaluate the extent of AVC.

  18. Cell Phenotype Transitions in Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hortells

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular calcification was originally considered a passive, degenerative process, however with the advance of cellular and molecular biology techniques it is now appreciated that ectopic calcification is an active biological process. Vascular calcification is the most common form of ectopic calcification, and aging as well as specific disease states such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and genetic mutations, exhibit this pathology. In the vessels and valves, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells contribute to the formation of extracellular calcified nodules. Research suggests that these vascular cells undergo a phenotypic switch whereby they acquire osteoblast-like characteristics, however the mechanisms driving the early aspects of these cell transitions are not fully understood. Osteoblasts are true bone-forming cells and differentiate from their pluripotent precursor, the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC; vascular cells that acquire the ability to calcify share aspects of the transcriptional programs exhibited by MSCs differentiating into osteoblasts. What is unknown is whether a fully-differentiated vascular cell directly acquires the ability to calcify by the upregulation of osteogenic genes or, whether these vascular cells first de-differentiate into an MSC-like state before obtaining a “second hit” that induces them to re-differentiate down an osteogenic lineage. Addressing these questions will enable progress in preventative and regenerative medicine strategies to combat vascular calcification pathologies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the phenotypic switching of vascular endothelial, smooth muscle, and valvular cells.

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  20. Heart failure due to severe myocardial calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shouichi; Maida, Kiyoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Shigeo

    1993-01-01

    A 28-year-old female who had had irradiation on the chest wall at the age of 5 as a remedy for keloid granulation after burn, recently developed congestive heart failure. Severe tricuspid regurgitation was demonstrated by echocardiography with a certain calcification in the cardiac shadow on chest radiogram. Calcified right ventricle and ventricular septum were noticed operatively, which disturbed ventricular motion and also caused tricuspid valve deformity. These calcified myocardium apparently corresponded with the irradiation field. After tricuspid valve replacement, she regained physical activity satisfactorily without congestive heart failure. Because she had no other known causes of cardiac calcification such as hypercalcemia, myocarditis, myocardial infarction or renal diseases, irradiation on the chest wall could be responsible for the severe myocardial calcification. (author)

  1. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Calcification and Ossification in an Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation.

  3. Double Trouble Foraminiferal Calcification in a Changing Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, I.E.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Within the project ‘Double Trouble: Foraminiferal Calcification in a Changing Ocean’, I tried to illuminate mechanisms determining element incorporation in foraminifera with different calcification strategies. In particular, I aimed to assess the interplay between ocean acidification and

  4. Double Trouble : Foraminiferal calcification in a changing ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, I.E.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Within the project ‘Double Trouble: Foraminiferal Calcification in a Changing Ocean’, I tried to illuminate mechanisms determining element incorporation in foraminifera with different calcification strategies. In particular, I aimed to assess the interplay between ocean acidification and

  5. Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanassoulis, George; Campbell, Catherine Y; Owens, David S

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease.......Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease....

  6. Bilateral basal ganglia calcifications visualised on CT scan.

    OpenAIRE

    Brannan, T S; Burger, A A; Chaudhary, M Y

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-eight cases of basal ganglia calcification imaged on computed axial tomography were reviewed. Most cases were felt to represent senescent calcification. The possibility of a vascular aetiology in this group is discussed. A less common group of patients was identified with calcification secondary to abnormalities in calcium metabolism or radiation therapy. Three cases of basal ganglia calcifications were detected in juvenile epileptic patients receiving chronic anticonvulsants. These ca...

  7. Vascular and valvular calcifications in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bruzzone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular and valvular calcifications are a frequent complication in dialyzed patients and are connected to an increased morbi-mortality. Many radiological methods (TAC multiple slices and with electrons emission have been used to investigate the presence of vascular calcifications in this population, but only few works have been focused on simple radiology. Objectives: The objectives of this work are to evaluate vascular calcifications by means of Kauppila index in hemodialysis prevalent patients, identify linked risk factors and determine their association with heart valves calcification. Methods: 95 stable patients under hemodialysis were surveyed during a period of 6 months longer. Abdominal Rx simple profile were performed on all patients to evaluate calcification of abdominal aorta by Kauppila index and twodimensional echocardiogram to detect valvular calcifications. Data were collected about sex, age, diabetes, Hypertension, tabaquism, dislipemia and bone-mineral metabolism. Results: 64.5% of the patients showed vascular calcifications. Average Kauppila index was 6.25. Age and time on dialysis correlated with vascular calcifications. In 31.6 % of individuals valvular calcifications were found, which presented significant association with diabetes and Kauppila Index. Conclusions: Vascular and valvular calcifications were frequent in the surveyed population. Kauppila index correlated with age, time on dialysis and valvular calcifications. Heart valves calcification was associated with diabetes.

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  10. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver demonstrating peripheral calcification in a 12-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Michael A.; Giles, Henry W.

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver is a rare benign hepatic tumor that typically presents in the first 2 years of life. Approximately 85% of affected children present before the age of 3 years and less than 5% present after the age of 5 years. Although spontaneous regression has been reported in this benign tumor, most mesenchymal hamartomas gradually increase in size and can reach enormous proportions. We present an atypical case of mesenchymal hamartoma in a 12-year-old boy. The boy's age and presence of calcifications on CT demonstrate a unique presentation of this rare entity. (orig.)

  11. Clinicoradiologic evaluation of styloid process calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Mun Bhawni; Kumar, C. Anand; Yeluri, Garima

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence, morphology, and calcification pattern of the elongated styloid process in the Mathura population and its relation to gender, age, and mandibular movements. The study analyzed digital panoramic radiographs of 2,706 adults. The elongated styloid process was classified with the radiographic appearance based on the morphology and calcification pattern. The limits of mandibular protrusion were evaluated for each subject. The data were analyzed by using a Student's t-test and chi-squared test with significance set at p=0.05. Bilateral elongation having an 'elongated' type styloid process with a 'partially mineralized' pattern was the most frequent type of styloid process. No correlation was found between styloid process type and calcification pattern on the one hand and gender on the other, although elongated styloid was more prevalent in older and male populations (p 0.05). Dentists should recognize the existence of morphological variation in elongated styloid process or Eagle syndrome apparent on panoramic radiographs. We found higher prevalence of elongated styloid process in the population of the Mathura region when compared with other Indian populations. The calcification of the styloid process was more common in the older age group with no correlation to gender, mandibular movement and site. 'Type I' with a 'partially calcified' styloid process was observed more frequently in the population studied.

  12. Penile gangrene due to calcific uremic arteriopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... 2Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, 3Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Unit, King Fahad. Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Correspondence to: Dr. .... Russell R, Brookshire MA, Zekonis M, Moe SM. Distal calcific uremic arteriolopathy in a hemodialysis patient responds to ...

  13. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-01-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT. (orig.) [de

  14. Coronary artery calcification in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, T.; Shimazaki, S.; Akimoto, K.; Park, I.; Nishimoto, K.; Yabuta, K.; Tanaka, A.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the angiographic features of coronary lesions in Kawasaki disease with coronary artery calcification, cinefluoroscopy and cineangiography were retrospectively reviewed in 116 patients who had undergone coronary angiography between 1982 and 1989. Angiographic abnormalities of coronary arteries were demonstrated in 55 of 116 patients. In 5 (9.1%) of the 55 patients, 9 with calcification were identified by cinefluoroscopy and chest X-ray. Eight of the 9 calcified lesions showed a circular or ring-shape configuration. Coronary angiography revealed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery with collateral circulation from the distal left coronary artery in 2 patients and a severe stenosis of the right coronary artery in 2 patients, in whom anticoagulant therapy had not been continued during the follow-up periods. The remaining patient in whom anticoagulant therapy had been continued had bilateral aneurysms but no significant stenosis. These results indicate that a ring-shape calcification on chest X-ray in 2 patients with a history of Kawasaki disease may suggest an involvement by coronary artery stenosis even when anticoagulant drugs had been given. Therefore, coronary angiography should be performed to evaluate the stenotic lesions if this type of calcification is found by routine radiographic examination. (orig.)

  15. Sclerosing peritonitis with gross calcification: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheung Sook; Kim, Young Jae; Min, Seon Jeong; Cho, Seong Whi; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis is an uncommon complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and can lead to small bowel dysfunction involving abdominal pain, progressive loss of ultrafiltration, and small intestinal obstruction. Peritoneal thickening, in which calcification can develop, often starts as al small plaque which gradually becomes larger. We report a case of CAPD-related calcifying peritonitis.

  16. Diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic calcific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) was determined in 25 successive patients with both diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty patients (80%) were alcoholics and all were black. Of these, 9 (45%) had CCP. In only 3 of these 9 patients was the history compatible with the ...

  17. Diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic calcific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) was determined in 25 successive patients with both diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty patients (80%) were alcoholics and all were black. Of these, 9. (45%) had CCP. In only 3 of these 9 patients was the history compatible with the ...

  18. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  19. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Study of the position of calcification in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Toru; Matsuura, Koumei; Shin, Kunichika; Ooe, Kenjiro

    2011-01-01

    The commonly occurring position of calcification in the calcific tendinitis of the shoulder is said to be the supraspinatus tendon. In the anatomical field, it has been newly discovered that the infraspinatus tendon crosses over the supraspinatus tendon to the superior facet of the greater tuberosity. In this study, we thus attempted to determine the occurring position of calcification on MRI quantitatively. We measured the angle between the bicipital groove and center of calcification, and found it to be 49.5±16.5 degrees. On the other hand, it has been reported that the boundary line between the superior and middle facets is 45.4 degrees externally rotated from the bicipital groove. The protrusion formed at the greater tuberosity at this position imposes mechanical stress on the rotator cuff tendon. As we confirmed that these two angles are very close in this study, it suggests that calcification occurs at the boundary line of the superior and middle facets. Our findings also indicate that calcification often occurs at the infraspinatus tendon. (author)

  1. Significance of coronary artery calcification detected incidentally with chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.H.; Greenberg, R.; Miller, S.W.; Shepard, J.O.; Bourgouin, P.M.; McLoud, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coronary artery calcifications are well seen on CT scans because of high contrast resolution. Individual vessels were scored 0-3+ based on degree of calcification in over 40 patients who also underwent cardiac catheterization. Though relatively insensitive, the presence of dense calcifications had a specificity of roughly 60% to 70% for the presence of severe stenosis. In addition, 30 patients with calcification on CT scans and 30 age-matched controls, all of whom underwent thoracotomy, were compared with respect to prior cardiac history, estimated anesthetic risk, and postoperative cardiac complications. Patients with calcifications were more likely to have evidence of coronary disease and/or encounter postoperative cardiac complications

  2. Medial arterial calcification in diabetes and its relationship to neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffcoate, W J; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Hofbauer, L C

    2009-01-01

    Calcification of the media of arterial walls is common in diabetes and is particularly associated with distal symmetrical neuropathy. Arterial calcification also complicates chronic kidney disease and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The term calcification......, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, which are inherently protective. The association between distal symmetrical neuropathy and calcification of the arterial wall highlights the fact that neuropathy may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.......Calcification of the media of arterial walls is common in diabetes and is particularly associated with distal symmetrical neuropathy. Arterial calcification also complicates chronic kidney disease and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The term calcification...

  3. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Neal X., E-mail: xuechen@iupui.edu [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Moe, Sharon M. [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  4. Radiological observation of determination of sex by costal cartilage calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shin Hwa; Won, Jong Jin; Rhee, Song Joo; Moon, Moo Chang; Oh, Jong Hyun; Choi, Ki Chul

    1979-01-01

    The difference of patterns of costal cartilage calcification in male and female had been first described by Fischer in 1955. Thereafter several reports were published, but specific clinical significance was not found. During the period from January, 1978 to December, 1978, we, in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University, studied 2164 cases that showed the entire 12 pairs of ribs. Among these we detected 1494 cases of costal cartilage calcification and frequent sites of calcification. Patterns of costal cartilage calcification were classified into six groups- type l: central, type II: marginal, type III: junctional type, type IV: railroad, type V: diffuse, type VI: mixed. Results are as follows; 1. In a total of 2164 cases, calcification of costal cartilage was present in 1494 cases(69.0%). Of 1181 males 780 cases(66.0%) showed calcification, and of 983 females 714 cases (72.6%) showed calcification. 2. In 439 cases of males, except for 341 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows: marginal type in 265 cases (60.4%), junctional type in 134 cases (30.5%), mixed type in 21 cases (0.5%), central type in 17 cases(3.8%), and railroad type in 2 cases (0.5%). Diffuse type was not present. 3. In 492 cases of females, except of 222 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows; central type in 336 cases (68.3%), junctional type in 94 cases(19.1%), mixed type in 24 cases (4.9%), railroad type in 19 cases (3.9%), and diffuse type in 14 cases (2.8%). 4. When central calcification was observed, predictive value to female was 94.7%. When marginal calcification was observed, predictive value to male was 987.4%. 5. Males frequently showed calcification in upper costal cartilages, and females in lower costal cartilages.

  5. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  6. Making the invisible visible: searching for human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in Brazilian patients with viral hepatitis B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Caterino-de-Araujo

    Full Text Available With this study, the authors hope to alert clinicians regarding the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2 infections in patients with viral hepatitis B and C in Brazil. HTLV-1/-2 were detected in 1.3% of hepatitis B virus (HBV- and 5.3% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected blood samples sent for laboratory viral load measurements. A partial association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in patients with HCV (HIV+, 27.3%, whereas this association was almost 100% in HBV-infected patients (HIV+, all except one. The high prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among patients with hepatitis C was of concern, as HTLV-1/-2 could change the natural course of subsequent liver disease. The authors suggest including HTLV-1/-2 serology in the battery of tests used when following patients with viral hepatitis in Brazil, regardless of the HIV status.

  7. Making the invisible visible: searching for human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in Brazilian patients with viral hepatitis B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Alves, Fabiana Aparecida; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Lemos, Marcílio Figueiredo; Moreira, Regina Célia

    2018-02-01

    With this study, the authors hope to alert clinicians regarding the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2) infections in patients with viral hepatitis B and C in Brazil. HTLV-1/-2 were detected in 1.3% of hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and 5.3% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected blood samples sent for laboratory viral load measurements. A partial association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in patients with HCV (HIV+, 27.3%), whereas this association was almost 100% in HBV-infected patients (HIV+, all except one). The high prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among patients with hepatitis C was of concern, as HTLV-1/-2 could change the natural course of subsequent liver disease. The authors suggest including HTLV-1/-2 serology in the battery of tests used when following patients with viral hepatitis in Brazil, regardless of the HIV status.

  8. Calcification of intervertebral discs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, D.

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen children with intervertebral disc calcifications of the cervical, thoracal and lumbar spine have been diagnosed since 1970. Most of them were observed over a period of several years. Ten children fell ill with acute pains, but only 2 of them sufferred from a trauma. In 3 cases the features were discovered accidentally combined with malformations of vertebral bodies and congenital diseases. Our results suggest a primary structural inferiority of the calcified discs. The calcifications arise partially from a birth trauma, partially from an unknown etiology. They can last for a long time without symptoms. An acute event effects the pains due to shifting or herniation of calcified disc-fragments. Secondary findings such as decrease of the height of cervical vertebral bodies or destructions of the endplates of thoracal and lumbar vertebral bodies disappear retarded and often incompletely and demand a control for a long time. (orig.)

  9. Clinicoradiologic evaluation of styloid process calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Mun Bhawni [Dept. of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology, M.N. D.A.V. Dental College and Hospital, Solan (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, C. Anand; Yeluri, Garima [Dept. of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology, KD Dental College and Hospital, Mathura (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence, morphology, and calcification pattern of the elongated styloid process in the Mathura population and its relation to gender, age, and mandibular movements. The study analyzed digital panoramic radiographs of 2,706 adults. The elongated styloid process was classified with the radiographic appearance based on the morphology and calcification pattern. The limits of mandibular protrusion were evaluated for each subject. The data were analyzed by using a Student's t-test and chi-squared test with significance set at p=0.05. Bilateral elongation having an 'elongated' type styloid process with a 'partially mineralized' pattern was the most frequent type of styloid process. No correlation was found between styloid process type and calcification pattern on the one hand and gender on the other, although elongated styloid was more prevalent in older and male populations (p<0.05). Further styloid process elongation showed no effect on mandibular protrusive movement (p>0.05). Dentists should recognize the existence of morphological variation in elongated styloid process or Eagle syndrome apparent on panoramic radiographs. We found higher prevalence of elongated styloid process in the population of the Mathura region when compared with other Indian populations. The calcification of the styloid process was more common in the older age group with no correlation to gender, mandibular movement and site. 'Type I' with a 'partially calcified' styloid process was observed more frequently in the population studied.

  10. Aortic stenosis and vascular calcifications in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoush, Hwaida; Introne, Wendy J; Chen, Marcus Y; Lee, Sook-Jin; O'Brien, Kevin; Suwannarat, Pim; Kayser, Michael A; Gahl, William A; Sachdev, Vandana

    2012-02-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports. We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Case of Chronic Calcific Nonalcoholic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Kangas-Dick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Calcific Pancreatitis (TCP is a type of chronic calcific nonalcoholic pancreatitis. Similar to nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, it presents in the second and third decades of life; however this type is reported mostly in the developing tropical and subtropical countries. It is associated with the formation of pancreatic calculi and a high probability of developing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Epidemiologic studies have shown that these patients have an increased risk of developing pancreatic carcinoma. The etiology of TCP remains uncertain, with the current consensus suggesting genetics as well as possible toxicity from consuming large amounts of cassava, a tuber. Definite diagnosis of TCP requires younger age of onset, history of malnutrition, and presence of diabetes mellitus along with extensive pancreatic calcification and ductal calculi. When patients meet most but not all of these conditions the term Idiopathic Chronic Pancreatitis (ICP is used. This is a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with most features seen in TCP, and however, was diagnosed with ICP.

  12. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification is implicated in myocardial infarction, instability and rigidity of the aortic wall, and bioprosthetic failures. Although an increase in the calcium (Ca content in atherogenic diets has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis in rabbits, whether Ca supplementation and deficiency can affect atherosclerosis-related aortic calcification remains unknown. Results New Zealand White male rabbit littermates were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil. The Ca content of the diet, which normally contains 1%, was adjusted to 0.5 or 3%. Segments of thoracic aortas were dissected from rabbits for histological evaluations and Ca and Pi determinations. Rabbits with calcium supplementation were maintained for 4 months, whereas those with calcium deficiency were maintained for 2 1/2 months due to severe icterus beyond this stage. The ratios of intimal to medial areas and calcified to intimal areas were used to semi-quantify lesion accumulation and calcification, respectively. Icterus was estimated from the extent of yellowing of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes along with gross evidence of hepatic lipidosis and/or biliary obstructions. Statistical analysis of 16 matched littermates shows that Ca supplementation significantly decreased the lesions by 41% (p Conclusion Ca supplementation to an atherogenic diet inhibits atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus, whereas a Ca deficient-diet promotes them.

  13. Acute Calcific Tendinitis of the Index Finger in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walocko, Frances M; Sando, Ian C; Haase, Steven C; Kozlow, Jeffrey H

    2017-09-01

    Calcific tendinitis is characterized by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within tendons and is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in adults. Its clinical manifestations may be acute, chronic, or asymptomatic. Acute calcific tendinitis is self-resolving condition that is rarely reported in the pediatric population and may be overlooked for more common processes, leading to unnecessary treatment. A chart reivew was performed of a single case of acute calcific tendonitis of the index finger in a child. We describe a case of calcific tendinitis of the index finger in a 9-year-old boy who was referred to us for a second opinion after surgical exploration of an acutely inflamed digit was recommended based on his initial presentation. The calcifications and symptoms resolved over time without operative management. Although rare in children, acute calcific tendinitis can present similar to an infection. However, appropriate managment is non-operative as the symptoms and radiographic findings resolve over time.

  14. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr’s disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly present...

  15. MR imaging of intracranial calcification; experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Hoon; Kim, Byung Jin; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Yang, Sung Yeul [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    This study was performed to evaluate MR signal intensity (SI) of calcification and to assess the capability of MRI in detection of various intracranial calcifications. The MR findings and ROI value of experimental model of calcium carbonate suspension according to each concentration (20, 35, 50%) and diameter (1-10 mm) and hydroxyapatite suspension according to each concentration (10, 20, 30, 40, 50%) were analyzed. A specimen of calcification in craniopharyngioma was analyzed for its composition by XRD (X-ray diffractometer) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods. MRI of 34 patients with intracranial calcifications were retrospectively analyzed for signal intensity of the calcification and its capability to detect calcifications according to size, location, and contrast with adjacent lesion. The calcium carbonate phantom with larger diameter and low concentration showed lower signal intensity on T2 than T1WI. Hydroxyapatite phantom showed high signal intensity in 10-30% concentration and low signal intensity in 40-50% concentration on T1 weighted image. The 5 cases of 34 intracranial calcifications showed high signal intensity on T1 weighted image. The capability of MRI in the detection of intracranial calcifications decreased in the circumstances such as small size (< 2.5 mm) and intraventricular location. Although the size of calcification was small, the detection was easy in the good contrast with adjacent lesion. However, the detection of the small sized calcification was easy if the contrast with adjacent lesion was good. Intracranial calcification shows generally low signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted image with the exception of occasional high SI on T1WI. Detection of intracranial calcification in MRI is affected by its composition, size, location, and contrast with adjacent lesion.

  16. An unusual case of neonatal peritoneal calcifications associated with hydrometrocolpos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.X.; Methratta, S. [College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-10-01

    Neonatal peritoneal calcifications usually suggest a diagnosis of meconium peritonitis, but in this case, a premature baby girl, peritoneal calcifications were caused by hydrometrocolpos secondary to imperforate hymen, a rare association. The patient presented with respiratory distress and ascites and demonstrated abdominal calcifications on plain film. Other radiographic work-up revealed hydrometrocolpos without evidence of gastrointestinal tract obstruction. The patient was diagnosed and treated for imperforate hymen; she was recovered fully. (orig.)

  17. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldes, K. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Lenchik, L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Clopton, P. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldes, K.; Lenchik, L.; Jaovisidha, S.; Clopton, P.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Chronic parotitis with multiple calcifications: Clinical and sialendoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel; Kiringoda, Ruwan; Ryan, William R; Eisele, David W; Chang, Jolie L

    2017-07-01

    To characterize clinical, imaging, and sialendoscopy findings in patients with chronic parotitis and multiple parotid calcifications. Retrospective review. Clinical history, radiographic images and reports, lab tests, and operative reports were reviewed for adult patients with chronic parotitis and multiple parotid calcifications who underwent parotid sialendoscopy. Thirteen of 133 (10%) patients undergoing parotid sialendoscopy for chronic sialadenitis had more than one calcification in the region of the parotid gland. Seven patients (54%) were diagnosed with immune-mediated disease from autoimmune parotitis (positive Sjögren's antibodies or antinuclear antibodies) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The six patients (46%) who did not have an immune-mediated disorder had most calcifications located anterior or along the masseter muscle. Eight of 13 patients (61%) had at least one calculus found in the parotid duct on sialendoscopy. Four patients (38%) had multiple punctate calcifications within the parotid gland, all of whom had either autoimmune parotitis or HIV. None of the proximal or punctate parotid calcifications posterior to the masseter were visualized on sialendoscopy. Chronic parotitis in conjunction with multiple parotid calcifications is uncommon and was identified in 10% of our cohort. We contrast two classifications of parotid calcifications: 1) intraductal stones that cause recurrent duct obstruction and are often located within the main parotid duct along or anterior to the masseter and 2) punctate intraparenchymal parotid gland calcifications that are not visualized on sialendoscopy and may represent underlying inflammatory disease. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1565-1570, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Inhibitory role of Notch1 in calcific aortic valve disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Acharya

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs. We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism.

