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Sample records for hen broiler quail

  1. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  2. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... between the two feeding strategies or dietary protein levels, nor were ... supplied, whilst in other cases hens may not consume their daily allocation, ..... Aviagen, 2014. http://en.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/Ross_Broiler/ ...

  4. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  5. Egg fertility and hatchability in Avians broiler-breeder hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of temperature and humidity in different month of lay was evaluated on fertility and hatchability in broiler breeder hens reared in Sapele, Nigeria. Six million, six hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and forty six eggs from flocks of Avians broiler-breeder hens reared between 2005 and 2006 in a farm ...

  6. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Pathological adaption of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Lin, H Y; Chen, Y W; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days. AL hens exhibited increased bodyweight, adiposity, absolute and relative heart weight, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiac protein/DNA ratio by d 21 (P hens (P Hens allowed AL feeding for 70 d exhibited a higher incidence of mortality (40% vs. 10%) in association with ascites, pericardial effusion, and ventricle dilation. A higher incidence of irregular ECG patterns and rhythmicity consistent with persistently elevated systolic blood pressure and ventricle fibrosis were observed in AL hens (P feeding in broiler hens results in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy that progresses to overt pathogenesis in contractility and thereby increases mortality. Feed restriction provides clear physiological benefit to heart function of adult broiler hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens and caecectomised roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M; Adeola, O; Lilburn, M S; Applegate, T J

    2009-05-01

    1. This study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caecectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs from 5 plant sources and one animal source. 2. The standardised amino acid digestibility (SAAD) were obtained by correcting apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow obtained by feeding a N-free diet (NFD) to broilers and laying hens or from fasted EAA flow from caecectomised roosters. 3. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities did not differ between broilers and roosters for three of the 6 feed ingredients. 4. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed on the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). 5. The apparent TAA digestibilities were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caecectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). 6. The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers for three of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). 7. There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. 8. The standardised TAA digestibility values for laying hens were lower for maize, higher for meat and bone meal, but no different for the remaining ingredients when compared with broilers. 9. The results from this study showed that both the apparent and standardised amino acid digestibility values in caecectomised roosters, laying hens, and broilers ingredients are similar for some, but not all, feed ingredients. 10. Nutritionists should, therefore, be cautious about using digestibility coefficients obtained by different methodologies as values may differ.

  8. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Development of metabolic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Huang, Y F; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate metabolic cardiomyopathies underlying the etiology of obesity-associated cardiac pathology. Metabolic measurements were made in hens continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding after 7 d and 21 days. AL feeding increased plasma insulin, glucose, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations by 21 d (P hens was confirmed by cardiac triacylglycerol (TG) and ceramide accumulation consistent with up-regulation of related enzyme gene expressions, and by increased indices of oxidation stress (P hens, cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and glucose transporter (GLUT) gene expressions increased progressively while carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) transcript levels in AL hens declined from 7 d to 21 d (P hens was further indicated by increased leukocyte infiltrates, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 production, cellular apoptosis, interstitial fibrosis, and expression of the heart failure marker myosin heavy chain (MHC-β; cardiac muscle beta) (P hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  11. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C, imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB, and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB. The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF] compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing

  12. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage on serum biochemical parameters of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Kumar Babu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS on serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Materials and Methods: A total of 192, 7-day-old broiler Japanese quail chicks of either sex, were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments with four replicates in each group having 12 chicks in each replicate pen. The dietary treatments were T1 - Control diet, T2 - Diet containing 5% FFS, T3 - Diet containing 10% FFS, and T4 - Diet containing 15% FFS. Group body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was derived by dividing the feed consumed with the weekly body weight gain. At the end of the experiment, 8 birds from each treatment were selected randomly and sacrificed by cervical dislocation to study the carcass traits expressed as % pre-slaughter live weight. At 5 weeks of age, about 2 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein of each selected bird, and serum samples were separated after centrifugation. Total protein, albumin/globulin (A/G ratio, calcium, phosphorus, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were estimated in the serum. Results: The cumulative body weight gains from 1 to 5 weeks of age did not vary significantly between control and 5% FFS group. However, a linear decrease in body weight gain was observed by increasing the levels of FFS beyond 5% in the diet. The cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in case of birds under control group during 1-5 weeks of age as compared to birds fed FFS based diet (5%, 10%, and 15%. No statistical difference in cumulative feed conversion ratio could be noticed during 1-5 weeks of age. The eviscerated yield decreased and giblet weight increased due

  14. Dynamics of nutrient utilization, heat production, and body composition in broiler breeder hens during egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Justina V; Hilton, Katie; Boonsinchai, Nirun; England, Judith A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Coon, Craig N

    2018-04-24

    Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC. Means were separated by Tukey-Honest Significant difference (HSD). HP increased with age (d) in 0.152 kcal/d, VO2 and VCO2 were 0.031 and 0.024 L/d per each increase in age (d), respectively. In the light period, hens consumed +17.4 L/d VO2 and produced +18.9 L/d VCO2 (P production. Lean body mass ranged from 642 to 783 g/kg during the whole study reaching the lowest at 37 and 50 wk and the highest at 26 to 33 wk (P production is reduced, and HP increased at 54 and 59 wk (P lean mass structure. Broiler breeders change nutrient fuel use during egg production. Indirect calorimetry and DEXA can be used to pursue further feed strategies to maximize egg production and maintain a healthy breeder.

  15. Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR an...

  16. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Chowdhury, S R; Oinas, N; MacDonald, E J; Smith, T K

    2006-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens. In Experiment 1, thirty-six 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Concentrations of brain neurotransmitters and metabolites were analyzed in pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and the metabolites measured included dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxylphenyacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The feeding of contaminated grains significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT and decreased the 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid:5-HT in the pons region in the brain stem. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet on concentrations of other neurotransmitters or metabolites in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. In Experiment 2, thirty-six 1-d-old turkey poults were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Hypothalamic, pons, and cortex neurotransmitter concentrations were not affected by diet. In Experiment 3, forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens were fed diets including the following for 15 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. There was no effect of diet on neurotransmitter concentrations in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. It was concluded that differences in intraspecies effects of these mycotoxins on brain neurotransmitter concentrations might explain the intraspecies differences in the severity of Fusarium mycotoxin-induced reductions in feed intake.

  17. Optimal in-feed amino acid ratio for broiler breeder hens based on deletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigam, J C P; Sakomura, N K; Sarcinelli, M F; Gonçalves, C A; de Lima, M B; Peruzzi, N J

    2017-12-01

    An ideal amino acid ratio (IAAR) for breeder hens is needed for maximum nitrogen retention (NR) taking into account nitrogen deposition in body (ND B ), feathers (ND F ) and egg mass (NEM) to improve dietary protein efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to apply the deletion method to derive the IAAR for broiler breeder hens. The nitrogen balance trials were performed from 31 to 35 weeks and from 46 to 50 weeks. Twelve treatments with eight replicates and one hen per cage were used. A balanced diet (BD) was formulated to meet the requirement of all nutrients. The other diets were formulated diluting 55% of BD with corn starch and refilled with amino acids (AAs) and other ingredients, except the AA tested. Each trial lasted 25 days. Feather losses, egg production and egg weight were recorded daily, and the samples were stored to further determine NEM and nitrogen in feather losses (ND FL ). At the start and the end of each period, a group of birds were slaughtered to further determine ND B and ND F . The NR was calculated as the sum of ND B , ND F , ND FL , NEM and the nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR). The deletion of valine greatly depressed the NR in peak production (31 to 35 weeks) while the deletion of the isoleucine greatly depressed the NR of the hens from 46 to 50 weeks of age. The percentual reduction in NR and the per cent of the AA to delete from the BD were used to calculate the AA requirement. The average IAAR was Lys 100, Met+Cys 86, Trp 23, Thr 80, Arg 113, Val 90, Ile 91, Leu 133, Phe+Tyr 108, Gly+Ser 94 and His 35. The IAAR was in line with the recommendation from the literature, validating deletion method with the advantages from a rapid and low-cost procedure. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.

  19. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P digestibility values for broilers were higher (P digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Economic feasibility of animal welfare improvements in Dutch intensive livestock production: A comparison between broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Voermans, G.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the economic feasibility of production systems with different levels of animal welfare (AW) in the broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig sectors. Economic feasibility over a five-year time horizon was assessed using stochastic bio-economic simulation models. The results suggest

  1. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  2. Effects of organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on gene expression profiles in oviduct tissue from broiler-breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K M; Crowdus, C A; Cantor, A H; Pescatore, A J; Barger, J L; Horgan, K; Xiao, R; Power, R F; Dawson, K A

    2011-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of at least 25 selenoproteins involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including reproduction. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which Se exerts its physiological effects in reproductive tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of long-term inorganic Se (sodium selenite, SS) and organic yeast-derived Se (Sel-Plex(®), SP) supplementations on tissue Se content and gene expression patterns in the oviduct of broiler-breeder hens. Hens were randomly assigned at 6 weeks of age to one of the three treatments: basal semi-purified diet (control), basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SP or basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SS. At 49 weeks, oviduct tissue from hens randomly selected from each treatment (n=7) was analyzed for Se content and gene expression profiles using the Affymetrix Chicken genome array. Gene expression data were evaluated using GeneSpring GX 10.0 (Silicon Genetics, Redwood, CA) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software (Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Oviduct Se concentration was greater with Se supplementation compared with the control (P≤0.05) but did not differ between SS- and SP-supplemented groups. Gene expression analysis revealed that the quantity of gene transcripts associated with energy production and protein translation were greater in the oviduct with SP but not SS supplementation. Targets up-regulated by SP, but not SS, included genes encoding several subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, ubiquinone production and ribosomal subunits. SS hens showed a decrease in transcripts of genes involved in respiratory complexes, ATP synthesis and protein translation and metabolism in oviduct relative to control hens. In this study, although tissue Se concentrations did not differ between hens fed SS- and SP-supplemented diets, expression patterns of genes involved in energy production and protein synthesis pathways differed between treatments. These

  3. Detection of chicken anemia virus in the gonads and in the progeny of broiler breeder hens with high neutralizing antibody titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentano, L; Lazzarin, S; Bassi, S S; Klein, T A P; Schat, K A

    2005-01-05

    Previous evidence for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in the gonads of immune specific-pathogen-free chickens raised the question whether this occurs also in commercial breeders. The presence of CAV was investigated by nested PCR in the gonads and spleens of hens from two 55- and 59-week-old, CAV-vaccinated (flocks 2 and 3), and two 48- and 31-week-old non-vaccinated broiler breeder flocks (flocks 1 and 4). In addition, lymphoid tissues of 20-day-old embryos from these hens were also investigated for the presence of CAV. CAV was detected in the gonads and of 5/6 and 11/22 of the vaccinated hens and in some hens also in the spleen alone. Embryos from 7/8 and 5/18 of these hens were positive. In the non-vaccinated flocks, CAV was detected in the gonads of 11/34 and 10/10 hens in flocks 1 and 4, respectively. In addition, 11 birds in flock 1 had positive spleens. CAV DNA was detected in 3/11 and 2/10 of their embryos. CAV-positive gonads and embryos were detected in samples from hens with moderate as well as high VN antibody titers. Vaccinated chickens positive for CAV in the gonads and in their embryos had VN titers ranging from >1:512 to gonads of hens in commercial broiler breeder flocks even in the presence of high neutralizing antibody titers that have been associated with protection against CAV vertical transmission. It also suggests that transmission to the progeny may occur irrespectively of the level of the humoral immune response in the hens.

  4. EFFECT OF AGE AND BODY WEIGHT AT MOLTING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER BREEDER HENS UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL HOUSES IN PAKISTAN

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    HASSAN M. MALIK, EHSAN-UL-HAQ AND F. AHMAD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 2700 broiler breeder hens of Arbor Acre strain were divided into 27 experimental units (100 each and allotted to nine treatments randomly having three replications each. The birds were kept under uniform managemental conditions throughout the experimental period of 32 weeks post molt period. The birds were molted under conventional method at 50, 55 and 60 weeks of age having three different body weights i.e. 3000, 3500 and 4000 ± 50g under 3x3 factorial design. At the time of 5% production, data on production performance (weekly eggs/hen, hen day production, body weight and feed consumption were recorded. Data collected was analyzed by analysis of variance technique under 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatment and the differences among the treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Significant (P<0.05 differences due to body weight and age were noted for feed consumption, weekly eggs per hen, hen day production and hen house production. Broiler breeders having low age group (50 weeks and medium body weight (3500g resulted in maximum production performance/net profit.

  5. Comparação de valores de energia metabolizável de alimentos determinados com frangos de corte e com codornas visando à formulação de dietas para codornas japonesas Comparison of metabolizable energy values of food determined with broilers and quails aiming at formulation of diets for Japanese quails

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    Marcelle Santana de Araujo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 648 codornas japonesas com produção de ovos de 91,1% distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com nove repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. As dietas foram avaliadas em arranjo fatorial 3 × 3 (alimento × formulação, por meio de medidas de desempenho das aves e de qualidade dos ovos. A interação entre alimento alternativo e formulação influenciou o consumo de ração; as demais variáveis (desempenho e características internas e externas dos ovos não foram influenciadas pelos alimentos alternativos avaliados. O ganho de peso, a taxa de postura, o peso médio de ovo, a massa de ovo, a conversão alimentar por massa e a porcentagem de casca variaram de acordo com a formulação. Os valores de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do milho, do sorgo, do farelo de soja e das farinhas de vísceras de aves, de carne e ossos e de peixe determinados em frangos de corte e em galinhas poedeiras não são apropriados para formulação de dietas para codornas japonesas.It was used 648 Japanese quails with 91.1% of egg production in a completely randomized experiment design with nine replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The diets were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (food × feed formulation through bird performance measures and egg quality. The interaction among alternative food and formulation influenced feed intake. Both performance and internal and external egg traits were not affected by food alternative. Weight gain, laying rate, egg average weight, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and shell percentage varied according to the formulation. Values of corrected apparent metabolizable energy of corn, sorghum, soybean meal and poultry by product meal, meat and fish bones determined in broilers and laying hens are not suitable for formulation of diets for Japanese quails.

  6. Reproductive performance and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in young and old broiler breeder hens orally exposed to supplementary biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Mianji, G Rahimi; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2014-09-01

    Published data on the probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sustaining sperm viability in sperm storage tubules in 38-wk-old turkeys, and the high affinity of avidin or its analogs to biotin suggest that supplementary biotin may increase oviductal avidin and AVR2 expression, thereby attenuating the adverse effect of aging on hen reproductive performance. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg of biotin/L of drinking water from 30 to 33 (young) and 53 to 56 (old) wk of age, and artificially inseminated to determine their reproductive performance. At the end of each period of biotin administration, 8 hens from each treatment group were killed for RNA extraction from the uterovaginal junction. Egg production was lower in the old hens (44%) compared with the young ones (82%), and biotin supplementation increased egg production only in the latter. Administering supplementary biotin to young hens increased their oviductal expression of AVR2, which was much higher in the old hens (1.0 and 4.6 for young and old groups, respectively). Fertility rate was not different between young and old hens, and was increased (4.4%) at the higher level of biotin supplementation. Hatchability and hatchling quality were not affected by biotin supplementation. Embryonic mortality between 17 to 21 d of incubation was higher in young (5.2%) compared with old (1.4%) birds. Egg fertility rate showed a moderate correlation (P biotin supplementation on AVR2 expression, and the relationship between biotin administration and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 was dependent on the hen's age, being higher in the young hens. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  8. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

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    Petra Videnska

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  9. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  10. Effect of Feeding Low-Oil Ddgs to Laying Hens and Broiler Chickens on Performance and Egg Yolk and Skin Pigmentation

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    A Cortes-Cuevas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two sources of low-oil distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and their pigmenting ability for broiler chicken skin and egg yolks. In Experiment 1, 360 Bovan-White hens between 69 and 77 weeks of age were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 hens each. In Experiment 2, 375 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with three replicates of 25 birds each. The chickens were fed the experimental diets from one to 42 d of age. In both experiments, treatments consisted of a basal diet with no DDGS, and diets with 6% or 12% inclusion of DDGS from two sources. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in performance were detected among treatments (p> 0.05. Egg yolk pigmentation, according to CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter redness (a and yellowness (b, linearly increased (p0.05 were detected among treatments in growth performance, carcass yield, or abdominal fat at 42 d of age. Yellowness linearly increased (p<0.05 in the skin and abdominal fat of the birds that consumed diets with DDGS. The results of the current study indicate that feeding two sources of low-oil DDGS to broiler chicks or laying hens does not negatively affect egg production or growth performance while improves egg yolk and skin yellowness.

  11. Long term administration of low doses of mycotoxins in poultry. 2. Residues of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in broilers and laying hens after combined administration of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micco, C; Miraglia, M; Benelli, L; Onori, R; Ioppolo, A; Mantovani, A

    1988-01-01

    The effects of combined administration of ochratoxin A (OA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the occurrence and the levels of residues of mycotoxins in poultry have been investigated. Male broilers and laying hens were fed from 14 days old with standard diets contaminated with 50 micrograms/kg OA and 50 micrograms/kg AFB1. Two groups of broilers and hens were withdrawn from contaminated feed at 37 and 88 days, respectively. At the time of sacrifice no significant lesions were found. Residues were compared with those found after administration of either toxin alone in former trials. Combined treatment resulted in higher content of OA in broiler livers (40 versus 5.0 micrograms/kg) and, to a lesser extent, in kidneys and skin, and of AFB1 in broiler liver and kidney (0.15 versus 0.02 microgram/kg and 0.40 versus 0.05 microgram/kg respectively). Laying hens showed smaller differences (0.20 versus 0.10 microgram/kg in liver and 0.32 versus 0.08 in kidneys). Withdrawal from treatment led to the almost complete disappearance of OA residues in broilers and in hens. These results show a synergistic effect of OA and AFB1, particularly in broilers.

  12. Dietary genistein supplementation in laying broiler breeder hens alters the development and metabolism of offspring embryos as revealed by hepatic transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zengpeng; Fan, Hao; Zhang, Beibei; Ning, Chao; Xing, Kun; Guo, Yuming

    2018-03-08

    Genistein (GEN) is a type of isoflavone mainly derived from soy products. In this experiment, we added 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN to the diet of laying broiler breeder hens to clarify the maternal effects of GEN on the development and metabolism of chick embryos. GEN treatment at 40 mg/kg increased embryonic length, weight, and liver index, as well as the width of the proliferative zone in the tibial growth plate of chick embryos. Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis of the hepatic transcriptome showed that GEN treatment promoted embryonic development and cell proliferation. Low-dose GEN treatment increased insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)3 mRNA expression in the embryonic liver, whereas high-dose GEN treatment increased IGFBP5 expression and activated the apoptosis and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, adding supplemental GEN to the diet of hens promoted the glycolysis process in the embryonic liver through the insulin-signaling pathway, upregulated target genes (phosphoglucomutase-2, hexokinase 1, dihydroxyacetone phosphate by aldolase, phosphofructokinase, platelet, and enolase 2), and enhanced the transport of carboxylic acids and cholesterol and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid) in the embryonic liver through upregulation of liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and patatin-like phospholipase A. Additionally, GEN treatment increased fatty acid β-oxidation and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in the embryonic liver through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs; PPARα and PPARδ) and the AMPK signaling pathway, which could provide energy for embryonic development. In addition, GEN treatment in hens increased superoxide dismutase activity and metallothionein expression in the chick embryonic liver and promoted lymphocyte proliferation through upregulation of mRNA expression of CDKN1A, IL12RB1, Sox11, PRKAR1A, PRKCQ, and TCF3. The improved immunity and antioxidant

  13. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (Pbiotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds showed improvements in these attributes.

  14. Occurrence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and factors associated with transmission in broiler chickens and laying hens in different raising systems

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    Patricia R. Millar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and identify the risk factors associated with transmission of T. gondii to chickens raised in different systems (free-ranged and confined to produce eggs or meat. The 810 animals were allocated in two experimental groups according to the production system purpose: 460 broiler chickens (Group 1 and 350 layer chickens (Group 2. In order to analyze the possible factors involved in T. gondii infection in the chickens, an epidemiological questionnaire was developed for all properties.The serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was performed by Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFAT and by Enzime Linked Imunossorbent Assay (ELISA. Since the agreement index (kappa between these two serological techniques was considered high, 21.2% of the 810 animals were considered reactive. In Group 1, 12.2% (56/460 were positive, while in the Group 2 the positivity rate was 33.1% (116/350. The production system may be influencing the seropositivity of the animals in both groups. However, only in Group 2 it was possible to notice a statistically significant relationship between the breeding system and the frequency of positive sera. This result indicates that, at least for laying hens, the production system is directly involved in T. gondii infection. The contact with cats in Group 1 did not influence the distribution of seroreactive animals, but in Group 2 a significant relationship was observed. The occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was high in both groups (broiler and posture chickens. Free-ranged chickens raised for egg production proved to be the most exposed group to the T. gondii infection. This can be related to the fact that these animals stay for longer periods in the farms, in direct contact with possibly contaminated soil by the presence of domestic cats.