  1. The roentgenographic study of placental calcifications in Korean pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Che

    1980-01-01

    Calcifications in the placenta have been considered as a sign of the maturity because it is found frequently in variable degrees in full-term placentas. The placentas studied were those from deliveries at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the period of January 1978 to June 1980 and were excluded if their deliveries were by Caesarean section. Roentgenographic studies of placenta were performed postnatally in 135 cases delivered from normal pregnant. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification in the placenta was 53.3%. 2. The tendency of placenta calcification was increased as progress of maturity but not indicated as postmaturity. 3. Calcifications were less correlated with increasing gravidity or maternal age. 4. Calcifications occurred more frequently with increasing birth weight. 5. Calcifications in placentas were more frequently in the neonates with 10 scores of Apgar and normal level of maternal hemoglobin. 6. No significant correlation between incidence of calcification and maternal toxemia was observed. In the pregnant with an episode of previous abortion or S. P. R. M., incidence of calcification was apparently increased but statistically not significant. On the whole, placental calcifications are not harmful and identified as normal or proper aging process

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  5. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  6. Hepatitis C: Treatment

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    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  7. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  10. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  11. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  12. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  13. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Uenguer, Savas; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Tuerkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  14. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, W.; Schuster, A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria

  15. The Relation between Calcium Supplement Consumption and Calcific Shoulder Tendonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rouhani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcific tendonitis is a common cause of non-traumatic shoulder pain. Previous studies have suggested a relation between minerals and endocrine and calcium deposition. Thus, hypercalcemia is probably related to calcific tendonitis. This study aims at evaluating the relation found between calcium supplement consumption and calcific shoulder tendonitis. Methods: This analytical-descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients with shoulder pain referring to clinics and emergency department of Shohada Orthopedics Hospital during one year for considering calcific shoulder tendonitis and calcium supplement consumption. Patients with calcific tendonitis were treated and their functional ability was evaluated using DASH questionnaire, pain severity and range of motion (ROM before and after treatment and their correlation with calcium supplement consumption. Results: Calcific tendonitis and calcium consumption were generally seen in 30 (12% and 73 (29.2% cases, respectively. Calcium consumption frequency in patients with calcific tendonitis was significantly higher than the patients who did not consume calcium supplements (76.7% vs. 22.7%. Patients with calcific tendonitis who did not consume calcium supplements suffered from significantly longer periods of shoulder pain. All patients having consumed calcium supplement were female. The group who consumed calcium supplement had significantly severe pain and higher DASH score before and after treatment, while there was no significant difference in number of impaired ROM before and after treatment. Also, there was a negative correlation between calcium supplement consumption, pain severity and DASH score before and after treatment. Conclusion: Calcium supplement consumption is related to calcific tendonitis and is also accompanied with more pain and lower functional ability in patients with calcific tendonitis.    Keywords: Calcific tendonitis; Shoulder; Calcium supplement; Pain

  16. Vitamin K: from coagulation to calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkari, Ilari

    Vitamin K is not only essential for the synthesis of coagulation factors in the liver, but it also strengthens the bones and prevents calcification of the arteries. These effects are mediated through the same mechanism, i.e. carboxylation of Gla target proteins. The discovery of novel Gla proteins that are not associated with blood coagulation or calcium metabolism indicates that vitamin K has additional effects in the pancreas and the central nervous system, for example. As dietary supplements, vitamin K1 of plant origin and vitamins K2 of bacterial origin may exert different effects.

  17. Pulmonary metastatic calcification: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozi, Lilian Christine Franchiotti [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The present report describes the case of a 48-year-old female patient suffering from chronic renal failure on dialysis for 13 years. She presented with hemoptysis, fever, productive cough and dyspnoea. Chest radiography showed predominance of ill-defined opacities in the middle and lower lung fields, bilaterally. Chest computed tomography showed ground glass opacities associated with poorly defined centrilobular nodules with ground-glass attenuation. The patient was submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage that was negative for mycobacteria and fungi. On the basis of such findings, open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed metastatic pulmonary calcification. (author)

  18. Physical water treatment against calcification and rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Germany, where the installation of small-sized, decentralised plants is still prefered, water supply companies in countries such as Denmark have already for some time successfully been using physical water treatment systems. Although the health and environmental benefits of this non-chemical method of water treatment are undisputed and its proper application is also economically beneficial, there is still a widerspread lack of information as to where such plants can be used. Consequently, older methods are often resorted to combatting calcification and rust. (orig.) [de

  19. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  20. Coronary artery calcification correlates with the presence and severity of valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaouzidis, G; Nicoll, R; MacArthur, T; Jenkins, P J; Henein, M Y

    2013-10-15

    To investigate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic individuals with CT evidence for left heart valve calcification, aortic valve (AVC), mitral valve (MAC) or both. This is a retrospective study of 282 consecutive patients with calcification in either the aortic valve or mitral annulus. Calcium scoring of the coronary artery, aortic and mitral valve was measured using the Agatston score. AVC was more prevalent than MAC (64% vs. 2.5%, p AVC + CAC were observed in 53.5%, MAC and CAC in 2.1%, and combined AVC, MAC and CAC in 31.6%. The median CAC score was higher in individuals with combined AVC+MAC, followed by those with AVC and lowest was in the MAC group. The majority (40%) of individuals with AVC had CAC score >400, and only in 16% had CAC = 0. The same pattern was more evident in individuals with AVC + MAC, where 70% had CAC score >400 and only 6% had CAC score of 0. These results were irrespective of gender. There was no correlation between AVC and MAC but there was modest correlation between CAC score and AVC score (r = 0.28, p = 0.0001), MAC (r = 0.36, p = 0.0001) and with combined AVC + MAC (r = 0.5, p = 0.0001). AVC score of 262 had a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92% for the prediction of presence of CAC. The presence and extent of calcification in the aortic valve or/and mitral valves are associated with severe coronary artery calcification. © 2013.

  1. Hepatic echinococcosis ruptured into the biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Steenbergen, W.; Fevery, J.; Broeckaert, L.; Ponette, E.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.; Penninckx, F.; Kerremans, R.; De Groote, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described with hepatic involvement by Echinococcus granulosus, complicated by spontaneous rupture into the biliary tract. Abdominal computed tomography, showing the cystic wall, the presence of wall calcifications, daughter cysts and wall enhancement, provided a correct diagnosis of hepatic hydatidosis in all patients. Dilatation of the bile ducts with the presence of intraluminal material was clearly shown by sonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. On sonography, the intraluminal material appeared as amorphous, sludge-like hydatid sand, and as daughter cysts. On ERCP, the intrabiliary parasitic material appeared as non-homogeneous, irregularly shaped and mobile filling defects. Other findings at ERCP were displacement and distortion of intrahepatic bile ducts by the hepatic cysts and a mild dilatation of the pancreatic duct. (Auth.)

  2. Liposarcoma of the thigh with mixed calcification and ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Child, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas. Calcification and ossification can occur in liposarcoma; however, the presence of both ossification and calcification is a very rare entity. We present a case of a partially calcified and ossified dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh in a 76-year-old woman, which contained heterologous elements of chondrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.

  3. Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm disease): a rare cause of calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospos, C.

    1980-01-01

    Tangled whorly calcifications were seen in the abdominal subcutaneous tissues of a negro patient from Africa. The differential diagnosis of such calcifications - rarely observed in Europe - includes a variety of parasites. In this patient, Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm disease) was the cause.

  4. Cardiovascular calcifications in chronic kidney disease: Potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Bover

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is a highly prevalent condition at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD and is directly associated with increased CV and global morbidity and mortality. In the first part of this review, we have shown that CV calcifications represent an important part of the CKD–MBD complex and are a superior predictor of clinical outcomes in our patients. However, it is also necessary to demonstrate that CV calcification is a modifiable risk factor including the possibility of decreasing (or at least not aggravating its progression with iatrogenic manoeuvres. Although, strictly speaking, only circumstantial evidence is available, it is known that certain drugs may modify the progression of CV calcifications, even though a direct causal link with improved survival has not been demonstrated. For example, non-calcium-based phosphate binders demonstrated the ability to attenuate the progression of CV calcification compared with the liberal use of calcium-based phosphate binders in several randomised clinical trials. Moreover, although only in experimental conditions, selective activators of the vitamin D receptor seem to have a wider therapeutic margin against CV calcification. Finally, calcimimetics seem to attenuate the progression of CV calcification in dialysis patients. While new therapeutic strategies are being developed (i.e. vitamin K, SNF472, etc., we suggest that the evaluation of CV calcifications could be a diagnostic tool used by nephrologists to personalise their therapeutic decisions.

  5. A comparative study of the identification of rotator cuff calcifications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A deposit of calcium in the rotator cuff tendons, also known as calcifying tendinopathy, is a common condition. Calcifications are often associated with significant pain and restriction of shoulder movement. The hypothesis of this retrospective, descriptive study is that ultrasound is more sensitive to detect calcifications in the ...

  6. Acute calcific tendinitis of the finger--a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, S N

    2004-07-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis of the hand is rare and often misdiagnosed as infection, fracture or periarthritis. It frequently occurs in peri-menopausal women and is caused by deposits of hydroxyapatite crystals. We describe acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion in an elderly man taking oral anticoagulants. The differential diagnoses and recommended treatment are discussed.

  7. [Endomyocardial fibrosis with massive calcification of the left ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Joana; Camacho, Ana; Gago, Paula; Candeias, Rui; Santos, Walter; Marques, Nuno; Matos, Pedro; Brandão, Victor; Gomes, Veloso

    2010-03-01

    Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare disease, endemic in tropical countries. It is characterized by fibrosis of the endocardium that can extend to myocardium. Important calcification of the endocardium is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of endomyocardial fibrosis in a european caucasian patient, associated with massive calcification of left ventricle.

  8. Calcification within the lesion of an old cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imamura, Toshiharu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1987-01-01

    We described a 68-year-old woman with marked calcification in the lesion of an old cerebral infarction. Calcified deposits in an old infarcted area of the left middle cerebral artery were demonstrated by CT 9 months after she had suffered a stroke, probably because of an embolism. There have been few reports of calcification associated with cerebral infarction. (author)

  9. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  10. Calcific bursitis mimicking a parosteal osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Vento, J.A.; Haugh, J.D.; Spencer, R.P.; Connecticut Univ., Farmington

    1986-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with no history of trauma or major medical illness, presented with a ten day history of right hip and thigh pain. The pain was described as constant, dull, and aching. It was nonradiating and was not relieved by analgesics. Physical examination revealed diffuse tenderness over the right hip and right lateral thigh region; no mass was palpable. The CBC, serum electrolytes, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase determinations were all normal. Radiographs of the right hip demonstrated amorphous soft tissue calcification adjacent to the lateral aspect of the right femur as well as periosteal reaction and apparent destruction in the adjacent bone. Because of these suspicious X-rays findings, the initial working diagnosis was parosteal osteogenic sarcoma. A bone scan was performed two hours after the intravenous administration of 15 millicuries of Tc-99m-MDP. It showed focal uptake overlying the upper femur, approximately where the X-ray had shown periosteal reaction and apparent bony destruction. In addition, the bone images also demonstrated a linear band of activity extending through the soft tissues from the greater trochanter to the lower lateral thigh. Because of the unexpected and quite extensive soft tissue uptake seen on the scan, the possibility that a benign process was involved was then considered seriously for the first time. An open biopsy was then performed. It revealed acute calcific trochanteric bursitis; there was no evidence of bone involvement. The patient was treated conservatively and symptoms gradually resolved. (orig.) [de

  11. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  12. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L. [Centre Hospitalier Vaudois, Service de Rhumatologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  13. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  14. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: jeamharoldo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Santos, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and methods: computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41-54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab's own routine. Results: four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: the selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. (author)

  15. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  16. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  18. CT and MR imaging characteristics of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shiting; Chan Tao; Ching, A.S.C.; Sun Canhui; Guo Huanyi; Fan Miao; Meng Quanfei; Li Ziping

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to analyze computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas before and after treatment. Materials and methods: CT and MR examinations of seven infants with biopsy proven hepatic hemangioendotheliomas were retrospectively analyzed. The distribution, number, size, imaging appearance, enhancement pattern and post-treatment changes of the tumors were evaluated. Results: A total of 153 hepatic hemangioendotheliomas were detected on CT (111) and MR (42) imaging. In six infants, 109/111 (98.2%) tumors were hypodense and 2/111 (1.8%) lesions contained calcification on unenhanced CT. On MR imaging, all 42 lesions in one infant were heterogeneously T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense compared to the normal liver parenchyma. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI showed peripheral rim (51.6%), uniform (48.4%), fibrillary (33.3%), and nodular (28.8%) contrast enhancement in the hepatic arterial phase. Homogeneous (100%), rim (98.2%) and mixed enhancement patterns were noted in tumors 2.0 cm and 1.0-2.0 cm in diameter respectively in the hepatic arterial phase. In three patients who underwent steroid therapy, follow-up CT examination demonstrated tumor size reduction and increased intra-tumoral calcification in two patients. Conclusion: Infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas show some typical imaging features and size-dependent pattern of contrast enhancement on CT and MR imaging, which allow accurate imaging diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation.

  19. Visibility and Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze forms when sunlight encounters particle pollution. It reduces visibility in cities and scenic areas. This web area provides regulatory information and progress towards improving visibility through EPA’s regional haze program.

  20. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  1. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  6. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  9. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  10. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  11. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

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    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  12. Periodontal Disease Is an Independent Predictor of Intracardiac Calcification

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    Gregg S. Pressman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Results. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77% had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2. In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P=0.001 was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P=0.024. There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. Conclusions. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.

  13. Periodontal disease is an independent predictor of intracardiac calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Qasim, Atif; Verma, Nitin; Miyamae, Masami; Arishiro, Kumiko; Notohara, Yasuhiro; Crudu, Vitalie; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan) involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77%) had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2). In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P = 0.001) was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P = 0.024). There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.

  14. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2002-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of 99m Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  17. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Sider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD, once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the utility of existing models. In this paper, we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for priority CAVD research areas, and provide recommendations for future animal model studies of CAVD.

  18. Intraocular Lens Calcification; a Clinicopathologic Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei-Kanavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathological features of a case of hydrogel intraocular lens (IOL calcification. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old man underwent explantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in his left eye because of decreased visual acuity and milky white opalescence of the IOL. The opacified lens was exchanged uneventfully with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL. Gross examination of the explanted IOL disclosed opacification of the optic and haptics. Full-thickness sections of the lens optic were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, von Kossa and Gram Tworts'. Microscopic examination of the sections revealed fine and diffuse basophilic granular deposits of variable size within the lens optic parallel to the lens curvature but separated from the surface by a moderately clear zone. The deposits were of high calcium content as evident by dark brown staining with von Kossa. Gram Tworts' staining disclosed no microorganisms. CONCLUSION: This report further contributes to the existing literature on hydrogel IOL calcification.

  19. Calcification in the portal venous system demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, H; Sommer, R

    1983-08-01

    The CT appearance of calcification in the portal venous system in a patient with chronic alcoholic cirrhosis is presented. Reported cases of radiologically detectable calcification in the portal system are rare, and most of them have been associated with longstanding portal hypertension. We presume that with CT this diagnosis will be made more frequently. In the presence of calcification in the portal venous system, portal vein thrombosis is highly probable. This information is of obvious importance to the surgeon contemplating a portal decompressive shunt procedure.

  20. Massive intracranial calcifications in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Ono, Sergio E.

    2004-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement is frequently reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies usually show brain atrophy, cerebral infarction and/or intracranial bleeding. Extensive intracranial calcification in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is rare. We report a case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with seizures and massive basal ganglia calcification and mild calcifications in the frontal lobes, seen on the brain computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensity on FLAIR images and hypointense signals on T2 * gradient echo images in the basal ganglia. (author)

  1. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  2. A Waving Horn on the Big Mitral Annulus Calcification: Caseous Calcification of the Mitral Annulus with Abscess Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tan Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification. It comprises a combination of calcium, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and is characterized by heterogeneity in echocardiographic images, with peripheral areas of calcification surrounding a central area of echolucency, resembling a periannular mass. Here, we describe a case of CCMA combined with a mitral annulus abscess, manifesting as a waving, horn-like structure. Although the image characteristics of the posterior mitral annulus suggested CCMA, additional findings warranted further work-up and studies.

  3. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across Marianas Archipelago in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  8. Calcific periarthritis of the elbow presenting as acute tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.

  9. Cardiovascular calcifications in chronic kidney disease: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Górriz, José Luis; Lloret, María Jesús; da Silva, Iara; Ruiz-García, César; Chang, Pamela; Rodríguez, Mariano; Ballarín, José

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is a highly prevalent condition at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is directly associated with increased CV and global morbidity and mortality. In the first part of this review, we have shown that CV calcifications represent an important part of the CKD-MBD complex and are a superior predictor of clinical outcomes in our patients. However, it is also necessary to demonstrate that CV calcification is a modifiable risk factor including the possibility of decreasing (or at least not aggravating) its progression with iatrogenic manoeuvres. Although, strictly speaking, only circumstantial evidence is available, it is known that certain drugs may modify the progression of CV calcifications, even though a direct causal link with improved survival has not been demonstrated. For example, non-calcium-based phosphate binders demonstrated the ability to attenuate the progression of CV calcification compared with the liberal use of calcium-based phosphate binders in several randomised clinical trials. Moreover, although only in experimental conditions, selective activators of the vitamin D receptor seem to have a wider therapeutic margin against CV calcification. Finally, calcimimetics seem to attenuate the progression of CV calcification in dialysis patients. While new therapeutic strategies are being developed (i.e. vitamin K, SNF472, etc.), we suggest that the evaluation of CV calcifications could be a diagnostic tool used by nephrologists to personalise their therapeutic decisions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  11. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 65 Final Diagnosis: Mitochondrial disorder Symptoms: Headache ? tetanic seizure Medication: Diazepam Clinical Procedure: Admission Specialty: Neurology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. Case Report: We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a...

  12. A rare cause of acute dysphagia: acute calcific tendonitis of the longus colli muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Dargham, Hanadi; Bytyci, Faton; Shuman, Christian; Stolear, Anton

    2017-05-27

    We are presenting a case of a 78-year-old female with multiple comorbidities and history of neck surgery, who presented with acute dysphagia, odynophagia and neck pain that has been progressively getting worse over the course of 2 days, with no recent injury or infection. The patient was afebrile. There were no visible signs of infection on routine oropharyngeal examination. Initial workup was unremarkable except for elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and creatinine. CT of the cervical spine ruled out any fracture or cervical spine injury but showed an area of calcification, prevertebral oedema and fluid collection inferior to the anterior arch of C1. MRI of the cervical spine also showed prevertebral oedema and fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space from the skull base to the C3 level without abnormal surrounding enhancement that supported the diagnosis of acute calcific tendonitis of the longus colli muscle rather than an infectious process. There was significant improvement of symptoms 48 hours after initiating treatment with systemic steroids. The patient remains asymptomatic 6 months after treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Prostate calcifications: A case series supporting the microbial biofilm theory

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    Tommaso Cai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prostate calcifications are a common finding during transrectal prostate ultrasound in both healthy subjects and patients, but their etiopathogenesis and clinical significance are not fully understood. We aimed to establish a new methodology for evaluating the role of microbial biofilms in the genesis of prostate calcifications. Materials and Methods: Ten consecutive patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. All of the patients presented with prostate calcifications during transrectal ultrasound evaluation before surgery and underwent Meares-Stamey tests and clinical evaluation with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the International Prostate Symptom Score. At the time of radical prostatectomy, the prostate specimen, after removal, was analyzed with ultrasonography under sterile conditions in the operating room. Core biopsy specimens were taken from the site of prostate calcification and subjected to ultrastructural and microbiological analysis. Results: The results of the Meares-Stamey test showed only 1 of 10 patients (10% with positive cultures for Escherichia coli. Two of five patients (40% had positive cultures from prostate biopsy specimens. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus raffinosus, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated. Ultrastructural analysis of the prostate biopsy specimens showed prostate calcifications in 6 of 10 patients (60%, and a structured microbial biofilm in 1 patient who had positive cultures for E. faecalis and E. raffinosus. Conclusions: Although the findings are supported by a low number of patients, this study highlights the validity of the proposed methodology for investigating the role of bacterial biofilms in the genesis of prostate calcification.

  14. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

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    Dedmer B Van de Waal

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  15. Prevalence of breast arterial calcification in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, M.; Cetin, R.; Tamer, N.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the age-specific prevalence of breast arterial calcifications in patients with systemic hypertension. METHODS: The mammograms and patient records of 2406 women who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography were reviewed retrospectively. Mammograms were evaluated for the presence of arterial calcification and results were coded. Hypertension was defined as use of anti-hypertensive agents and diabetes was defined as use of oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin. RESULTS: The prevalence of breast arterial calcification among hypertensives (17.6%) was lower than among diabetics (25.4%). The prevalence in the non-diabetic, non-hypertensive group was lowest (7.3%). The prevalence increased with age in all three groups. The highest prevalence was found in diabetics older than 60 years (81.8%). Breast arterial calcification was not found among women younger than 40 years. CONCLUSION: Breast arterial calcification is associated with hypertension and prevalence increases with age. Breast arterial calcification on mammograms may indicate unsuspected hypertension especially in non-diabetic patients

  16. Evaluation of laryngeal cartilage calcification in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Serafin, Z.; Lasek, W.; Maciejewski, M.; Wieczor, W.; Wisniewski, S.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the basic methods used for laryngeal carcinoma diagnostics. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic changes of the cartilages are considered as a common radiologic symptom of laryngeal neoplasms. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of both osteosclerotic changes and focal calcification defects, which may be suggestive of osteolysis. Calcification was assessed in the thyroid, the cricoid and the arytenoids cartilages on CT images of the neck. We have retrospectively analyzed neck CT examinations of 50 patients without any laryngeal pathology in anamnesis. The grade and symmetry of calcifications was assessed in the thyroid, the cricoid and the arytenoids cartilages. Calcification of the laryngeal cartilages was present in 83% of the patients. Osteosclerotic lesions of the thyroid cartilage were seen in 70% of the patients (asymmetric in 60% of them), of the cricoid catrilage in 50% (asymmetric in 60%), and of the arytenoid cartilages in 24% (asymmetric in 67%). Focal calcification defects were present in the thyroid cartilage in 56% of the patients (asymmetric in 67% of them), in the cricoid catrilage in 8% (asymmetric in all cases), and in the arytenoid cartilages in 20% (asymmetric in 90%). Osteosclerotic changes and focal calcification defects, which may suggest osteolysis, were found in most of the patients. Therefore, they cannot be used as crucial radiological criteria of neoplastic invasion of laryngeal cartilages. (authors)

  17. Protozoal hepatitis in a western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) found dead in southern California had many light-colored lesions visible grossly on its liver, and histopathology revealed extensive necrosis throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Single-celled organisms were seen in clear spaces within the areas of necrosis. The owl was diagnosed with protozoal hepatitis.

  18. The symmetrical calcification of the basal cerebral ganglia (SCBG): its clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellamor, V.; Summer, K.; Stellamor, K.

    1984-01-01

    Since CT is has been possible to detect subtle SCBG. Usually they are without any symptoms. Massive calcification is visible in conventional radiogram; it can form the patho-anatomical substrate for neuro-psychiatric defects. Fahr's triad consists of SCBG, typical neuro-psychiatric symptoms, and decreased activity of the parathyroid symptoms, and decreased activity of the parathyroid glands leading to a pathologic calcium-metabolism. In our opinion SCBG is of clinical relevance in each stage. Calcium-metabolism, intoxications and sclerosis of cerebral vessels have to be looked for. The combination of hypoparathyroidism and sclerosis of the cerebral vessels turned out to be fatal with one of our patients. In a case of SCBG the neuro-psychiatric symptoms were progressive. Interventions in the calcium-metabolism e.g. in strumectomy should depend on the status of the cerebral vessels. (Author)

  19. Bovine pericardium coated with biopolymeric films as an alternative to prevent calcification: In vitro calcification and cytotoxicity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Grinia M.; Rodas, Andrea C.D.; Weska, Raquel F.; Aimoli, Cassiano G.; Higa, Olga Z.; Maizato, Marina; Leiner, Adolfo A.; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M.; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw; Beppu, Marisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine pericardium, for cardiac valve fabrication, was coated with either chitosan or silk fibroin film. In vitro calcification tests of coated and non coated bovine pericardium were performed in simulated body fluid solution in order to investigate potential alternatives to minimize calcification on implanted heart valves. Complementary, morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were performed for structural characterization of coatings and biocompatibility of chitosan. Silk fibroin films were assayed by in vitro cytotoxicity and endothelial cell growth tests. Bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin or chitosan did not present calcification during in vitro calcification tests, indicating that these biopolymeric coatings do not induce bovine pericardium calcification. Chitosan and silk fibroin films were characterized as non cytotoxic and silk fibroin films presented high affinity to endothelial cells. The results indicate that bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin is a potential candidate for cardiac valve fabrication, since the affinity of silk fibroin to endothelial cells can be explored to induce the tissue endothelization and therefore, increase valve durability by increasing their mechanical resistance and protecting them against calcification.

  20. Breast arterial calcifications are correlated with subsequent development of coronary artery calcifications, but their aetiology is predominantly different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Angela H.E.M. [Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.maas@diagram-zwolle.nl; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Atsma, Femke [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J.M. [Preventicon Breast Cancer Screening Center, Stationsplein 91, 3511ED Utrecht (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.Th.M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study whether calcifications in breast arteries, as seen on mammograms, predict future development of coronary artery calcifications. Methods: We studied 499 women, aged 49-70 years, participating in a breast cancer screening program and investigated whether arterial calcifications in the breast (BAC) are associated with coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) after 9 years follow-up. Mammograms were reviewed for the presence of BAC. CAC was assessed by multi slice computed tomography (MSCT). With logistic regression analysis the independent effect of various risk factors on BAC and CAC was measured. Results: BAC was present in 58 of 499 women (12%) and CAC score > 0 was present in 262 of 499 women (53%). BAC was strongly associated with CAC (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.71-6.04) and this remained significant after adjustment for age at baseline and the duration of follow-up (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-4.23). Most CV risk factors were associated with CAC but not with BAC. Only parity was significantly associated with both increased CAC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.60) and increased BAC (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.23-22.43). Breastfeeding was associated with BAC (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.40-8.23) but not with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.84-1.93). Conclusion: Breast arterial calcifications are predictive of subsequent development of calcifications in the coronary arteries.

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  12. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  19. Autoimmune Hepatitis

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    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  3. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  4. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  5. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  6. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  7. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  8. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  9. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  10. Sodium Thiosulfate Therapy for Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Steven M.; Meade, Debra; Wang, Weiling; Hymes, Jeffrey; Lacson, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objective Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is an often fatal condition with no effective treatment. Multiple case reports and case series have described intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) administration in CUA, but no studies have systematically evaluated this treatment. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 172 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis who had CUA and were treated with STS between August 2006 and June 2009 at Fresenius Medical Care North America. Of these, 85% completed STS therapy. Clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were abstracted from clinical information systems. Responses to survey questionnaires sent to treating physicians regarding patient-level outcomes were available for 53 patients. Effect on CUA lesions and mortality were summarized as CUA outcomes. Relevant laboratory measures, weight (using pairwise comparisons of values before, during, and after STS), and adverse events were summarized as safety parameters. Results Mean age of the cohort was 55 years, and 74% of patients were women. Median STS dose was 25 g, and median number of doses was 38. Among surveyed patients, CUA completely resolved in 26.4%, markedly improved in 18.9%, improved in 28.3%, and did not improve in 5.7%; in the remaining patients (20.8%), the response was unknown. One-year mortality in patients treated with STS was 35%. Adverse events, laboratory abnormalities, and weight-related changes were mild. Significant reductions in serum phosphorous (P=0.02) and parathyroid hormone (P=0.01) were noted during STS treatment in patients who completed the therapy. Conclusions Although conclusive evidence regarding its efficacy is lacking, a majority of patients who received STS demonstrated clinical improvement in this study. PMID:23520041

  11. Reduced calcification decreases photoprotective capability in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Gao, Kunshan

    2012-07-01

    Intracellular calcification of coccolithophores generates CO₂ and consumes additional energy for acquisition of calcium and bicarbonate ions; therefore, it may correlate with photoprotective processes by influencing the energetics. To address this hypothesis, a calcifying Emiliania huxleyi strain (CS-369) was grown semi-continuously at reduced (0.1 mM, LCa) and ambient Ca²⁺ concentrations (10 mM, HCa) for 150 d (>200 generations). The HCa-grown cells had higher photosynthetic and calcification rates and higher contents of Chl a and carotenoids compared with the naked (bearing no coccoliths) LCa-grown cells. When exposed to stressfull levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), LCa-grown cells displayed lower photochemical yield and less efficient non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). When the LCa- or HCa-grown cells were inversely shifted to their counterpart medium, LCa to HCa transfer increased photosynthetic carbon fixation (P), calcification rate (C), the C/P ratio, NPQ and pigment contents, whereas those shifted from HCa to LCa exhibited the opposite effects. Increased NPQ, carotenoids and quantum yield were clearly linked with increased or sustained calcification in E. huxleyi. The calcification must have played a role in dissipating excessive energy or as an additional drainage of electrons absorbed by the photosynthetic antennae. This phenomenon was further supported by testing two non-calcifying strains, which showed insignificant changes in photosynthetic carbon fixation and NPQ when transferred to LCa conditions.

  12. Left ventricular calcification following postpartum toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella C Pak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS is a rare but lethal clinical event that can occur during the postpartum period. Early recognition and intervention is critical to improve patient outcomes. This is a case of TSS complicated by cardiac arrest and left ventricular calcification. This is a case report of streptococcal TSS in a 29-year-old female in the postpartum period who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and a purpuric rash. Her hospital course was characterized by multiple organ failure, including respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, renal failure, and coagulopathy. She was found to have acute compartment syndrome, which resulted in a below-the-knee amputation. She deteriorated further after experiencing cardiac arrest and the development of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with hemorrhagic transformation. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed evidence of dystrophic myocardial calcification in the left ventricle. She improved clinically but remained ventilator dependent upon discharge to an extended acute care facility. Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy can result in myocardial calcification. As dystrophic calcification can significantly affect cardiac function, clinicians should rule out cardiac calcification in patients who have had severe septic shock.

  13. Gene expression analysis in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Oliva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the expression of several genes involved in tissue remodelling and bone development in patients with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. Biopsies from calcified and non-calcified areas were obtained from 10 patients (8 women and 2 men; average age: 55 years; range: 40-68 with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To evaluate the expression of selected genes, RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed. A significantly increased expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG2 and its substrate, osteopontin, was detected in the calcific areas compared to the levels observed in the normal tissue from the same subject with calcific tendinopathy, whereas a modest increase was observed for catepsin K. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP4 and BMP6 in the calcific area. BMP-2, collagen V and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF did not show significant differences. Collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 were not detectable. A variation in expression of these genes could be characteristic of this form tendinopathy, since an increased level of these genes has not been detected in other forms of tendon lesions.

  14. Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: Pathophysiology, Reactive Oxygen Species and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M. Sowers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA/calciphylaxis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement. Once thought to be rare, it is being increasingly recognized and reported on a global scale. The uremic milieu predisposes to multiple metabolic toxicities including increased levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation promote this arteriolopathy by adversely affecting endothelial function resulting in a prothrombotic milieu and significant remodeling effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. These arteriolar pathological effects include intimal hyperplasia, inflammation, endovascular fibrosis and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and differentiation into bone forming osteoblast-like cells resulting in medial calcification. Systemic factors promoting this vascular condition include elevated calcium, parathyroid hormone and hyperphosphatemia with consequent increases in the calcium × phosphate product. The uremic milieu contributes to a marked increased in upstream reactive oxygen species—oxidative stress and subsequent downstream increased inflammation, in part, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor NFκB and associated downstream cytokine pathways. Consitutive anti-calcification proteins such as Fetuin-A and matrix GLA proteins and their signaling pathways may be decreased, which further contributes to medial vascular calcification. The resulting clinical entity is painful, debilitating and contributes to the excess morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. These same histopathologic conditions also occur in patients without uremia and therefore, the term calcific obliterative arteriolopathy could be utilized in these conditions.

  15. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  17. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  18. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  19. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  20. Calcified pleural scars and pleural empyema with mural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.; Huebener, K.H.

    1981-06-01

    The differential diagnosis between calcified pleural scars and pleural empyemas with mural calcification was studied by computer tomography, bearing in mind the patient's history. In view of the high complication rate of pleural empyemas, such as internal or external fistulae, it is desirable to elucidate every form of pleural shadowing which is more than 20 mm thick. Criteria are offered, which permit the differentiation of the pleural changes by means of conventional radiological examinations. Valuable additional information can be obtained by computer tomography. Forty-nine patients with calcification in the pleura were found among 1.900 chest x-rays which had been examined. Out of these, seven had a pleural empyema. In one case an echinococcus cyst with mural calcification was punctured under X-ray control.

  1. Calcified pleural scars and pleural empyema with mural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.; Huebener, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between calcified pleural scars and pleural empyemas with mural calcification was studied by computer tomography, bearing in mind the patient's history. In view of the high complication rate of pleural empyemas, such as internal or external fistulae, it is desirable to elucidate every form of pleural shadowing which is more than 20 mm thick. Criteria are offered, which permit the differentiation of the pleural changes by means of conventional radiological examinations. Valuable additional information can be obtained by computer tomography. Forty-nine patients with calcification in the pleura were found among 1.900 chest x-rays which had been examined. Out of these, seven had a pleural empyema. In one case an echinococcus cyst with mural calcification was punctured under X-ray control. (orig.) [de

  2. Arthroscopic treatment for calcific tendinitis; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai T. Gavrilă

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcific tendinitis is a common cause of shoulder pain, peaking in the fourth and fifth decades of life. The excruciate pain; especially during the night is the symptom who brings patient to the doctor. In many cases conservative treatment is the best choice. Sometimes it doesn’t work and is necessary operative treatment. It is presented a case of 60 years old women who had calcific tendinits for several years and accused pain few months with absence of improvement after conservative treatment. The patient was treated surgically with removal of calcium deposit arthroscopically. After surgery, pain relief was dramatic and movement increased rapidly. Results were very good with no complications. As a conclusion, arthroscopic evacuation of calcific deposit could be considered the best solution for patients whose symptomatology fail to improve after conservative treatment.

  3. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Potts, Aaron; Anakwenze, Oke; Singh, Anshu

    2014-11-01

    Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff tendons is a common cause of shoulder pain in adults and typically presents as activity-related shoulder pain. It is thought to be an active, cell-mediated process, although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Nonsurgical management continues to be the mainstay of treatment; most patients improve with modalities such as oral anti-inflammatory medication, physical therapy, and corticosteroid injections. Several options are available for patients who fail nonsurgical treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave therapy, ultrasound-guided needle lavage, and surgical débridement. These modalities alleviate pain by eliminating the calcific deposit, and several recent studies have demonstrated success with the use of these treatment options. Surgical management options include arthroscopic procedures to remove calcific deposits and subacromial decompression; however, the role of subacromial decompression and repair of rotator cuff defects created by removing these deposits remains controversial. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  4. Abdominal aortic calcifications predict survival in peritoneal dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Satu M; Asola, Markku; Hadimeri, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease and vascular calcifications contribute significantly to the outcome of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of severity of abdominal aortic calcifications and peripheral arterial disease on outcome of peritoneal...... dialysis (PD) patients using methods easily available in everyday clinical practice. METHODS: We enrolled 249 PD patients (mean age 61 years, 67% male) in this prospective, observational, multicenter study from 2009 to 2013. The abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) was assessed using lateral lumbar.......9) in 17%, and high (> 1.3) in 34% of patients. Altogether 91 patients (37%) died during the median follow-up of 46 months. Only 2 patients (5%) with AACS 0 died compared with 50% of the patients with AACS ≥ 7 (p

  5. Aortic root, not valve, calcification correlates with coronary artery calcification in patients with severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henein, Michael; Hällgren, Peter; Holmgren, Anders

    2015-01-01

    calcification (AVC), due to tissue similarity between the two types of vessel rather than with the valve leaflet tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 212 consecutive patients (age 72.5 ± 7.9 years, 91 females) with AS requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR) in two Heart Centers, who underwent multidetector...... cardiac CT preoperatively. CAC, AVC and ARC were quantified using Agatston scoring. Correlations were tested by Spearman's test and Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparing different subgroups; bicuspid (BAV) vs tricuspid (TAV) aortic valve. RESULTS: CAC was present in 92%, AVC in 100% and ARC in 82......% of patients. CAC correlated with ARC (rho = 0.51, p AVC. The number of calcified coronary arteries correlated with ARC (rho = 0.45, p AVC. 29/152 patients had echocardiographic evidence of BAV and 123 TAV, who were older (p

  6. Response to Comment on "Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Raven, John A.; Schofield, Oscar; Poulton, Alex J.; Gibbs, Samantha; Halloran, Paul R.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Recently reported increasing calcification rates and primary productivity in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were obtained by equilibrating seawater with mixtures of carbon dioxide in air. The noted discrepancy with previously reported decreasing calcification is likely due to the previously

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study in Dachshund: Identification of a Major Locus Affecting Intervertebral Disc Calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Proschowsky, Helle Friis

    2011-01-01

    Intervertebral disc calcification and herniation commonly affects Dachshund where the predisposition is caused by an early onset degenerative process resulting in disc calcification. A continuous spectrum of disc degeneration is seen within and among clog breeds, suggesting a multifactorial etiol...

  8. Serum Osteoprotegerin level and the extent of cardiovascular calcification in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ammar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: There is strong positive relationship between osteoprotegerin and both vascular and valvular calcification in hemodialysis patients. This positive correlation may open the gate for routine estimation of this agent as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular calcification in hemodialysis patients.

  9. Magnesium prevents vascular calcification in vitro by inhibition of hydroxyapatite crystal formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braake, A.D. ter; Tinnemans, P.T.; Shanahan, C.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Baaij, J.H.F. de

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium has been shown to effectively prevent vascular calcification associated with chronic kidney disease. Magnesium has been hypothesized to prevent the upregulation of osteoblastic genes that potentially drives calcification. However, extracellular effects of magnesium on hydroxyapatite

  10. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  11. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  12. Ghrelin attenuates vascular calcification in diabetic patients with amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suining; Ye, Fei; Li, Lihua; Yan, Jinchuan; Bao, Zhengyang; Sun, Zhen; Xu, Liangjie; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Zhongqun

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification is established to be a critical factor in diabetes mellitus, which causes cardiovascular and amputation complication of diabetic patients. OPG/RANKL/RANK axis serves as a regulatory role in vascular calcification. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has been reported to exhibit potent cardiovascular protective effects. However, the role of ghrelin in the regulation of diabetic vascular calcification is still elusive. Here, we reported the role of ghrelin and its relationship with OPG/RANKL/RANK system in patients with diabetic foot amputation. In vivo and in vitro investigations were performed. Sixty type 2 diabetic patients with foot amputation were enrolled in vivo investigation, and they were divided into three groups through Doppler ultrasound: mild stenosis group (n=20), moderate stenosis group (n=20), and severe stenosis/occlusion group (n=20). Morphological analysis results showed diffused calcium depositions in the anterior tibial artery of diabetic amputees. Compared with the mild and moderate stenosis group, the severe stenosis/occlusion group had more spotty calcium depositions in atherosclerotic plaques. Western blot analysis indicated the expressions of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and ghrelin were downregulated, while the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) was upregulated with the vascular stenosis aggravation. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between calcium content and ghrelin levels (r=-0.58, Pghrelin levels and sRANKL levels (r=-0.57, Pghrelin levels (r=0.63, PGhrelin blunted calcification in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ghrelin upregulated OPG expression and downregulated RANKL expression in VSMC calcification when anti-OPG antibody and RANKL were performed. Collectively, we therefore conclude serum ghrelin level may be a predictor of diabetic vascular calcification. The possible mechanism may be related with OPG

  13. [Mechanism of losartan suppressing vascular calcification in rat aortic artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Juan; Wu, Panfeng; Wu, Jiliang; Li, Mincai

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week. We observed the morphological changes by HE staining and the calcium deposition by Alizarin red staining in the artery vascular wall. The mRNA expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The BMP2 and RUNX2 protein expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected by TUNEL. The AT1R expression was tested by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Results The aortic vascular calcification was induced by warfarin and vitamin K1. Compared with the vascular calcification model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of BMP2 and RUNX2 were significantly downregulated in the aorta in the losartan treatment group. Furthermore, the apoptosis of SMCs and the AT1R expression obviously decreased. Conclusion AT1R blocker losartan inhibits the apoptosis of SMCs and reduces AT1R expression; it downregulates the BMP2 and RUNX2 expressions in the vascular calcification process.

  14. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Coccolithophore growth and calcification in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhardt, Kristen M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora; Kleypas, Joan A.

    2017-12-01

    Coccolithophores are the most abundant calcifying phytoplankton in the ocean. These tiny primary producers have an important role in the global carbon cycle, substantially contributing to global ocean calcification, ballasting organic matter to the deep sea, forming part of the marine food web base, and influencing ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite these important impacts, coccolithophores are not explicitly simulated in most marine ecosystem models and, therefore, their impacts on carbon cycling are not represented in most Earth system models. Here, we compile field and laboratory data to synthesize overarching, across-species relationships between environmental conditions and coccolithophore growth rates and relative calcification (reported as a ratio of particulate inorganic carbon to particulate organic carbon in coccolithophore biomass, PIC/POC). We apply our relationships in a generalized coccolithophore model, estimating current surface ocean coccolithophore growth rates and relative calcification, and projecting how these may change over the 21st century using output from the Community Earth System Model large ensemble. We find that average increases in sea surface temperature of ∼ 2-3 ° C lead to faster coccolithophore growth rates globally (> 10% increase) and increased calcification at high latitudes. Roughly an ubiquitous doubling of surface ocean pCO2 by the end of the century has the potential to moderately stimulate coccolithophore growth rates, but leads to reduced calcification (∼ 25% decrease). Decreasing nutrient availability (from warming-induced increases in stratification) produces increases in relative calcification, but leads to ∼ 25% slower growth rates. With all drivers combined, we observe decreases in calcification and growth in most low and mid latitude regions, with possible increases in both of these responses in most high latitude regions. Major limitations of our coccolithophore model stem from a lack of conclusive

  16. Msx2 promotes cardiovascular calcification by activating paracrine Wnt signals

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Jian-Su; Cheng, Su-Li; Pingsterhaus, Joyce M.; Charlton-Kachigian, Nichole; Loewy, Arleen P.; Towler, Dwight A.

    2005-01-01

    In diabetic LDLR–/– mice, an ectopic BMP2-Msx2 gene regulatory program is upregulated in association with vascular calcification. We verified the procalcific actions of aortic Msx2 expression in vivo. CMV-Msx2 transgenic (CMV-Msx2Tg+) mice expressed 3-fold higher levels of aortic Msx2 than nontransgenic littermates. On high-fat diets, CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice exhibited marked cardiovascular calcification involving aortic and coronary tunica media. This corresponded to regions of Msx2 immunoreactivity...

  17. Is tomography of intervertebral disc calcification useful in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.M.; Landry, M.; Gudinchet, F.; Schnyder, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the past ten years, we have found cervical intervertebral disc calcification in three children on plain films of the cervical spine made because of cervical pain. In each case, we required further radiological investigations, antero-posterior and lateral linear tomography for two children and an axial computed tomography for one child. In each case, tomography revealed no supplementary useful information. On retrospect, we think that these examinations caused unnecessary irradiation and that they should only be carried out in the rare circumstances when disc calcification is associated with neurological symptoms. (orig.)

  18. Tumor-like calcifications with scleroderma. Thibierge-Weissenbach-Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, E.; Kulenkampff, H.A.; Kortenhaus, H.

    1987-12-01

    In patients with progressive scleroderma, interstitial calcifications are present to a varying extent. They are mostly located in the soft tissues of the fingers, resembling points, commas or dashes. They may also appear as 'calcinosis universalis' and reach a considerable size. Thus they mimic proliferative tumors. Scintigraphy, proving the existence of further calcifications can be helpful. We report the case of a female patient who presented with such a 'pseudotumor' of unusual size, site and extent in the lumbar region.

  19. Idiopathic Soft Tissue Calcification in an Extremity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a-15-days-old infant presenting with firm palpable thickening of the left leg soft tissues along with induration. Radiographs of the leg revealed generalized calcification of soft tissues. No obvious underlying cause could be identified for tissue calcification and hence termed as Idiopathic calcinois cutis. There are reports of this condition in Pediatric and Dermatology literature, but very few reports in orthopedic literature. The aim of this report is to highlight the pathogenesis, course and review of literature of this relatively uncommon condition which can easily be mistaken by Orthopedic or General Surgeons for infective bony of soft tissue infection.

  20. Is tomography of intervertebral disc calcification useful in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginalski, J M; Landry, M; Gudinchet, F; Schnyder, P [Lausanne Univ. Hospital (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology

    1992-04-01

    In the past ten years, we have found cervical intervertebral disc calcification in three children on plain films of the cervical spine made because of cervical pain. In each case, we required further radiological investigations, antero-posterior and lateral linear tomography for two children and an axial computed tomography for one child. In each case, tomography revealed no supplementary useful information. On retrospect, we think that these examinations caused unnecessary irradiation and that they should only be carried out in the rare circumstances when disc calcification is associated with neurological symptoms. (orig.).

  1. Asymptomatic ''crowned dens'' calcification in CT images for the craniovertebral junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Gen; Mori, Masataka; Fukushima, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01

    Calcification around the odontoid process suggests 'crowned dens' syndrome, when accompanied with acute occipital headache or neck pain and with inflammatory signs. We retrospectively searched for calcification around the odontoid process in routine CT images of 282 patients emcompassing the craniovertebral junction, and found 13 (4.6%) had 'crowned dens' calcifications with neither characteristic symptoms nor signs suggestive for crowned dens' syndrome. Females of older ages frequently showed asymptomatic crowned dens' calcifications. (author)

  2. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L.; de Jong, Pim A.; De Vis, Jill B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore...