  15. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  16. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler breeding hens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, R.; Gruhn, K.; Hennig, A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15 N-labelled wheat straw as well as 15 N-labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15 N excess ( 15 N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15 N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p 15 N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15 N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15 N wheat, straw as a 15 N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. (author)

  17. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1987-01-01

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15 N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15 N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15 N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  18. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  19. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

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    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  20. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Non-typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Raw Chicken Carcasses of Commercial Broilers and Spent Hens in Tai’an, China

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    Song Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from meat samples of commercial broilers (CB and spent hens (SH. Between March and June 2016, 200 retail raw chicken carcasses (100 from CB and 100 from SH were obtained from local supermarkets in Tai’an city of China, and Salmonella isolates were then analyzed for antibiotic resistance, serotype, β-lactamase genes, and the presence of class 1 integron. Forty Salmonella strains were obtained in this study (CB: 21/100, 21%; SH: 19/100, 19%. Three serotypes were identified in 40 Salmonella, and S. Enteritidis (CB: 15/21, 71.4%; SH: 10/19, 52.6% was the dominant serotype, followed by S. Typhimurium (CB: 4/21, 19%; SH: 6/19, 31.6% and S. Derby (CB: 2/21, 9.5%; SH: 3/19, 15.8%. Among 21 Salmonella isolated from CB, high antibiotic resistance rates were found for ampicillin (20/21, 95.2%, nalidixic acid (18/21, 85.7%, cefotaxime (17/21, 81%, and tetracycline (13/21, 61.9%; class 1 integron was observed in seven isolates (7/21, 33.3%, and gene cassettes included an empty integron (0.15 kb, n = 1, aadA2 (1.2 kb, n = 3, drfA1-aadA1 (1.4 kb, n = 1, and drfA17-aadA5 (1.7 kb, n = 2; blaTEM-1 was the dominant β-lactamase gene (21/21, 100%, followed by blaCTX-M-55 (7/21, 33.3%. Among 19 Salmonella isolated from SH, high antibiotic resistance rates were found for nalidixic acid (19/19, 100%, tetracycline (19/19, 100%, ampicillin (18/19, 94.7%, and ciprofloxacin (13/19, 68.4%; class 1 integron was observed in two isolates (2/19, 10.5%, and gene cassettes included drfA17-aadA5 (1.7 kb, n = 1 and drfA1-aadA1 (1.4 kb, n = 1; blaTEM-1 was the dominant β-lactamase gene (19/19, 100%, followed by blaCTX-M-55 (2/19, 10.5% and blaCMY-2 (1/19, 5.3%. Collectively, antibiotic-resistant Salmonella can be widely detected in retail raw chicken carcasses of CB and SH, and therefore can pose a serious risk to public health.

  1. Aceitação sensorial de reestruturados empanados elaborados com filé de peito de galinhas matrizes de corte e poedeiras comerciais Sensory acceptance of nuggets prepared with broiler breeder and spent layer hens breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pacheco Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, no Brasil, o alojamento de galinhas poedeiras comerciais e de matrizes de corte somados foi de 109 milhões de cabeças, sendo que um número próximo a este deve ter sido descartado no mesmo período. Este grande número de galinhas descartadas contrasta com a falta de mercado consumidor e o baixo valor comercial alcançado por estas aves. A utilização da carne de galinhas na elaboração de produtos de conveniência poderia agregar valor e ampliar o consumo desta matéria-prima. Diante do exposto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar produtos empanados tipo nuggets, utilizando carne de galinhas de descarte (matrizes de corte e poedeiras comercias brancas e avaliar a aceitação pelo consumidor destes produtos, em comparação com nuggets elaborados com carne de frango. Os produtos desenvolvidos foram avaliados por análise sensorial, utilizando testes de aceitação e de intenção de compra em localização central (400 provadores. Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 na aceitação sensorial nem na intenção de compra entre os três diferentes produtos avaliados. Concluiu-se que a elaboração de produtos empanados pode representar uma boa alternativa para a utilização de filés de peito de galinhas, agregando maior valor a estas aves ao final do ciclo de postura.In Brazil, the flock size of layer and broiler breeder hens housed in 2005 was 109 million. A similar number of hens might be spent in this period. This great number of spent hens contrasts with the absence of consumer market and the low commercial value reached by these birds. The manufacture of convenience products using spent hens meat could add value and elevate the consumption of this raw material. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop nuggets made with spent hens (white layers and broiler breeders meat and evaluate the consumer acceptance of these products in comparison to nuggets elaborated with broiler meat. Sensory evaluation of acceptance

  2. Energia metabolizável de ingredientes determinada com codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metabolizable energy of feedstuffs determined in japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento um foi realizado para determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn de nove alimentos utilizando codornas japonesas em crescimento. No experimento dois, objetivou-se comparar formulações de rações utilizando EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja determinada para frangos de corte e poedeiras, com aquelas determinadas com codornas com 22 a 27 dias de idade e 65 dias de idade. No experimento um, foram utilizadas 400 codornas em crescimento recebendo uma dieta basal (DB e nove misturas compostas por 70% da DB + 30% dos alimentos testes, totalizando dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de dez aves. No experimento dois, 160 codornas européias em postura receberam três tratamentos durante três períodos de 15 dias de duração, com doze repetições de cinco aves. Os valores de EMA e EMAn (kcal/kg determinados para os alimentos de origem vegetal foram, respectivamente, 3.340 e 3.354 para o milho moído, 2.718 e 2.456 para o farelo de soja, 3.453 e 3.084 para a soja integral extrusada, 1.624 e 1.593 para o farelo de trigo, 4.558 e 3.992 para o farelo de glúten de milho, 3.329 e 3.378 para a farinha de mandioca e 1.238 e 1.223 para a farinha integral da vagem de algaroba e para os alimentos de origem animal, respectivamente, de 2874 e 2453 para a farinha de peixe e 3090 e 2791 para a farinha de vísceras. A EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja estimada com codornas não melhorou o consumo, produção, peso e conversão por massa de ovos, validando o uso da energia desses ingredientes determinada com frangos de corte e poedeiras para compor rações para codornas.The experiment one was carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected ME (AMEn of nine feedstuffs in Japanese quails. The objective of the experiment two was to compare diets formulated with AMEn of corn and soybean meal, usually fed to broilers and laying hens, with diets formulated

  3. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  4. Modelos de regressão aleatória para avaliação da curva de crescimento em matrizes de codorna de corte Random regression models for growth evaluation of meat-type quail hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bastos Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar diferentes modelos de regressão aleatória por meio de funções polinomiais de Legendre de diferentes ordens, para avaliar o que melhor se ajusta ao estudo genético da curva de crescimento de codornas de corte. Foram avaliados dados de 2136 matrizes de codorna de corte, dos quais 1026 pertenciam ao grupo genético UFV1 e 1110 ao grupo UFV2. As codornas foram pesadas nos 1°, 7°, 14°, 21°, 28°, 35°, 42°, 77°, 112° e 147° dias de idade e seus pesos utilizados para a análise. Foram testadas duas possíveis modelagens de variância residual heterogênea, sendo agrupadas em 3 e 5 classes de idade. Após, foi realizado o estudo do modelo de regressão aleatória que melhor aplica-se à curva de crescimento das codornas. A comparação entre os modelos foi feita pelo Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC, Critério de Informação Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC, Logaritmo da função de verossimilhança (Log e L e teste da razão de verossimilhança (LRT, ao nível de 1%. O modelo que considerou a heterogeneidade de variância residual CL3 mostrou-se adequado à linhagem UFV1, e o modelo CL5 à linhagem UFV2. Uma função polinomial de Legendre com ordem 5, para efeito genético aditivo direto e 5 para efeito permanente de animal, para a linhagem UFV1 e, com ordem 3, para efeito genético aditivo direto e 5 para efeito permanente de animal para a linhagem UFV2, deve ser utilizada na avaliação genética da curva de crescimento das codornas de corte.The objective was to compare different random regression models using Legendre polynomial functions of different orders, to evaluate what best fits the genetic study of the growth curve of meat quails. It was evaluated data from 2136 cut dies quail, of which 1026 belonged to genetic group UFV1 and 1110 the group UFV2. Quail were weighed at 10, 70, 140, 210, 280, 350, 420, 770, 1120 and 1470 days of age, and weights used for the analysis. It was tested two possible modeling

  5. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by 14 C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs

  6. Henning Bergenholtz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoonderbeek Hansen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Kort redegørelse for Professor for Center for Leksikografi, Henning Bergenholtz' fratrædelse 18.01.2013......Kort redegørelse for Professor for Center for Leksikografi, Henning Bergenholtz' fratrædelse 18.01.2013...

  7. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  8. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90% were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes. Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of

  9. Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  10. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hatchability and embryonic development of quail eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlany, P.; Sinkovicsne Hlubik, I.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of quail and hen's eggs was examined. The goals of the examinations were to determine the LD 50 and LD 100 values, to establish the effect of single and multiple irradiation on embryonic development and to get some information on the embryonation of eggs produced by quails and their progeny grown from irradiated eggs. It was shown that 200 rad dose has significant stimulation effect of the hatching results of quail eggs. The LD 50 and LD 100 values were about 800 to 850 rad and 1600 rad, respectively. Repeated irradiation on the progeny-generations proved to be unambiguously deleterious on embryonation. High doses changed the rhythm of embryonal mortality, showing a peak under the irradiation and in the first three days of incubation, and significantly enhanced the number of teratological types. (author)

  12. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  13. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Marchand, Maxime; Staub, Christophe; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Venturi, Éric; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Chartrin, Pascal; Lecompte, François; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P hen age. Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  14. [Biochemical quality assessment of broiler production using a hydrogen bacteria biomass in the diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubachev, I N; Okladnikov, Iu N; Barashkov, V A; Kalacheva, G S; Tabakov, N A

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied the biochemical composition of the meat of broilers, eggs, liver and muscles of laying hens of 3 generations on a 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100% (broilers), 10 and 20% (laying hens) replacement of the animal protein quota in the diet by protein obtained from the hydrogen bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus L-1. No deterioration of the quality of the produce was found from the standpoint of the main biochemical parameters.

  15. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  16. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namya Mellouk

    Full Text Available Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented.We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens.We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition.Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001 lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05 decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age.Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  17. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start...... that batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  18. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  19. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge

  20. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  1. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  2. The broiler breeder paradox: ethical, genetic and physiological perspectives, and suggestions for solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V; Everaert, N; Li, Yue; Boonen, R; De Tavernier, J; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2010-10-01

    1. Due to intensive selection, broiler chickens became the most efficient meat-producing animals because of their fast growth, supported by a virtually unlimited voluntary feed intake. These characteristics cause many problems in the management of broiler breeder hens because of the negative correlation between muscle growth and reproduction effectiveness. 2. This problem, namely the fast muscle growth versus reproduction health paradox, induces a second paradox, acceptable reproduction and health versus hunger stress and impaired welfare, because broiler breeder hens require dedicated programmes of feed restriction (1) to maximise egg and chick production and (2) to avoid metabolic disorders and mortality in broiler breeders. 3. Given that poultry selection is a global large-scale business and chickens are a prolific species, improvement in profit can only be obtained by selecting on feed conversion and/or for higher breast meat percentage, which will intensify the broiler-breeder paradox. 4. New feeding strategies are being studied, but it is questionable if the paradox can be solved by management tools alone. Because breeding and selection are long-term processes, involving animals, farmers, consumers, industry, environment etc., a more sustainable breeding goal needs to be determined by a multidisciplinary approach and an open debate between several actors in the discussion. 5. Using dwarf broiler breeder hens could be one alternative, because dwarf hens combine relatively good reproductive fitness with ad libitum feeding. Another possibility is to accept lower broiler productivity by assigning economic values to welfare and including integrity traits in an extended breeding goal.

  3. Avaliação e caracterização da qualidade da carne de peito (Pectoralis major de matrizes pesadas em final de ciclo produtivo Evaluation and characterization of breast quality of broiler breeder hen in the end of productive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Sanfelice

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as características da qualidade da carne de matrizes pesadas de descarte. Para isto, foram coletadas 40 amostras de filés de peito (Pectoralis major de matrizes da linhagem Ross com 68 e 69 semanas de idade. As coletas foram divididas em duas, com 20 amostras coletadas em cada uma delas. No tempo zero (após o resfriamento foi medido o pH e coletados fragmentos para a avaliação do valor R. Nos tempos 4 e 24 horas post-mortem, foram feitas as seguintes análises: pH, valor R, cor objetiva, perda por exsudação (drip loss, capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, capacidade de absorção de água (CAA, perdas de peso por cozimento (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC. Houve diferença (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the meat quality characteristics in broiler breeder hen. For this purpose, 40 breast fillet samples (Pectoralis major of breeder hen, Ross strain with 68 and 69 weeks of age, were collected. The samples were collected twice, and each time twenty samples were obtained. At zero time, (after chilling time the pH was measured and fragmented samples were collected to evaluate the R value it. At 4 and 24 hours post-mortem, the following analyses were performed: pH, R-value, color, drip loss, water holding capacity (WHC, water absorption capacity (WAC, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the average pH values in the zero time (after chilling, 4, and 24 hours, 6.49; 5.78, and 5.65, respectively. The average value of WHC was 26.45. With respect to the objective color, the average values obtained for L*, a*, and b* were 52.20; 3.64; 0.51; respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the results obtained for drip loss, cooking loss, and water absorption capacity indicate that the breast meat of breeder hens presented very good technological quality despite its texture problems.

  4. Experimental Assessment of the Pathogenicity of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Subtype in Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asasi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. It has been also reported that H9N2 can cause high mortality in commercial broiler farms in Iran previously. However there was no report of H9N2 outbreak in any other species. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of H9N2 virus in Japanese quail, 145 Japanese quail were randomly divided into 5 separate groups (116 quails in the treatment and 29 quails in the control groups. The experimental groups infected via oral rout, eye drop, intramuscular injection and spray method at the age of 32 days with 106.5 EID50/bird. The virus A/chicken/Iran/ZMT-101/98(H9N2 was kindly provided obtained from Razi vaccine& serum institute with EID50=108. The blood samples were experimented the day before use to show freedom from antibodies to influenza A and more specifically, the H9 subtype. The clinical signs and antibody titer of the infected chicks were also monitored. Five birds of each group were bled at 10 and 20 days post infection (DPI, and 20 birds of each group at 30 DPI were bled. The immune response to infection was measured by Haemmaglutination Inhibition (HI test using the H9N2 virus as antigen. Feed & water consumption were recorded on daily bases before and after inoculation. Body weight of each group was also recorded on weekly bases before and after inoculation. During the current study clinical signs such as sneezing, gasping, depression observed in challenged groups followed by decreasing in laying (1-17%. High HI antibody titers of AIV subtype H9 was seen in 10 DPI. The quails exhibited no decrease in food and water consumption and all quails were growing well and did not show any abnormality.

  5. Quail and other short-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A

    2001-04-01

    Japanese quail are small galliforms that are migratory and generally live 2 to 3years in the wild. Although there is evidence for other environmental cues, they primarily respond to long daylength for regulation of reproduction. In contrast to the Common Tern, a long-lived sea bird that shows little evidence of reproductive aging, Japanese quail follow a well-defined process of aging with evidence of declining function in reproductive, metabolic, and sensory systems. Our studies focus on neuroendocrine changes associated with reproductive aging in the Japanese quail, with emphasis on the male in order to study both endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction and the process of reproductive aging.

  6. Reproductive performance of breeder quails fed diets supplemented with L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Farzinpour, A; Vaziry, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in breeder quails. The five treatment diets consisted of (i) negative control diet not supplemented with iron, (ii) positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe 3 O 4 and (iii) experimental diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A total of 100 seven-day-old quail chicks were weighed and randomly placed to five groups of five replicate cages. Four quails (one male and three females) were raised in each cage (50 × 15 × 17 cm). Egg production, feed consumption and egg weight were recorded daily and calculated on a hen per day basis. Egg components, fertility, hatchability and day-old chicks hatched from their eggs were measured at the end of the experiment. The percentage of egg production and egg mass of the 6 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group were significantly higher than those of the control groups. Throughout the experimental period, the highest weekly egg weight was recorded for the 60 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group. Fertility was improved by diet supplemented with iron, both FeSO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs. The breeder fed Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs had the highest day-old chicks weight. The results of this study showed that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles that were coated by L-cysteine could improve availability and utilization of iron in diet. Finally, it was proposed that Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs could be used as feed additives in quails. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Programas de alimentação para matrizes pesadas após o pico de postura, com base em modelos para predizer a exigência energética Feeding programs for broiler breeder hens after peak production based on models to predict energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de matrizes pesadas, submetidas a diferentes programas de alimentação estabelecidos pela aplicação de modelos para predizer as exigências energéticas, após o pico de postura. O experimento foi conduzido no setor de avicultura da UNESP Campus Jaboticabal, com duração de 84 dias (três períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 740 matrizes de corte Hubbard Hy-Yield e 80 machos Petterson, com 55 semanas de idade. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 37 aves por repetição (box e um modelo fatorial 4´3 (quatro tratamentos ´ três períodos. Os programas de alimentação avaliados foram: T1 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o padrão da linhagem (428 kcal/ave/dia de 55 a 66 semanas de idade; T2 - Redução semanal de energia (2 kcal de EM/ave em cada semana; T3 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o modelo de exigência de EM, UNESP (2000; e T4 - Fornecimento de ração de acordo com o modelo, NRC (1994. O programa de alimentação com redução semanal de energia foi adequado para manter os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo das aves, indicando a possibilidade de redução de 2 kcal/ave/dia, em cada semana, na alimentação de matrizes pesadas após 55 semanas de idade. Os modelos UNESP e NRC proporcionaram estimativas mais elevadas das exigências energéticas que o modelo padrão, provavelmente em decorrência do ganho de peso das matrizes, que esteve acima do recomendado para a linhagem, promovendo maiores exigências de energia para mantença.This research was carried out to evaluate the performance of broiler breeder hens submitted to different feeding programs applying models to predict the metabolizable energy requirements after peak production. The experiment was conducted during 84 days (three periods of 28 days, at the Sao Paulo State University - Jaboticabal. Seven hundred and forty female broiler

  8. Avaliação de Programas de Alimentação para Matrizes de Corte na Fase de Produção Evaluation of Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Artur Argenta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o melhor programa de fornecimento de ração para matrizes de corte pós - pico de produção de ovos. Três mil, cento e sessenta e oito fêmeas e 352 machos matrizes de corte da linhagem Cobb foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições por tratamento, sendo 99 fêmeas e 11 machos por unidade experimental. Os programas avaliados consistiram em: Programa 1 - Redução de 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana para cada redução de 0,5 pontos na massa de ovos; Programa 2 - Redução de 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana após o pico até o final do período de produção; Programa 3 - Redução de 3 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 1ª semana após o pico, 2 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 2ª semana e 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana nas semanas subsequentes; Programa 4 - Redução de 5 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 1ª semana após o pico, 3 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 2ª semana e 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana nas semanas subseqüentes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos para consumo de ração por ovo produzido, característica de importância na avaliação do desempenho das matrizes de corte, o melhor programa foi o programa 1, seguido pelo 3, 2 e 4. Para matrizes de corte da linhagem Cobb que atingem pico de postura no inverno, período no qual foi realizado este experimento, recomenda-se o programa 1 para alimentação após pico por ter proporcionado uma boa relação entre consumo de ração e produção de ovos.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the best feeding program post peak egg production for broiler breeders. Cobb broiler breeders (3168 females and 352 males were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment, with 99 females and 11 males per replicate. The evaluated programs were: Program 1 - Reduction 1 g of feed/bird/day/week for each drop of 0

  9. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail (Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was ... valuable laboratory species because of its small body ..... quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl.