  3. Abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients: results of the CORD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Eero; Kauppila, Leena; Wikström, Björn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 have a high prevalence of vascular calcification, but the specific anatomical distribution and severity of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), in contrast to coronary calcification, is less well documented. AAC may be recorded using plain...

  4. Perioperative ultrasound-guided wire marking of calcific deposits in calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigg, Andreas; Draws, Detlev; Stamm, Axel; Pfeiffer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The identification of a calcific deposit in the rotator cuff can often cause difficulties. A new technique is described to identify the calcific deposit perioperatively with a ultrasound-guided wire. The technique allows a safe direct marking of calcific deposits making the procedure faster especially in difficult cases.

  5. Calcification of the heart: A rare manifestation of chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, C.R. de

    1986-01-01

    A case is presented in which chronic renal failure led to intense visceral calcification, mainly to the lungs and heart. The discovery of cardiac calcifications on plain chest radiographs is exceedingly rare in renal patients. Puncate calcific deposits with an almost homogeneous distribution throughout the cardiac muscle were the main feature of this case. (orig.)

  6. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  7. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  8. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  9. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  10. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  14. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  15. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  16. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  17. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  18. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  19. Smoking and morphology of calcific deposits affect the outcome of needle aspiration of calcific deposits (NACD) for calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudelaar, Bart W; Ooms, Edwin M; Huis In 't Veld, Rianne M H A; Schepers-Bok, Relinde; Vochteloo, Anne J

    2015-11-01

    Although NACD has proven to be an effective minimal invasive treatment for calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff, little is known about the factors associated with treatment failure or the need for multiple procedures. Patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis who were treated by NACD were evaluated in a retrospective cohort study. Demographic details, medical history, sonographic and radiographic findings were collected from patient files. Failure of NACD was defined as the persistence of symptoms after a follow-up of at least six months. NACD procedures performed within six months after a previous NACD procedure were considered repeated procedures. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment failure and multiple procedures. 431 patients (277 female; mean age 51.4±9.9 years) were included. Smoking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7, p=0.04) was significantly associated with failure of NACD. Patients with Gärtner and Heyer (GH) type I calcific deposits were more likely to need multiple NACD procedures (AOR: 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.5, protator cuff tears were of no influence on the outcome of NACD or the number of treatments necessary. Smoking almost doubled the chance of failure of NACD and the presence of GH type I calcific deposits significantly increased the chance of multiple procedures. Partial thickness rotator cuff tears did not seem to affect the outcome of NACD. Based on the findings in this study, the importance of quitting smoking should be emphasized prior to NACD and partial thickness rotator cuff tears should not be a reason to withhold patients NACD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  1. Resolution effects on the morphology of calcifications in digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallergi, Maria; He, Li; Gavrielides, Marios; Heine, John; Clarke, Laurence P [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Box 17, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    1999-12-31

    The development of computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) techniques and direct digital mammography systems have generated significant interest in the issue of the effect of image resolution on the detection and classification (benign vs malignant) of mammographic abnormalities. CAD in particular seems to heavily depend on image resolution, either due to the inherent algorithm design and optimization, which is almost always dependent, or due to the differences in image content at the various resolutions. This twofold dependence makes it even more difficult to answer the question of what is the minimum resolution required for successful detection and/or classification of a specific mammographic abnormality, such as calcifications. One may begin by evaluating the losses in the mammograms as the films are digitized with different pixel sizes and depths. In this paper we attempted to measure these losses for the case of calcifications at four different spatial resolutions through a simulation model and a classification scheme that is based only on morphological features. The results showed that a 60 {mu}m pixel size and 12 bits per pixel should at least be used if the morphology and distribution of the calcifications are essential components in the CAD algorithm design. These conclusions were tested with the use of a wavelet-based algorithm for the segmentation of simulated mammographic calcifications at various resolutions. The evaluation of the segmentation through shape analysis and classification supported the initial conclusion. (authors) 14 refs., 1 tabs.

  2. Intracranial calcification in Raine syndrome: radiological pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mane, K.; Al-Dayel, F.; McDonald, P.

    1998-01-01

    We report the seventh known patient with Raine syndrome, a recently recognised, lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia associated with severe craniofacial dysmorphism and intracranial calcification in whom the CT findings are correlated with the gross and microscopic abnormalities found in the brain at autopsy. (orig.)

  3. Low calcification in corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Reef-building coral communities in the Great Barrier Reef—the world's largest coral reef—may now be calcifying at only about half the rate that they did during the 1970s, even though live coral cover may not have changed over the past 40 years, a new study finds. In recent decades, coral reefs around the world, home to large numbers of fish and other marine species, have been threatened by such human activities as pollution, overfishing, global warming, and ocean acidification; the latter affects ambient water chemistry and availability of calcium ions, which are critical for coral communities to calcify, build, and maintain reefs. Comparing data from reef surveys during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s with present-day (2009) measurements of calcification rates in One Tree Island, a coral reef covering 13 square kilometers in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, Silverman et al. show that the total calcification rates (the rate of calcification minus the rate of dissolution) in these coral communities have decreased by 44% over the past 40 years; the decrease appears to stem from a threefold reduction in calcification rates during nighttime.

  4. Vitamin D in Vascular Calcification: A Double-Edged Sword?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification (VC as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification. Therefore, more complex underlying processes involving physiochemical changes to mineral balance, vascular remodelling and perturbed hormonal responses such as parathyroid hormone (PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 are likely to contribute to VC. In particular, VC resulting from modifications to calcium, phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis has been recently elucidated. Notably, deregulation of vitamin D metabolism, dietary calcium intake and renal mineral handling are associated with imbalances in systemic calcium and phosphate levels and endothelial cell dysfunction, which can modulate both bone and soft tissue calcification. This review addresses the current understanding of VC pathophysiology, with a focus on the pathogenic role of vitamin D that has provided new insights into the mechanisms of VC.

  5. Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazeau, F.P.H.; Quiblier, C.M.L.; Jansen, J.M.; Gattuso, J.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean acidification resulting from human emissions of carbon dioxide has already lowered and will further lower surface ocean pH. The consequent decrease in calcium carbonate saturation potentially threatens calcareous marine organisms. Here, we demonstrate that the calcification rates of the edible

  6. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutscheson, JD; Aikawa, M

    2016-01-01

    obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin...

  8. Intracranial Convexity Lipoma with Massive Calcification: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Park, Dong Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Intracranial lipoma is a rare entity, accounting for less than 0.5% of intracranial tumors, which usually develops in the callosal cisterns. We report a case of lipoma with an unusual location; in the high parietal convexity combined with massive calcification, and no underlying vascular malformation or congenital anomaly.

  9. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  10. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological an...

  11. Calcification of a Synthetic Renovascular Graft in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S.T. Chong

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Vascular grafts, especially in paediatric cases, need to be durable. Common failures such as thrombosis are well documented with research efforts directed towards them. However, there are lesser known causes of graft failure, such as graft calcification, and these also require further research focus. Report: A paediatric case is described in which a synthetic renovascular graft, implanted for mid-aortic syndrome, became calcified, necessitating surgical intervention to resolve graft malfunction. Significant calcification in the limb of a bifurcated polyethylene terephthalate graft was found to be the cause of resistant stenosis and refractory hypertension. Histology conducted on the explanted limb showed the presence of multinuclear giant cells, indicating a chronic foreign body response. Discussion: Calcification of vascular grafts is probably more common than previously recognised. Stenosis typically resistant to angioplasty may result in the long term and thus leading to surgical intervention. In young children, this is suboptimal as these grafts need to last throughout adulthood. Explanted prosthetic grafts should be sent to specialist registries such as that in Strasbourg to be optimally assessed so that contributory factors can be identified. Keywords: Renovascular graft, Paediatric, Calcification

  12. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  13. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  14. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  15. Loss of function of Slc20a2 associated with familial idiopathic Basal Ganglia calcification in humans causes brain calcifications in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Schroder, H. D.; Hejbol, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Deleterious mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), were recently linked to FIBGC in almost 50% of the families...... reported worldwide. Here, we show that knockout of Slc20a2 in mice causes calcifications in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cortex, demonstrating that reduced PiT2 expression alone can cause brain calcifications....

  16. Infeasibility of endoscopic transmural drainage due to pancreatic pseudocyst wall calcifications - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Andrzej; Lech, Gustaw; Makiewicz, Marcin; Kluciński, Andrzej; Wojtasik, Monika; Kozieł, Sławomir; Słodkowski, Maciej

    2017-02-28

    Postinflammatory pancreatic pseudocysts are one of the most common complications of acute pancreatitis. In most cases, pseudocysts self-absorb in the course of treatment of pancreatitis. In some patients, pancreatic pseudocysts are symptomatic and cause pain, problems with gastrointestinal transit, and other complications. In such cases, drainage or resection should be performed. Among the invasive methods, mini invasive procedures like endoscopic transmural drainage through the wall of the stomach or duodenum play an important role. For endoscopic transmural drainage, it is necessary that the cyst wall adheres to the stomach or duodenum, making a visible impression. We present a very rare case of infeasibility of endoscopic drainage of a postinflammatory pancreatic pseudocyst, impressing the stomach, due to cyst wall calcifications. A 55-year-old man after acute pancreatitis presented with a 1-year history of epigastric pain and was admitted due to a postinflammatory pseudocyst in the body and tail of pancreas. On admission, blood tests, including CA 19-9 and CEA, were normal. An ultrasound examination revealed a 100-mm pseudocyst in the tail of pancreas, which was confirmed on CT and EUS. Acoustic shadowing caused by cyst wall calcifications made the cyst unavailable to ultrasound assessment and percutaneous drainage. Gastroscopy revealed an impression on the stomach wall from the outside. The patient was scheduled for endoscopic transmural drainage. After insufflation of the stomach, a large mass protruding from the wall was observed. The stomach mucosa was punctured with a cystotome needle knife, and the pancreatic cyst wall was reached. Due to cyst wall calcifications, endoscopic drainage of the cyst was unfeasible. Profuse submucosal bleeding at the puncture site was stopped by placing clips. The patient was scheduled for open surgery, and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. The histopathological examination confirmed the initial diagnosis

  17. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, E. J.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; de Putron, S. J.; Starczak, V. R.; Zicht, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the existence of coral reefs by slowing the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production of framework-building corals thus reducing the amount of CaCO3 the reef can produce to counteract natural dissolution. Some evidence exists to suggest that elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients can reduce the impact of OA on coral calcification. Here, we investigated the potential for enhanced energetic status of juvenile corals, achieved via heterotrophic feeding, to modulate the negative impact of OA on calcification. Larvae of the common Atlantic golf ball coral, Favia fragum, were collected and reared for 3 weeks under ambient (421 μatm) or significantly elevated (1,311 μatm) CO2 conditions. The metamorphosed, zooxanthellate spat were either fed brine shrimp (i.e., received nutrition from photosynthesis plus heterotrophy) or not fed (i.e., primarily autotrophic). Regardless of CO2 condition, the skeletons of fed corals exhibited accelerated development of septal cycles and were larger than those of unfed corals. At each CO2 level, fed corals accreted more CaCO3 than unfed corals, and fed corals reared under 1,311 μatm CO2 accreted as much CaCO3 as unfed corals reared under ambient CO2. However, feeding did not alter the sensitivity of calcification to increased CO2; ∆ calcification/∆Ω was comparable for fed and unfed corals. Our results suggest that calcification rates of nutritionally replete juvenile corals will decline as OA intensifies over the course of this century. Critically, however, such corals could maintain higher rates of skeletal growth and CaCO3 production under OA than those in nutritionally limited environments.

  18. Calcification remodeling index characterized by cardiac CT as A novel parameter to predict the use of rotational atherectomy for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Lu, Zhi Gang; Wei, Meng; Zhang, Jia Yin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2017-09-15

    To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation.

  19. Calcification remodeling index characterized by cardiac CT as A novel parameter to predict the use of rotational atherectomy for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Meng Meng; Li, Yue Hua; Li, Wen Bin; Lu, Zhi Gang; Wei, Meng; Zhang, Jia Yin

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation.

  20. Calcification Remodeling Index Characterized by Cardiac CT as a Novel Parameter to Predict the Use of Rotational Atherectomy for Coronary Intervention of Lesions with Moderate to Severe Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengmeng; Li, Yuehua; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Zhigang; Wei, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of calcification characterization by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to predict the use of rotational atherectomy (RA) for coronary intervention of lesions with moderate to severe calcification. Materials and Methods Patients with calcified lesions treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively included in this study. Calcification remodeling index was calculated as the ratio of the smallest vessel cross-sectional area of the lesion to the proximal reference luminal area. Other parameters such as calcium volume, regional Agatston score, calcification length, and involved calcium arc quadrant were also recorded. Results A total of 223 patients with 241 calcified lesions were finally included. Lesions with RA tended to have larger calcium volume, higher regional Agatston score, more involved calcium arc quadrants, and significantly smaller calcification remodeling index than lesions without RA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of calcification remodeling index was 0.84 (area under curve = 0.847, p < 0.001). Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor (odds ratio: 251.47, p < 0.001) for using RA. Conclusion Calcification remodeling index was significantly correlated with the incidence of using RA to aid PCI. Calcification remodeling index ≤ 0.84 was the strongest independent predictor for using RA prior to stent implantation. PMID:28860893

  1. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and…

  2. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  3. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  4. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo. First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides). Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort. First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s), medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82) between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable. The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological) studies on iICA calcification.

  5. Prevalences of CT detected calcification in the basal ganglia in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illum, F.; Dupont, E.; Aarhus Univ.; Aarhus Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) and eight patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) were examined by CT scan of the brain. Calcification in the basal ganglia was observed in 11 patients with IHP (69%) and in all eight patients with PHP. Of the 19 patients with basal ganglia calcification, nine had calcifications in the cerebral cortex (47%), and four had calcifications in the cerebellum (21%). Observation of basal ganglia calcification on CT gave rise to suspicion of IHP or PHP in three patients (12%). The remaining patients were examined at varying time after diagnosis. Since arrest in growth of calcifications after institution of treatment has never been proven, the reported prevalences of calcifications may not be valid to the situation at the time of diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Differential Effects of Ocean Acidification on Coral Calcification: Insights from Geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, M.; Decarlo, T. M.; Venn, A.; Tambutte, E.; Gaetani, G. A.; Tambutte, S.; Allemand, D.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Although ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying animals due to the formation of CaCO3 becoming less favorable, experimental evidence is mixed. Corals have received considerable attention in this regard; laboratory culture experiments show there to be a wide array of calcification responses to acidification. Here we will show how relationships for the incorporation of various trace elements and boron isotopes into synthetic aragonite can be used to reconstruct carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification. In turn the chemistry at the site of calcification can be determined under different ocean acidification scenarios and differences in the chemistry at the site of calcification linked to different calcification responses to acidification. Importantly we will show that the pH of the calcifying fluid alone is insufficient to estimate calcification responses, thus a multi-proxy approach using multiple trace elements and isotopes is required to understand how the site of calcification is affected by ocean acidification.

  7. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine: imaging findings and clinical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Mochida, J.; Toh, E. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Saito, Ikuo; Matui, Sizuka [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odawara Hospital, Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, Sakawa, Odawara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Ligamentous calcification of the cervical spine has been reported in the yellow ligament, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and interspinous ligament. Calcification in the upper cervical spine is rare, although some cases with calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas have been reported. Two patients with calcification of the alar ligament with an unusual clinical presentation and course are described. Examination by tomography and computed tomography (CT) showed calcification of the alar ligament and the transverse ligament of the atlas. CT documented decreased calcification as symptoms resolved. There may be a role for CT in the search for calcifications in the upper cervical spine in patients presenting with neck pain and pharyngodynia if radiographs are normal. (orig.)

  8. Cardiac Fibroblasts Adopt Osteogenic Fates and Can Be Targeted to Attenuate Pathological Heart Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Indulekha C L; Li, Shen; Romay, Milagros; Lam, Larry; Lu, Yan; Huang, Jie; Dillard, Nathaniel; Zemanova, Marketa; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Wang, Yibin; Lee, Jason; Xia, Ming; Liang, Owen; Xie, Ya-Hong; Pellegrini, Matteo; Lusis, Aldons J; Deb, Arjun

    2017-02-02

    Mammalian tissues calcify with age and injury. Analogous to bone formation, osteogenic cells are thought to be recruited to the affected tissue and induce mineralization. In the heart, calcification of cardiac muscle leads to conduction system disturbances and is one of the most common pathologies underlying heart blocks. However the cell identity and mechanisms contributing to pathological heart muscle calcification remain unknown. Using lineage tracing, murine models of heart calcification and in vivo transplantation assays, we show that cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) adopt an osteoblast cell-like fate and contribute directly to heart muscle calcification. Small-molecule inhibition of ENPP1, an enzyme that is induced upon injury and regulates bone mineralization, significantly attenuated cardiac calcification. Inhibitors of bone mineralization completely prevented ectopic cardiac calcification and improved post injury heart function. Taken together, these findings highlight the plasticity of fibroblasts in contributing to ectopic calcification and identify pharmacological targets for therapeutic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine: imaging findings and clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Mochida, J.; Toh, E.; Saito, Ikuo; Matui, Sizuka

    2001-01-01

    Ligamentous calcification of the cervical spine has been reported in the yellow ligament, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and interspinous ligament. Calcification in the upper cervical spine is rare, although some cases with calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas have been reported. Two patients with calcification of the alar ligament with an unusual clinical presentation and course are described. Examination by tomography and computed tomography (CT) showed calcification of the alar ligament and the transverse ligament of the atlas. CT documented decreased calcification as symptoms resolved. There may be a role for CT in the search for calcifications in the upper cervical spine in patients presenting with neck pain and pharyngodynia if radiographs are normal. (orig.)

  10. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  11. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  12. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  13. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  14. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  15. Frequency and importance of radiologically visible coronary scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, B.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of radiologically visible coronary sceleroses for an early diagnosing of coronary heart disease was investigated. In 3 mixed collectives of patients with and without coronary heart diseases who had had a coronary angiography were examined retrospectively for coronary sclerosis (group I: standard films, group II: old X-ray findings, group III: fluoroscopy before beginning coronary angiography). In the retrospective evaluation, the sensitivity to the recognition of coronary heart disease was low. With prospective examination by means of fluoroscopy, coronary calcification could be proven in 37.66% of the patients with coronary diseases (sensitivity); the specificity (no coronary calcification in persons without coronary disease) was 99%. The duration and extent of a calcification do not show a definite influence on the severity of the disease. Several coronary scleroses in one or several vessels mostly indicate a vascular disease. Coronary scleroses are not necessarily located in the same point as coronary stenoses: in 85.5% of the patients with coronary sclerosis of the left truncus, haemodynamically important stenoses were found only in following vascular regions. Considering the high specificity of coronary scleroses in the fluoroscopic picture and the high sensitivity under favourable conditions, this method seems to be suitable as a screening method for early recognition of coronary heart diseases in the asymptomatic stage. A proven coronary sclerosis should in any case be the cause for continuing the search for a coronary heart disease. The radiation exposure during fluoroscopy of coronary sclerosis is low if the adjustment is correct, it takes little time, the patient is not put to discomfort. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Isolated splenic calcifications in two patients with portal hypertension; Calcificaciones esplenicas aisladas en dos pacientes con hipertension portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixandre, A; Cugat, A [Hospital de la Malvarrosa. Valencia (Spain); Ruiz, A; Marti-Bonmati, L [Hosptial Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain); Tardaguila, F [Clinica Provisa. Vigo (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Calcification of the walls of the veins of the portal hypertension (PHT) (1-0), is uncommon. Calcification of the intra splenic vessels is exceptional. We report two cases of isolated calcification of intra splenic vessels, without calcification of the splenoportal venous axis, in patients with liver cirrhosis and PHT. The calcification was not clear. Computed tomography identified the calcification as linear tubular, branched structures located in the wall of intra splenic vessels. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed signs of cirrhosis and PHT but did not show the splenic classifications because of technical limitations. The cause of these calcifications was sustained PHT due to chronic liver disease. (Author) 15 refs.

  17. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  18. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of atypical hepatic Echinococcus alveolarisinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etlik, Oemer; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Temizoez, Osman; Bay, Ali; Koesem, Mustafa; Dogan, Ekrem

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver infestation by Echinococcus alveolaris(EA) is based on serological and radiological findings. In this report, we present a 15-year-old girl with atypical hepatic EA infestation showing central punctate calcifications and contrast enhancement on the portal and late phases of CT and MRI. CT showed a hypodense mass involving more than half of the liver with prominent central calcifications. MRI revealed hypointense signal of the infiltrative mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is a unique finding in hepatic EA infestation that may cause difficulties with diagnosis. MRI may provide invaluable information in the diagnosis of EA infestation of the liver, either by disclosing the infiltrative pattern of infestation without significant effect to vascular structures, or by the signal characteristics. (orig.)

  19. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of atypical hepatic Echinococcus alveolarisinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etlik, Oemer; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Temizoez, Osman [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Bay, Ali [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Van (Turkey); Koesem, Mustafa [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Van (Turkey); Dogan, Ekrem [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Van (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Diagnosis of liver infestation by Echinococcus alveolaris(EA) is based on serological and radiological findings. In this report, we present a 15-year-old girl with atypical hepatic EA infestation showing central punctate calcifications and contrast enhancement on the portal and late phases of CT and MRI. CT showed a hypodense mass involving more than half of the liver with prominent central calcifications. MRI revealed hypointense signal of the infiltrative mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is a unique finding in hepatic EA infestation that may cause difficulties with diagnosis. MRI may provide invaluable information in the diagnosis of EA infestation of the liver, either by disclosing the infiltrative pattern of infestation without significant effect to vascular structures, or by the signal characteristics. (orig.)

  20. Social media visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2018-01-01

    of activists remains under-researched. This article examines BP’s surveillance of activists who criticise the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme as ‘greenwashing’. In this way, it goes beyond corporations’ uses of big data and instead explores how they monitor and discuss strategies......As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms, they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... for responding to the activities of individual activists in social media. It shows that while social media afford an unprecedented level of visibility for activists, it comes with the risk of being monitored by corporations. Theoretically, it draws on conceptions of visibility in social sciences and media...

  1. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  2. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  3. The benefits of visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; DeWitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  4. The benefits of visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; DeWitt, D

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  5. Phenotypic spectrum of probable and genetically-confirmed idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Pottier, Cyril; Charbonnier, Camille; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Labauge, Pierre; Ayrignac, Xavier; Defebvre, Luc; Maltête, David; Martinaud, Olivier; Lefaucheur, Romain; Guillin, Olivier; Wallon, David; Chaumette, Boris; Rondepierre, Philippe; Derache, Nathalie; Fromager, Guillaume; Schaeffer, Stéphane; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Verny, Christophe; Jurici, Snejana; Sauvée, Mathilde; Vérin, Marc; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Rouaud, Olivier; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rousseau, Stéphane; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is characterized by mineral deposits in the brain, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in most cases and genetic heterogeneity. The first causal genes, SLC20A2 and PDGFRB, have recently been reported. Diagnosing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification necessitates the exclusion of other causes, including calcification related to normal ageing, for which no normative data exist. Our objectives were to diagnose accurately and then describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification. First, calcifications were evaluated using a visual rating scale on the computerized tomography scans of 600 consecutively hospitalized unselected controls. We determined an age-specific threshold in these control computerized tomography scans as the value of the 99th percentile of the total calcification score within three age categories: 60 years. To study the phenotype of the disease, patients with basal ganglia calcification were recruited from several medical centres. Calcifications that rated below the age-specific threshold using the same scale were excluded, as were patients with differential diagnoses of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, after an extensive aetiological assessment. Sanger sequencing of SLC20A2 and PDGFRB was performed. In total, 72 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, 25 of whom bore a mutation in either SLC20A2 (two families, four sporadic cases) or PDGFRB (one family, two sporadic cases). Five mutations were novel. Seventy-one per cent of the patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification were symptomatic (mean age of clinical onset: 39 ± 20 years; mean age at last evaluation: 55 ± 19 years). Among them, the most frequent signs were: cognitive impairment (58.8%), psychiatric symptoms (56.9%) and movement disorders (54.9%). Few clinical differences appeared between SLC20A2 and PDGFRB mutation carriers. Radiological analysis

  6. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  8. Serum Fetuin-A Levels in Patients with Bilateral Basal Ganglia Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryurek, Bekir Enes; Gundogdu, Asli Aksoy

    2018-02-14

    The idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr syndrome) may occur due to senility. Fetuin-A is a negative acute phase reactant which inhibits calcium-phosphorus precipitation and vascular calcification. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether serum fetuin-A levels correlate with bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Forty-five patients who had bilateral basal ganglia calcification on brain CT were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 45 age and gender-matched subjects without basal ganglia calcification were included for the control group. Serum fetuin-A levels were measured from venous blood samples. All participants were divided into two groups; with and without basal ganglia calcification. These groups were divided into subgroups regarding age (18-32 and 33-45 years of age) and gender (male, female). We detected lower levels of serum fetuin-A in patients with basal ganglia calcification compared with the subjects without basal ganglia calcification. In all subgroups (female, male, 18-32 years and 33-45 years), mean fetuin-A levels were significantly lower in patients with basal ganglia calcification (p = 0.017, p = 0.014, p = 0.024, p = 0.026, p = 0.01 respectively). And statistically significantly lower levels of fetuin-A was found to be correlated with the increasing densities of calcification in the calcified basal ganglia group (p-value: <0.001). Considering the role of fetuin-A in tissue calcification and inflammation, higher serum fetuin-A levels should be measured in patients with basal ganglia calcification. We believe that the measurement of serum fetuin-A may play a role in the prediction of basal ganglia calcification as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low Florida coral calcification rates in the Plio-Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, Thomas C.; Reuter, Markus; Krüger, Stefan; Klaus, James S.; Helmle, Kevin; Lough, Janice M.

    2016-08-01

    In geological outcrops and drill cores from reef frameworks, the skeletons of scleractinian corals are usually leached and more or less completely transformed into sparry calcite because the highly porous skeletons formed of metastable aragonite (CaCO3) undergo rapid diagenetic alteration. Upon alteration, ghost structures of the distinct annual growth bands often allow for reconstructions of annual extension ( = growth) rates, but information on skeletal density needed for reconstructions of calcification rates is invariably lost. This report presents the bulk density, extension rates and calcification rates of fossil reef corals which underwent minor diagenetic alteration only. The corals derive from unlithified shallow water carbonates of the Florida platform (south-eastern USA), which formed during four interglacial sea level highstands dated approximately 3.2, 2.9, 1.8, and 1.2 Ma in the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. With regard to the preservation, the coral skeletons display smooth growth surfaces with minor volumes of marine aragonite cement within intra-skeletal porosity. Within the skeletal structures, voids are commonly present along centres of calcification which lack secondary cements. Mean extension rates were 0.44 ± 0.19 cm yr-1 (range 0.16 to 0.86 cm yr-1), mean bulk density was 0.96 ± 0.36 g cm-3 (range 0.55 to 1.83 g cm-3) and calcification rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.82 g cm-2 yr-1 (mean 0.38 ± 0.16 g cm-2 yr-1), values which are 50 % of modern shallow-water reef corals. To understand the possible mechanisms behind these low calcification rates, we compared the fossil calcification rates with those of modern zooxanthellate corals (z corals) from the Western Atlantic (WA) and Indo-Pacific calibrated against sea surface temperature (SST). In the fossil data, we found a widely analogous relationship with SST in z corals from the WA, i.e. density increases and extension rate decreases with increasing SST, but over a significantly larger

  10. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Sarah A; Gibbs, Samantha J; Bown, Paul R; Young, Jeremy R; Poulton, Alex J; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A

    2014-11-17

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change.

  11. A case report of hepatoma with cystic calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byung Hee; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Byung So [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    A case of hepatoma with cystic calcification radiographically which confirmed by pathological examination, was reported. The patients was 19 years old boy who had abdominal mass and pain in left upper quadrant for 1 month. His family history was not contributary. The upper G-I series revealed slight posterior displacement of the fundus with a cyst like calcification, about 4.5 X 5 cm, in diameter at the left upper quadrant. Liver scanning showed normal concentration of 198{sup A}u on the right lobe but nonvisualization of the left lobe area. Biopsy specimen showed hepatoma cells invading the portal vein and intrahepatic blood vessels, and the cystic structure which was a blood vessel invaded by the tumor consisting of the organized thrombi.

  12. Lipoprotein(a Induces Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a, or Lp(a, significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, release of phosphate, calcium deposition, hydroxyapatite, cell apoptosis, matrix vesicle formation, and phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins; increased expression of chondro-osteogenic mediators; and decreased SOX9 and matrix Gla protein (p < 0.001. Inhibition of MAPK38 and GSK3β significantly reduced Lp(a-induced calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells (p < 0.001. There was abundant presence of Lp(a and E06 immunoreactivity in diseased human aortic valves. The present study demonstrates a causal effect for Lp(a in aortic valve calcification and suggests that interfering with the Lp(apathway could provide a novel therapeutic approach in the management of this debilitating disease.

  13. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  14. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients.

  15. Mixed periapical lesion: an atypical radicular cyst with extensive calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Pontual, Andréa dos Anjos; França, Talita Ribeiro Tenório de; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; Beltrão, Ricardo Villar; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The radicular cyst is an inflammatory odontogenic cyst of endodontic origin. Radiographically, the lesion appears as a periapical radiolucent image. This report describes a very rare case of a mixed periapical radiographic image diagnosed as a radicular cyst. A 37-year-old female patient presented a mixed, well-circumscribed image located in the periapical region of the left maxillary central incisor, which presented unsatisfactory endodontic treatment. Microscopic examination revealed a cavity lined by non-keratinized squamous epithelium and extensive calcifications in the cystic lumen and lining epithelium. Diagnosis of radicular cyst with extensive calcifications was established. Endodontic retreatment was performed and no radiographic signs of recurrence were observed 18 months after treatment. Although very rare, a radicular cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mixed periapical image associated to teeth with pulp necrosis.

  16. Nonfunctional Cystic Hepatic Paraganglioma Mimicking Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Balkisanji Agrawal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is also known as a paraganglioma. We are reporting the case of a 68-year-old female patient with an extremely rare primary nonfunctioning hepatic paraganglioma without any clinical signs and symptoms. A CECT scan of whole abdomen was done which showed a huge well defined peripherally enhancing fluid density cystic lesion measuring 14 cm × 14 cm × 12 cm with internal enhancing septations and few foci of calcification involving V to VIII segments of right lobe of liver which was compressing and displacing portal vein, its right branch, common bile duct, gall bladder. Mass was also compressing and displacing right kidney inferiorly. Laparotomy was done and sample of cyst wall sent for histopathology. After immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed.

  17. A Possible Role for Vitamin C in Coral Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. J.; Roberson, L.; Vazquez, N.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of coral reefs to tropical, marine ecosystems, the biological components of the calcification process are poorly understood. Because calcification must involve the delivery of organic and inorganic components across cell membranes, we postulate that it has similar features to epithelial and neuronal transport mechanisms in vertebrates. Accordingly, we are interested in identifying the specific membrane transporters underlying skeleton formation. As a model, we are using larvae from the ubiquitous Caribbean species Porites astreoides, a rapidly growing stony coral that is resistant to anthropogenic stressors. Using Illumina RNAseq, we assembled a larval transcriptome and compared gene expression between swimming larvae and recently settled ones that had just commenced the process of calcification. As expected, we identified many ion transporter, pump and channel transcripts that were upregulated in settled larvae. It was surprising, however, to find that the most upregulated transcript appeared to encode a Na-dependent Vitamin C transporter (SLC23A). In vertebrates, SLC23A transporters play a vital role in bone morphogenesis where Vitamin C is an essential cofactor for enzymes that condition collagen precursors for assembly into mature molecules. In corals, collagen has been identified as a component of the skeleton's extracellular matrix. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that the P. astreoides SLC23A messages were expressed in regions adjacent to rapid skeleton formation, on the aboral surface and septa of settled larvae. To confirm that the coral clone is indeed a Vitamin C transporter, we expressed it in Xenopus oocytes and studied its activity using voltage-clamp. Preliminary data demonstrate that it induces a current that is activated by Na and Vitamin C. This approach will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying calcification and how they might respond to environmental change.

  18. Modelling coral polyp calcification in relation to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hohn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans and, ultimately, a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process can harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. It is expected that ocean acidification in combination with other anthropogenic stressors will cause a severe decline in coral abundance by the end of this century, with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calcifying fluid. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calcifying fluid beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. We find that a transport mechanism for bicarbonate is required to supplement carbon into the calcifying fluid because CO2 diffusion alone is not sufficient to sustain the observed calcification rates. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite the strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calcifying fluid increases with increasing seawater pCO2, leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

  19. Calcific Tendinitis of the Rotator Cuff: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kachewar, Sushil G; Kulkarni, Devidas S

    2013-01-01

    Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff is a common disorder; its underlying mechanism still remains unknown. Although details of the clinical presentation(s) and pathological changes which are associated with calcific tendinitis are available, conservative management of this condition remains a topic of debate. About 90% of the patients can be treated non – operatively, but as some are resistant to conservative treatment; newer techniques or surgery should be indicated.

  20. Carbon cycling and calcification in hypersaline microbial mats

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are laminated aggregations of microorganisms that thrive in extreme and oligotrophic environments. Primary production rates by oxygenic phototrophs are extremely high. Primary producers supply heterotrophic mat members with organic carbon, which in turn regenerate CO2 needed for autotrophic carbon fixation. Another potential source of CO2 is calcification, which is known to shift the carbonate equilibrium towards CO2. This thesis investigated the carbon cycle of mi...

  1. Evaluation of hepatic calcifications in cancer patients with ultrasonography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehl, S; Rehwald, U; Heckemann, R

    1985-02-01

    Eight patients with metastatic solid tumours had calcified liver metastases. These infiltrates can be demonstrated by plain X-ray pictures, however, they may be differentiated earlier by sonography and computed tomography. Their appearance does not necessarily correlate with the histology or response to treatment. In addition to cases of colorectal malignancy, this unusual finding occurred in association with breast cancer, thyroid and ovarian cancer.

  2. Skin autofluorescence associates with vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Yau, Yat-Yin; Wong, Sharon; Chan, Iris Hiu-Shuen; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between tissue advanced glycation end products, as reflected by skin autofluorescence, and vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Three hundred patients with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease underwent multislice computed tomography to estimate total coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and had tissue advanced glycation end product assessed using a skin autofluorescence reader. Intact parathyroid hormone (Pskin autofluorescence after age (Pskin autofluorescence was associated with a 7.43-fold (95% confidence intervals, 3.59-15.37; PSkin autofluorescence retained significance in predicting CACS ≥400 (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence intervals, 1.44-9.18; P=0.006) when adjusting for age, sex, serum calcium, phosphate, albumin, C-reactive protein, lipids, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and intact parathyroid hormone but marginally lost significance when additionally adjusting for diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence intervals, 0.81-6.14; P=0.1). Combination of diabetes mellitus and higher intact parathyroid hormone was associated with greater skin autofluorescence and CACS versus those without diabetes mellitus and having lower intact parathyroid hormone. Tissue advanced glycation end product, as reflected by skin autofluorescence, showed a significant novel association with vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. These data suggest that increased tissue advanced glycation end product may contribute to vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus and warrant further experimental investigation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Toll-Like Receptors, Inflammation, and Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, the primary response of innate immunity, is essential to initiate the calcification process underlying calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD, the most prevalent valvulopathy in Western countries. The pathogenesis of CAVD is multifactorial and includes inflammation, hemodynamic factors, fibrosis, and active calcification. In the development of CAVD, both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated, and accumulating evidences show the central role of inflammation in the initiation and propagation phases of the disease, being the function of Toll-like receptors (TLR particularly relevant. These receptors act as sentinels of the innate immune system by recognizing pattern molecules from both pathogens and host-derived molecules released after tissue damage. TLR mediate inflammation via NF-κB routes within and beyond the immune system, and play a crucial role in the control of infection and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This review outlines the current notions about the association between TLR signaling and the ensuing development of inflammation and fibrocalcific remodeling in the pathogenesis of CAVD. Recent data provide new insights into the inflammatory and osteogenic responses underlying the disease and further support the hypothesis that inflammation plays a mechanistic role in the initiation and progression of CAVD. These findings make TLR signaling a potential target for therapeutic intervention in CAVD.

  4. Cervical peridural calcification in dialysed patients. Report of seven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Yasuhiro; Komura, Masayoshi; Fukuda, Minoru; Yamanaka, Mariko; Inose, Kazuto; Honda, Masanori; Shiraishi, Tateru

    2007-01-01

    Though a variety of bone joint complications are widely recognized in long-term dialysis patients, myelopathy caused by ectopic calcification surrounding the cervical spinal dura has not been reported. We encountered seven patients with the cervical peridural calcification (CPC) and performed surgery on four. The present study investigated the clinical features of this condition. All seven had a dialysis history over 20 years, and the Ca X P product was high. Plain cervical CT scan was the most useful diagnostic tool for CPC, though was quite difficult to establish the diagnosis by plain X-ray, MRI or myelography. Clinical symptoms of CPC resembled those of spinal canal stenosis caused by thickening or ossification of the ligament. The spinal cord in the area of CPC was comppressed with calcified fibrous membrane surrounding the cervical dura mater, swelling and pulsation of spinal cord was obtained after not only excising the vertebral arch but also opening and removing the calcified membrane from the dura. Clinical improvement was obtained only in two patients with a short symptomatic period. Based on these findings, CPC should be recognized as an important complication in dialysed patients. Patients demonstrating any sign of numbness and/or muscle weakness in upper and/or lower limbs should be examined by plain cervical CT scan. If calcification around the spinal dura is identified, surgery should be considered in the early stage. (author)

  5. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  6. Abdominal aortic calcification quantified by the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    . Three hundred and eight healthy women aged 48 to 76 years, were followed for 8.3 ± 0.3 years. AAC was quantified using lumbar radiographs. Baseline data included age, weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose levels. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test for relationships....... At baseline and across all patients, MACD correlated with blood glucose (r2 = 0.1, Pcorrelations between baseline biological parameters and the follow-up calcification assessment...... index was not correlated with blood parameters. Patterns of calcification identified by the MACD, but not the AC24 index, appear to contain useful biological information perhaps explaining part of the improved identification of risk of cardiovascular death of the MACD index. Correlations of MACD...

  7. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  8. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...... install a normative emotional scale where an ideal employee displays emotional investment and self-control. This has implications, not only for employees who are expected to exhibit the 'right' emotions, but also for management, which comes to depend on transient emotions and co-presence in situations...

  9. Induction of calcification by serum depletion in cell culture: a model for focal calcification in aortas related to atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Maria T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since aortic calcification has been shown to initiate in the lower zone of well-thickened plaques (LZP adjacent to the aortic media of rabbits fed supplemental cholesterol diets, a restricted supply of serum to vascular cells could play a role in vascular calcification. This study was designed to use a cell culture model to support this hypothesis. Results Rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells were grown to confluence in a culture media containing 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS. The confluent cells were then exposed to the media for 2 hrs with or without serum at a Ca × P ion product range of 4.5–9.4 mM2. In contrast to the cells cultured in the presence of FBS, confluent cells in its absence displayed marked mineral-positive alizarin red staining and infrared absorption of mineral phosphate. A kinetic parameter C1/2 was used to designate the concentration of serum or its protein constituents needed to reduce the deposition of Ca and P by half. The C1/2 for FBS and rabbit serum was 0.04–0.07 % The C1/2 value for rabbit serum proteins was 13.5 μg/ml corresponding to the protein concentration in 0.06 % of serum. This C1/2 was markedly smaller than 86.2 μg/ml for bovine serum albumin present in 0.37 % serum (p Conclusion The aortic smooth muscle cell culture model suggests that serum depletion may play a role in the initiation of aortic calcification. The serum exhibits remarkable ability to inhibit cell-mediated calcification.

  10. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Chakraborty, Dev P; Dance, David R; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC (AFROC) area decreased from

  11. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  12. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C. [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford GU1 1LJ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, St. George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15210 (United States); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  13. Can dental pulp calcification predict the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Bronoosh, Pegah; Khosropanah, Shahdad; Rahimi, Elham

    2013-09-01

    To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated. Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD. This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  14. The association of incidentally detected heart valve calcification with future cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    Gondrie, Martijn J. A.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Jacobs, Peter C.; Oen, Ay L.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of incidental aortic valve calcification (AVC), mitral valve calcification (MVC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) for cardiovascular events and non-rheumatic valve disease in particular on routine diagnostic chest CT. Methods The study followed a case-cohort design. 10410 patients undergoing chest CT were followed for a median period of 17 months. Patients referred for cardiovascular disease were excluded. A random sample of...

  15. The relationship between aortic calcification on chest radiography and ionizing radiation in RERF's Adult Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Suzuki, G.; Masunari, N.; Kasagi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Aortic calcification has been reported to be an indicator of atherosclerosis and a predictor of coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between aortic calcification and conventional coronary risk factors or recently reported coronary risk factors including ionizing radiation, which is one kind of oxidative stress, has not been established. Objective: To investigate the relationship between aortic calcification and ionizing radiation in a longitudinal study design. The study cohort comprises the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Adult Health Study participants which include atomic-bomb survivors and sex- and age-matched controls. A total of 522 men and 938 women identified as not having aortic calcification based on plain chest X-ray examinations at baseline examination between 1991 and 1993 were assessed regarding the presence of aortic calcification (mild/ severe calcification) about 10 years later. The relationship between cumulative incidence of aortic calcification and atomic-bomb radiation was analyzed using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for sex, age, and other coronary risk factors such as blood pressure, total cholesterol, and inflammation markers. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence of aortic calcification showed a possible increase with atomic-bomb radiation dose for both total aortic calcification and severe aortic calcification. But after adjusting for other coronary risk factors such as smoking, SBP, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and leukocyte neutropils, radiation dose was not a significant predictor of cumulative incidence of severe aortic calcification. Age-adjusted increase of cumulative incidence of aortic calcification with atomic-bomb radiation dose suggests ionizing radiation is one predictor of atheroscelerosis. Nevertheless, its predictive impact may not be as significant as conventional coronary risk factors

  16. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho 2, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8602 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, 1001 Gakuhara-cho, Kishiwada city, Osaka 596-8501 (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis.

  17. Inflammation of vertebral bone associated with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihmanli, I.; Kanberoglu, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Karaarslan, E. [Intermed Medical Center, Nisantasi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with characteristic findings on radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis report having inflammation of both the vertebra itself and the longus colli muscle diagnosed on MRI. In patients with neck pain, acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis, even if these patients had vertebral pathological signals on MRI. (orig.)

  18. Inflammation of vertebral bone associated with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihmanli, I.; Kanberoglu, K.; Karaarslan, E.

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis with characteristic findings on radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To our knowledge, this is the first acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis report having inflammation of both the vertebra itself and the longus colli muscle diagnosed on MRI. In patients with neck pain, acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis, even if these patients had vertebral pathological signals on MRI. (orig.)

  19. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  20. Prevalence of Soft Tissue Calcifications in CBCT Images of Mandibular Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Sayar, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Most of the soft tissue calcifications within the head and neck region might not be accompanied by clinical symptoms but may indicate some pathological conditions. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of mandibular region. In this cross sectional study the CBCT images of 602 patients including 294 men and 308 women with mean age 41.38±15.18 years were evaluated regarding the presence, anatomical location; type (single or multiple) and size of soft tissue calcification in mandibular region. All CBCT images were acquired by NewTom VGi scanner. Odds ratio and chi-square tests were used for data analysis and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 156 out of 602 patients had at least one soft tissue calcification in their mandibular region (25.9%. of studied population with mean age 51.7±18.03 years). Men showed significantly higher rate of soft tissue calcification than women (30.3% vs. 21.8%). Soft tissue calcification was predominantly seen at posterior region of the mandible (88%) and most of them were single (60.7%). The prevalence of soft tissue calcification increased with age. Most of the detected soft tissue calcifications were smaller than 3mm (90%). Soft tissue calcifications in mandibular area were a relatively common finding especially in posterior region and more likely to happen in men and in older age group.

  1. Harnessing osteopontin and other natural inhibitors to mitigate ectopic calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit

    Dystrophic calcification has been the long-standing major cause of bioprosthetic heart valve failure, and has been well studied in terms of the underlying causative mechanisms. Such understanding has yielded several anti-calcification strategies involving biomaterial modification at the preparation stage: chemical alteration, extraction of calcifiable components, or material modification with small-molecule anti-calcific agents. However, newer therapeutic opportunities are offered by the growing illustration of the pathology as a dynamic, actively regulated process involving several gene products, such as osteopontin (OPN), matrix-gla protein (MGP) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Osteopontin, a multi-functional matricellular glycosylated phosphoprotein has emerged as a prime candidate for the role of an in vivo inhibitor of ectopic calcification with two putative mechanisms: crystal poisoning and mineral-dissolution. The full therapeutic realization of its potential necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms of anti-calcification by osteopontin, as well as appropriate in vivo models in which to evaluate its efficacy, potency and molecular mechanisms. In this work, we pursued the development and characterization of a reliable in vivo model with the OPN-null mouse to simulate the calcification of bioprosthetic valve material, namely glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) tissue. Subsequently, we used the calcification model to evaluate hypotheses based on the anti-calcific potential of osteopontin. Several modes of administering exogenous OPN to the implant site in OPN-null mice were explored, including soluble injected OPN, OPN covalently immobilized on the biomaterial, and OPN adsorbed onto the biomaterial. An investigation of the structure-function aspects of the anti-calcific ability of OPN was also pursued in the in vivo model. The OPN-null mouse was also used as an in vivo test-bed to evaluate the anti-calcific potential of other biomolecules

  2. Pulp Calcification in Traumatized Primary Teeth - Classification, Clinical And Radiographic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Ana Maria Antunes; Bonini, Gabriela Azevedo Vasconcelos Cunha; Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti Del Conte; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    The aim of this study was to standardize the nomenclature of pulp alteration to pulp calcification (PC) and to classify it according to type, quantity and location, as well as relate it to clinical and radiographic features. The dental records of 946 patients from the Research and Clinical Center for Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth were studied. Two hundred and fifty PC-traumatized upper deciduous incisors were detected. According to radiographic analysis of the records, 62.5% showed diffuse calcification, 36.3% tube-like calcification, and 1.2% concentric calcification. According to the extension of pulp calcification, the records showed: 80% partial calcification, 17.2% total coronal calcification and partial radicular calcification, and 2.8 % total coronal and radicular calcification. As for location, only 2.4% were on the coronal pulp, 5.2% on the radicular pulp and 92.4% on both radicular and coronal pulp. Regarding coronal discoloration, 54% were yellow and 2% gray. In relation to periradicular changes, 10% showed widened periodontal ligament space, 3.1% internal resorption, 10% external resorption, 10.4% periapical bone rarefaction. Since PC is a general term, it is important to classify it and correlate it to clinical and radiographic changes, in order to establish the correct diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of each case.