  10. Resposta produtiva de reprodutoras pesadas recriadas com diferentes quantidades de ração Productive results of broiler breeders hens that during the growing period received differents quantities of feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Budel

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Na área de produção animal, mais especificamente no caso de matrizes avícolas tipo corte, tem sido dada atenção especial ao melhoramento genético das mesmas. Recomendações quanto ao manejo geral das aves não tem tido a mesma evolução. Existem dúvidas quanto a quantidade ideal de ração a ser fornecida por ave/dia, principalmente durante a recria, para que ela tenha um desenvolvimento corporal adequado e, conseqüentemente, expresse ao máximo o seu potencial produtivo. Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros produtivos de matrizes de corte recriadas com diferentes quantidades de ração. Da 5ª a 20ª semana as aves foram alimentadas com 15% a menos de ração do que recomenda o manual da linhagem (ARBOR ACRES, 1992; T1, 10% a menos (T2, a quantidade padrão (T3 e 10% a mais de ração sobre a quantidade padrão (T4. Os resultados mostram que o peso corporal das aves é diretamente afetado (P0,05 que as mais leves (T1 e T2, sendo que estas por sua vez, produziram maior número de ovos incubáveis (PIn animal production, particularly in the área of broiler breeders, special attention has been given to the genetic improvement of these birds. General management practices of these birds have not suffered the same development. There are doubts in relation to the ideal quantity of feed to be offered per bird/day, particularly during the growing period, só that the bird may have an adequate corporal development and expresses to the maximum all of the productive potential. This experiment was conducted in order to analyse production parameters of broiler breeders grown with varying quantities of feed. From the 5th to the 20th week of age the birds were fed 15% less ration than that recommended by the breed manual (ARBOR ACRES, 1992; T1, 10% less (T2 the quantity recommended (T3 and 10% more than the recommended quantity. The results show that the body weight of the birds is directly affected by the quantity

  11. Robustness in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust

  12. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  13. Food restriction but not fish oil increases fertility in hens: role of RARRES2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Delaveau, Joël; Rat, Christophe; Marchand, Maxime; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Brionne, Aurélien; Chartrin, Pascal; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-04-01

    Overfed hens selected for their rapid growth become fatter and develop reproductive disorders. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that food restriction leading to a weight reduction and/or a supplementation with fish oil may be effective in preventing reproductive disorders through the regulation of adipokine expression in broiler hens. This study included four groups of food restricted (Rt) or ad libitum hens (Ad, feeding at a rate 1.7 times greater than Rt hens) supplemented or unsupplemented with fish oil (1%). The Rt diet significantly increased plasma chemerin (RARRES2) levels during the laying period, delayed sexual maturity by one week and improved egg quality and fertility. These effects were associated with higher progesterone production in response to IGF1 (or LH) in cultured granulosa cells and in vivo egg yolk, as compared with Ad hens. Fish oil supplementation had similar effects to the Rt diet on progesterone ( P  food restriction but not fish oil supplementation improved fertility, and this was associated with variations in RARRES2 plasma and ovarian expression in hens. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Equação de predição da exigência de proteína bruta para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção Prediction equation of crude protein requirements for broiler breeders hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as exigências de proteína para aves reprodutoras pesadas através do método fatorial. A exigência de proteína bruta para mantença (PBm foi determinada por intermédio da técnica do balanço de nitrogênio por meio de ensaio de metabolismo com aves submetidas a quatro dietas com níveis decrescentes de proteína, proporcionando balanço positivo, próximo a zero e negativo. Para determinar a exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso (PBg dois experimentos foram conduzidos, sendo que em um, determinou-se as exigências líquidas de nitrogênio e no outro, a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio para o ganho, por meio de abates semanais de aves no período de 26 a 33 semanas de idade. A exigência de proteína bruta para produção de ovos (PBo foi determinada através de análises semanais de proteína bruta dos ovos coletados, no período de 31 a 37 semanas de idade, considerando a eficiência de deposição da proteína no ovo. A exigência e eficiência de utilização da proteína para mantença foram 2.282 mg PB/kg0,75/dia e 60,79%; respectivamente. As exigências de PBg e PBo determinadas foram: 356 mg PB/g e 262 mg PB/g, respectivamente, e as eficiências de utilização do nitrogênio, 40 e 46,80%, respectivamente. A equação de predição elaborada para aves reprodutoras pesadas na fase de produção foi: PB=2,282.P0,75+0,356.G+0,262.MO, onde PB é a exigência de proteína bruta (g/ave/dia, P o peso corporal (kg, G o ganho de peso (g/dia e MO a massa de ovos (g/dia.The objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for broiler breeder hens using factorial method. The requirement of crude protein for maintenance (CPm was determined using nitrogen balance technique in metabolism assay. The birds were fed with four protein levels in order to get a positive, a close to zero and a negative nitrogen balance. To determine the crude protein weight gain

  15. Japanese quail performance under different stocking densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; EL-Faramawy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with Japanese quails at the poultry production farm (Poultry Research Unite, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Inshas, Egypt) to determine the effects of stocking density on the growth, carcass composition, feed conversion, feed efficiency, corticosterone level, immune response and profit potential. A total of 924 Japanese quail chicks were brooded at 2 weeks of age in batteries at 44, 88 and 176 birds / m2 each of 3 replicates. Chicks brooded at 44 and 88 bird / m2 were grew significantly (P<0.05) during the experimental period more than those brooded at 176 bird/m2. Increasing birds density was associated with significant (P<0.05) increase in serum corticosterone level, carcass protein percent, live body weight per m2 and monetary returns. Carcass fat percent and immune response were reduced sharply with increasing quail stocking density. On the other hand, feed conversion was reduced, while feed efficiency was improved (P<0.05) by increasing quail stocking density

  16. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  17. Effect of mercuric chloride feeding on sexual maturity, egg production and fertility in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1973-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 8, 16 or 32 p.p.m. of mercury as mercuric chloride from 3 days of age through 20 weeks of age. The onset of egg production generally occurred earlier for hens fed HgCl2. Average age in days at first oviposition for the control, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m. and 32 p.p.m. was 48.4, 50.9, 46.9 and 44.0 respectively. The average rate of egg productivity from first oviposition to attainment of full growth (9 weeks of age) correlated positively with in increased dietary mercury (controls, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m., 32 p.p.m. ? 75.2, 69.3, 86.1 and 93.3% respectively). By 20 weeks of age productivity was 81.0, 80.6, 87.5 and 92.9% for control, 8, 16 and 32 p.p.m. groups respectively. Fertility was depressed when hens were fed HgCl2. At 9 weeks of age average control fertility was 59% contrasted with 25% for the 32 p.p.m. group. At 12 weeks fertility increased to 89% and 57% for these groups. From this study it is apparent. that the onset and rate of egg production was stimulated by HgCl2, but fertility was adversely affected.

  18. Diagnostic utility of egg yolk for the detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2010-12-01

    Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing.

  19. Ultraviolet light and mating behaviour in domestic broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E K; Prescott, N B; Cook, P; White, R P; Wathes, C M

    2001-03-01

    1. The perception of UVA light (320 commercial house lighting. One function may be the mediation of sexually related signalling or communication. 2. In experiment 1, two groups of 41 adult broiler breeders (four cockerels, 37 hens) were kept under conventional fluorescent light, with or without fluorescent UVA supplementation amounting to 16.9% of the total spectral power output of the luminaires. Each light environment was approximately iso-illuminant as perceived by the birds. The two groups were exposed to the light environments alternately for five 2-day periods in a cross-over design. Mating behaviour, production measures and time budgets were recorded on the second day of each period. 3. A UVA-enriched environment increased the number of attempted matings (1.27 vs 0.99 matings/cockerel.h) and locomotion (5.3 vs 3.7 min/bird.hour). 4. In a second experiment, 10 hens were allowed to choose between four cockerels lit under different power levels of UVA (1.6%, 14.6%, 43.5%, 57.5% of the total spectral power output of the luminaires) in a four-armed maze. Again, each light environment was approximately iso-illuminant as perceived by the birds. Each hen was allowed to make one choice per day over four days, with the position of the cockerels and the UVA levels interchanged each day. This schedule was repeated with the same hens for two other groups of four cockerels. 5. At a distance of no less than 60 cm from the cockerel, the hens spent most time inspecting whichever cockerel was lit by 1.6% or 14.6% UVA (1.33 vs 1.37 vs 1.22 vs 1.16 log seconds/hen.choice, respectively for increasing UVA level). Similarly, when allowed to approach closer to the cockerels, the hens spent most time in the arm which contained a cockerel lit by 14.6% UVA light, (1.62 vs 1.88 vs 1.69 vs 1.51 log s/hen.choice, respectively for increasing UVA level). 6. UVA is clearly implicated in the transmission of sexual signals or communication which may have implications for the welfare and

  20. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  1. Detection of Genetic Relationship in the Tree of Life of Some Quail Through Molecular Markers Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica; the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.

  2. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, for each extra gram of dietary free amino acid content/kg diet, the rate of lay and egg output decreased by 3.0% and 2.5 g per day, respectively, and the efficiency of methionine utilisation decreased by 4.3%. There was no interaction between frequency of feeding and amino acid supplementation. These results ...

  3. Prediction equation of crude protein requirements for broiler breeders hens

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello, Carlos Bôa-Viagem; Sakomura, Nilva Kazue; Longo, Flavio Alves; Resende, Kleber Tomaz de; Couto, Humberto Pena

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as exigências de proteína para aves reprodutoras pesadas através do método fatorial. A exigência de proteína bruta para mantença (PBm) foi determinada por intermédio da técnica do balanço de nitrogênio por meio de ensaio de metabolismo com aves submetidas a quatro dietas com níveis decrescentes de proteína, proporcionando balanço positivo, próximo a zero e negativo. Para determinar a exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso (PBg) dois exp...

  4. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the range of protein intakes from 18.5 and 28.8 g/bird, no differences were observed in rate of laying between the two feeding strategies or dietary protein levels, nor were there differences in the proportions of yolk or albumen between these treatments. Egg weight, egg output and weight gain increased with ...

  5. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  6. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  7. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  8. The development of ovary in quail's embryo | Rong | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to study the development of ovary in quails' embryos which were incubated for 4 to 17 days and incubated out for 1 day. The quails' embryos or gonads were cut out and HE staining was carried out. The results showed that when embryo was hatched for 4 days, lots of primordial germ cells ...

  9. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  10. Henning Bergenholtz: Bibliovita

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Tarp, Sven

    2009-01-01

    of languages include books and papers on the development of theories and principles for the compilation of dictionaries as well as reviews of dictionaries and monographs in a constant quest to learn from other scholars. The dictionaries he has authored and co-authored cover the spectrum from monolingual...... contributed to research and therefore influenced both national and international research communities. Not only has Henning Bergenholtz published theoretical works on lexicography and other topics, but he is also the author and co-author of a range of dictionaries. His theoretical publications in a variety...... general dictionaries to bilingual specialised dictionaries with languages such as Danish, Dutch, English, Malagasy and Spanish within fields as diverse as microbiology and accounting. In addition, he has been the editor of several books and academic journals, e.g. Hermes and LexicoNordica (he is one...

  11. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed /sup 95m/Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1984-10-01

    Previous coefficients for transfer of technetium from feed to poultry have utilized default values. These investigations examined the uptake and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in male and female Japanese quail following their ingestion of Tc incorporated into alfalfa during growth. Approximately 8% of the daily ingested Tc was transferred to eggs. Biological half-time was one to two days. After 10 days of feeding, 80% of the Tc was in yolk, 20% in albumin, and less than 1% in shell and associated membranes. The Tc levels in albumin reached a maximum between three and five days, compared to six to seven days for yolk. Laying female quail contained 27% of the daily-ingested Tc compared to 5% for males. However, approximately 23% of the daily female Tc intake was contained in the developing ova and reproductive organs. The highest Tc concentrations were in oocytes of laying hens, followed by the fully formed unlaid egg and the ovaries. The uterine shelled egg contained five times the amount of Tc present in other edible tissues combined. For males, the gizzard contained about 53% of the Tc in other edible tissues, followed by muscle (25%), liver (19%), and heart (3%). The transfer coefficient (pCi/kg edible tissue per pCi/day) for plant-incorporated /sup 95m/Tc was about 0.35 day/kg for both sexes. 17 references, 4 tables

  12. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  13. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  14. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  15. Pb Speciation Data to Estimate Lead Bioavailability to Quail

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting data for lead speciation of soil samples evaluated through an in-vivo/in-vitro correlation for quail exposure. This dataset is associated...

  16. Profile Triglycerides Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica After Giving Turmeric (Curcuma longa Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarman Hadi jaya Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the triglyceride profile of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica after being given the parameters of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder; feed intake, profiles of liver triglycerides, profiles of serum triglycerides and profiles of meat triglycerides. This study uses an experimental method with A Completely Randomized Design Pattern. Test animals used were 45 female Japanese quails were divided into 3 groups, namely; P0: quail were not given turmeric powder, P1: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 54 mg/quail/day, P3: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 108 mg/quail/day. Each group with 5 replications. Each repeat consists of 3 Japanese quails. Provision of treatment every day for 30 days starting from the age of 14 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Duncan's test with 95% confidence interval (α = 0.05 level. Analysis of the data used is software Minitab software 16. Results showed that the levels of turmeric powder are given in Japanese quail significant (P˂0.05 on liver triglyceride levels, serum and Japanese quail meat but had no significant effect (P˃0.05 on consumption feed. The results showed that the optimal dose of turmeric powder to lower triglyceride levels of Japanese quail is 108 mg/quail/day as evidenced by the highest decrease in liver triglyceride profiles, profiles of serum triglycerides and triglyceride profiles of Japanese quail meat compared with other treatments.

  17. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  18. Short barb: a feather structure mutation in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Roberts, C W; Nichols, C R; Cheng, K M

    1982-12-01

    A type of feather structure abnormality in Japanese quail resulting in shortened barbs on contour feathers was found to be controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene, sh (short barb). The mutation was first identified in a full-sib family from the University of British Columbia wild type line. Unlike other feather structure mutations in Japanese quail reported previously in literature, the short barb mutation is not associated with poor reproduction.

  19. Space needs of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Koene, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate about the space needs and requirements of broiler chickens, The aims of this study were to measure the amount of floor area a six-week-old broiler occupies for different behaviours and to use the obtained results in two models to estimate the number of birds that can be

  20. Phosphorus requirement in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Star, L.

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36

  1. Effects of the tricothecene mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol on egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, J; Hamilton, P B; Kittrell, R S

    2002-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) on egg quality and egg production of broiler breeders. In Experiment 1, feed containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg DAS/ kg was fed from 67 to 69 wk of age followed by a 3-wk recovery period on a slat-litter floor. In Experiment 2, individually caged broiler breeder females were studied from 23 to 31 wk of age. The basal diet containing 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg DAS/kg was fed from 25 to 27 wk of age. In Experiment 3, individually caged broiler breeder hens were studied from 23 to 32 wk of age. DAS was fed at levels of 0 (basal), 5, 10, and 20 mg DAS/kg for 2 wk beginning at Week 24, followed by the basal breeder diet for 7 wk. Egg production was not affected by levels of up to 5 mg DAS/kg in the older hens of Experiment 1. When fed from 25 to 27 wk of age in Experiment 2, DAS decreased egg production at the 20 mg/kg level only. When fed from 24 to 25 wk of age in Experiment 3, DAS had no significant effect on egg production or egg quality. Short-term consumption of DAS at levels that might naturally occur appears to have little effect on broiler breeder egg production.

  2. Genetic parameters of growth, body, and egg traits in Japanese quails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... egg traits as well as genetic and phenotypic relationships between these traits in Japanese quails reared in the ... Japanese quail is the smallest avian species farmed .... 2 = cross classified “family” variance component.

  3. Experiment K-313: Rat and quail ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of spaceflight on the processes of mammalian fertilizaton, implantation and embryonic development are investigated. Five female and two male rats were placed together on Day 2 of the flight. By R+17, it was determined that both flight and synchronous females were not carrying normal pregnancies and three of the flight animals were laparotomized. The uterus and ovaries were processed for microscopic analyses. The two remaining flight females were allowed to recover from the exploratory operation, rebred with flight males and delivered normal litters. As a control for potential transplacental effects that might be interpreted as direct spaceflight effects, a series of fertilized Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs was flown on Cosmos 1129. Although all of the eggs were adversely impacted by an inflight failure of the incubator humidifier on flight Day 13, several embryos were able to progress to a developmental stage equivalent to that of a control 10-12 Day embryo.

  4. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  5. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  6. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  7. Effect of various probiotics on growth performance of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Sirsat

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various probiotics on the performance of Japanese Quails. One hundred Japanese quail chicks were weighed individually and they were uniformly distributed equally to four dietary treatments consisting 25 birds in each. The starter and finisher diets were containing ME 2800 and 2600 Kcal/kg and protein 25 and 23 % respectively. The group T0(Controll fed standard quail diet and T1,T2 and T3 were fed probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus sporogenes and Saccharomyces boulardii @ 0.05 % in diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in the same managemental condition. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. The group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in significantly higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain. The average feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were significantly higher in group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of production /100gm of meat was found to be Rs.7.10, 6.84, 7.55 and 8.37 respectively in T0 to T3 groups. Thus, the study indicated that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diet of Japanese quails was effective in improving performance of the quails. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 321-322

  8. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  9. INCUBATION YIELD AS A FUNCTION OF BROILER BREEDER AGE / RENDIMENTO DE INCUBAÇÃO EM FUNÇÃO DA IDADE DA MATRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors involved in poultry egg incubation include breeder hen age, which may influence both the external and internal quality of eggs. In this context, this study sought to determine incubation yield among eggs from breeder hens at three ages. A total of 1,728 eggs were obtained from Cobb broiler breeders at three ages (26 weeks, 32 weeks, and 53 weeks and incubated. At the end of the incubation process, eclosion, hatchability, the percentage of infertile eggs, the time of embryo mortality, and chick weight were all analyzed according to breeder hen age. Analysis of variance was applied to the results, and egg fertility was found to be associated with breeder age, since lower rates of eclosion were found in eggs from younger broiler breeders. Chick weight was also found to be influenced by breeder age, since eggs from older broiler breeders hatched into heavier chicks. However, neither mortality nor hatchability were found to be affected by breeder hen age.

  10. Production aspects of broiler breeders submitted to different drinker types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Colvero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was of evaluate the influence of different drinker types on the egg production, water intake, mortality, poultry litter relative humidity, egg weight, eggshell percentage, and egg specific gravity of broiler breeders. The experiment was carried out in a commercial farm with 37- to 44-wk-old broiler breeders. A randomized block experimental design, consisting of two treatments (bell or nipple drinkers with four replicates of 4.000 females each, was applied. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the test of Student-Newman-Keuls at 5% significance level. Birds submitted to nipple drinkers presented lower water intake (p0.05 of drinker type on egg production or mortality. Poultry litter relative humidity was lower (p<0.05 under the nipple-drinker system. Birds drinking from bell drinkers produced heavier eggs (p<0.05 between weeks 39 and 40. Hens drinking from bell drinkers laid eggs with higher specific gravity and eggshell percentage. It was concluded that nipple drinkers can be used for broiler breeders during lay.

  11. QUAIL: A Quantitative Security Analyzer for Imperative Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Traonouez, Louis-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative security analysis evaluates and compares how effectively a system protects its secret data. We introduce QUAIL, the first tool able to perform an arbitrary-precision quantitative analysis of the security of a system depending on private information. QUAIL builds a Markov Chain model...... of the system’s behavior as observed by an attacker, and computes the correlation between the system’s observable output and the behavior depending on the private information, obtaining the expected amount of bits of the secret that the attacker will infer by observing the system. QUAIL is able to evaluate...... the safety of randomized protocols depending on secret data, allowing to verify a security protocol’s effectiveness. We experiment with a few examples and show that QUAIL’s security analysis is more accurate and revealing than results of other tools...

  12. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii 2.0% (w/w, iii 4.0%; and iv 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05. The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g and varied slightly with the inulin level (P=0.0537. The egg shell (percentage of the egg was not influenced by the inulin. But, the calcium concentration in the eggshell of the present trial varied with the level on the agave inulin in the drinking water (P0.05. Then, the agave inulin addition to the drinking water increases the egg yield of Japanese quails.

  13. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This assessment relates the percentage of broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases to different Salmonella prevalences in broiler flocks in the European Union. It considers the contribution and relevance of different Salmonella serovars found in broilers to human salmonellosis. The model......-SAM model) employes data from the EU Baseline Surveys and EU statutory monitoring on Salmonella in animal-food sources, data on incidence of human salmonellosis and food availability data. It is estimated that around 2.4%, 65%, 28% and 4.5% of the human salmonellosis cases are attributable to broilers......, laying hens (eggs), pigs and turkeys respectively. Of the broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases, around 42% and 23% are estimated to be due to the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis respectively, while other serovars individually contributed less than 5%. Different scenarios...