  3. A CT study of the prevalence of carotid artery calcification in dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Yoon, Woong

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Korea. Atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery bifurcation is the most common cause of stroke. The carotid artery calcification is easily appreciated by CT(Computed tomography). CT is often taken in a dental hospital for the diagnosis of inflammation. injury, cyst or tumor on maxillofacial region. However, there was no report of carotid artery calcification on CT in dental patients. The presence of carotid artery calcification was evaluated by an experienced radiologist on CT scans of 287 patients (166 males, 121 females, average age 42, range 6 to 86 years) and the medical history of the patient and the interpretation of CT were reviewed. Carotid artery calcification was detected on CT scans of 57 patients (19.8%; 35 males, 22 females). All the male patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 50, and all the female patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 60. Among the 57 patients, 10 had Diabetes mellitus, 20 had cardiovascular disease, 3 had history of stroke and 3 underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Carotid artery calcification was not included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients except one patient. The prevalence of carotid artery calcification on CT of dental patients was about 20% in this study. Carotid artery calcification should be included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients

  4. Massive calcification in basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum caused by postoperative hypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toneva, T.; Mlachkova, D.; Kaitazki, L.; Boneva, J.; Yordanova, S.

    2015-01-01

    The depicted case is of a 65 year old woman, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of excess sweating, dizziness and loss of consciousness. Symptomatic epilepsy was established after examination from a neurologist. A CT scan showed hyperdense symmetrical striation of the hemisphere of the small brain (parasagittal); symmetrical double-sided calcifications in the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus and medial to the capsula interna; snake-like calcifications of the sulcus (occipital, parasagittai). Paraclinical tests have found hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Past illnesses: resection of the thyroid due to a nodose struma 20 years before. Key words: Calcifications in Basal Ganglia. Calcifications in the Cerebrum. Hypoparathyroidism

  5. Association of Aortic Calcification on Plain Chest Radiography with Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han; Chang, Jeong Ho [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Sam [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was conducted to determine an association between aortic calcification viewed on plain chest radiography and obstructive coronary artery disease. Retrospective review of all chest radiography obtained from consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Chest PA images were reviewed by technical radiologist and radiologist. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, images were compared with the results of coronary angiography. In addition, the size of aortic arch calcification were divided into two groups - the smaller and the larger than 10 mm. Among the total 846 patients, the number of the patients with obstructive coronary artery disease is total 417 (88.3%) in males and 312 (83.4%) in females. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, the positive predictive value of relation between aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease was 91.4% and the relative risk of the group with aortic arch calcification to the opposite group was 1.10. According to the size of aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease, the positive predictive value was 91.9% and the relative risk between two groups was 1.04. This study shows that aortic calcification was closely associated with obstructive coronary artery disease. If the aortic calcification is notified on plain chest radiography, we strongly recommend to consult with doctor.

  6. Genetics in arterial calcification: pieces of a puzzle and cogs in a wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2011-08-19

    Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into "pieces of the puzzle" in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as "cogs in a wheel" of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the "cogs" ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature.

  7. Visible but Unseen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that whiteboards support much cooper-ative work by for example strengthening awareness, im-proving communication, and reducing mental workload. In line with these predominantly positive findings, an emer-gency department (ED) turned to its whiteboard to improve the coordination...... of its work with blood tests. We investi-gate this use of the whiteboard through observations and informal interviews in the ED and analyze the ability of the whiteboard to support coordination and awareness in the work with blood tests. Our findings show limitations in the ability of the whiteboard...... to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible....

  8. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  9. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  10. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  11. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna; Roder, Cornelia; Rö thig, Till; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  12. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2015-12-14

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  13. Impact of seawater carbonate chemistry on the calcification of marine bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J.; Haynert, K.; Wegner, K. M.; Melzner, F.

    2015-07-01

    Bivalve calcification, particularly of the early larval stages, is highly sensitive to the change in ocean carbonate chemistry resulting from atmospheric CO2 uptake. Earlier studies suggested that declining seawater [CO32-] and thereby lowered carbonate saturation affect shell production. However, disturbances of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation by adverse seawater pCO2 and pH can affect calcification in a secondary fashion. In order to determine the exact carbonate system component by which growth and calcification are affected it is necessary to utilize more complex carbonate chemistry manipulations. As single factors, pCO2 had no effects and [HCO3-] and pH had only limited effects on shell growth, while lowered [CO32-] strongly impacted calcification. Dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) limiting conditions led to strong reductions in calcification, despite high [CO32-], indicating that [HCO3-] rather than [CO32-] is the inorganic carbon source utilized for calcification by mytilid mussels. However, as the ratio [HCO3-] / [H+] is linearly correlated with [CO32-] it is not possible to differentiate between these under natural seawater conditions. An equivalent of about 80 μmol kg-1 [CO32-] is required to saturate inorganic carbon supply for calcification in bivalves. Below this threshold biomineralization rates rapidly decline. A comparison of literature data available for larvae and juvenile mussels and oysters originating from habitats differing substantially with respect to prevailing carbonate chemistry conditions revealed similar response curves. This suggests that the mechanisms which determine sensitivity of calcification in this group are highly conserved. The higher sensitivity of larval calcification seems to primarily result from the much higher relative calcification rates in early life stages. In order to reveal and understand the mechanisms that limit or facilitate adaptation to future ocean acidification, it is necessary to better

  14. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Kockelkoren

    Full Text Available Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification. Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo.First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides. Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort.First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s, <90°, 90-270° or 270-360°, thickness (absent, ≥1.5mm, or <1.5mm, and morphology (indistinguishable, irregular/patchy or continuous. A high sum of features represented medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82 between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable.The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological studies on iICA calcification.

  15. Sensitivity of calcification to thermal stress varies among genera of massive reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Carricart-Ganivet

    Full Text Available Reductions in calcification in reef-building corals occur when thermal conditions are suboptimal, but it is unclear how they vary between genera in response to the same thermal stress event. Using densitometry techniques, we investigate reductions in the calcification rate of massive Porites spp. from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, and P. astreoides, Montastraea faveolata, and M. franksi from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBR, and correlate them to thermal stress associated with ocean warming. Results show that Porites spp. are more sensitive to increasing temperature than Montastraea, with calcification rates decreasing by 0.40 g cm(-2 year(-1 in Porites spp. and 0.12 g cm(-2 year(-1 in Montastraea spp. for each 1°C increase. Under similar warming trends, the predicted calcification rates at 2100 are close to zero in Porites spp. and reduced by 40% in Montastraea spp. However, these predictions do not account for ocean acidification. Although yearly mean aragonite saturation (Ω(ar at MBR sites has recently decreased, only P. astreoides at Chinchorro showed a reduction in calcification. In corals at the other sites calcification did not change, indicating there was no widespread effect of Ω(ar changes on coral calcification rate in the MBR. Even in the absence of ocean acidification, differential reductions in calcification between Porites spp. and Montastraea spp. associated with warming might be expected to have significant ecological repercussions. For instance, Porites spp. invest increased calcification in extension, and under warming scenarios it may reduce their ability to compete for space. As a consequence, shifts in taxonomic composition would be expected in Indo-Pacific reefs with uncertain repercussions for biodiversity. By contrast, Montastraea spp. use their increased calcification resources to construct denser skeletons. Reductions in calcification would therefore make them more susceptible to both physical and biological

  16. A case of idiopathic intracranial calcifications - Hahr syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, R.; Balev, B.; Georgieva, M.; Georgiev, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to review the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and pathophysiology of the Fahr syndrome and to present a case of the Fahr syndrome from our clinic. The Fahr syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by seizures, tetany, psychomotor retardation, development of a spastic paralysis, athetosis and parkinson like syndrome. It is inherited by an AR way but in affected families (relatives) an AD way is also possible. Sporadic cases have been known. Recently a possible chromosome locus on 14q was proved. Probably the case in point is a group of anomalies, in which symmetrically and bilaterally significant calcifications in the region of the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei in cerebellum and centrum semiovale are found. It is not clear yet whether these calcifications are a result from a 'metastatic' deposition because of a local destruction of the blood-brain barrier or are due to a disturbance in the neuronic calcium metabolism. The X-ray findings could be accidental in an asymptomatic patient but a progressive development of an extrapyramidal syndrome may be also observed. Our case is a 37 years old woman with seizures with loss of consciousness, convulsions and urine incontinence. The complaints are dated from the age of 5 years old. The X-ray images disclosed striking non-natural calcifications in globus pallidus, putamen, n.caudatus, thalami, n.dentati, cerebellum.The blood test revealed normal serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase. The CT findings put together with the typical clinical history and the normal blood test were a prerequisite for this diagnosis

  17. Quantification of breast arterial calcification using full field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Xu Tong; Ducote, Justin; Iribarren, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Breast arterial calcification is commonly detected on some mammograms. Previous studies indicate that breast arterial calcification is evidence of general atherosclerotic vascular disease and it may be a useful marker of coronary artery disease. It can potentially be a useful tool for assessment of coronary artery disease in women since mammography is widely used as a screening tool for early detection of breast cancer. However, there are currently no available techniques for quantification of calcium mass using mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to quantify breast arterial calcium mass using standard digital mammography. An anthropomorphic breast phantom along with a vessel calcification phantom was imaged using a full field digital mammography system. Densitometry was used to quantify calcium mass. A calcium calibration measurement was performed at each phantom thickness and beam energy. The known (K) and measured (M) calcium mass on 5 and 9 cm thickness phantoms were related by M=0.964K-0.288 mg (r=0.997 and SEE=0.878 mg) and M=1.004K+0.324 mg (r=0.994 and SEE=1.32 mg), respectively. The results indicate that accurate calcium mass measurements can be made without correction for scatter glare as long as careful calcium calibration is made for each breast thickness. The results also indicate that composition variations and differences of approximately 1 cm between calibration phantom and breast thickness introduce only minimal error in calcium measurement. The uncertainty in magnification is expected to cause up to 5% and 15% error in calcium mass for 5 and 9 cm breast thicknesses, respectively. In conclusion, a densitometry technique for quantification of breast arterial calcium mass was validated using standard full field digital mammography. The results demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of the densitometry technique for accurate quantification of breast arterial calcium mass using standard digital

  18. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  19. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari, E-mail: tetsu-n@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Koichi [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Akio [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 {mu}m/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  20. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. ► The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. ► In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. ► Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Mariana Archipelago in 2011 and Retrieved in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157758)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across American Samoa in 2012 and Retrieved in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0159149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010 and Retrieved in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0157722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  4. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across American Samoa and the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  5. Bilateral, symmetrical soft tissue calcifications in the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Josue; Rosenthal, Daniel I.

    2010-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman with jaw pain and a history of bisphosphonate use was shown on radiography to have ill-defined soft tissue calcifications overlying the maxilla, mandible, and zygomatic bones bilaterally. The bones were normal. CT revealed similar findings. Although a broad imaging differential diagnosis was initially considered, further questioning of the patient revealed a history of facial injections with a calcium hydroxylapatite product for cosmetic purposes. The appearance of this increasingly popular treatment should be recognized to avoid errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  6. Bilateral, symmetrical soft tissue calcifications in the face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Josue; Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-04-15

    A 50-year-old woman with jaw pain and a history of bisphosphonate use was shown on radiography to have ill-defined soft tissue calcifications overlying the maxilla, mandible, and zygomatic bones bilaterally. The bones were normal. CT revealed similar findings. Although a broad imaging differential diagnosis was initially considered, further questioning of the patient revealed a history of facial injections with a calcium hydroxylapatite product for cosmetic purposes. The appearance of this increasingly popular treatment should be recognized to avoid errors in interpretation. (orig.)

  7. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  8. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  9. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  10. BMD PREDICTION OF DEATH IS ENCAPSULATED BY THE MORPHOLOGICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS CALCIFICATION DISTRIBUTION (MACD) INDEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Karsdal, Morten

    2009-01-01

    .3±0.3 years and of which CVD, cancer, and all cause deaths were recorded. The spine BMD and aortic calcification markers, AC24 and the recently proposed Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) index, were quantified from DXA scans and lateral X-rays respectively. The MACD...

  11. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise; Blackham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  12. Frequency and position of pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Fumio; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Russell, W J; Kogure, Takashi

    1964-04-23

    A review of all skull roentgenograms of 525 normal patients was conducted to determine the incidence of pineal gland and habenular nucleus calcification, and to compile normal values for pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population. These data are presented as tables and graphs for use in roentgenological interpretation. 17 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine in a patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcification of the alar ligament is rare. It usually develops as a result of traumatic injury and is especially prominent in the elderly. CT scanning is the gold standard of the diagnosis. We report a case of a calcification of the transverse and alar ligament in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; ...

  14. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial

  15. Oxygen and Heterotrophy Affect Calcification of the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Jurriaans, S.; Hoofd, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrophy is known to stimulate calcification of scleractinian corals, possibly through enhanced organic matrix synthesis and photosynthesis, and increased supply of metabolic DIC. In contrast to the positive long-term effects of heterotrophy, inhibition of calcification has been observed during

  16. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  17. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  18. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  19. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  20. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  1. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  2. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  3. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  4. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  5. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  6. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  7. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  8. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-04-09

    BACKGROUND Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a tetanic seizure, and who had a history of polyneuropathy, restless-leg syndrome, retinopathy, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis with consecutive hyperkyphosis, cervicalgia, lumbalgia, struma nodosa requiring thyroidectomy and consecutive hypothyroidism, adipositas, resection of a vocal chord polyp, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atheromatosis of the aorta, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steatosis hepatis, mild renal insufficiency, long-term hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, impingement syndrome, spondylarthrosis of the lumbar spine, and hysterectomy. History and clinical presentation suggested a mitochondrial defect which also manifested as hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome resulting in BGC. After substitution of calcium, no further tetanic seizures occurred. CONCLUSIONS Patients with BGC should be investigated for a mitochondrial disorder. A mitochondrial disorder may also manifest as tetanic seizure.

  9. Magnesium Counteracts Vascular Calcification: Passive Interference or Active Modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Braake, Anique D; Shanahan, Catherine M; de Baaij, Jeroen H F

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies report a close relationship between serum magnesium concentration and cardiovascular disease risk in the general population. In end-stage renal disease, an association was found between serum magnesium and survival. Hypomagnesemia was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease in these patients. A substantial body of in vitro and in vivo studies has identified a protective role for magnesium in vascular calcification. However, the precise mechanisms and its contribution to cardiovascular protection remain unclear. There are currently 2 leading hypotheses: first, magnesium may bind phosphate and delay calcium phosphate crystal growth in the circulation, thereby passively interfering with calcium phosphate deposition in the vessel wall. Second, magnesium may regulate vascular smooth muscle cell transdifferentiation toward an osteogenic phenotype by active cellular modulation of factors associated with calcification. Here, the data supporting these major hypotheses are reviewed. The literature supports both a passive inorganic phosphate-buffering role reducing hydroxyapatite formation and an active cell-mediated role, directly targeting vascular smooth muscle transdifferentiation. However, current evidence relies on basic experimental designs that are often insufficient to delineate the underlying mechanisms. The field requires more advanced experimental design, including determination of intracellular magnesium concentrations and the identification of the molecular players that regulate magnesium concentrations in vascular smooth muscle cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Penile calcific uremic arteriolopathy occurring postparathyroidectomy in a hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Omar Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA, also known as calciphylaxis, is a rare condition most frequently seen in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. The clinical picture is characterized by painful skin lesions and ulcerations. The underlying pathology is medial calcification and intimal proliferation with microthrombi of small arteries. CUA is commonly associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and high serum calcium and phosphate products. This article reports an atypical case where CUA developed after parathyroidectomy and in the course of treatment of hungry bone syndrome. The patient was on hemodialysis for 14 years. He had developed secondary hyperparathyroidism and severe osteodystrophy. Calcium, Vitamin-D supplements, and calcimimetics failed to control his condition. He underwent parathyroidectomy but developed hungry bone syndrome postoperatively. He was managed with large doses of calcium and active Vitamin-D analogs to maintain his serum calcium. Two weeks later, he developed a painful single lesion on the tip of the penis which was diagnosed as CUA on clinical and radiographic evidence. The patient refused surgical intervention and opted for traditional treatment with honey and herbs with an excellent outcome. The case highlights the risk of CUA complicating the aggressive management of post-parathyroidectomy hungry bone syndrome.

  11. Metal and calcification artifact reduction for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Julia; Jerebko, Anna; Ritschl, Ludwig; Mertelmeier, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Tomosynthesis images of the breast suffer from artifacts caused by the presence of highly absorbing materials. These can be either induced by metal objects like needles or clips inserted during biopsy devices, or larger calcifications inside the examined breast. Mainly two different kinds of artifacts appear after the filtered backprojection procedure. The first type is undershooting artifacts near edges of high-contrast objects caused by the filtering step. The second type is out-of-plane (ripple) artifacts that appear even in slices where the metal object or macrocalcifications does not exist. Due to the limited angular range of tomosynthesis systems, overlapping structures have high influence on neighboring regions. To overcome these problems, a segmentation of artifact introducing objects is performed on the projection images. Both projection versions, with and without high-contrast objects are filtered independently to avoid undershootings. During backprojection a decision is made for each reconstructed voxel, if it is artifact or high-contrast object. This is based on a mask image, gained from the segmentation of high-contrast objects. This procedure avoids undershooting artifacts and additionally reduces out-of-plane ripple. Results are demonstrated for different kinds of artifact inducing objects and calcifications.

  12. Calcific myofibrosis due to pentazocine abuse: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Vinay

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pentazocine, a synthetic narcotic analgesic, is commonly used for the relief of moderate to severe pain secondary to various conditions. It is usually well tolerated; however, adverse effects are not uncommon, especially when higher doses are used and when it is used in a dependent fashion. There have been reports of various complications associated with its use, including skin fibrosis, skin ulceration, abnormal skin pigmentation and symmetrical myopathy with fibrous myopathy. Fibrosis has usually been reported in the muscles at the site of injection of the drug. Being opioid in nature, it has a high abuse potential. Case presentation Here we report a case of pentazocine-induced calcific myofibrosis in a 42-year-old man involving muscles which were not injected with pentazocine. Conclusion This case highlights the care that needs to be taken when prescribing opioid analgesics, such as pentazocine, as routine painkillers. Patients who have history of substance abuse are more likely to abuse other agents, including prescription drugs. Rare consequences such as calcific myofibrosis are devastating and can cause significant lifelong disability.

  13. Endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canesin Manoel Fernandes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a rare case of endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle in a male patient with dyspnea on great exertion, which began 5 years earlier and rapidly evolved. Due to lack of information and the absence of clinical signs that could characterize impairment of other organs, the case was initially managed as a disease with a pulmonary origin. With the evolution of the disease and in the presence of radiological images of heterogeneous opacification in the projection of the left ventricle, the diagnostic hypothesis of endomyocardial disease was established. This hypothesis was later confirmed on chest computed tomography. The patient died on the 16th day of the hospital stay, probably because of lack of myocardial reserve, with clinical findings of refractory heart failure, possibly aggravated by pulmonary infection. This shows that a rare disease such as endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle may be suspected on a simple chest X-ray and confirmed by computed tomography.

  14. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  15. Rotator cuff preservation in arthroscopic treatment of calcific tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Dirk; Jaeger, Martin; Izadpanah, Kaywan; Bornebusch, Lutz; Suedkamp, Norbert Paul; Ogon, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We sought to evaluate (1) clinical and radiologic results after arthroscopic calcific deposit (CD) removal and (2) the relevance of remnant calcifications (RCs). The study included 102 patients undergoing arthroscopic CD removal, preserving integrity of the rotator cuff. Postoperatively, we divided patients into 2 groups according to the extent of CD removal achieved. Group 1 consisted of patients with complete CD removal. Group 2 included patients showing minor RCs. Ninety-three patients (99 shoulders) completed follow-up. The mean patient age was 50.6 years (31 to 68 years), and the mean follow-up period was 37.3 months (24 to 83 months). We obtained anteroposterior (AP) and outlet radiographs before surgery, postoperatively, and at follow-up. We used the absolute and age- and sex-related Constant scores (CSabs, CSrel) as outcome measures. We compared both groups statistically (Mann-Whitney U test; P rotator cuff yielded good to excellent results in 90% of patients and avoided iatrogenic tendon defects in all patients. Minor RCs did not impair clinical outcome and spontaneously resolved at follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in tropical calcific pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Sumit; Bhaskar, Seema; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2014-12-14

    Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a form of chronic non-alcoholic pancreatitis initially reported in the developing parts of the tropical world. The clinical phenotype of TCP has undergone marked changes since its first description in 1968. The disease is now seen in relatively older people with less severe symptoms. In addition, there are varying reports on the proportion of cases presenting with imaging abnormalities like calcification, ductal dilation, and glandular atrophy. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the etiopathology of TCP. The role of malnutrition and cassava toxicity in its pathogenesis is disproven and few studies have focused on the role of micronutrient deficiency and oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of TCP. Emerging evidence support an important role for genetic risk factors in TCP. Several studies have shown that, rather than mutations in trypsinogens, variants in serine protease inhibitor kazal type 1, cathepsin B, chymotrypsin C, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, and carboxypeptidase A1, predict risk of TCP. These studies also provided evidence of mutational heterogeneity between TCP and chronic pancreatitis in Western populations. The current review summarizes recent advances that have implications in the understanding of the pathophysiology and thus, heterogeneity in genotype-phenotype correlations in TCP.

  17. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  18. Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Gentleman, Eileen; Cloyd, Kristy L.; Chester, Adrian H.; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of calcified material in cardiovascular tissue is thought to involve cytochemical, extracellular matrix and systemic signals; however, its precise composition and nanoscale architecture remain largely unexplored. Using nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques, we examined valves, aortae and coronary arteries from patients with and without calcific cardiovascular disease and detected spherical calcium phosphate particles, regardless of the presence of calcific lesions. We also examined lesions after sectioning with a focused ion beam and found that the spherical particles are composed of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite that crystallographically and structurally differs from bone mineral. Taken together, these data suggest that mineralized spherical particles may play a fundamental role in calcific lesion formation. Their ubiquitous presence in varied cardiovascular tissues and from patients with a spectrum of diseases further suggests that lesion formation may follow a common process. Indeed, applying materials science techniques to ectopic and orthotopic calcification has great potential to lend critical insights into pathophysiological processes underlying calcific cardiovascular disease.