  14. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  15. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  16. Eyeworm infections of Oxyspirura petrowi, Skrjabin, 1929 (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), in species of quail from Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Kendall, R J

    2017-07-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have been declining steadily throughout much of their historical range over the past few decades. Even the Rolling Plains of Texas, historically rich with wild quail and one of the last remaining quail strongholds, has been suffering a population decline, most notably since 2010. Gambel's quail (Callipepla gambelii) have also been experiencing their own decline throughout their respective range, but not as significant as that of other species of quail. Eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi) in quail have been recognized for years but not thoroughly studied until recently. New research reveals that O. petrowi infection can cause inflammation, oedema, and cellular damage to the eye of the quail host. The objective of this research was to better understand the prevalence of the eyeworm infection in different quail species, expand on known distribution, and determine if there is a relationship between location and species infected with eyeworms. Northern bobwhite, Scaled quail and Gambel's quail were hunter-donated from one county within Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, and examined for the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of eyeworm infection from November 2013 to February 2014. Quail from every location were found to have individuals with a varying degree of eyeworm infection. This is the first study to document eyeworm infection in Gambel's quail and in quail in New Mexico and Arizona, and reports the highest eyeworm infection found in Northern bobwhite and Scaled quail.

  17. Maternal energy and protein affect subsequent growth performance, carcass yield, and meat color in Chinese Yellow broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Jiang, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Zhou, G L; Lin, Y C; Chen, F; Hong, P

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of maternal ME and CP levels on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broiler offspring. A total of 1,134 thirty-week-old Chinese Yellow broiler breeders was randomly assigned to 3 dietary ME levels (11.09, 11.51, and 11.92 MJ/kg) and 3 CP levels (15.5, 16.5, and 17.5%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 21 hens per replicate. At 39 wk of age, 30 settable eggs per replicate were selected for hatching. All broiler offspring were fed the same diets. There were significant ME×CP interactions in egg CP and ether extract (EE) contents, BW at d 1, 22 to 42 d ADG, ADFI during 1 to 21 d and 43 to 63 d, shear force, plasma albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides contents of broiler offspring. Dietary ME at 11.92 MJ/kg increased average egg weight, egg EE content, and broiler 1-d-old BW compared with 11.09 MJ/kg group at 16.5%, 15.5%, and 17.5% CP levels, respectively (Pdressing percentage and decreased yellowness (b*) value of broiler offspring compared with 16.5% and 17.5% CP groups at 11.51 MJ/kg of ME level, respectively (Pdressing percentage and meat color of their offspring.

  18. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  19. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  20. Histomorphometric study of brachiocephalic artery of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Sarah; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Brachiocephalic arteries in quails are large arteries which are arising separately from the aortic arch. The aim of the present study was to determine the histomorphometric aspects of brachiocephalic arteries in the Japanese quail. The different layers of the brachiocephalic artery were studied quantitatively in 10, 20 and 60 days-old Japanese quail; (n = 6) and both sexes. Luminal diameter, thickness of the intima, media and adventitia, the percentage of the intima, media and adventitia, as compared with the total wall thickness were determined. It was found that luminal diameter and whole artery thickness increased by age (p < 0.05). In addition, the tunica media was the thickest layer, then tunica intima and at last tunica adventitia (p < 0.05). The muscularity of the right brachiocephalic artery was more than that of the left one (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric study of brachiocephalic arteries of Japanese quails showed that increasing of age causes increase of internal and external diameters of the artery and this increase in females was more than males.

  1. Behaviour of Japanese Quail Eggs Under Mechanical Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchar, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Strnková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2015), s. 1110-1118 ISSN 1094-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : quail egg * compression * rupture force Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10942912.2013.862634#.VNI0aC7z_PM

  2. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine the sex of. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) by DNA analysis. Chromo ... M, 100 bp DNA ladder (Fermentas, Germany); lane 1, negative control. (without DNA) .... low cost and reduced risk of contamination, and preven- .... Improving the reliability of molecular sexing.

  3. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of other primal cuts were statistically similar (P>0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that substituting synthetic vitamin mineral premixes with natural vitamin mineral premixes in diets is possible with no adverse effects on performance and carcass characteristics of growing Japanese quail. Key words: Proprietary ...

  4. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  5. Fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs under semi arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. A total of 1850 eggs were used for the study and data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of ...

  6. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was investigated by 12 microsatellite markers in Iran. Whole blood samples were collected from 200 individuals belonging to four strains and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out procedure. The 12 microsatellite markers ...

  7. improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, E.H.A.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aimed to use gamma irradiation doses as compared to chemical preservative sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp) for increasing the shelf-life and improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses during cold and frozen storage. one hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. the examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2,4,6 and 8 kGy doses and soaking in 3% stpp and the effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties during cold (4±1 o C) and frozen storage (-18 o C) of samples under investigation were evaluated .the results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation and soaking in STPP treatments. furthermore, treatments had no deleterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. irradiation of samples at doses of 2,4,6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged its shelf- life for 12,15,21,24 and 9 days at 4±1 o C, respectively against only 6 days for control samples

  8. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...

  9. Genetic evaluation of European quails by random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Miranda Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare different random regression models, defined from different classes of heterogeneity of variance combined with different Legendre polynomial orders for the estimate of (covariance of quails. The data came from 28,076 observations of 4,507 female meat quails of the LF1 lineage. Quail body weights were determined at birth and 1, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Six different classes of residual variance were fitted to Legendre polynomial functions (orders ranging from 2 to 6 to determine which model had the best fit to describe the (covariance structures as a function of time. According to the evaluated criteria (AIC, BIC and LRT, the model with six classes of residual variances and of sixth-order Legendre polynomial was the best fit. The estimated additive genetic variance increased from birth to 28 days of age, and dropped slightly from 35 to 42 days. The heritability estimates decreased along the growth curve and changed from 0.51 (1 day to 0.16 (42 days. Animal genetic and permanent environmental correlation estimates between weights and age classes were always high and positive, except for birth weight. The sixth order Legendre polynomial, along with the residual variance divided into six classes was the best fit for the growth rate curve of meat quails; therefore, they should be considered for breeding evaluation processes by random regression models.

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  11. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A.; Critchley, Alan T.; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 109 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days’ post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days’ post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days’ post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10-1). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there

  12. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan T; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 10 9 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days' post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days' post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days' post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10 -1 ). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there were

  13. 'As I told Henning the other day'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Møller

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)......En analyse af sætningen 'Som jeg også sagde til Henning forleden dag' ud fra henholdsvis en klassisk argumentationsanalytisk synsvinkel, en sproghandlingsanalytisk synsvinkel og en dialogisk sysnvinkel (BAchtin)...

  14. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  15. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  16. improving performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted in order to study the effect of the supplementation of Avizyme 1500® (Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, UK on the performance of laying hens for one year. A control diet based on corn – soybean meal was formulated to meet nutrient requirement of ISA Brown laying hens. Two treatments, the control diet (C and C + 1000 g Avizyme/tonne diet were tested. Each diet was fed to 80 birds (20 replicates of 4 birds from 20 to 72 weeks of age, and performances of birds (feed intake, egg production, egg size, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg quality were measured. All data were subject to analyses of variance following the t-test. Results showed that the addition of Avizyme 1500 to the feed reduced feed intake by 4% (P < 0.01, mortality by 75 % or from 15% to 3.75% (P < 0.01 and improved the feed conversion ratio by 3 % (P < 0.05. The high mortality of the control treatment (15% is explained by an E.coli infection that was observed following the post-mortem examination of dead birds. The egg production (HD and HH, egg size and egg mass however were not significantly affected by the Avizyme supplementation. Egg quality (HU, yolk colour score, yolk weight and shell thickness was not significantly affected by Avizyme supplementation. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 1000 g Avizyme /tonne of diet improved feed efficiency and this was mediated via a reduction in feed intake.

  17. Association of Tyrosinase (TYR and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1 (TYRP1 with Melanic Plumage Color in Korean Quails (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available TYR (Tyrosinase and TYRP1 (Tyrosinase-related protein 1 play crucial roles in determining the coat color of birds. In this paper, we aimed to characterize the relationship of TYR and TYRP1 genes with plumage colors in Korean quails. The SNPs were searched by cDNA sequencing and PCR-SSCP in three plumage color Korean quails (maroon, white and black plumage. Two SNPs (367T→C and 1153C→T were found in the coding region of TYRP1 gene, but had no significant association with plumage phenotype in Korean quails. The expression of TYR was higher in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. In contrast, the expression of TYRP1 was lower in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. This study suggested that the melanic plumage color in Korean quails may be associated with either increased production of TYR or decreased production of TYRP1.

  18. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  19. Effect of refined functional carbohydrates from enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast on the presence of Salmonella spp. in the ceca of broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G K; Jalukar, S; Brake, J

    2017-08-01

    Broiler breeders hatched from Salmo-nella negative grandparents received either zero or 50 g/MT of refined functional carbohydrates (RFC) in their diets from d of placement to end of lay. There were no other treatments used. Pullets and cockerels were reared separately in an enclosed litter-floor house to 21 wk of age when 28 randomly selected pullets from each diet were transferred to individual cages for an additional 14 d before they were killed, and their ceca were excised aseptically and tested for Salmonella spp. The remaining birds were transferred to a two-thirds slat and one-third litter curtain-sided laying house. There were 8 pens of 60 to 65 females and 8 to 18 males, depending upon flock age and housing type, fed each diet, and there was no effort made to isolate pens from typical daily foot traffic between pens. At 51 wk of age, male progeny broiler chicks were hatched and received either zero or 50 g/MT of RFC to complete a 2 × 2 design with 4 replicate pens of 12 males per interaction. All broilers were tested for cecal Salmonella spp. at 34 d of age. Ceca were collected from 30 breeder hens from each treatment at 64 wk of age and tested for Salmonella spp. Of the ceca sampled at 23 wk from the control pullets, 71.4% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC pullets tested positive. Of the ceca sampled from the control hens at 64 wk, 40% were found to contain Salmonella spp., while none of the ceca from the RFC hens tested positive. Salmonella spp. was isolated from broilers in one pen of the control broilers that were also progeny of control breeders out of 4 replicates but not from any pens in which the breeders had been fed RFC. These data demonstrated that RFC reduced natural Salmonella spp. colonization of broiler breeder hen and broiler progeny ceca during a complete production cycle. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. INCLUSION OF GUAVA WASTES IN THE DIET OF EUROPEAN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Lemos Camelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to analyze the performance and carcass characteristics of European quail fed agroindustry residue of guava in substitution of corn. 140 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with levels of guava waste inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% to a diet based on corn and soybean meal. There were no significant differences (P> 0.05 for the variables: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, weight and carcass yield and prime cuts (breast, drumstick and thigh wings, back , neck, head, feet and foodstuffs organs (heart, liver and gizzard. The guava waste can be used as alternative ingredient in the diets of European quail in the period of 16-38 days of age, up to the level of 10% inclusion without depressing the performance and yield of poultry carcasses.

  1. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKANOWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age of Pharaoh quails on dressing percentage, carcass composition, and sensory and physicochemical properties of their meat was determined. Compared to 42-day-old birds, Pharaoh quail aged 33 days had lower body weight (169.1 vs 139.4 g, carcass weight (111.7 vs 88.8 g and dressing percentage (66.1 vs 63.7%. The carcasses of 42-day-old birds contained more breast muscles (30.9%, leg muscles (18.3%, skin with subcutaneous fat (6.5% and remainders of the carcass (31.0% compared to birds at 33 days of age (30.8; 16.7; 6.2 and 30.0%, respectively. Older birds showed higher values of pH15, redness (a* and yellowness (b* and lower values of sensory meat properties except aroma intensity.

  2. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DETOMIDINE AND DETOMIDINE - KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. F. Durrani, M. Ashraf and A. Khalid¹

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, I/M and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, I/M. Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia and complete loss of all reflexes in all birds. In both groups, recovery from sedation and anaesthesia was smooth and of short duration. From this study it was concluded that for minor and least painful procedures in quails detomidine can be used alone, while for major and painful surgical procedures detomidine-ketamine combination should be preferred.

  3. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DETOMIDINE AND DETOMIDINE - KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN QUAILS

    OpenAIRE

    U. F. Durrani, M. Ashraf and A. Khalid¹

    2005-01-01

    Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix) were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, I/M) and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, I/M). Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypove...

  4. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  5. Helminth community of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from western Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Jill N; Vasquez, Barbara; Bradley, Russell G; Fedynich, Alan M; Lerich, Scott P; Kinsella, John M

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) were collected during August 2002 at Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Brewster County, Texas, and examined for helminths. Eight species of helminths were found (5 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 2,811 individuals. Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. Prevalence of Aulonocephalus pennula, Gongylonema sp., Oxyspirura petrowi, Physaloptera sp., P. pileata, C. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively. Aulonocephalus pennula numerically dominated, accounting for 88% of total worms. Statistical analyses were performed on the 5 species with > or = 25% prevalence using the after-hatch-year host sample (n = 38). Prevalence of P. pileata was higher (P = 0.049) in females than in males and higher (P = 0.037) in the sample collected from the site that had spreader dams (berms 1-2 m high and 4-55 m long constructed in varying sizes to catch and retain rainfall) than the control site (no spreader dams). Higher rank mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0052, respectively) was found in the host sample collected from the site that had spreader dams than the control site. A host gender-by-collection site interaction (P = 0.0215) was observed for P. pileata. Findings indicate that scaled quail are acquiring indirect life cycle helminths in arid western Texas habitats.

  6. Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P George; Ruxton, Graeme D; Langridge, Keri V; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-02-04

    Camouflage is conferred by background matching and disruption, which are both affected by microhabitat. However, microhabitat selection that enhances camouflage has only been demonstrated in species with discrete phenotypic morphs. For most animals, phenotypic variation is continuous; here we explore whether such individuals can select microhabitats to best exploit camouflage. We use substrate selection in a ground-nesting bird (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica). For such species, threat from visual predators is high and egg appearance shows strong between-female variation. In quail, variation in appearance is particularly obvious in the amount of dark maculation on the light-colored shell. When given a choice, birds consistently selected laying substrates that made visual detection of their egg outline most challenging. However, the strategy for maximizing camouflage varied with the degree of egg maculation. Females laying heavily maculated eggs selected the substrate that more closely matched egg maculation color properties, leading to camouflage through disruptive coloration. For lightly maculated eggs, females chose a substrate that best matched their egg background coloration, suggesting background matching. Our results show that quail "know" their individual egg patterning and seek out a nest position that provides most effective camouflage for their individual phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of production parameters and nutrient utilization of hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty Babcock hens in their 10th week of lay were divided into 5 groups of 50 hens each and randomly assigned to the 5 treatment rations in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were collected on average final weight, body weight change, average feed intake, average hen-day lay, average egg ...

  8. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  9. Detection of Marek's disease virus DNA in Japanese quail susceptible to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrzak, R.; Shih, J.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) was demonstrated as an etiological agent which causes atherosclerosis in the chicken. Since herpes viruses are ubiquitous, incidences of viral atherogenesis in humans and other animals were speculated. In this laboratory, the atherosclerosis susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) Japanese quail were developed as the animal model for atherosclerosis research. The susceptibility of the animal might be due to an infection of MDV or a related quail herpes virus (QHV). An initial attempt to isolate viruses from quail and an agar gel precipitin test for MDC were not positive. A DNA hybridization technique was used to determine whether the MDC-DNA existed in the quail cell. The gene library of MDV EcoRl DNA fragments was used to prepare the DNA probe, labeled with [ 32 P] by nick translation. Dot hybridizations were carried out by mixing the MDV-DNA probe with DNAs isolated from quail tissues. A high stringent condition was used. From this experiment it was found that the tissues from the SUS quail were hybridization positive, but most of them from RES quail were negative. When aortas were compared, the severe atherosclerotic had a strong hybridization (3-4 cop. of genome/cell) whereas the others hybridized moderately (1 cop./cell). It was concluded that genes from MDV or a QHV indeed existed in Japanese quail

  10. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled from a colony of wild quail origin. Ninety-eight markers were polymorphic with an average of 3.7 alleles per locus and a mean heterozygosity of 0.423. To determine the utility of these markers for comparative genome mapping in Phasianidae, cross-species amplification of all the markers was tested with chicken and guinea fowl DNA. Amplification products similar in size to the orthologous loci in quail were observed in 42 loci in chicken and 20 loci in guinea fowl. Of the cross-reactive markers, 57.1% in chicken and 55.0% in guinea fowl were polymorphic when tested in 20 birds from their respective populations. Five of 15 markers that could cross-amplify Japanese quail, chicken, and guinea fowl DNA were polymorphic in all three species. Amplification of orthologous loci was confirmed by sequencing 10 loci each from chicken and guinea fowl and comparing with them the corresponding quail sequence. The microsatellite markers reported would serve as a useful resource base for genetic mapping in quail and comparative mapping in Phasianidae.

  11. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  12. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Hen Survival: Effects of Raptors, Anthropogenic and Landscape Features, and Hen Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Frey, S. Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Survival of breeding-age hens has been identified as the demographic rate with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter “Sage-Grouse”). During 2008–2011, we collected summer survival data from 427 Sage-Grouse hens in southern Wyoming, USA. We assessed the effects of raptor densities, anthropogenic features, landscape features, and Sage-Grouse hen behavior on Sage-Grouse hen survival. Survival of Sage-G...

  13. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  14. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Allione, Marco; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  15. Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs)

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-08-17

    This chapter includes a brief description of different laser coupling methods with guided surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the surface of a cone. It shows some devices, their electromagnetic simulations, and their optical characterization. A theoretical section illustrates the optical and quantum description of the hot charge generation rate as obtained for the SPP propagation along the nanocone in adiabatic compression. The chapter also shows some experimental results concerning the application of the hot electron nanoscopy and spectroscopy (HENs) in the so-called Schottky configuration, highlighting the sensitivity and the nanoscale resolution of the technique. The comparison with Kelvin probe and other electric atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques points out the intrinsic advantages of the HENs. In the end, some further insights are given about the possibility of exploiting HENs with a pulsed laser at the femtosecond time scale without significant pulse broadening and dispersion.

  16. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    , but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key......Diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 21% dietary fibre (DF); 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% DF; 7.25MJ/kg), C (38% DF; 7.25MJ/kg) and D (30% DF; 8.00MJ/kg) were fed each to 8 groups of 28...... chickens. The food allowance was adjusted twice weekly to obtain commercial growth curves. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured seven times during 24 hours at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. Group size was reduced to 10 hens per group...

  17. Effect of perches on liver health of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2014-07-01

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Somatic and genetic effects of gamma radiation on Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and hen (Gallus gallus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.

    1982-01-01

    Genetic changes were studied in economically significant species of birds and the impact of gamma radiation on their organisms in general. The impact is dealt with of small, medium and high doses of radiation on gonadal cells in vivo and in vitro and on fertilized eggs, and the total impact on the organism. During the irradiation of embryos toxic effects were unambiguously found for exposures to more than 100 R. The embryo was most sensitive between the 2nd and 4th day of development. No cytotoxic effect of radiation was observed in sperms exposed in vitro to less than 10,000 R. Irradiation of gonads affected the reproduction capacity of male birds substantially more than that of female birds. (M.D.)

  19. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T 3 , T 4 , Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia

  1. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  2. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs. Michael A Henning, Sinclair A Marcon. Abstract. A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, ...

  3. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly...... killed and samples of duodenum and caeca microflora were collected. This initial investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles did not influence emphatically microflora of quail caecum; however, water containing 25 mg/kg of Ag-nano significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria...

  4. Hematological and biochemical effects of chronic CO exposure on the Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J.J.; McGrath, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Japanese Quail were exposed to a concentration of 300 to 350 ppm CO to maintain an equilibrium carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 30% for a period of 4 weeks. Compared to a control group of birds maintained in an identical chamber, the CO-exposed quail demonstrated increases in hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. At the end of the exposure period, the CO-exposed quail had significantly larger plasma glucose concentrations than the control birds. Cardiac and skeletal muscle carbohydrate stores were not affected by chronic CO exposure.

  5. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Average daily food intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and ... that contamination of feed for broilers chicks beyond 0.5% is detrimental to the performance of broiler chicks. Introduction ... nearly all manufacturing industries. Disposal of ...

  6. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  7. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  8. Toxicity of dietary Heliotropium dolosum seed to Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, Y; Eroksuz, H; Ozer, H; Ilhan, N; Cevik, A; Yaman, I; Ceribasi, A O

    2002-10-01

    Five groups of 30 male Japanese quail, each 7-w-old, were fed diets containing 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10% (w/w) of dehulled H dolosum seed. Half of the birds from the each group were killed at 6 and 24 w after beginning of the trial. At the end of 6th w, neither mortality nor clinical sign occurred in test groups. In the 5 and 10% inclusion levels, mild to moderate hepatic injury was detected as evidenced by mild karyomegaly, moderate fatty change, focal or portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasie, and ovalocyte proliferation along with lower serum protein and albumin levels. By the termination of the experiment (24 w), 5 birds died in the 10% dosed group. Hepatic cirrhosis was the most prominent finding in the 5 and 10% group; at these levels, serum protein and albumin values decreased significanty while billuribin and ALP levels increased. Based on relative weights and histological evaluations, testicularatrophywasdosedependent. These results partly affirm earlier studies that the quail is highly resistant to the toxic effects of H dolosumseed. However, the resistance to H dolosum is less than Senecio Jacobae and Crotalaria spectabilis when considering tissue injury.

  9. Dietary N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation improves nutrient digestibility and attenuates pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is an intermediary metabolite in cellular choline and betaine metabolism. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary DMG on nutrient digestibility and development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers. A total of 64 14-day-old broiler hens (Ross-308) were raised until age 40 days under cold environmental temperature conditions (15 °C) and were fed a high energy feed in order to incite pulmonary hypertension. Birds were randomly assigned to two groups of which each group had eight replicate pens of four birds each. Test diets contained 0 or 167 mg Na-DMG (Taminizer(®) D; Taminco N.V., Ghent, Belgium)/kg feed. N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Further, fulminant ascites was numerically lowered by DMG and incidence of pulmonary hypertension decreased significantly from 44.8% in the control group to 14.6% in the DMG group. Finally, fasted plasma level of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was twofold in the control group in relation to the DMG group. In conclusion, these data demonstrate beneficial effects of DMG on digestibility of non-fat fractions, on fat metabolism and on progression towards broiler ascites syndrome. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality

  11. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  12. Evaluation of aflatoxicosis in hens fed with commercial poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    DHANASEKARAN, Dharumadurai; PANNEERSELVAM, Annamalai; THAJUDDIN, Noorudin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of aflatoxin in the growth of hens was histopathologically analyzed. Mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The aflatoxin was extracted from Aspergillus flavus and their impact on the growth pattern of hens was evaluated. The histopathological analysis reveals that more lesions were found in the vital organs of hens in comparison with the control chick group. In the present study, it is concluded that the quality of poultry ...

  13. Comparative toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), in chickens, quails, and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A A; Reed, W M

    1990-01-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), was administered by gavage to immature chickens, quails, and turkeys at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight. At 25 mg coniine/kg body weight, clinical signs were observed only in quails (2/10) and consisted of excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos, and flaccid paralysis. Chickens (9/10) and quails (8/10) dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight were affected, and several birds of each species died (2/10 and 5/10, respectively). Turkeys (7/10) were affected only when dosed at 100 mg/kg body weight, and quails (6/10), turkeys (4/10), and chickens (10/10) died at this dose. There were no gross or microscopic lesions. Coniine was detected in skeletal muscle and liver of birds dying after ingestion and was present in some survivors 7 days post-treatment.

  14. [Effect of krypton-containing gas mixture on Japanese quail embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul', A R; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Pavlov, N B; Pavlov, B N

    2008-01-01

    Investigated were effects of gas mixture with up to 3.0 kgs/cm2 of krypton on the embryonic development of domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica dom.). Results demonstrated absence of a serious krypton effect on Japanese quail embryos. Development of embryos proceeded in due course; morphometrically the experimental embryos were essentially similar to controls. It should be noted that despite exposure to acute hypoxic hypoxia during the initial 12 hours of development in the krypton-containing gas mixture, viability of quail embryos was high enough which can be ascribed to the krypton protective action. Besides, an additional experiment showed that krypton partial pressure of 5-5.5 kgs/cm2 produces the narcotic effect on adult Japanese quails.

  15. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  16. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  17. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility...

  18. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  19. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,PA dos; Ludke,MCMM; Ludke,JV; Rabello,CBV; Santos,MJB dos; Torres,TR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of fol...

  20. Paul Henning Krogh on Soil Ecotoxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    In a recent analysis of data from Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters , Dr. Paul Henning Krogh was named a Rising Star in the field of Environment & Ecology. His current record in this field includes 48 papers cited a total of 410 times. Dr. Krogh is a Senior Scientist in the Dep......In a recent analysis of data from Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters , Dr. Paul Henning Krogh was named a Rising Star in the field of Environment & Ecology. His current record in this field includes 48 papers cited a total of 410 times. Dr. Krogh is a Senior Scientist...... in the Department of Terrestrial Ecology at the National Environmental Research Institute, part of the University of Aarhus in Silkeborg, Denmark. This month, he talks with ScienceWatch.com correspondent Simon Mitton about his highly cited work. View Article...

  1. Vold, svensk uro og Henning Mankell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Paperet undersøger den fiktionelle repræsentation af vold hos Henning Mankell med fokus på Innan frosten fra 2002 og filmatiseringen heraf fra 2005, men med fyldige udblik til såvel andre af Mankells fortællinger og ikke mindst sociologiske og filosofiske diskussioner af volden, voldens forstyrre......Paperet undersøger den fiktionelle repræsentation af vold hos Henning Mankell med fokus på Innan frosten fra 2002 og filmatiseringen heraf fra 2005, men med fyldige udblik til såvel andre af Mankells fortællinger og ikke mindst sociologiske og filosofiske diskussioner af volden, voldens...

  2. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende; Antonio Carlos de Laurentiz; Rosemeire da Silva Filardi; Vitor Barbosa Fascina; Daniella Aparecida Berto; Sérgio Turra Sobrane Filho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight,...

  3. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of a commercially available plastic device, intended to distract laying hens, was investigated and found not to have the claimed effect. ... table for the white birds, 15 week egg production. Source of variation df2. SS3. MS4. F ratio. SLs. East. Blocks. 35. 67627.61. 1932.22. Treatments. I. 1233.39. 1233.39. 0.7104. 0.4050.

  4. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  5. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in Japanese quails and common pheasants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashev, L D; Dimitrova, D J; Milanova, A; Moutafchieva, R G

    2015-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was studied in Japanese quails and common pheasants. Healthy mature birds from both species and both genders were treated intravenously and orally with enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) and marbofloxacin (5 mg/kg). After intravenous administration enrofloxacin was extensively metabolised to ciprofloxacin. Metabolites of marbofloxacin were not detected. Values of volume of distribution were respectively 4.63 l/kg and 3.67 l/kg for enrofloxacin and 1.56 l/kg and 1.43 l/kg for marbofloxacin. In quails, total body clearance values were higher than those in pheasants and other avian species. After oral application enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed in quails, more rapidly than marbofloxacin. Pheasants absorbed both antimicrobials at a lower rate. Higher bioavailability was observed for marbofloxacin (118%). Relatively low bioavailability was established in quails for enrofloxacin (26.4%), accompanied by extensive conversion to ciprofloxacin. Generally, quails absorbed and eliminated both fluoroquinolones more rapidly than pheasants; the latter showed pharmacokinetics similar to poultry. Because of favourable pharmacokinetic properties, marbofloxacin should be preferred for oral administration in Japanese quails and pheasants for treatment of infections caused by equally susceptible pathogens.

  6. Effect of chamomile extract on the welfare of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Isabela Tenório

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile extract on Japanese quail on their performance, animal behavior, tonic immobility, body injuries, and surface temperature. The trial was conducted using 108 quail distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments (0, 2.5, and 5.0 g chamomile/kg of feed, six replicates, and six birds per treatment, evaluated in six measures repeated in time (14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days of trial. The inclusion of chamomile presented a quadratic effect on sitting behavior, estimating the inclusion of 1.8 g chamomile/kg to maximize this behavior. There was a decreasing linear effect for aggressive pecking, that is, the higher the inclusion of chamomile in the diet, the lower the expression of this behavior. The inclusion of 1.8-5.0 g chamomile/kg in a Japanese quail diet reduces the behavior of aggressive pecking, in addition to keeping the birds seated longer. These results are innovative because they show in the literature for the first time that chamomile supplemented in Japanese quail diets has the capacity to modulate the behavior of the quail, leading to an improvement in the welfare of quail raised in cages.

  7. Humoral immunity of Japanese quail subjected to microwave radiation during embryogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, P.E.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fertile Japanese quail eggs were exposed to continuous wave microwave radiation at an intensity of 5 mW/cm 2 (50 W/m 2 ) and a frequency of 2450 Mhz. The absorbed power density was determined to be 4.03 W/kg. The eggs were exposed throughout the first 12 days of the normal incubation period of 17.5 days. Non-exposed control eggs were incubated in a chamber identical to the exposure chamber. After hatching, exposed and control quail were reared in the conventional laboratory manner. Weekly body weight measurements were made to compare the growth patterns of exposed and control quail. The weights of the exposed male at the ages of 4 and 5 weeks were 12 and 7%, respectively, less than the control males. These differences approached statistical significance (P<=0.05). At 5 weeks of age the quail were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the levels of the anti-SRBC antibodies were determined. The levels of specific anti-SRBC antibodies, determined 4 days after antigen challenges, were of the same magnitude for both the exposed and control quail. Following this assessment of humoral immunity, the quail were sacrificed and the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were removed and a comparison was made of exposed and control birds. The weights of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were not altered significantly by the microwave exposure. (author)

  8. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  9. Sleep in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, E L; van der Grinten, C P; Blokhuis, H J; Coenen, A M

    1987-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were made of five closely observed hens, all permanently implanted with both EEG and EMG electrodes. Five behavioural postures were distinguished and percentages of wakefulness, sleep and presumably paradoxical sleep (PS) were determined during the third and sixth hour of the dark period. Substantial agreement was generally found between behaviour and sleep with the exception of sitting or standing motionless with at least one eye open. During two thirds of this behavioural posture, the EEG showed large amplitude slow waves undistinguishable from slow wave sleep. Characteristics of PS were determined: periods were short, whereas its percentage increased during the night. Furthermore, EMG atonia was never found. An all night recording was made, and delta activity (2-5 Hz) was filtered and plotted against time for three of the hens. A significant decrease in delta activity across the night was found. Differences and similarities between sleep in hens and in mammals are discussed. Although large similarities exist it is concluded that some properties of birds' sleep make it unique and are a challenge for further study.

  10. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  11. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  12. In ovo Technology and newcastle disease resistance in Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, I.E.; Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ali, I.E.; Shabana, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    A total number of 1600 fertile eggs from japanese quail birds were used in this study. The eggs were divided into eight groups then incubated. NDV and vite were administered to the groups of eggs in Ovo injection at day 14 from incubation. Hatchability, body weight, egg production and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Five blood samples were collected weekly from each group to measure total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, T3, T4 and HI titre. The results of this work revealed an increase in total serum proteins, globulin, and a decrease in t3, T4 and albumin values of the in ove vaccinating groups. Also HI titre recorded higher values due to ovo vaccination alone or combined with vit. E. It was noticed that the group injected by inactive vaccine plus vit. E registered high increases in hatchability, body weight and egg production beside a decrease in mortality

  13. Gemfibrozil disrupts the metabolism of circulating lipids in bobwhite quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière-Côté, Sophie; Omlin, Teye; de Càssia Pinheiro, Eliana; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The circulating lipids of birds play essential roles for egg production and as an energy source for flight and thermogenesis. How lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals geared to prevent heart disease in humans and that are routinely released in the environment affect their metabolism is unknown. This study assesses the impact of the popular drug gemfibrozil (GEM) on the plasma phospholipids (PL), neutral lipids (NL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). Results show that bird lipoproteins are rapidly altered by GEM, even at environmentally-relevant doses. After 4 days of exposure, pharmacological amounts cause an 83% increase in circulating PL levels, a major decrease in average lipoprotein size measured as a 56% drop in the NL/PL ratio, and important changes in the fatty acid composition of PL and NEFA (increases in fatty acid unsaturation). The levels of PL carrying all individual fatty acids except arachidonate are strongly stimulated. The large decrease in bird lipoprotein size may reflect the effects seen in humans: lowering of LDL that can cause atherosclerosis and stimulation of HDL that promote cholesterol disposal. Lower (environmental) doses of GEM cause a reduction of %palmitate in all the plasma lipid fractions of quails, but particularly in the core triacylglycerol of lipoproteins (NL). No changes in mRNA levels of bird peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) could be demonstrated. The disrupting effects of GEM on circulating lipids reported here suggest that the pervasive presence of this drug in the environment could jeopardize reproduction and migratory behaviours in wild birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  15. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for Cefovecin in hens and green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L R; Bertelsen, M F; Brimer, L; Skaanild, M T

    2009-12-01

    The third generation cephalosporin cefovecin has been shown to have an exceptionally long elimination half-life in dogs and cats, making it suitable for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in these species. Pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin were investigated in juvenile hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin/kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 +/- 2 microg/mL in hens and 35 +/- 12 microg/mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/kg for hens and 0.3 L/kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252 +/- 185 mL.h/kg for hens and 53 mL.h/kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems not to be in a number of other bird and retile species either.

  16. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs from conventional and alternative farming systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was carried out to investigate the effect of conventional farming systems for laying hens (standard cage batteries) and new alternative systems ...

  17. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin in hens and green iguanas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Line Risager; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Brimer, Leon

    2009-01-01

    hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin / kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid...

  18. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  19. Genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens. Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens.In the European

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  1. Quail FMO3 gene cloning, tissue expression profiling, polymorphism detection and association analysis with fishy taint in eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao Mo

    Full Text Available Quail eggs comprise a significant and favourable part of table eggs in certain countries. Some quail eggs, however, present fishy off-flavor which directly influences their quality. It is reported that flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 is associated with fish-odour trait in human and animal products. FMO3 is responsible for the degradation of trimethylamine (TMA in vivo. Loss-of-function mutations in FMO3 gene can result in defective TMA N-oxygenation, giving rise to disorder known as "fish-odour syndrome" in human, as well as the fishy off-flavor in cow milk and chicken eggs. In order to reveal the genetic factor of fishy taint in quail eggs, we cloned the cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene, investigated FMO3 mRNA expression level in various tissues, detected SNPs in the coding region of the gene and conducted association analysis between a mutation and the TMA content in quail egg yolks. The 1888 bp cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene encoding 532 amino acids was obtained and characterized. The phylogenetic analysis revealed quail FMO3 had a closer relationship with chicken FMO3. The FMO3 mRNA was highly expressed in liver and kidney of quail. Nine SNPs were detected in the coding sequence of quail FMO3 gene, including a nonsense mutation (Q319X which was significantly associated with the elevated TMA content in quail egg yolks. Genotype TT at Q319X mutation loci was sensitive to choline. With addition of choline in the feed, the quails with homozygote TT at the Q319X mutation loci laid fish-odour eggs, indicating an interaction between genotype and diet. The results indicated that Q319X mutation was associated with the fishy off-flavor in quail eggs. Identification of the unfavorable allele T of quail FMO3 gene can be applied in future quail breeding to eliminate fishy off-flavor trait in quail eggs.

  2. Microclimate measuring and fluid‑dynamic simulation in an industrial broiler house: testing of an experimental ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Biagio; Giametta, Ferruccio; La Fianza, Giovanna; Gentile, Andrea; Catalano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The environment in the broiler house is a combination of physical and biological factors generating a complex dynamic system of interactions between birds, husbandry system, light, temperature, and the aerial environment. Ventilation plays a key role in this scenario. It is pivotal to remove carbon dioxide and water vapor from the air of the hen house. Adequate ventilation rates provide the most effective method of controlling temperature within the hen house. They allow for controlling the relative humidity and can play a key role in alleviating the negative effects of high stocking density and of wet litter. In the present study the results of experimental tests performed in a breeding broiler farm are shown. In particular the efficiency of a semi transversal ventilation system was studied against the use of a pure transversal one. In order to verify the efficiency of the systems, fluid dynamic simulations were carried out using the software Comsol multiphysics. The results of this study show that a correct architectural and structural design of the building must be supported by a design of the ventilation system able to maintain the environmental parameters within the limits of the thermo‑neutral and welfare conditions and to achieve the highest levels of productivity.

  3. [Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler whole production process in four provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W W; Bai, L; Zhang, X L; Xu, X J; Tang, Z; Bi, Z W; Guo, Y C

    2018-04-06

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler production process in 4 provinces of China. Methods: Using convenience sampling method, 238 sample sites from broiler whole production process were chosen in Henan, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang and Shandong provinces in 2012. A total of 11 592 samples were collected and detected to analyze prevalence baseline, including 2 090 samples from breeding chicken farms and hatcheries, 1 421 samples from broiler farms, 5 610 samples from slaughterhouses and 2 471 samples from distribution and retail stores. All Salmonella strains were isolated through selective enrichment, and were serotyped according to Kauffmann-White scheme. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of selected Salmonella strains were determined by the broth microdilution method and fourteen antimicrobial agents were examined. Results: During incubation course, the average prevalence of Salmonella was 5.5% in feces of breeding hens, feces of chicks, and hatching eggs, 123 Salmonella strains were isolated. During cultivation course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 8.0% in feces from broiler farms, soil, feed, and workers, 114 Salmonella strains were isolated. During slaughter course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 24.9% in swabs pre-slaughter, dressed broiler carcasses, pre-cooled broiler carcasses, water from precooling pool, cutter and chipping boards, frozen chicken portions, and workers, 1 438 Salmonella strains were isolated. During distribution and sale course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 20.9% in transport carts, frozen chicken portions, retail chicken portions and workers, 551 Salmonella strains were isolated. The dominant Salmonella serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis ( n= 1 229) and Salmonella Indiana ( n= 621). Among 1 231 examined strains, 97.2% Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 69.9% Salmonella strains were multi-drug resistant isolates. Conclusion: Our

  4. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus-related sequences in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J A; Cywinski, A; Chen, P J; Taylor, J M

    1986-08-01

    We detected sequences related to the avian retrovirus Rous sarcoma virus within the genome of the Japanese quail, a species previously considered to be free of endogenous avian leukosis virus elements. Using low-stringency conditions of hybridization, we screened a quail genomic library for clones containing retrovirus-related information. Of five clones so selected, one, lambda Q48, contained sequence information related to the gag, pol, and env genes of Rous sarcoma virus arranged in a contiguous fashion and spanning a distance of approximately 5.8 kilobases. This organization is consistent with the presence of an endogenous retroviral element within the Japanese quail genome. Use of this element as a high-stringency probe on Southern blots of genomic digests of several quail DNA demonstrated hybridization to a series of high-molecular-weight bands. By slot hybridization to quail DNA with a cloned probe, it was deduced that there were approximately 300 copies per diploid cell. In addition, the quail element also hybridized at low stringency to the DNA of the White Leghorn chicken and at high stringency to the DNAs of several species of jungle fowl and both true and ruffed pheasants. Limited nucleotide sequencing analysis of lambda Q48 revealed homologies of 65, 52, and 46% compared with the sequence of Rous sarcoma virus strain Prague C for the endonuclease domain of pol, the pol-env junction, and the 3'-terminal region of env, respectively. Comparisons at the amino acid level were also significant, thus confirming the retrovirus relatedness of the cloned quail element.

  5. Response of shaver brown hens to feeds of different sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week study was conducted to determine the effect of feed type on performance of Shaver brown hens in the humid tropical environment. One hundred and twenty (120) Shaverbrown hens of 28 weeks of age were used for the study.The hens were divided into five groups of 24 hens each and each group was ...