  19. The role of vitamin K in vascular calcification of patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Julie; Dhondt, Annemieke

    2016-12-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to vascular calcification. Pathogenetic mechanisms of vascular calcifications have been broadly studied and discussed such as the role of hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, parathormone, and vitamin D. In recent years, new insights have been gained pointing to vitamin K as a main actor. It has been discovered that vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the activation of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor in the vessel wall. Patients with CKD often suffer from vitamin K deficiency, resulting in low active MGP and eventually a lack of inhibition of vascular calcification. Vitamin K supplementation and switching warfarin to new oral anticoagulants are potential treatments. In addition, MGP may have a role as a non-invasive biomarker for vascular calcification.

  20. Rare finding of Eustachian tube calcifications with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ali Z; Hawkins, Anna; Alluri, Leela Subashini; Jadallah, Buthainah; Shahid, Kiran; Landers, Michael; Assaf, Hussein M

    2017-12-01

    Soft tissue calcification is a pathological condition in which calcium and phosphate salts are deposited in the soft tissue organic matrix. This study presents an unusual calcification noted in the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. A 67-year-old woman presented for dental treatment, specifically for implant placement, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed. The CBCT scan was reviewed by a board-certified oral and maxillofacial radiologist and revealed incidental findings of 2 distinct calcifications in the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. To the authors' knowledge, no previous study has reported the diagnosis of Eustachian tube calcification using CBCT. This report describes an uncommon variant of Eustachian tube calcification, which has a significant didactic value because such cases are seldom illustrated either in textbooks or in the literature. This case once again underscores the importance of having CBCT scans evaluated by a board-certified oral and maxillofacial radiologist.

  1. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  2. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  3. Calcification of the splenic, iliac, and breast arteries and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; Beulens, Joline W J; de Jong, Pim A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sun, Wei-Ning; Wright, C Michael; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A; Ix, Joachim H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CVD risks associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and aortic calcification (AC) are well known, but less is known about other calcified arteries. We aimed to assess the associations of arterial calcification in the breast, splenic, and internal and external iliac

  4. Retrospective analysis on malignant calcification previously misdiagnosed as benign on screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Su Min; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the morphology and distribution of calcifications initially interpreted as benign or probably benign, but proven to be malignant by subsequent stereotactic biopsy, and to identify the reason for misinterpretation or underestimation at the initial diagnosis. Out of 567 women who underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014, 167 women were diagnosed with malignancy. Forty-six of these 167 women had previous mammography assessed as benign or probably benign which was changed to suspicious malignancy on follow-up mammography. Of these 46 women, three women with biopsy-proven benign calcifications at the site of subsequent cancer were excluded, and 43 patients were finally included. The calcifications (morphology, distribution, extent, associated findings) in the previous and follow-up mammography examinations were analyzed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and assessment category. We classified the patients into two groups: 1) group A patients who were still retrospectively re-categorized as less than or equal to BI-RADS 3 and 2) group B patients who were re-categorized as equal to or higher than BI-RADS 4a and whose results should have prompted previous diagnostic assessment. In the follow-up mammography examinations, change in calcification morphology (n = 27, 63%) was the most frequent cause of assessment change. The most frequent previous mammographic findings of malignant calcification were amorphous morphology (n = 26, 60%) and grouped distribution (n = 36, 84%). The most frequent calcification findings at reassessment were amorphous morphology (n = 4, 9%), fine pleomorphic calcification (n = 30, 70%), grouped distribution (n = 23, 53%), and segmental calcification (n = 12, 28%). There were 33 (77%) patients in group A, and 10 patients (23%) in group B. Amorphous morphology and grouped distribution were the most frequent

  5. Warfarin accelerated vascular calcification and worsened cardiac dysfunction in remnant kidney mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsun Tsai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is a significant risk factor for future cardiovascular events and death. Warfarin use results in dysfunction of matrix Gla protein, an inhibitor of vascular calcification. However, the effect of warfarin on vascular calcification in patients with ESRD is still not well characterized. Thus we investigated whether arterial calcification can be accelerated by warfarin treatment both in vitro and in vivo using a mouse remnant kidney model. Methods: Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC were cultured in medium supplemented with warfarin and phosphate to investigate the potential role of this drug in osteoblast transdifferentiation. For in vivo study, adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 5/6 nephrectomy were treated with active vitamin D3 plus warfarin to determine the extent of vascular calcification and parameters of cardiovascular function. Results: We found that the expressions of Runx2 and osteocalcin in HASMC were markedly enhanced in the culture medium containing warfarin and high phosphate concentration. Warfarin induced calcification of cultured HASMC in the presence of high phosphate levels, and this effect is inhibited by vitamin K2. Severe aortic calcification and reduced left ventricular ejection fractions were also noted in 5/6 nephrectomy mice treated with warfarin and active vitamin D3. Conclusion: Warfarin treatment contributes to the accelerated vascular calcification in animal models of advanced chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should therefore be aware of the profound risk of warfarin use on vascular calcification and cardiac dysfunction in patients with ESRD and atrial fibrillation. Keywords: Left ventricular dysfunction, Uremia, Vascular calcification, Warfarin

  6. Retrospective analysis on malignant calcification previously misdiagnosed as benign on screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Su Min [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the morphology and distribution of calcifications initially interpreted as benign or probably benign, but proven to be malignant by subsequent stereotactic biopsy, and to identify the reason for misinterpretation or underestimation at the initial diagnosis. Out of 567 women who underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014, 167 women were diagnosed with malignancy. Forty-six of these 167 women had previous mammography assessed as benign or probably benign which was changed to suspicious malignancy on follow-up mammography. Of these 46 women, three women with biopsy-proven benign calcifications at the site of subsequent cancer were excluded, and 43 patients were finally included. The calcifications (morphology, distribution, extent, associated findings) in the previous and follow-up mammography examinations were analyzed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and assessment category. We classified the patients into two groups: 1) group A patients who were still retrospectively re-categorized as less than or equal to BI-RADS 3 and 2) group B patients who were re-categorized as equal to or higher than BI-RADS 4a and whose results should have prompted previous diagnostic assessment. In the follow-up mammography examinations, change in calcification morphology (n = 27, 63%) was the most frequent cause of assessment change. The most frequent previous mammographic findings of malignant calcification were amorphous morphology (n = 26, 60%) and grouped distribution (n = 36, 84%). The most frequent calcification findings at reassessment were amorphous morphology (n = 4, 9%), fine pleomorphic calcification (n = 30, 70%), grouped distribution (n = 23, 53%), and segmental calcification (n = 12, 28%). There were 33 (77%) patients in group A, and 10 patients (23%) in group B. Amorphous morphology and grouped distribution were the most frequent

  7. Revisiting visibility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    Abstract We consider two closely related problems: computing the region visible from a point amid simple polygonal obstacles and computing the lower envelope of a set of disjoint segments. Visibility problems such as these were proposed and promptly solved in the late'80s and early'90s before...

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  9. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  10. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  11. Arthroscopic Removal and Tendon Repair for Refractory Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinitis of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Satoshi; Okubo, Atsushi; Takai, Shinro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for refractory rotator cuff calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Subjects were 37 patients (35 women and 2 men; mean age, 47.8 years; age range 34-61 years) who had undergone arthroscopic treatment for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Despite sufficient nonsurgical treatments, all patients had residual calcific deposit with persistent or recurrent pain. Before surgery, all patients underwent 3-directional radiographs of the shoulder and three-dimensional computed tomography to determine the location and size of calcific deposit. Arthroscopic surgery was performed with the patient under general anesthesia in the lateral decubitus position. A 2-cm single longitudinal incision was made with a radiofrequency hook blade on the tendon surface above calcific deposit. Calcific deposit was removed as much as possible with a curette and a motorized shaver. The incised tendon was repaired with a side-to-side suture with strong sutures. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score was used to evaluate clinical outcomes. The extent of calcific deposit removal was evaluated with radiographs obtained before surgery, 1 week after the surgery and at the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 30.4 (range, 13-72) months. The mean shoulder score significantly improved from 69.7 (range, 58-80) points before surgery to 97.8 (range, 89-100) points at the final follow-up examination. Postoperative radiographs in all patients, showed that the calcific deposit was resolved or reduced and those from 1 week after surgery to the final examination showed no evidence of recurrence or enlargement of calcific deposit. The calcific deposit had completely resolved in 34 patients but remained in 3 patients. When treating calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, it is important to accurately determine the size and location of calcific deposit by radiographs and 3

  12. Clinical experience with ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa in complex therapy of chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Esaulenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic virus hepatitis (32 patients, 13 with chronic hepatitis B and 19 with chronic hepatitis C ages from 20 to 72 with elevated levels of bilirubin and active alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase, received ursodeoxycholic acid (Urdoxa over the course of 12 weeks. During therapy alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels decreased. Urdoxa demonstrated good tolerance, efficacy and no visible side effects. Thus, Urdoxa could be used in treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes.

  13. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  14. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.

  15. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Incidence of Deflux® calcification masquerading as distal ureteric calculi on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovic, Francisca; Swartz, Robert; Cuckow, Peter; Hiorns, Melanie; Marks, Stephen D; Cherian, Abraham; Mushtaq, Imran; Duffy, Patrick; Smeulders, Naima

    2013-12-01

    Dextranomer-hyaluronic acid (Deflux(®)), the most widely used compound in the endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) today, is believed to provoke only minimal inflammation. Reports of calcification of Deflux(®) are increasing. We ascertain the incidence of Deflux(®) calcification appearing as distal ureteric calculi on ultrasound. Three cases (2 external patients) of ureteroscopy for calcified submucosal Deflux(®) prompted a retrospective review of the notes and imaging of all children treated with Deflux(®) for VUR between December 2000 and January 2011 at Great Ormond Street Hospital. 232 children (M:F = 5:3) received Deflux(®) for VUR at median age 2 years (range 2 months-12 years). Follow-up annual ultrasound, performed in all, identified calcification in 2. The interval between Deflux(®) injection and presentation of its calcification was 4 years. 104 of the 232 children had been followed up for 4-10 years. Considering the observed lag-period, after 4 years the incidence of calcification of Deflux(®) on ultrasound was 2% (2/104). Patients should be warned that calcification of Deflux(®) can occur. Misinterpretation as ureteric stones is common and may lead to unnecessary ureteroscopy. In this series, the incidence of calcification of Deflux(®) on ultrasound after 4 years was 2%. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Size-dependent response of foraminiferal calcification to seawater carbonate chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henehan, Michael J.; Evans, David; Shankle, Madison; Burke, Janet E.; Foster, Gavin L.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Chalk, Thomas B.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Alt, Claudia H. S.; Durrant, Joseph; Hull, Pincelli M.

    2017-07-01

    The response of the marine carbon cycle to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be determined, in part, by the relative response of calcifying and non-calcifying organisms to global change. Planktonic foraminifera are responsible for a quarter or more of global carbonate production, therefore understanding the sensitivity of calcification in these organisms to environmental change is critical. Despite this, there remains little consensus as to whether, or to what extent, chemical and physical factors affect foraminiferal calcification. To address this, we directly test the effect of multiple controls on calcification in culture experiments and core-top measurements of Globigerinoides ruber. We find that two factors, body size and the carbonate system, strongly influence calcification intensity in life, but that exposure to corrosive bottom waters can overprint this signal post mortem. Using a simple model for the addition of calcite through ontogeny, we show that variable body size between and within datasets could complicate studies that examine environmental controls on foraminiferal shell weight. In addition, we suggest that size could ultimately play a role in determining whether calcification will increase or decrease with acidification. Our models highlight that knowledge of the specific morphological and physiological mechanisms driving ontogenetic change in calcification in different species will be critical in predicting the response of foraminiferal calcification to future change in atmospheric pCO2.

  18. Reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Lacerda Brasileiro Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study evaluated the reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients under high-risk for development of carotid artery calcifications who had digital panoramic radiography were referred to undergo ultrasonography. Thus, 70 arteries were assessed by both methods. The main parameters utilized to evaluate the panoramic radiography reliability in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications were accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of this method as compared with ultrasonography. Additionally, the McNemar's test was utilized to verify whether there was a statistically significant difference between digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography. Results Ultrasonography demonstrated carotid artery calcifications in 17 (48.57% patients. Such individuals presented with a total of 29 (41.43% carotid arteries affected by calcification. Radiography was accurate in 71.43% (n = 50 of cases evaluated. The degree of sensitivity of this method was 37.93%, specificity of 95.12% and positive predictive value of 84.61%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was observed between the methods evaluated in their capacity to diagnose carotid artery calcifications. Conclusion Digital panoramic radiography should not be indicated as a method of choice in the investigation of carotid artery calcifications.

  19. Comparison of calcification of pineal, habenular commissure and choroid plexus on plain films and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, P.; Matheson, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Skull radiographs and CT scans of 1,000 consecutive patients were examined for evidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexuses. Plain film results were in agreement with previous surveys suggesting that the CT scan results may be accepted as general findings. Pineal calcification was seen on films in 61% and on CT scans in 83% of those over 30. On both films and CT scans calcification was 10% higher in males. Only 1% had a pineal 12 mm or larger on films. In at least 5% it was impossible to separate the habenula from the pineal by CT: including these, 5% had pineals larger than the accepted upper limit of normal. Measurements from males were 0.4 mm larger than for females on films and 0.2 mm larger on CT scans. Habenular commissure calcification was seen on films in 13% and on CT in 15% of those over 30, being 10% higher in males. Bilateral choroid plexus calcification was seen on frontal films in 15% and on CT in 77% of those over 30. On skull films the frequency of calcification was 2%-3% higher for adult males than females and on CT 7% higher. Calcification was seen on the lateral but not the frontal film in 128 patients. One choroid plexus only was seen on 14/ frontal films and on 49 CT scans. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  20. A Genomics-Based Model for Prediction of Severe Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Khutornaya, Maria V; Kutikhin, Anton G; Rutkovskaya, Natalia V; Tsepokina, Anna V; Kondyukova, Natalia V; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Barbarash, Leonid S

    2016-08-31

    Severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification is a significant problem in cardiovascular surgery. Unfortunately, clinical markers did not demonstrate efficacy in prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Here, we examined whether a genomics-based approach is efficient in predicting the risk of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. A total of 124 consecutive Russian patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery were recruited. We investigated the associations of the inherited variation in innate immunity, lipid metabolism and calcium metabolism genes with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Genotyping was conducted utilizing the TaqMan assay. Eight gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification and were therefore included into stepwise logistic regression which identified male gender, the T/T genotype of the rs3775073 polymorphism within the TLR6 gene, the C/T genotype of the rs2229238 polymorphism within the IL6R gene, and the A/A genotype of the rs10455872 polymorphism within the LPA gene as independent predictors of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. The developed genomics-based model had fair predictive value with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.73. In conclusion, our genomics-based approach is efficient for the prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification.

  1. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Hematology Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimim@sums.ac.ir; Rasekhi, A.R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rasekhia@sums.ac.ir; Rasekh, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Rasekhm@sums.ac.ir; Nabavizadeh, S.A. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nabavia@gmail.com; Assadsangabi, R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: assadsangabi@yahoo.com; Amirhakimi, G.H. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: amirhakimig@sums.ac.ir

    2009-06-15

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  2. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.; Rasekhi, A.R.; Rasekh, M.; Nabavizadeh, S.A.; Assadsangabi, R.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  3. MR arthrography in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder: diagnostic performance and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubler, Christoph; Mengiardi, Bernard; Schmid, Marius R.; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Jost, Bernhard [University Hospital Balgrist, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MR arthrography to diagnose calcific tendinitis of the shoulder and to assess the reasons for diagnostic errors. Standard MR arthrograms of 22 patients with calcific tendinitis and 61 controls were retrospectively analyzed by two independent and blinded radiologists. All cases were consecutively collected from a database. Conventional radiographs were available in all cases serving as gold standard. The supraspinatus was involved in 16, the infraspinatus in four and the subscapularis in two patients. All diagnostic errors were analyzed by two additional readers. Reader 1 correctly detected 12 of the 22 shoulders with and 42 of the 61 shoulders without calcific tendinitis (sensitivity 0.55, specificity 0.66). The corresponding values for reader 2 were 13 of 22 and 40 of 61 cases (sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.69). Inter-rater agreement (kappa-value) was 0.42. Small size of the calcific deposits and isointensity compared to the surrounding tissue were the most important reasons for false negative results. Normal hypointense areas within the supraspinatus tendon substance and attachment were the main reason for false positive results. In conclusion, MR arthrography is insufficient in the diagnosis of calcific tendinitis. Normal hypointense parts of the rotator cuff may mimic calcific deposits and calcifications may not be detected when they are isointense compared to the rotator cuff. Therefore, MR imaging should not be interpreted without corresponding radiographs. (orig.)

  4. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scenario with SRES A2 CO2 emission until 2100 and zero emission afterwards, by year 3500, in the simulation without CO2-calcification feedback, model projects an accumulated ocean CO2 uptake of 1462 PgC, atmospheric CO2 of 612 ppm, and surface pH of 7.9. Inclusion of CO2-calcification feedback increases ocean CO2 uptake by 9 to 285 PgC, reduces atmospheric CO2 by 4 to 70 ppm, and mitigates the reduction in surface pH by 0.003 to 0.06, depending on the form of parameterization scheme used. It is also found that the effect of CO2-calcification feedback on ocean carbon uptake is comparable and could be much larger than the effect from CO2-induced warming. Our results highlight the potentially important role CO2-calcification feedback plays in ocean carbon cycle and projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. PMID:26838480

  5. Coronary artery calcification identified by CT in patients over forty years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodring, J.H.; West, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 100 unselected patients forty years of age or older, routine CT of the thorax demonstrated coronary artery calcification in 41%. Calcification of the left anterior descending was most common, occurring in 34%. For patients, sixty years of age and over, clinical evidence of coronary artery disease was 1.7 times more common in those with calcification compared to those without; however, for patients under 60, coronary artery disease was 5.5 times more common in those with calcification than those without. Because of the strong relationship which is known to exist between coronary artery calcification and coronary arteriosclerosis, we believe that the incidental discovery of coronary artery calcification on routine CT of the thorax has significance. All patients under 60 with coronary artery calcification discovered on CT should be investigated for hyperlipidemia if this has not been done, and, if they are not known to have a history of coronary artery disease, they should have a stress test and, if positive, arteriography may be warranted. 30 refs., 5 figs

  6. Vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph: harbinger of tourniquet failure in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelfle-Roos, Julia Verena; Dautel, Laura; Bieger, Ralf; Reichel, Heiko [University of Ulm, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Mayer, Benjamin [University of Ulm, Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometrics, Ulm (Germany); Woelfle, Klaus-Dieter [Klinikum Augsburg, Vascular Surgery Division, Surgical Center, Augsburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph of patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often give rise to concern, as their clinical relevance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these vascular calcifications - especially medial artery calcifications (MACs), which increase arterial stiffness - were associated with tourniquet failure and thus with increased intraoperative blood loss. A total of 765 patients who underwent primary TKA with a tourniquet (cuff pressure 350 mmHg) between 2009 and 2011 were screened for vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph. Vascular calcifications were classified into intimal and medial artery calcifications. Intraoperative blood loss of patients with and without MAC was compared, and a mixed linear regression model was used to adjust for the presence of several confounding factors (e.g., obesity, operating time). None of the 50 (6.5%) patients with MAC showed signs of tourniquet failure. Intraoperative blood loss of patients with MAC was not significantly elevated compared to the overall study group (p = 0.592) even when corrected for the presence of several confounding factors. We found no evidence that vascular calcifications seen on the preoperative radiograph might be associated with tourniquet failure. However, surgeons should be aware of this possibility as tourniquet failure might become more common considering the ongoing trend toward minimizing cuff pressures. (orig.)

  7. MR arthrography in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder: diagnostic performance and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubler, Christoph; Mengiardi, Bernard; Schmid, Marius R.; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Jost, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MR arthrography to diagnose calcific tendinitis of the shoulder and to assess the reasons for diagnostic errors. Standard MR arthrograms of 22 patients with calcific tendinitis and 61 controls were retrospectively analyzed by two independent and blinded radiologists. All cases were consecutively collected from a database. Conventional radiographs were available in all cases serving as gold standard. The supraspinatus was involved in 16, the infraspinatus in four and the subscapularis in two patients. All diagnostic errors were analyzed by two additional readers. Reader 1 correctly detected 12 of the 22 shoulders with and 42 of the 61 shoulders without calcific tendinitis (sensitivity 0.55, specificity 0.66). The corresponding values for reader 2 were 13 of 22 and 40 of 61 cases (sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.69). Inter-rater agreement (kappa-value) was 0.42. Small size of the calcific deposits and isointensity compared to the surrounding tissue were the most important reasons for false negative results. Normal hypointense areas within the supraspinatus tendon substance and attachment were the main reason for false positive results. In conclusion, MR arthrography is insufficient in the diagnosis of calcific tendinitis. Normal hypointense parts of the rotator cuff may mimic calcific deposits and calcifications may not be detected when they are isointense compared to the rotator cuff. Therefore, MR imaging should not be interpreted without corresponding radiographs. (orig.)

  8. Association of plasma fetuin-a levels with peripheral arterial disease and lower extremity arterial calcification in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelopi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Perrea, Despoina; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Sfikakis, Petros P; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-03-01

    Fetuin-A is a hepatic glycoprotein that is involved in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Herein we examined the association of plasma fetuin-A levels with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 patients with T2DM and 57 non-diabetic individuals were recruited. Diagnosis of PAD was based on the absence of triphasic waveform at pedal arteries, while ankle-brachial index (ABI) was calculated. Radiographs of both feet and ankles were taken for the assessment of lower extremity arterial calcification (LEAC). Plasma fetuin-A levels were measured using ELISA. Patients with T2DM had higher fetuin-A levels than non-diabetic participants. Participants with diabetes and PAD had lower fetuin-A levels than non-PAD diabetic patients. In subjects with T2DM fetuin-A levels were associated with ABI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in patients with T2DM the odds of PAD increased with long diabetes duration, smoking, presence of arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as with lower fetuin-A levels. A trend towards higher fetuin-A levels in subjects with less severe LEAC was found. Plasma fetuin-A levels are lower in patients with T2DM and PAD and are associated with PAD, irrespective of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, fetuin-A may be involved in arterial calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Kubota, Kazuo; Ito, Kengo; Ono, Shuichi; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1983-01-01

    Of the abdominal aorta, the relationship between the calcification index (C.I.) obtained from CT films and the atheromatous surface involved (S.I.) obtained from autopsy specimens was studied. The relations of C.I. to hypertension and hyperlipidemia were also analyzed. The coefficient of correlation between C.I. and S.I. was 0.83 (p< 0.001). Compared with a non-hypertensive group, the hypertensives showed a higher C.I., and such a difference was great in the male patients in their 50s and females in their 60s and 70s. The male patients with hyperlipidemia did not show definite differences in C.I. from the non-hyperlipidemia group, but the female patients in their 60s and 70s showed significantly higher values. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Changes in calcification of coccoliths under stable atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, C.; Meier, K. J. S.; Kinkel, H.

    2014-01-01

    , which constitutes the main part of the assemblage in the North Atlantic. Records of average coccolith weights from three Holocene sediment cores along a north-south transect in the North Atlantic were analysed. During the Holocene, mean weight (and therefore calcification) of Noelaerhabdaceae (Emiliania...... huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa) coccoliths decreased at the Azores (Geofar KF 16) from around 7 to 6 pg, but increased at the Rockall Plateau (ODP site 980) from around 6 to 8 pg, and at the Voring Plateau (MD08-3192) from 7 to 10 pg. The amplitude of average weight variability is within the range of glacial...... Plateau. Here, more favourable productivity conditions apparently lead to an increase in coccolith weight, either due to the capability of coccolithophore species, especially E. huxleyi, to adapt to decreasing carbonate ion concentration or due to a shift towards heavier calcifying morphotypes....