  6. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  7. The effect of frizzle gene and dwarf gene on reproductive performance of broiler breeder dams under high and normal ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, A R; Horst, P; Simianer, H

    2010-11-01

    In 3 experimental runs, the influence of genotype × temperature interactions on the reproductive traits (sexual maturity, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and chick production) of hens of a broiler breeder dam line carrying major genes for dwarfism (dw-) and frizzle (F) was investigated. In experiments 1 and 2, the hens were caged individually under hot (30°C) and temperate (19°C) temperatures, from wk 18 to 72 of age, whereas in experiment 3, hens were kept under moderate temperature (24°C). Hens in experiment 1 were heterozygous for the frizzle gene, and those in experiments 2 and 3 were homozygous, both with and without the dwarf gene. Hens without the above-mentioned major genes (ffDw-) served as control lines. In experiment 1, the frizzle gene (Ff) had no significant effect on sexual maturity, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and chick number under the 2 environmental conditions. In experiment 2, there was a significant interaction between feathering genotype (FF) and environmental temperature for all traits except sexual maturity. Under heat stress, there was a distinct reduction in all reproductive traits except sexual maturity for normally feathered hens compared with frizzle-feathered hens, whereas under temperate conditions, egg production and number of chicks of the FF genotype were reduced and sexual maturity was delayed. In experiments 1 and 2, the dw- gene showed a depressive effect on the growth of hens. In experiment 1, the interaction between dwarf genotype and environmental temperature for egg production was significant. Under temperate conditions, the egg production of dwarf hens was inferior to that of normally sized birds, whereas under hot temperatures, the egg production of the 2 body sizes did not differ. In experiment 2, for sexual maturity, egg production and fertility locus × locus interactions could be determined. The genotype combining the 2 major genes (FFdw-) proved to be inferior to the normally feathered dwarf

  8. Animal welfare concerns during the use of the water bath for stunning broilers, hens and ducks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Lambooij, B.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Workel, L.D.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    European legislation demands that slaughter animals, including poultry, be rendered immediately unconscious and insensible until death occurs through blood loss at slaughter. This study addressed requirements for stunner settings (i.e., voltage, wave oscillation frequency) and response parameters

  9. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  10. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed sup(95m)Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, male and female Japanese quail were chronically fed alfalfa grown on solutions containing TcO 4 which was mixed into a commercial turkey starter. The objective was to estimate concentration ratios and transfer coefficients from Tc incorporated into alfalfa tissue to quail eggs, edible tissues and other organs. (author)

  11. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  12. Qualidade físico-química e sensorial da carne de peito de matrizes pesadas de descarte Physical, chemical and sensorial breast meat quality of spent breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marie Komiyama

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as características de qualidade: pH, cor, valor R, perda por exsudação, capacidade de retenção e absorção de água, capacidade de emulsificação, perdas por cocção, força de cisalhamento e análise sensorial da carne de matrizes pesadas de descarte de frangos de corte. A carne de peito de matrizes apresentou valores médios do parâmetro pH, valor R, perda por exsudação e valor de L* de 5,70, 1,43, 2,00 e 50,11, respectivamente. Para a capacidade de retenção e absorção de água, perda de peso por cozimento e força de cisalhamento, os valores médios foram de 77, 58, 18% e 4,94kgf cm-2, respectivamente. Na análise sensorial, a carne de matriz apresentou baixa intensidade de maciez (6,9 e menor suculência (3,4 e foi a mais elástica, borrachenta e difícil de deglutir. A carne de matrizes pesadas de descarte apresenta boas características de qualidade tecnológicas que possibilitam sua utilização como matéria-prima para a elaboração de industrializados.The aim of this research was evaluate the meat quality broiler breeder hens: pH, color, R value, drip loss, water holding capacity, water absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, cooking loss, shear force and sensorial analysis. The breast meat of broiler hens presents means values for pH, R value, drip loss and L* value parameter of 5.70, 1.43, 2.00 and 50.11, respectively. The means value for water retention capacity, water absorption capacity, cooking loss and shear force, were 77, 58, 18% e 4.94kgf cm-2 respectively. For sensory analysis, the meat of broiler hen present lower tenderness intensity (6.9, lower succulence (3.4, more elasticity, rubbery and swallowing difficulties. The meat of broiler hens presented good technology quality characteristics that make it possible to be used as meat for elaborated industry.

  13. Lighting programs for male and female meat quails (Coturnix coturnix) raised in equatorial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G C; Freitas, E R; Watanabe, P H; Figueiredo, C W S; Silva, L P; Nascimento, G A J; Lima, R C; Nepomuceno, R C; Sá, N L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark). Regardless of lighting program, female quails were heavier than males, and birds subjected to natural light weighed less than those exposed to continuous and intermittent lighting programs. Quails exposed to intermittent and continuous light presented higher weight gain and feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio compared to birds under a natural light regimen. It is concluded that in an equatorial region, it is possible to use a lighting program with only natural light for raising male and female meat quails from 7 to 49 d of age. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  15. Distribution and metabolism of selenite and selenomethionine in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Yasumi; Ohbo, Ai; Tani, Yuta; Hatakeyama, Yoshiko; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-05-01

    Compared to the many studies on the physiological and toxicological effects of selenium (Se) in mammals, avian Se metabolism is still an unexplored topic. Some birds are useful as poultry for human nutrition. Moreover, birds belong to higher trophic levels in the biosphere and thus may play an important role in Se circulation in the ecosystem in the same way as mammals do. In this study, we analyzed the distribution and metabolism of Se in an experimental bird, the Japanese quail, which was fed drinking water containing sodium selenite or selenomethionine (SeMet). The highest concentration of Se was detected in the pancreas, followed by down feathers, liver, and kidneys. SeMet was more efficiently incorporated into the quail than selenite. The specific and preferable distribution of Se to the high molecular weight fraction in the serum of the quail was observed only in the SeMet-ingestion group. As in mammals, selenosugar and trimethylselenonium were the major metabolites in quail excreta. Three unknown Se metabolites were detected by HPLC-ICP-MS. Although part of the metabolic pathway of Se in the Japanese quail fed selenite and SeMet was the same as that observed in mammals, the bird also showed certain avian-specific metabolic process for Se.

  16. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM THREONINE REQUIREMENTS OF JAPANESE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix japonica CHICKS REARED UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Threonine, like most amino acids, is traditionally noted for its role in protein synthesis. However, dietary threonine concentration required for the maximum performance of Japanese quails is yet to be determined, therefore, a study was conducted to determine the optimum threonine requirement of Japanese quail chicks in the tropical environment. A total of four hundred and fifty, two weeks old quail chicks (mixed sexes were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0.67, 0.81, 0.95, 1.08 and 1.22 % total threonine and replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in average weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion ratio and age at first lay of quails fed the dietary treatments. Weight of first egg laid was significantly (P0.05 similar for all treatments. There were significant differences (P0.05. It was concluded that the performance of birds were not influenced by the dietary treatments up to the highest dietary level of threonine studied (1.22%. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum dietary level of threonine may be above 1.22 %. Further studies will be necessary to establish higher doses of dietary threonine requirement of Japanese quails reared under tropical climatic environment.

  17. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  18. Determining population trends and conservation status of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigcerver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the conservation status and population trends of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix from 1900 to the present. Data are sometimes contradictory with regard to the status of this species as it has some features that make it difficult to produce reliable population estimates. Recent data clearly suggest, either at a local scale or at a trans–national scale, that the Atlantic common quail populations have remained stable in the last two decades, and that restocking practices with farm–reared quails (hybrids with the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica do not affect our estimates. The complex movement patterns showed by this species require special attention. Analysis of ring recoveries can give important information, especially about the nomadic movement of quails in search of suitable habitats after the destruction of winter cereal crops due to harvesting. Thus, when developing a breeding distribution model for this species, continuously updated information on seasonal habitat and weather must be included for optimal prediction. Including fortnightly data of vegetation indices in distribution models, for example, has shown good results. Obtaining reliable predictions about changes in species distribution and movements during the breeding period could provide useful knowledge about the conservation status and population trends and would help in the design of future management measures.

  19. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...... at 19 weeks. From 19-30 weeks all groups were fed the same commercial pre-layer and layer diets. Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (eg. 75, 100, 110 and 92 g feed/bird/d in week 16 for A, B, C and D, respectively). The higher amounts of food offered on the high fibre...

  20. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the influence of both motivation and ability on behavioural activity in broilers. The distinction between motivation and ability is relevant for the interpretation of behavioural activit...

  1. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  2. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight, feed conversion, mortality, and average egg weight, shell thickness, Haugh units and specific gravity. At the end of the experimental period were determined amounts of calcium and phosphorus excreted by the method of total excreta collection and a fowl per experimental unit was sacrificed for collection of bones and evaluation of width, length and level of robustness from femur and tibia. There was interaction between phosphorus levels and phytase on feed intake, feed conversion and percentage of posture. For inclusion levels of phytase all egg quality variables showed no significant differences. The treatments did not affect bone characteristics of laying hens.

  3. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  4. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  5. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Enhances Male Broiler Breast Meat Yield through the mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignale, Karen; Greene, Elizabeth S; Caldas, Justina V; England, Judith A; Boonsinchai, Nirun; Sodsee, Phiphob; Pollock, Erik D; Dridi, Sami; Coon, Craig N

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence indicating that replacing cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D₃] through dietary supplementation enhances breast meat yield in broiler chickens. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We investigated the effect of 25(OH)D₃ on male broiler growth performance (body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breast meat yield), muscle protein synthesis, and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Male Cobb 500 broiler chickens were divided into 4 body weight-matched groups and received a control diet with normal cholecalciferol (2760 IU/kg feed) for 42 d, a diet with high concentrations of cholecalciferol (5520 IU/kg feed) for 42 d, or a diet with 25(OH)D₃ (5520 IU/kg feed) for 42 d (HyD-42). A fourth group consumed the HyD-42 for 21 d and then control feed for 21 d (HyD-21) (n = 360 birds, 12 replicates/treatment). Food and clean water were available for ad libitum consumption. At the end of the 42-d experiment, protein turnover was measured by phenylalanine flooding dose. Breast muscle tissues were collected and protein synthesis-related gene and protein expression were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Functional studies were performed in vitro with the use of a quail myoblast (QM7) cell line. QM7 cells were treated with 2 doses (1 nM and 10 nM) of cholecalciferol or 25(OH)D₃ alone or in combination with 100 nM rapamycin, and cell proliferation was determined by cell proliferation assay. Protein synthesis-related gene and protein expression were also determined. The HyD-42 increased 25(OH)D₃ circulating concentrations by 126% (P meat yield (P vitro functional studies showed that cells treated with 25(OH)D₃ for 24 h had increased VDR expression, and activated the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 kinase (S6K) pathway, enhanced Ki67 protein concentrations, and induced QM7

  6. Effect Of Pyridoxine Injection In Japanese Quail Eggs On HATCHABILITY, Performance And Some Physiological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; MAHROSE, KH.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the poultry farm found in the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during January 2009. A total number of two hundreds and seventy five quail eggs were used in an experiment of a completely randomized design to estimate hatchability percentage, chick weight at hatch, growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass traits of Japanese quails as affected by injecting their eggs with pyridoxine. Eggs were divided into 5 groups (55 eggs each); the first group (without injection) was served as control while the second group was injected in the width end of the egg with 500 μl saline. The third, fourth and fifth groups were injected in the width end of the Japanese quail eggs with 40, 80 and 120 μg pyridoxine, respectively, dissolved in 500 μl saline. Hatchability percentage, live body weight, daily body weight gain and some organ weights (liver, gizzard and heart) were studied. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for analyses. It was observed that the groups of quail eggs received 120 μg pyridoxine injection recorded the highest hatchability percent. Chick weight at hatch was non-significantly affected by saline solution injection. The birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine recorded the highest live body weight, especially during the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of age. The daily body weight gain was significantly affected by pyridoxine injection only during the intervals of 1 to 2, 3 to 4 and from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were highly significantly elevated in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine than other groups. Serum AST activity was highly significantly increased in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 40 μg pyridoxine than other groups while serum ALT activity and calcium concentration were non

  7. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris F. Pourlis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies.

  8. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  9. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  10. Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks in broiler chickens in the Lebanon: epidemiological markers and competitive exclusion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Jurdi, L H; Talhouk, R; Qatanani, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W; Bouljihad, M; Spasojevic, R

    1999-12-01

    This study investigates the first emergence of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks among chickens in the Lebanon and identifies the epidemiological markers of selected recovered Enteritidis strains. In addition, the authors evaluate a competitive exclusion approach to control infection in broiler chickens by Enteritidis organisms which possess the prevalent identified markers. The basic procedure in this investigation involved recording signs and lesions in eleven broiler chicken flocks on eleven farms, and culturing livers, spleens, and caeca of ten randomly selected birds per flock for Salmonella isolation and serotyping. Furthermore, culturing for Salmonella and serotyping was attempted from the livers, spleens, caeca and oviduct swabs of ten hens in four broiler breeder flocks which provided hatching eggs for the broilers under study. The identification of epidemiological markers in recovered S. Enteritidis included the determination of drug-resistance patterns and plasmid profiling. The competitive exclusion was evaluated by spraying the microflora on day-old broilers in the hatchery, followed by a controlled oral challenge at three days of age, with 2.85 x 10(5) colony-forming units of S. Enteritidis organisms per bird. Exclusion was evaluated by culturing for S. Enteritidis in anal swabs, spleens, livers, and caeca of individual challenged birds treated with the microflora and in untreated challenged birds. A total of 112 invasive S. Enteritidis strains were recovered on eleven farms from individual organs of broiler chickens with typical signs and lesions of salmonellosis. The prevalent resistance to drugs in such strains was to furaltadone and gentamycin, a marker identified in 93 strains (83%), recovered from nine out of eleven farms. The same resistance pattern was present in S. Enteritidis strains recovered from breeders on one out of four farms. The prevalent plasmid profile in nine S. Enteritidis organisms selected randomly from a pool of 93 strains (one

  11. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  12. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Graciene Conceição dos; Garcia, Edivaldo Antônio; Vieira Filho, Javer Alves; Molino, Andréa de Britto; Pelicia, Kleber; Berto, Daniella Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, eg...

  13. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  14. Pathobiology and transmission of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Busquets, Núria; Gamino, Virginia; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Chaves, Aida J; Ramis, Antonio; Abad, F Xavier; Höfle, Ursula; Majó, Natàlia

    2013-03-28

    European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) may share with Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) its potential as an intermediate host and reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). To elucidate this question, European quail were experimentally challenged with two highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) (H7N1/HP and H5N1/HP) and one low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) (H7N2/LP). Contact animals were also used to assess the viral transmission among birds. Severe neurological signs and mortality rates of 67% (H7N1/HP) and 92% (H5N1/HP) were observed. Although histopathological findings were present in both HPAIV-infected groups, H5N1/HP-quail displayed a broader viral antigen distribution and extent of microscopic lesions. Neither clinical nor pathological involvement was observed in LPAIV-infected quail. Consistent long-term viral shedding and effective transmission to naive quail was demonstrated for the three studied AIV. Drinking water arose as a possible transmission route and feathers as a potential origin of HPAIV dissemination. The present study demonstrates that European quail may play a major role in AI epidemiology, highlighting the need to further understand its putative role as an intermediate host for avian/mammalian reassortant viruses.

  15. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  16. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  17. Growth performance and immunological responses of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens fed synbiotic and diet acidifier to Newcastle disease vaccinations. One hundred and forty four (144) day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments replicated thrice with 12 birds per replicate ...

  18. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more

  19. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  20. Uso da Farinha Integral da Vagem de Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. na Alimentação de Codornas Japonesas Use of Integral Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. Pods Meal in the Japanese Quails Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado para testar a inclusão da farinha integral de vagem de algaroba (FVA nos níveis de 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 25% na alimentação de codornas japonesas. Foram utilizadas 216 codornas com 160 dias de idade e peso vivo de 189 g, distribuídas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. As variáveis estudadas foram obtidas em três períodos de 21 dias. O consumo e a massa de ovos do tratamento controle foram superiores aos do tratamento com 25% de FVA. Excluindo-se o controle, o consumo de ração, produção de ovos, massa de ovos e conversão por massa de ovos foram afetadas de forma quadrática pelos níveis de inclusão de FVA. Recomenda-se a inclusão de FVA em até 15% ou 150 g/kg em rações isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas sem afetar, adversamente, o desempenho de codornas.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion levels of integral mesquite pods meal (MPM (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% in diet on laying quail performance. Two hundred and sixteen layer quails with 160 days of age and live weight of 189 g were allotted to an experimental design completely randomized. The studied variables were obtained in three periods of 21 days. The 25% of MPM level reduced feed intake and egg mass when compared to control. Except for the control, feed intake, egg production, egg mass production and egg feed mass ratio were quadratically affected. Based on the results of this work, the MPM can be included up to 15% or 150 g/kg in partial corn replacement of isonitrogen and isoenergy diets, without an adverse effect on laying hens quail performance.

  1. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyeye, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  2. Mallard Use of Hen HousesTM in Eastern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Zimmerling

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesting structures for ground-nesting waterfowl may be an effective technique for increasing nesting success in regions in which nest success is below the 15% threshold needed to maintain a stable population. We studied the occupancy rate of artificial nesting structures called hen housesTM by Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos nesting in two different wetland habitats, beaver ponds and sewage lagoons, in eastern Ontario during 1999-2001. We hypothesized that, because natural cover was sparse on sewage lagoons, Mallards would occupy hen houses at a higher rate on sewage lagoons than on beaver ponds. However, of the 248 hen houses distributed between beaver ponds and sewage lagoons, none was occupied by waterfowl. Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula were the only avian species that nested in hen houses. However, Mallards successfully nested directly under several structures (n = 6 when water levels were low enough to expose the ground beneath them. Mayfield daily nest survival estimates for Mallards nesting in natural cover were similar on sewage lagoons and beaver ponds for all years (mean = 0.99 and were higher than most published estimates. Factors such as nesting cover, predation pressures, and structure design and material may influence the use of artificial hen houses and should be considered when planning a hen house program outside of the Prairie Pothole Region.

  3. Dietary menhaden oil contributes to hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elswyk, M E; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Hargis, P S

    1994-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological investigations have indicated that there may be substantial human cardiovascular benefits associated with increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids commonly found in fish oils. Recent studies have indicated that egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content is significantly increased when hens are fed diets enriched with selected fish oils such as menhaden oil (MO). In the present study, reproductively active females but not males exhibited increased hepatic lipidosis following 6 mo of feeding 3% MO. Hens fed 3% animal-vegetable oil (AV) did not exhibit hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were reduced (P < or = .05) in hens fed MO. Subsequently, yolk and total egg weights of hens fed MO were decreased as compared with those of hens fed AV. A significant interaction of dietary MO and exogenous 17 beta-estradiol was noted among chick liver and gallbladder weights. These data suggest that dietary MO and estradiol may interact in a manner that enhances the lipogenic activity of the liver, thereby inducing hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.

  4. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  5. Oral food desensitization in children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy: a new protocol with raw hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Carello, Rossella; Gabriele, Ida; Avitabile, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects young children and can cause severe allergic reactions. Avoidance results in dietary limitations and can affect the quality of life, especially in cases where potentially life-threatening reactions exist. Our objective was to desensitize children with moderate-severe IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy over a 6-month period, by introducing increasing and very gradual daily doses of raw hen's egg in order to enable the children to assume 25ml of this food, or to induce tolerance to the highest possible dose. The protocol foresaw the egg reintroduction in the home setting. In this randomized, controlled open study, 20 hen's egg allergic children (10 in the active group) were admitted. A convincing history or a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge confirmed the diagnosis. Oral desensitization was performed with increasing doses starting from 0.27 mg of hen's egg proteins (1 drop of raw hen's egg diluted 1:100). We adopted an original, mathematically calculated protocol in order to ensure a constant, daily increment of doses. 8/10 children (80%) in the active group achieved the daily intake of 25ml over a 6-month period. One child (10%) could tolerate up to 2ml/day while another child (10%) failed the desensitization. Six months after enrolment only 2 children in the control group (20%) could tolerate hen's egg. We successfully desensitized 8/10 children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy in a 6-month period. The partial outcome in the child who could tolerate 2ml/day reduced the risk of severe reactions after unnoticed introduction of egg. A regular protocol that ensures a daily constant increase of doses helps to reduce possible adverse events, thus improving safety and effectiveness. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Responses to graded phytic acid in young Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Lee, Y.H.; Johnston, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Graded levels of phytic acid (PA) were fed to day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) for 7 d to establish responses for evaluating effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates. Sodium phytate was added to supply 1.4, 2.8, 5.5, 8.4, 11.0, and 13.8 g PA/kg adequate casein-gelatin diet containing 20 mg Zn/kg. Eleven g phytic acid approximates that in diets containing defatted soy flour as the protein source. PA:Zn molar ratios were 7, 14, 27, 41, 54, and 68. The effects and graded response ranges (g PA/kg diet) were as follows: decreased body weight, 2.8-13.8; defective feathering, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia Zn, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia ash, 1.4-13.8; and decreased pancreas Zn, 1.4-5.5. The lowest level of PA produced marked decreases in tibia and pancreas Zn; thus the PA ranges can be extended to even lower levels. The effects of PA were reproducible between experiments and the mean values were reproducible except for tibia ash and liver Mn, which varied somewhat. There were no effects of PA on liver Zn and Mg, or on pancreas Fe and Mg; the effects on liver Fe and Cu, and tibia Fe and Mg were small and inconsistent. The responses to PA and the dose ranges provide a realistic basis for assessing the biological effects of other inositol phosphates that can be formed during food processing

  7. Neuropeptidomic analysis of the embryonic Japanese quail diencephalon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sköld Karl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous peptides such as neuropeptides are involved in numerous biological processes in the fully developed brain but very little is known about their role in brain development. Japanese quail is a commonly used bird model for studying sexual dimorphic brain development, especially adult male copulatory behavior in relation to manipulations of the embryonic endocrine system. This study uses a label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry approach to analyze the influence of age (embryonic days 12 vs 17, sex and embryonic day 3 ethinylestradiol exposure on the expression of multiple endogenous peptides in the developing diencephalon. Results We identified a total of 65 peptides whereof 38 were sufficiently present in all groups for statistical analysis. Age was the most defining variable in the data and sex had the least impact. Most identified peptides were more highly expressed in embryonic day 17. The top candidates for EE2 exposure and sex effects were neuropeptide K (downregulated by EE2 in males and females, gastrin-releasing peptide (more highly expressed in control and EE2 exposed males and gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone related protein 2 (more highly expressed in control males and displaying interaction effects between age and sex. We also report a new potential secretogranin-2 derived neuropeptide and previously unknown phosphorylations in the C-terminal flanking protachykinin 1 neuropeptide. Conclusions This study is the first larger study on endogenous peptides in the developing brain and implies a previously unknown role for a number of neuropeptides in middle to late avian embryogenesis. It demonstrates the power of label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to analyze the expression of multiple endogenous peptides and the potential to detect new putative peptide candidates in a developmental model.

  8. Isolation and serological differentiation of a herpesvirus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J; Glünder, G; Stiburek, B

    1980-01-01

    An infectious agent was isolated from the liver of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758). The agent was sensitive to chloroform and its multiplication was inhibited by 5-iodine-2-deoxy-uridine. It passed filters with a pore diameter of 220 nm and more but not 100 nm filters. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous nucleocapsids with hollow capsomeres and few enveloped particles in the supernatant fluids of infected cultures. The nucleocapsids were calculated to have 162 capsomeres on their surface. Using the plaque reduction method for neutralization tests no serological cross reactions could be detected between the quail isolate and sera against Marek's disease virus, turkey herpes-virus (HV), duck enteritis HV, infectious laryngotracheitis HV, amazon parrot HV, great horned owl HV, eagle owl HV, snowy owl HV, falcon HV, pigeon HV, Lake Victoria Cormorant HV, and stork HV. The isolate from bobwhite quail did only cross-react with antiserum against crane HV. It is concluded that the isolated virus is a member of the avian herpesvirus group and it is proposed to tentatively term it herpesvirus colinum (from Colinus virginianus = bobwhite quail).

  9. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  10. Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),

  11. Organizational effects of diethylstilbestrol on brain vasotocin and sexual behavior in male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Montoncello, Barbara; Mura, Elena; Pessatti, Marzia; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2005-04-15

    In Japanese quail, we previously described a sexual dimorphism of the parvocellular vasotocin system of the limbic region that, as the reproductive behavior, is steroid-sensitive and is organized during embryonic life by the exposure to estradiol. We verified in this study whether diethylstilbestrol, a chemical xenoestrogen, has analogous organizational effects on the vasotocin system of limbic regions and on copulatory behavior of male Japanese quail. We injected in the yolk sac of 3 day-old quail embryos diethylstilbestrol or estradiol benzoate (a treatment which suppresses male copulatory behavior in adulthood and reduces vasotocin innervation), or sesame oil (control). No further hormonal manipulations were performed after hatching. Sexual behavior was recorded in males at the age of 6 weeks. Estradiol- and diethylstilbestrol-treated males exhibited a total suppression of copulatory behavior. After behavioral tests, all males were sacrificed and brain sections processed for vasotocin immunocytochemistry. Significant decrease in the density of vasotocin immunoreactivity was detected in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and in the lateral septum of diethylstilbestrol-treated males. The magnocellular vasotocin neurons were, in contrast, not affected. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that embryonic treatment with diethylstilbestrol induces a full sex reversal of behavioral phenotype as well as a significant decrease of vasotocin expression in the preoptic-limbic region in male Japanese quail. Therefore, the parvocellular vasotocin system could represent an optimal model to investigate the effects of pollutants on neural circuits controlling reproductive functions.

  12. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  13. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcase composition and thyroid hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Darras, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2008). s. 96-102 ISSN 0007-1668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Japanese quail * Growth phases * Carcase quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2008

  14. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  15. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  16. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  17. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  18. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  19. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lontchi-Yimagou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4 consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results: In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL and 4 (59.41 mg/dL compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl, although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (p <0.05 in groups 3 (106.52 mg/dL and 4 (109.65 mg/dL compared to group 2 (65.82 mg/dL. Quail eggs had no effect on oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and catalase. Conclusions: The consumption of quail eggs by diabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile.

  20. A Comparative Assessment of the Broiler:Corn Ratio and Its Impact on Broiler Processors' Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Sandra J.; Goodwin, Harold L., Jr.; McKenzie, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Input prices for broiler production, particularly corn, are becoming increasingly volatile due to increasing competition for corn from ethanol and biofuels production suggesting volatility in poultry profits will follow indicator of profits relating feed input prices and broiler meat output prices, such as a Broiler:corn ratios. Total chicken exports, total chicken ready-to-cook production, number of eggs set, number of chicks placed, and cold storage chicken inventory are used to estimate. U...

  1. Ascorbic acid and melatonin reduce heat-induced performance inhibition and oxidative stress in Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Gursu, M F; Smith, M O

    2004-02-01

    1. The effects of ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) and melatonin supplementation on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation indicator, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol and mineral status in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature were evaluated. 2. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails (10 d old) were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of three birds each. The birds were kept in a temperature-controlled room at 22 degrees C (Thermoneutral, TN groups) or 34 degrees C (for 8 h/d; 09:00 to 17:00 h; Heat stress, HS groups). Birds in both TN and HS were fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet (Ascorbic acid group), 40 mg of melatonin/kg of diet (Melatonin group) or both (Ascorbic acid + Melatonin group). 3. Supplementing heat-stressed quails with ascorbic acid and melatonin improved performance compared with the control group. Effects generally were greatest in quails supplemented with both ascorbic acid and melatonin. 4. Although supplementation did not consistently restore the concentrations of serum ascorbic acid, retinol and tocopherol to those of TN groups, these concentrations increased significantly with supplementation. Furthermore, serum and liver MDA and serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations were lower in the supplemented groups than in the heat-stressed controls. 5. Within each environment, excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr were lowest in the combination group and, in all cases, highest in the HS group. Interactions between diet and temperature were detected for live weight gain, cold carcase weight, MDA, ascorbic acid, tocopherol concentrations and excretion of zinc. 6. The results of the study indicate that ascorbic acid and melatonin supplementation attenuate the decline in performance and antioxidant and mineral status caused by heat stress and such

  2. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  3. Hen på bibliotek : En diskursanalys av genusintresserade bibliotekariers tal om begreppet hen

    OpenAIRE

    Almström, Vera Henrika

    2013-01-01

    This master’s thesis looks at discourses that use the pronoun ”hen”. The media debate in Sweden over this pronoun in 2012 started in connection with the publishing of a children’s picture book: Kivi och monsterhund, by Jesper Lundqvist and Bettina Jansson. The essay investigates how eight librarians, who take an interest in and work with gender issues, talk about the pronoun hen and about this picture book and other books that have characters which are not named as a sex/gender. The essay tak...

  4. Data Driven Broiler Weight Forecasting using Dynamic Neural Network Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Simon Vestergaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Riisgaard-Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the dynamic influence of environmental broiler house conditions and broiler growth is investigated. Dynamic neural network forecasting models have been trained on farm-scale broiler batch production data from 12 batches from the same house. The model forecasts future broiler weight...... and uses environmental conditions such as heating, ventilation, and temperature along with broiler behavior such as feed and water consumption. Training data and forecasting data is analyzed to explain when the model might fail at generalizing. We present ensemble broiler weight forecasts to day 7, 14, 21...

  5. Comparison of hen preference for nesting substrate material, and performance in a free range production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project consisted of 200 Hy-Line Brown hens and was conducted utilizing the brood-grow-lay range huts at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Piedmont Research Station. Fifty hens were placed in each pen/paddock providing 1338 cm2/hen of floor space in the hut an...

  6. Mineral content of eggs differs with hens strain, age and rearing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg nutrient quality is strongly influenced by hen diet but is also affected by rearing environment, hen strain and hen age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of: 1) conventional battery cages 2) enrichable cage systems 3) enriched colony housing 4) cage free and 5) free...

  7. [The effect of palm oil and safflower oil in the feed of parent fattening hens on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, I

    1999-01-01

    The aim of two experiments with broiler breeder hens was to evaluate the effect of diets containing palm butter or safflower oil (25 g and 50 g/kg feed, resp.) on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny. Especially the incorporation of oleic and linoleic acid in egg yolk reflected the dietary fatty acid source. Eggs were collected and stored in the incubator at a hen age of 31, 40, 50, and 60 weeks. Hatched chicks were reared over 5 weeks. The number of fertile eggs (Experiment 1 and 2, 75 and 88%, resp.) differed between the experiments (P < or = 0.05). Neither embryonic mortality nor hatchability (Experiment 1 and 2, 76 and 78%, resp.) were significantly affected by fatty acid composition of yolk. No clear maternal dietary effect was recorded on chicken weight at hatching (Experiment 1 and 2, 43.3 g and 43.7 g, resp.) and at 35 days of age (Experimental 1 and 2, 1676 g and 1764 g, resp.) The fatty acid composition in the analysed egg yolk sac of chicks showed a different fatty level but corresponded to fatty acid composition of breeding eggs before incubation. According to a decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk due to increased incorporation of linoleic acid, the content of this fatty acid was also diminished in phospholipids of the brain of chicken on days 1 and 5 after hatching.

  8. Effect of Katuk leaf (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr suplementation in the diet on reproductive function of Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein, and sterol compounds. This study was aimed to determine whether phytosterol in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf affected the reproductive system of female quails. One hundred and fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old and divided into three dietary treatment, with five replicates and 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 diet with 9% SA ethanol extract (TEK; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (TDK. The TDK-fed quails laid their first eggs at 46 day of age, compared with the TEK (52 day and the control groups (53 day. The highest fertility (94.55% and hatchability (93.29% were obtained from the TDK fed quails at the age of 23 and 24 weeks, respectively. These findings indicated that the reproductive system of female quails were improved not only by phytosterol in SA leaf, but also by the β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol in SA leaf.

  9. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Increasing raw bambara nut waste levels also depressed (P < 0.05) nutrient absorption ... Key words: Raw bambara nut waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance.

  10. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...... chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw (“point-source enrichment”), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges (“complex enriched environments”). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably...

  11. Role Of SYNBIOTICS And Low Level GAMMA Irradiation Treatments In Improving Performance Of Japanese Quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A total number of 800 Japanese quail eggs were obtained from a parent flock maintained the poultry research unit of the Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Centre at Inshas, Egypt, and used in the present study. Before incubating the eggs, they were divided into two equal groups of 400 eggs each; the 1 st group was exposed to a low level of gamma irradiation at 50 rad before sitting while the 2 nd group did not exposed to gamma irradiation. After hatching of the two groups, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and hatching weight were determined. Hatched quail chicks from each group (1 and 2) were divided into four identical subgroups and all fed the basal diet but with a different supplement. The diet of the 1 st subgroup was supplemented with 2.5% Lactobacilli, the 2 nd with 1.5% lactose, the 3 rd with 2.5% Lactobacilli plus 1.5% lactose, while the 4 th subgroup was fed the basal diet only and served as control. The results showed decreased embryonic mortality and increased hatchability and hatching weight due to exposing quail eggs to low level of gamma radiation as compared to non-exposed eggs. The average body weight and the relative weights of carcass, testis and oviduct, egg production, egg weight, serum total protein, albumin, globulins, RBC, WBC and Hb values were increased significantly (P th week due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet. Significant reduction (P<0.05) in the intestinal wall index was observed due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet of hatched quails. In conclusion, adding Lactobacilli and/or lactose to the basal diet of hatched Japanese quails improved performance as well as blood constituents and intestinal wall index. The magnitude of this improvement was even greater when both supplements were combined. In addition, the exposure of eggs to low level of gamma radiation (50 rad) improved hatchability and hatching weight of Japanese quail eggs, but no relationship to dietary

  12. The effect of clomiphene-citrate on broody turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinzon, B; Shafir, Z; Perek, M; Snapir, N

    1984-11-01

    The effect of clomiphene-citrate (CC) on broody turkey hens was examined in three experiments. Turkey hens were categorized as broody if found in the laying nest during 6 successive checks per day, if they were reluctant to leave the nest for a period of 24 hr or more, if they had ruffled feathers, and if their cloacal orifices were contracted so as to prevent vaginal exposure by abdominal massage during artificial insemination. In each experiment, 20 hens, selected as broody from commercial breeding flocks, were treated; half were treated with CC at a dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight/day (per os) for 5 consecutive days, and the rest (control) received parallel treatment with a placebo (CaCO3). In all experiments, the CC administration alleviated brooding behavior and increased egg production.

  13. Utilization of nitrogen-15 from wheat by growing poultry and laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, A.; Gruhn, K.; Jahreis, G.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrogen-15 offered to broiler chickens and laying hens has been tested. The test animals were given wheat (atom % 15 N-excess 20-25%) or 15 N-lysine in balanced rations. The results showed that different feedstuffs are transported selectively through the gastro-intestinal tract. Therefore the atom % 15 N-excess is higher in the contents of the crop, the proventriculus and the gizzard in comparison with the feed. Some hours after feeding the atom % 15 N-excess in the contents of the small intestine is lower than in other parts of the intestinal tract (3 to 12 hours after feeding). As to atom % 15 N, there is a significant correlation between the contents of the small intestine and the gut wall (r=0.99). As the amount of nitrogen in the contents of the small intestine does not change between 3 and 12 hours after feeding, the obvious dilution of 15 N does not allow conclusions to be made regarding the endogenic secretion. In the steady state, 24% of the 15 N of wheat lysine, 12% of the 15 N of wheat histidine and 9% of arginine were excreted in the faeces. Four days after the last feed intake of labelled wheat or lysine we found more 15 N in the carcass than in the total sum of eggs. Four days after the last feeding the albumen showed a higher labelling rate than urine. The 15 N of wheat was differently incorporated into thoracic, leg and heart muscles. We found a different half-life time for the individual muscle protein types in the following order: heart, leg, thoracic. Within the eight-day period no changes were observed in the level of labelling in the thoracic muscle. (author)

  14. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  15. Influence of Natural Zeolite on Performance of Laying Hens and Egg Quality

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ergin; ERENER, Güray; SARICA, Musa

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of natural zeolite on the performance of laying hens. One hundred and eighty 37-week-old Babcock B-300 hens were fed with a diet containing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g clinoptilolite/kg in an experiment consisting of 36 hens per treatment during a 4x28 days experimental period. All feeding programs were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hens were put at random into 5 treatment groups (12 replicates and 36 hens per treatment). No significant dietar...

  16. Whole-Genome de novo Sequencing Of Quail And Grey Partridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Panitz, Frank; Burt, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The development in sequencing methods has made it possible to perform whole genome de novo sequencing of species without large commercial interests. Within the EU-financed QUANTOMICS project (KBBE-2A-222664), we have performed de novo sequencing of quail (Coturnix coturnix) and grey partridge...... (Perdix perdix) on a Genome Analyzer GAII (Illumina) using paired-end sequencing. The amount of generated sequences amounts to 8 to 9 Gb for each species. The analysis and assembly of the generated sequences is ongoing. Access to the whole genome sequence from these two species will enable enhanced...... comparative studies towards the chicken genome and will aid in identifying evolutionarily conserved sequences within the Galliformes. The obtained sequences from quail and partridge represent a beginning of generating the whole genome sequence for these species. The continuation of establishing the genome...

  17. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  18. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  19. Tissue localization of DDT and PCB isomers (octa- and tetrachlorobiphenyl) in laying quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, I.; Hoegman, P.-G.; Larsson, Y.; Olsson, S.

    1978-01-01

    Whole-body autoradiography of DDT- 14 C, 2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl- 14 C and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6'=octachlorobiphenyl- 14 C in laying quails indicated a strong deposition of radioactivity in the yolk of the growing follicles and the egg, confirming this to be a significant excretion route of lipophilic environmental pollutants in laying birds. A specific uptake of DDT and octachlorobiphenyl, but not of tetrachlorobiphenyl, was observed in the cortical cords of the adrenals. The octachlorobiphenyl was concentrated also in the ovarian stroma. Both DDT and the tetrachlorobiphenyl were excreted in the bile juice to the small intestine. No such excretion of octachlorobiphenyl was observed, indicating its rate of metabolization to be low. All compounds were accumulated and stored in the body fat. A previously described specific accumulation of 2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the respiratory tract of mice was not observed in the quail. (author)

  20. Classification of the coefficients of variation of parameters evaluated in Japanese quail experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHV Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a classification range of the coefficients of variation (CV of traits used in experiments with eggtype Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The journal Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia was systematically reviewed, using the key word 'quail' during the period of January, 2000 to 2010. The CV of feed intake (g/bird/d, egg production (%/bird/d, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/d, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (g/dozen, feed conversion ratio per egg mass (g/g, and egg specific gravity (g/mL were collected. For each parameter, CV were classified using the following median (MD and pseudo-sigma (PS ratio as follows: low (CV MD + 2PS. According to the results, it was concluded that each parameter has a specific classification range that should be taken into account when evaluating experimental precision.

  1. Nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on male quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Primadhani, M. S.; Swastike, W.; Sutrisno, J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on of male quail. Four hundred male quails were divided into four groups with five replications. The experiment is Completely Randomized Design and the data were analyzed by analyses of variants. The experimental diets were P0 = basal diet, P1 = 97% basal diet + 3% vegetables waste flour, P2 = 94% basal diet + 6% vegetables waste flour, and P3 = 91% basal diet + 9% vegetables waste flour. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and extract ether. Result showed that of the addition of vegetable waste flour in the diet had no effect on crude protein digestibility (P>0.05), however shown significant effect on dry matter (P digestibility.

  2. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  3. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  4. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  5. Effect of Long-Term Hypodynamy on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Small Intestine in Japanese Quail Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Lenhardt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional development of the small intestine was investigated in Japanese quail chicks subjected to simulated microgravity (hypodynamy on the second day after hatching and reared under these conditions to 63 days of age. On days 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56 and 63 the activity of brush-border-bound alkaline phosphatase (AP in the duodenum and jejunum were determined in experimental animals as well as in control quail chicks housed in a floor box during these periods. As compared with control quails the experimental animals displayed a significantly increased enzyme activity until day 42 in the duodenum and day 35 in the jejunum (P < 0.001 whereas in older quails no significant enzymatic differences between these groups was found. However, a decrease in food consumption due to a partial physical constraint cannot be excluded. Moreover, the results suggested that the activity of AP in the control birds did not change substantially during all the periods examined. In contrast, in older hypodynamy quail the AP activity significantly decreased in the duodenum on days 56 and 63 and in the jejunum on days 42, 56 and 63, respectively. These results indicate that a the enhanced intestinal function in early periods of life may reflect the higher sensitivity of small intestine to simulated weightlessness, b the decrease of the AP activity in older animals to the level of controls might be considered as a part of intestinal mechanisms involved in adaptation of quail chicks to long-term hypodynamy, c different activity of AP in the small intestine of Japanese quail may not have resulted only from hypodynamy but also due to decreased food intake.

  6. Laying hen movement in a commercial aviary: Enclosure to floor and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many producers in the laying hen industry, including in North America, are phasing out conventional cages in response to consumer demands and sometimes subsequent legislation. Alternative housing systems such as aviaries are being implemented in an attempt to improve hen welfare. Aviaries provide additional space and resources to groups of hens, including a litter area on the floor. However, little is known about hen movement between tiered enclosures and floor litter areas in aviary systems. Diurnal rhythms and social attraction may result in peak times of movement that could lead to overcrowding of areas, or alternatively hen preferences may lead to some areas not being fully utilized. We monitored hen movement between tiered enclosures and litter areas, including movement on and off the outer perch, across the day at peak, mid and end of lay in a commercial aviary. Hens moved onto and off of the open litter area across the day, transitioning between tiered enclosures, outer perches, open litter areas, and litter areas under tiered enclosures. At certain times of day, there were periods of greater hen movement down to the open litter area and between litter areas. For example, more hens were typically observed exiting enclosures, jumping from perches to open litter, and traveling between open litter and litter under tiered enclosures in the morning (all P ≤ 0.001). In all but one instance, more hens were observed on open litter areas in the afternoon than at other times of day (all P ≤ 0.029). However, hen re-entry to tiered enclosures showed less circadian patterning. Hen movement was observed between areas of interest at all sampled time periods, indicating hens use all areas of the system. Further research should examine whether all individual hens do move between areas equally, including within levels of the tiered enclosure, or if crowding occurs on the outer perches or in the litter during times of peak movement. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to the preferred lighting conditions and rhythm over extended periods are recommended.

  8. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Ali, El-Shimaa M R; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Poultry production is considered one of the prospective opportunities to accomplish sustainable and quick production of superior protein to challenge the growing mandate for animal protein. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the difference on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. A total of 480 quail chicks of four different plumage colors (120 of each white, golden, gray and brown) were collected after hatching. At 6 week of age, birds were stunned and decapitated to determine the physical meat quality, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and amino acid profile. White quails had the highest weight of slaughter, carcass, dressing, carcass yield, liver, gizzard, heart and spleen (197.27 g, 169.27 g, 91%, 82%, 6.63 g, 6.53 g, 2.27 g and 0.40 g, respectively). Also, they had the highest Ph U , lightness, yellowness and water holding capacity with the lowest level of redness, cooking losses and thiobarbituric acid in pectoral (6.28, 46.40, 12,46, 22.17, 9.20, 19.21 and 0.44, respectively) and thigh muscles (6.37, 42.30, 11.51, 26.01, 10.12 and 0.93, respectively). Moreover, they possessed the highest level of all essential (11.68 and 10.16 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively) and non essential amino acids (13.27 and 12.54 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively). Therefore, the current study revealed that white quails had the heaviest body weight with the best carcass traits and meat quality.