  11. Effect of hydraulic retention time on continuous biocatalytic calcification reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isik, Mustafa; Altas, Levent; Kurmac, Yakup; Ozcan, Samet; Oruc, Ozcan

    2010-01-01

    High calcium concentrations in the wastewaters are problematic, because they lead to clogging of pipelines, boilers and heat exchangers through scaling (as carbonate, sulfate or phosphate precipitates), or malfunctioning of aerobic and anaerobic reactors. As a remedy to this problem, the industry typically uses chemical crystallization reactors which are efficient but often require complex monitoring and control and, as a drawback, can give rise to highly alkaline effluents. Biomineralization are emerging as alternative mechanisms for the removal of calcium from aqueous environments. Biocatalytic calcification reactors (BCR) utilize microbial urea hydrolysis by bacteria for the removal of calcium, as calcite, from industrial wastewater. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) effect on calcium removal was studied with a continuous feed BCR reactor treating a simulated pulp paper wastewater. Study showed that HRT is important parameter and HRT of 5-6 h is optimum for calcium removal from calcium-rich wastewaters.

  12. Medical image of the week: subcutaneous calcification in dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year old woman was referred to our Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD clinic for evaluation of dyspnea. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed perivascular reticular and ground glass opacities with air trapping, consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (Figure 1. She was diagnosed with connective tissue associated ILD. On review of previous images extensive subcutaneous calcifications were seen (Figure 2. Calcinosis is an uncommon manifestation of dermatomyositis in adults (1. It is usually seen around areas of frequent trauma like the hands and elbows. In her case, a pelvic inflammatory disease may have been a trigger for this calcinosis. Calcinosis is a difficult complication to treat with some success seen with diltiazem, aluminum hydroxide, and even alendronate in children. Surgical excision may be required in some cases.

  13. Opening the Dissertation: Overcoming Cultural Calcification and Agoraphobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Troll Covey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article places the struggle to open access to the dissertation in the context of the crisis in doctoral education and the transition from print to digital literacy. It explores the underlying cultural calcification and agoraphobia that deter engagement with openness. Solving the problems will require overhauling the curriculum and conventions of doctoral education. Opening access to dissertations is an important first step, but insufficient to end the crisis. Only opening other dimensions of the dissertation – the structure, media, notion of authorship, and methods of assessment – can foster the digital literacy needed to save PhD programs from extinction. If higher education institutions invested heavily in remedying obsolete practices, the remedies would reverberate throughout the academy, accelerate advancement in the disciplines, and revolutionize scholarly publishing. The article ends with a discussion of the significant role librarians could play in facilitating needed changes given appropriate institutional commitment.

  14. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  15. ATP Supply May Contribute to Light-Enhanced Calcification in Corals More Than Abiotic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooxanthellate corals are known to increase calcification rates when exposed to light, a phenomenon called light-enhanced calcification that is believed to be mediated by symbionts' photosynthetic activity. There is controversy over the mechanism behind this phenomenon, with hypotheses coarsely divided between abiotic and biologically-mediated mechanisms. At the same time, accumulating evidence shows that calcification in corals relies on active ion transport to deliver the skeleton building blocks into the calcifying medium, making it is an energetically costly activity. Here we build on generally accepted conceptual models of the coral calcification machinery and conceptual models of the energetics of coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis to develop a model that can be used to isolate the biologically-mediated and abiotic effects of photosynthesis, respiration, temperature, and seawater chemistry on coral calcification rates and related metabolic costs. We tested this model on data from the Mediterranean scleractinian Cladocora caespitosa, an acidification resistant species. We concluded that most of the variation in calcification rates due to photosynthesis, respiration and temperature can be attributed to biologically-mediated mechanisms, in particular to the ATP supplied to the active ion transports. Abiotic effects are also present but are of smaller magnitude. Instead, the decrease in calcification rates caused by acidification, albeit small, is sustained by both abiotic and biologically-mediated mechanisms. However, there is a substantial extra cost of calcification under acidified conditions. Based on these findings and on a literature review we suggest that the energy aspect of coral calcification might have been so far underappreciated.

  16. Species-Specific Coral Calcification Responses to the Extreme Environment of the Southern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Howells

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustained accretion of calcium carbonate (mostly by scleractinian corals is fundamental for maintaining the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems, but may be greatly constrained by extreme and rapidly changing environmental conditions. Corals in the southern Persian Gulf already experience extreme temperature ranges (<20 to >34°C, chronic hypersalinity (>43 psu and frequent light limitation (<100 μmol photons m−2 s−1. We compared annual rates of calcification for two of the most common coral species in the region (Platygyra daedalea and Cyphastrea microphthalma along marked gradients in environmental conditions in the southern Persian Gulf and into the Oman Sea. Overall calcification rates were 32% higher in P. daedalea colonies (x = 1.103 g cm−2 y−1, n = 46 than in C. microphthalma (x = 0.835 g cm−2 y−1, n = 37, probably reflecting inter-specific differences in energy allocation and skeletal density. There was also considerable variation in calcification rates among individual colonies from the same locations that was unrelated to depth or photosymbiont type. However, most interestingly, P. daedalea and C. microphthalma exhibited contrasting trends in mean annual calcification rates across locations. For P. daedalea, calcification rates were lowest at Delma, where the minimum temperatures were lowest and salinity was highest, and increased across the southern Persian Gulf with increases in minimum temperatures and decreases in salinity. These data suggest that calcification rates of P. daedalea are most constrained by minimum temperatures, which is consistent with the strong relationship between annual calcification rates and minimum local temperatures recorded across the Indo-Pacific. Conversely, linear extension and calcification of C. microphthalma in the southern Persian Gulf was lowest at Ras Ghanada, where there was lowest light and highest maximum temperatures. These data reveal striking taxonomic differences in

  17. Vitamin K status and vascular calcification: evidence from observational and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Holden, Rachel M

    2012-03-01

    Vascular calcification occurs when calcium accumulates in the intima (associated with atherosclerosis) and/or media layers of the vessel wall. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) reflects the calcium burden within the intima and media of the coronary arteries. In population-based studies, CAC independently predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. A preventive role for vitamin K in vascular calcification has been proposed based on its role in activating matrix Gla protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor that is expressed in vascular tissue. Although animal and in vitro data support this role of vitamin K, overall data from human studies are inconsistent. The majority of population-based studies have relied on vitamin K intake to measure status. Phylloquinone is the primary dietary form of vitamin K and available supplementation trials, albeit limited, suggest phylloquinone supplementation is relevant to CAC. Yet observational studies have found higher dietary menaquinone, but not phylloquinone, to be associated with less calcification. Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in certain patient populations, especially in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is plausible vitamin K may contribute to reducing vascular calcification in patients at higher risk. Subclinical vitamin K deficiency has been reported in CKD patients, but studies linking vitamin K status to calcification outcomes in CKD are needed to clarify whether or not improving vitamin K status is associated with improved vascular health in CKD. This review summarizes the available evidence of vitamin K and vascular calcification in population-based studies and clinic-based studies, with a specific focus on CKD patients.

  18. Prevalence of pineal gland calcification as an incidental finding in patients referred for implant dental therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutalik, Sunil; Tadinade, Aditya [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Pineal gland calcification has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This study evaluated the prevalence and extent of pineal gland calcification in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of patients referred for dental implant therapy who could possibly be a vulnerable group for this condition. A retrospective evaluation of 500 CBCT scans was conducted. Scans that showed the area where the pineal gland was located were included. The scans were initially screened by a single observer to record the prevalence and extent of calcification. Six weeks following the completion of the study, another investigator randomly reviewed and selected 50 scans to investigate inter-observer variation, which was evaluated using reliability analysis statistics. The prevalence and measurements of the calcifications were reported using descriptive statistics. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence between males and females. The prevalence of pineal gland calcification was 58.8%. There was no statistically significant correlation between age and the extent of the calcification. The prevalence of calcification was 58.6% in females and 59.0% in males. The average anteroposterior measurement was 3.73±1.63 mm, while the average mediolateral measurement was 3.47±1.31 mm. The average total calcified area was 9.79±7.59 mm{sup 2}. The prevalence of pineal gland calcification was high in patients undergoing implant therapy. While not all pineal gland calcifications lead to neurodegenerative disorders, they should be strongly considered in the presence of any symptoms as a reason to initiate further investigations.

  19. Results of treatment of the calcific tendinitis of the shoulder supraspinatus muscle tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Strafun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify and compare the results of conservative and surgical treatment of the calcific tendinitis of the shoulder supraspinatus muscle tendon. Materials and methods. The clinical group consisted of 120 patients with calcific tendinitis of supraspinatus tendon. All patients were divided into two groups, according to the operative or conservative treatment, each of these groups have been subdivided into two (with calcific deposits less or more than 1.5 cm in length according to Bosworth radiological classification. Conservative treatment ("needling" included: evacuation of calcific deposits with saline under ultrasound control with subsequent injection of prolonged corticosteroid into the subacromial space, use of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy. Surgical treatment included: evacuation of calcium deposits from the tendon followed by rotator cuff repair and biceps tendon tenodesis at the proximal third of the intertubercular groove. Results. In the majority of patients, after the "needling" of little - 1.5 cm calcific deposits (55 patients - 45.8% clinical and radiographic healing occurred in 2 weeks after procedure. The level of pain in average was 2,39 ± 0,39 points according to VAS scale and function of the shoulder joint has increased in average to 40,26 ± 4,39 points on Oxford Shoulder Score. In 3 months after treatment begining, the best average results were obtained in patients with calcific deposits less than 1.5 cm - 43 ± 3,8 points on Oxford Shoulder Score, the worst 26 ± 4,8 points - in patients with calcific deposits bigger than 1.5 cm who underwent conservative treatment (р≤0,05. Conclusions. In group of patients after surgical treatment, size of calcific deposits did not significantly affect the treatment result (р≤0,01. Slightly better results were obtained in patients with calcific deposits size less than1.5 cm - 39 ± 3,8 points on Oxford Shoulder Score.

  20. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma exhibiting morphologic changes from simple hepatic cyst shown by 11-year follow up imagings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term follow up case of hepatobiliary cystadenoma originating from simple hepatic cyst is rare. Case presentation We report a case of progressive morphologic changes from simple hepatic cyst to hepatobiliary cystadenoma by 11 – year follow up imaging. A 25-year-old man visited our hospital in 1993 for a simple hepatic cyst. The cyst was located in the left lobe of the liver, was 6 cm in diameter, and did not exhibit calcification, septa or papillary projections. No surgical treatment was performed, although the cyst was observed to gradually enlarge upon subsequent examination. The patient was admitted to our hospital in 2004 due to epigastralgia. Re-examination of the simple hepatic cyst revealed mounting calcification and septa. Abdominal CT on admission revealed a hepatic cyst over 10 cm in diameter and a high-density area within the thickened wall. MRI revealed a mass of low intensity and partly high intensity on a T1-weighted image. Abdominal angiography revealed hypovascular tumor. The serum levels of AST and ALT were elevated slightly, but tumor markers were within normal ranges. Left lobectomy of the liver was performed with diagnosis of hepatobiliary cystadenoma or hepatobiliary cystadenocarcinoma. The resected specimen had a solid component with papillary projections and the cyst was filled with liquid-like muddy bile. Histologically, the inner layer of the cyst was lined with columnar epithelium showing mild grade dysplasia. On the basis of these findings, hepatobiliary cystadenoma was diagnosed. Conclusion We believe this case provides evidence of a simple hepatic cyst gradually changing into hepatobiliary cystadenoma.

  1. Calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells: associations with osteoprotegerin expression and acceleration by high-dose insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ping; Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Wogensen, Lise

    2007-01-01

    Arterial medial calcifications occur often in diabetic individuals as part of the diabetic macroangiopathy. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the presence of calcifications predicts risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of insulin on calcifying smooth muscle cells in vitro...... and measured the expression of the bone-related molecule osteoprotegerin (OPG). Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were grown from aorta from kidney donors. Induction of calcification was performed with beta-glycerophosphate. The influence of insulin (200 microU/ml or 1,000 microU/ml) on calcification...... calcification in human smooth muscle cells from a series of donors after variable time in culture. Decreased OPG amounts were observed from the cells during the accelerated calcification phase. High dose of insulin (1,000 microU/ml) accelerated the calcification, whereas lower concentrations (200 microU/ml) did...

  2. Caseous mitral annular calcification mimicking a lung tumor on chest X-ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dingli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitral annular calcification (MAC is a common condition of the mitral valve apparatus. A case involving caseous calcification, a rare variant of MAC is presented. This variant which has a benign course can present as an intracardiac mass and needs to be differentiated from more sinister causes of calcified cardiac masses such as tumor, abscess, and infective vegetation. Often, this requires multimodality imaging with echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Features of caseous calcification of the mitral valve on these imaging modalities are reviewed as the associations and clinical features.

  3. Comparison of CT and CMR for detection and quantification of carotid artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujaj, Blerim; Lorza, Andrés M. Arias; van Engelen, Arna

    2017-01-01

    interscan interval: 4.9 ± 1.2 years). We investigated the correlation between the amount of calcification measured on CT and CMR using Spearman's correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression. In addition, using logistic regression modeling, we assessed the association of CT and CMR...... larger. Finally, calcification volume assessed with either imaging modality was associated with a history of stroke with similar effect estimates (odds ratio (OR) per 1-SD increase in calcification volume: 1.52 (95% CI:1.00;2.30) for CT, and 1.47 (95% CI:1.01;2.14) for CMR. CONCLUSION: CT based and CMR...

  4. Calcific aortic valve damage as a risk factor for cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewski, Jarosław; Mirota, Kryspin; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Głowacki, Jan; Poloński, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common disease of the elderly. It is a progressive disease ranging from mild valve thickening to severe calcification with aortic valve stenosis. Risk factors for AVC are similar to those for atherosclerosis: age, gender, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and renal failure. AVC shares many similarities to atherosclerosis, including inflammatory cells and calcium deposits, and correlates with coronary plaque burden. Presence of AVC is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The objective for this review is to discuss the clinical features, natural history and prognostic significance of aortic valve calcifications, including mechanical and hemodynamic factors of flow distribution

  5. Calcific haemorrhagic bursitis anterior to the knee mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahnke, M.; Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Woodlands, B31 2AP, Northfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Department of Pathology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Woodlands, B31 2AP, Northfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    We describe the radiological and pathological findings of two cases of calcific haemorrhagic bursitis, one involving the superficial infrapatellar bursa and the other the prepatellar bursa. It was the presence of dystrophic calcification within the lesion that suggested a mineralizing soft tissue sarcoma such as synovial sarcoma. As the radiographic and MR features of the two conditions can be similar but the appropriate management very different, rare calcifying haemorrhagic bursitis needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of masses adjacent to the knee joint showing calcification. (orig.)

  6. Calcific haemorrhagic bursitis anterior to the knee mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahnke, M.; Davies, A.M.; Mangham, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the radiological and pathological findings of two cases of calcific haemorrhagic bursitis, one involving the superficial infrapatellar bursa and the other the prepatellar bursa. It was the presence of dystrophic calcification within the lesion that suggested a mineralizing soft tissue sarcoma such as synovial sarcoma. As the radiographic and MR features of the two conditions can be similar but the appropriate management very different, rare calcifying haemorrhagic bursitis needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of masses adjacent to the knee joint showing calcification. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography of basal ganglia calcifications in pseudo- and idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Nishishita, Soichi; Morita, Rikushi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Torizuka, Kanji.

    1987-12-01

    It is well known that patients with pseudo (PHP)- and idiopathic (IHP) hypoparathyroidism are frequently associated with intracranial calcifications. The relative sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) and conventional skull radiography in detecting basal ganglia calcifications was studied in two patients with PHP and six with IHP. CT was more sensitive: the detection rate was 71 % (5/7) for CT and 14 % (1/7) for skull radiography. Furthermore, patients with more prolonged hypocalcemia showed a higher incidence of calcifications. Thus, CT was useful as a diagnostic technique in the early detection of calcified basal ganglia.

  8. Computed tomography of basal ganglia calcifications in pseudo- and idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ono, Shimato; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Nishishita, Soichi; Morita, Rikushi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Torizuka, Kanji.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that patients with pseudo (PHP)- and idiopathic (IHP) hypoparathyroidism are frequently associated with intracranial calcifications. The relative sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) and conventional skull radiography in detecting basal ganglia calcifications was studied in two patients with PHP and six with IHP. CT was more sensitive: the detection rate was 71 % (5/7) for CT and 14 % (1/7) for skull radiography. Furthermore, patients with more prolonged hypocalcemia showed a higher incidence of calcifications. Thus, CT was useful as a diagnostic technique in the early detection of calcified basal ganglia. (author)

  9. Physiological controls on seawater uptake and calcification in the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nehrke

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the relation between seawater uptake and calcification, we incubated juveniles of the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida with various fluorescent probes and visualised them afterwards with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Vesicle membranes, Ca ions and vacuole fluids were followed with various tracers and showed for the first time that endocytosis of seawater is part of the calcification process in Ammonia tepida. Data on the intracellular Ca ion cycling allowed for calculating a preliminary cellular Ca budget during foraminiferal calcification. This showed that the free calcium involved in the production of a new chamber cannot be sufficient and suggests that foraminifera may precipitate their calcite from an amorphous precursor.

  10. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  11. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  12. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, PK2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  14. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  15. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  16. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  17. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  18. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  19. Splenic calcifications caused by Trichosporon beigelli infection: CT and ultrasound demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklair-Levy, M.; Libson, Y.; Lossos, I.S.; Bugomolsky-Yahalom, V.

    1998-01-01

    Trichosporon beigelli is an uncommon but frequently fatal invasive fungal infection in immunosupressed patients. We report on a patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed splenic calcifications following Trichosporon beigelli infection. (orig.)

  20. Great Palm Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1872 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  1. Evidence for Rhythmicity Pacemaker in the Calcification Process of Scleractinian Coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Schneider, Kenneth; Stolarski, Jaroslaw; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Yam, Ruth; Meibom, Anders; Shemesh, Aldo; Levy, Oren

    2016-02-01

    Reef-building scleractinian (stony) corals are among the most efficient bio-mineralizing organisms in nature. The calcification rate of scleractinian corals oscillates under ambient light conditions, with a cyclic, diurnal pattern. A fundamental question is whether this cyclic pattern is controlled by exogenous signals or by an endogenous ‘biological-clock’ mechanism, or both. To address this problem, we have studied calcification patterns of the Red Sea scleractinian coral Acropora eurystoma with frequent measurements of total alkalinity (AT) under different light conditions. Additionally, skeletal extension and ultra-structure of newly deposited calcium carbonate were elucidated with 86Sr isotope labeling analysis, combined with NanoSIMS ion microprobe and scanning electron microscope imaging. Our results show that the calcification process persists with its cyclic pattern under constant light conditions while dissolution takes place within one day of constant dark conditions, indicating that an intrinsic, light-entrained mechanism may be involved in controlling the calcification process in photosymbiotic corals.

  2. Otter Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1792 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  3. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with intracranial calcification in a child with thalassemia minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimple, Jain; Alka, Jadhav; Mona, Gajre; Atul, Deshmukh

    2013-09-01

    There are numerous causes for intracranial calcification in children. We describe an unusual cause of intracranial calcification in a child, namely, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). A 12-year-old boy presented with seizures and developmental delay. MRI of the brain revealed intracranial calcification. Evaluation showed findings suggestive of NDI. The lack of evidence of any other metabolic defect suggests that these calcifications were secondary to NDI. He also had anemia for which he was investigated and diagnosed as thalassemia minor. Detailed literature review failed to reveal any reported association between NDI and thalassemia minor. We report this case to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of NDI to prevent organic brain damage.

  4. Environmental controls on daytime net community calcification on a Red Sea reef flat

    KAUST Repository

    Bernstein, W. N.; Hughen, K. A.; Langdon, C.; McCorkle, D. C.; Lentz, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    in the near future. Controlled laboratory studies demonstrate that calcification by corals and coralline algae is sensitive to changes in aragonite saturation state (Ωa), as well as temperature, light, and nutrition. Studies also show that the dissolution rate

  5. Reduced calcification of bioprostheses, cross-linked via an improved carbodiimide based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerts, F; Torrianni, M; van Luyn, M; van Wachem, P; Feijen, J; Hendriks, M

    Glutaraldehyde fixation of bioprosthetic tissue has been used successfully for almost 40 years. However, it is generally recognized that glutaraldehyde fixation of bioprostheses is associated with the occurrence of calcification. Accordingly, many efforts have been undertaken to develop techniques

  6. Breast calcifications. A standardized mammographic reporting and data system to improve positive predictive value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perugini, G.; Bonzanini, B.; Valentino, C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the usefulness of a standardized reporting and data system in improving the positive predictive value of mammography in breast calcifications. Using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon developed by the American College of Radiology, it is defined 5 descriptive categories of breast calcifications and classified diagnostic suspicion of malignancy on a 3-grade scale (low, intermediate and high). Two radiologists reviewed 117 mammographic studies selected from those of the patients submitted to surgical biopsy for mammographically detected calcifications from January 1993 to December 1997, and classified them according to the above criteria. The positive predictive value was calculated for all examinations and for the stratified groups. Defining a standardized system for assessing and describing breast calcifications helps improve the diagnostic accuracy of mammography in clinical practice [it

  7. Calcifications valvulaires chez l'hémodialysé au Maroc | Faqih | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcifications valvulaires chez l'hémodialysé au Maroc. Samia Ait Faqih, Béfa Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Lalla Meryam Abouamrane, Naoufal Mtiou, Selma El Khaya, Mohamed Zamd, Ghislaine Medkouri, Mohamed Gharbi Bengahanem, Benyounes Ramdani ...

  8. Physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keberle, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Robinson, S. [DiagnoseZentrumUrania, Wien (Austria)

    2007-08-15

    The aim was to give a systematic presentation of physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck with a special emphasis on clinical relevance. In a sometimes subacute setting one should recognize specific calcifications which often lead to important diagnoses such as fungal sinusitis or sclerosing labyrinthitis. In a more chronic situation intraocular calcifications in small children are pathognomonic for retinoblastoma. Juxtatumoral sclerosis of the laryngeal cartilage in laryngopharyngeal carcinoma is usually caused by tumor infiltration of the cartilage resulting in a higher tumor stage and, this way, has a major impact on the therapeutical strategy. Calcified lymph nodes are mainly unspecific but can be the result of tuberculosis or metastases of thyroid cancer. Cross-sectional imaging methods, most of all computed tomography, are ideally suited to reveal head and neck calcifications and ossifications, especially those which are clinically relevant. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children. Using both CT and plain radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki

    1987-07-01

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion.

  10. Flinders Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1718 to 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  11. Darnley Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1788 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  12. Yankee Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1888 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  13. Hook Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1690 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  14. Coombe Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1822 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  15. Lupton Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1818 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  16. Havannah Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1583 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  17. Low Isles Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1934 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  18. Burkitt Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1916 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  19. North Molle Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1831 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  20. Scawfell Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1821 to 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...