  9. Nutritional requirements of digestible threonine for growing meat-type quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of digestible threonine for meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix sp in the growth phase. A total of 1350 not sexed meat-type quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with six threonine levels (10.80, 11.50, 12.20, 12.90, 13.60 and 14.30 g/kg as fed, five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit, from 1 to 14 days of age. The threonine levels in the diet had a quadratic effect on body weight, feed intake and weight gain. Estimates for highest body weight (79.41 g, feed intake (128.96 g/bird and weight gain (70.73 g were observed with diets containing 12.60 g/kg of digestible threonine. According to the LRP model, the threonine intake was estimated at 13.40 g/kg of digestible threonine. Protein deposition rate and energy retained in the carcass showed quadratic effect, with estimated digestible threonine levels of 11.80 and 12.00 g/kg in the diet for maximum protein deposition rate (2.00 g/bird and retained energy in the carcass (15.88 kcal/g, respectively. There was a linear effect on feed cost per kg of live weight gain as threonine levels were increased. Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for meat-type quails for maximum growth is 12.60 g/kg, corresponding to a digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 67.02.

  10. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  11. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El-Barkouky, E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness

  12. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Taleb, A M; Ezzat, I E; El-Barkouky, E [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness.

  13. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3 of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and vacuum packaged. All samples were stored at +2 and +7°C. Analysis were conducted at 0, 3, 7, 9 and 14 days (T0, T3, T7, T9, and T14, respectively. For all the samples, pH measurement and microbial analysis [total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. (LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, Enterococcus spp., yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes] were performed. Initial TVC levels of fresh quails (ca. 4 log CFU/g were rather high and this may be due to the microbial population of the raw material. In Q1 and Q2.1 samples, TVC reached the value of 7 log, which is considered as the upper acceptability limit for fresh poultry meat (after T9 under storage at +2°C and after T7 at +7°C. In Q2.2 samples such limit was reached earlier, after T3. In Q3 samples, lower TVC levels were recorded and did not reach the above mentioned limit, not even at the end of storage. However, mean counts >5 log were reached, maybe because of a post-cooking cross-contamination. Salmonella spp. prevalence was 33% in Q1, Q2.1 and Q2.2 samples.

  14. Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Hron, Tomáš; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Elleder, Daniel; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2017), č. článku e02002. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30983S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ALV-J * antiretroviral resistance * Na+/H+ exchanger * New World quail * retroviral receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  15. The Effects of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Over the Egg Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, Mukaddes; ÇÖTELİOĞLU, Ülker

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on the egg quality in 5 week-female Japanese quails was investigated. Hyperthyroidsm and hypothyroidism were achieved by mixing 0.4 mg/100 g. levatrocsyn-sodium and % 0.2 g. propylthiouracil (PTU) in to the food during the 5 weeks period, respectively. It was found that egg weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness values in both trial groups reduced (P

  16. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dopamine modulates male sexual behavior in Japanese quail in part via actions on noradrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, Charlotte A; Dejace, Christel; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2005-08-30

    In rats, dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior through its combined action on D1- and D2-like receptors, in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as well as other brain areas. In Japanese quail, systemic injections of dopaminergic drugs suggested a similar pharmacology but central injections have never been performed. Recent electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that DA effects in the MPOA of quail are mediated mainly through the activation of alpha2-noradrenergic receptors. Previous studies of DA action on behavior used specific dopaminergic agonists/antagonists and therefore unintentionally avoided the potential cross-reaction with alpha2-receptors. The present study was thus designed to investigate directly the effects of DA on male sexual behavior and to test whether the interaction of DA with heterologous receptors affects this behavior. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of DA or NE inhibited copulation in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic injections of yohimbine, an alpha2-noradrenergic antagonist, modulated copulation in a bimodal manner depending on the dose injected. Interestingly, a behaviorally ineffective dose of yohimbine markedly reduced the inhibitory effects of DA when injected 15min before. Together, these results show for the first time that i.c.v. injections of DA itself inhibit male sexual behavior in quail and suggest that the interaction of DA with alpha2-receptors has behavioral significance.

  19. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ( 3 H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following 3 H-T or 3 H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following 3 H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following 3 H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus

  20. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  1. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  2. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  3. Metabolizable energy levels for meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha Lima Muniz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietetic metabolizable energy levels on performance and carcass traits of meat quails from 15 to 35 days old. Five hundred sixty, 15-d old, meat quails were randomly assigned to five treatments (2.850; 2.950; 3.050; 3.150 e 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 of diet, with eight replicates and fourteen birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, protein and lysine intake and feed conversion decreased linearly as the metabolizable energy content of diets increased (P0.05 by the treatments. Diets did not influence (P>0.05 carcass traits as dry matter, moisture and protein content in carcass. However a quadratic effect (P<0.04 were observed on carcass fat content. Based on these results, the adequate metabolizable energy level to ensure better meat quails' growth is 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 diet, that corresponds to a metabolizable energy: crude protein ratio of 139,24.

  4. Effects of exposure to clothianidin on the reproductive system of male quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Junko; Danjo, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Tatsumi, Atsutoshi; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Sekijima, Tsuneo; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a neonicotinoid developed in the 1990s as an insecticide having selective toxicity, but it was later found to cause reproductive abnormalities in rats through oxidative stress. There is an attempt to preserve endangered animals, including the Japanese crested ibis, in Japan. However, there is a concern that neonicotinoid affects the reproduction of this bird, since it is used in its habitat. CTD toxicity in the birds is poorly understood, so we investigated whether or not the daily oral administration of CTD has any deleterious effects on the reproductive functions of mature male quails as experimental animals. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 or 7 quails each, treated orally with 0, 0.02, 1 or 50 mg CTD/kg body weight (Control, CTD0.02, CTD1 and CTD50). After that the males bred with untreated females to estimate the egg weights, and rates of fertilization and normal development, the testes, liver and spleen were examined histologically. Vacuolization and the number of germ cells having fragmented DNA in seminiferous tubules, and the number and size of vacuoles in hepatocytes increased dose-dependently. There were no significant differences in egg weights and fertilization rates between the groups, but some eggs of the CTD1 and CTD50 groups failed to develop, and embryonic length decreased dose-dependently. Thus, it was found that CTD affected the reproduction of the male quail through the fragmentation of germ cells and the inhibition or delay of embryonic development.

  5. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet ± 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  6. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ABU TALEB, A M [Biological Applications Dept., Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zaable, Inshas (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet {+-} 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  7. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  8. Sex Determination of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica using with Zoometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Çiçek Rathert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of sex determination in most poultry species causes significant financial losses for poultry production as birds cannot be separated at early stages of growth for meat or egg production. Therefore it is important to determine bird’s sex with zoometric parameters. This study was carried out to determine the sex of Japanese quails with zoometric measurements, such as live weight, body length, chest depth and chest width. Eighty-eight male and female Japanese quail chicks were used individually for live weight, chest depth (mm, chest width (mm and body length (mm with using digital scaled balance and caliper for every week over a period of six weeks. The weekly collected data were applied to t test for estimating the sex discrimination. The Pearson’s correlation was applied for examining the interrelationship between sex and biometric traits. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between live weight and body length beginning with the 2nd week. Therefore, zoometric measurement of these body traits is suitable for discriminating the sex of Japanese quails in early phase of life.

  9. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Conceição Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.

  10. Vitamin K supplementation for meat quail in growth of 1 to 14 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Espejo Stanquevis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.

  11. Uses of irradiation or sodium tripolyphosphate for shelf-life extension of quail carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma iraadiation or sodium tripolyphoshate (STPP) for increasing shelf-life of quail carcasses during cold storage. The quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaked in 3% STPP. The effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated during cold storage (4± 1C degree). The results indicated that, the chemical compositions of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation or soaking in STPP. Futhermore, treatment had no deterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. Meanwhile, irradiation of samples at doses of 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged the shelf-life for 15,21,24 and 9 days at 4 ± 1 Cdegree in comparison with 6 days for control samples. Moreover, the acid value (A.V), peroxide value (P.V) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value were increased after irradiation, while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content had no real change by this treatment. On the other hand, soakking in STPP treatment decreased these values and gradual increases were observed during cold storage

  12. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  13. Improving the microbial safety and quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the microbial safety quality of quail carcasses. One hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. The examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated. The results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation treatment. Furthermore, irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and kGy greatly reduced its microbial count. Moreover, irradiation doses of 2 and 4 kGy completely destroyed salmonella and enterococcus faecalis, respectively. In addition, the acid value, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value were increased after irradiation. On the other hand, irradiation treatment had no real effects on the total volatile basic nitrogen content and amino acid composition of samples under investigation

  14. Ovarian radiographic and direct measurements of Japanese Quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica submitted to light restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Often, in pet birds, any stimulus to lay eggs is unwanted in order to reduce reproductive diseases and disorders. The objectives of this study were: to determine the time necessary to promote ovary involution after an eight hour photoperiod using laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica; to connect the ovarian radiographic measurements with egg production; and to compare these measurements with direct ovary data obtained at necropsy. Birds were separated into three groups: 12h/24d (control group - 12h photoperiod for 24 days, 8h/24d and 8h/36d (8h photoperiod for 24 and 36 days. After euthanasia, all cadavers were x-rayed to measure ovary length and height. Birds were necropsied to measure ovarian length and weight. Results: radiographic ovary length demonstrated strong and positive correlation (r=0.96 with direct ovary length of all three groups; laying quails showed higher ovary height (p=0.025 and length (p=0.009 than non-laying quails; eight hours of artificial light per day promotes ovary length (p=0.025 and weight (p=0.009 reduction. Conclusions: radiography can estimate the ovary measure and indicate posture; an eight hour photoperiod of 24 days is not enough to promote ovarian regression, while the use of reduced photoperiod for 36 days promotes significant ovary involution.

  15. Multigenerational effects of a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period of broiler breeders. 2. Zootechnical performance of the F1 broiler offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Li, C; Bautil, A; Li, B; Leblois, J; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2018-05-01

    Several studies in mammals focused on the maternal programming of the metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, while currently, the consequences of a maternal dietary treatment on the offspring performance of farm animals are of particular interest for commercial purpose. In the present study, we investigated if the zootechnical performance of the progeny was altered by a maternal dietary treatment, being a lower dietary crude protein (CP) of the grandparent and/or parent generation. The multigenerational effects of a reduced maternal CP content were investigated by reducing the dietary CP level by 25% in rearing and laying diets of pure line A breeders. The F0 generation breeders were fed either control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diets. The F1 breeder generation was constructed by dividing the F0 female progeny again over a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 dietary treatments in the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP (letters indicating the diets in, respectively, F0 and F1 generations). The offspring performance was evaluated by a zootechnical and nitrogen retention trial on C and low-protein (LP) broiler diets. For the C broiler diet, the C/RP and RP/RP offspring were characterized by a higher BW from d 35 until d 42 compared to the C/C progeny, whereas the RP/C offspring had an intermediate BW that did not differ from the other groups. A tendency (P = 0.067) towards a better nitrogen retention was observed for the offspring of breeders that received the RP diets in F0 and/or F1 generation compared to the C/C progeny. For the LP broiler diet, the C/RP (P = 0.021) and RP/C (P = 0.001) offspring had a higher BW compared to the C/C progeny during the entire grow-out period. In addition, the C/RP offspring were characterized by a lower FCR from d 28 onwards (P = 0.021). In conclusion, dietary treatments imposed on mother hens can have direct effects on the next generation, as well as indirect effects on multiple generations.

  16. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  17. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  18. Enrichment of bifidobacteria in the hen caeca by dietary inulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Rada, V.; Dušková, D.; Petr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 73-75 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0480; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : bifidobacteria * hen * inulin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  19. Measuring fearfulness of hens in commercial organic egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate agreement between flock-based fear tests used in welfare assessments of laying hens in commercial organic farms, three tests were applied in 27 flocks of layers. Tests were performed at 35 and 55 weeks of age and were based on the concepts of 'novel object', 'sudden sound' and two dif...

  20. Consumers’ Preferences for Shell Eggs Regarding Laying Hen Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Yan; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Li, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    DRAFT, do not cite. Please cite formally published version: Heng, Yan, Hikaru Hanawa Peterson, and Xianghong Li. "Consumer Attitudes toward Farm-Animal Welfare: The Case of Laying Hens." Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 38.3 (2013): 418-434. Available at: http://purl.umn.edu/165936

  1. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  2. The effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to laying hens. M.D. Olver. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, lrene. One hundred and twenty 4-month-old, single-combed, brown. Hy-Line pullets were fed two isocaloric diets containing 16 or. 13,5o/o protein with and without 5% clinoptilolite in four.

  3. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  4. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent; Kucuk, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence ( P Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes ( P lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds ( P lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  5. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  6. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  7. EGG QUALITY OF CREOLE HENS REARED IN THE BACKYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Juárez-Caratachea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The egg quality from Creole backyard hens was determined by collecting samples from 11 municipalities from the central area of Michoacan State, Mexico. It was measured: egg weight (EW, longitude diameter (LD of the egg, transversal diameter (TD of the egg, shell weight (SW, shell thickness (ST, shell index (SI, white diameter (WD, yolk diameter (YD, white high (WH, yolk high (YH, air chamber high (ACH and Haugh units (HU. The averages obtained were: EW 50.7 g; LD 5.6 cm; TD 4.2 cm; SW 4.5 g.; ST 0.28 mm; SI 8.9 %; WD 10.0 cm; YD 4.5 cm; WH 6.3 mm; YH 1.6 cm; ACH 5.4 mm; HU 73.4, YP 12.1. In conclusion, the eggs of backyard hens were smaller than commercial eggs. However, the internal quality indicators suggested that backyard hen eggs have similar quality to that of commercial hens.

  8. Variation in selection of microhabitats by Merriam's turkey brood hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    We studied microhabitats of Merriam‘s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) brood hens in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystem in South Dakota from 1986 to 1988. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of microhabitats, open-shrub, open-grasslforb and forest, based on vegetation characteristics at sites selected by brood...

  9. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Consumer concerns about the welfare of laying hens are increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying reliable ways to assess welfare. The present study evaluated invasive and non-invasive welfare indicators in relation to a stressful challenge. The study included 126 Lohmann Selected...

  10. Annotation of Differential Gene Expression in Small Yellow Follicles of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens in Response to Acute Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tu, Wei-Lin; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated global gene expression in the small yellow follicles (6-8 mm diameter) of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) in response to acute heat stress. Twelve 30-wk-old TCC hens were divided into four groups: control hens maintained at 25°C and hens subjected to 38°C acute heat stress for 2 h without recovery (H2R0), with 2-h recovery (H2R2), and with 6-h recovery (H2R6). Small yellow follicles were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis at the end of each time point. Results showed that 69, 51, and 76 genes were upregulated and 58, 15, 56 genes were downregulated after heat treatment of H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6, respectively, using a cutoff value of two-fold or higher. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes are associated with the biological processes of cell communication, developmental process, protein metabolic process, immune system process, and response to stimuli. Upregulation of heat shock protein 25, interleukin 6, metallopeptidase 1, and metalloproteinase 13, and downregulation of type II alpha 1 collagen, discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2, and Kruppel-like factor 2 suggested that acute heat stress induces proteolytic disintegration of the structural matrix and inflamed damage and adaptive responses of gene expression in the follicle cells. These suggestions were validated through gene expression, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional annotation clarified that interleukin 6-related pathways play a critical role in regulating acute heat stress responses in the small yellow follicles of TCC hens.

  11. Evaluation of tiamulin and lincomycin for the treatment of broiler breeders experimentally infected with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C P; Hampson, D J

    2002-06-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli strain CPSp1 isolated from a chicken in a broiler breeder flock in Queensland was used to experimentally infect 30 individually caged 22-week-old Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. Another 10 birds were sham-inoculated with sterile broth. All birds failed to become colonized. At 29 weeks of age, all birds were transferred to a diet containing 50 parts/10(6) zinc bacitracin (ZnB) and were re-challenged with the same B. pilosicoli strain at 32 weeks of age, weekly for 5 weeks. The majority of the inoculated birds then became colonized, confirming previous findings that ZnB can increase susceptibility to colonization with B. pilosicoli. The control group remained uninfected. Infected groups tended to have an increased faecal water content and faecal staining of eggshells. Ten birds were then treated by crop tube with 25 mg/kg body weight tiamulin for 5 days, and 10 birds with 20 mg/kg body weight lincomycin for 5 days. Both treatments removed the infection, while untreated birds remained infected. The results support previous observations that ZnB at 50 parts/10(6) in the diet increases the susceptibility of birds to B. pilosicoli infection, and demonstrated the usefulness of both tiamulin and lincomycin for treatment of infection with B. pilosicoli in adult birds.

  12. Effect of special modified clinoptylolite as an antidote used for treatment of radiocaesium contamination of broiler chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschl, M.; Borkovec, V.; Zelenka, J.; Prochazka, J.

    1994-01-01

    The post-Chernobyl 137 Cs contamination caused gut uptake of this nuclide by ruminants, pigs and laying hens. The application of several clay minerals, stable caesium as well as hexacyanoferrate and related compounds has shown to be effective in reducing the gut uptake. The aim of this study was focused on a possibility of the suppression of gut uptake of 13 '7Cs from the contaminated feed mixture to broiler chicken and/or increasing the rate of excretion of 137 Cs from tissues of broiler chicken by a special food additive (RADECONT, i.e. 98% of clinoptilolite + 2% of FeHCF, made by BIOPOR, CZ). The antidote material RADECONT was added to the feed mixture 2 hours after application of artificially contaminated feed (5kBq of 137 Cs per chicken). The dose of the material was 0.5g per kg body weight and it was repeated daily. The control chickens were given 137 Cs but not antidote in the feed. Lower radiocaesium activities in breast and leg muscles (statistically significant, P 137 Cs administration. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in the controls treated animals were similar. Application of RADECONT decreased the uptake of radiocaesium in tissues (by up to 20% in muscles) but did not enhance the excretion rate of 137 Cs. (author)

  13. The influence of a probiotic supplementation on memory in quail suggests a role of gut microbiota on cognitive abilities in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parois, Severine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Kraimi, Narjis; Gabriel, Irène; Leterrier, Christine

    2017-07-28

    The gut microbiota is involved in host behaviour and memory in mammals. Consequently, it may also influence emotional behaviour and memory in birds. Quail from two genetic lines with different fearfulness (LTI: long tonic immobility, n=37; STI: short tonic immobility, n=32) were either or not supplemented with a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) from hatching. Emotional reactivity was measured in a tonic immobility test (d6 and 7 of age) and two open-field tests (d13-15; d22-24). Memory was measured in a test rewarded with mealworms, where quail had to remember the cups previously visited (d34-36). Quail endured a 5-days stress period from days 17 to 21 to help revealing the potentially beneficial effect of the probiotic. As expected, STI quail were less fearful compared to the LTI quail (p0.05), except in the tonic immobility test where supplemented STI quail had lower immobility duration (p=0.0001). Regarding the memory test, the two lines had similar performances. Quail fed with probiotics made fewer errors (p=0.040). There was no significant correlation between traits of emotional reactivity and of memory. In conclusion, the supplementation with Pediococcus acidilactici as a probiotic, affected a specific trait of emotional reactivity in STI quail, and improved memory in both lines, whichstrengthens the idea that the influence of gut microbiota on the host behaviour and memory seen in mammals is shared by birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The positive expression of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (Malaysian isolate in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Lizma Felisha Mazlan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV is the most predominant NDV strains that circulating in Malaysia; thus, this study was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quails toward genotype VII NDV. Clinical signs, gross pathological lesions of organs, positive detection of virus in organs and cloacal swabs, as well as the expression of the antibody titer, were used as parameters to assess the susceptibility of Japanese quails following infection of genotype VII NDV. Materials and Methods: About 20 quails were divided into three groups (n=8 for Groups A and B; n=4 for the control group. The quails in the Groups A and B were infected via intraocular route with 0.03 ml of 103.5 ELD50 and 107.0 ELD50 of NDV strain IBS 002, respectively, while the control group received 1x phosphate-buffered saline. Cloacal swabs and necropsy were taken on day 7 post-infection for all quails were subjected to one-step reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR for detection of virus and examination for gross pathological lesion, respectively. Blood serums of infected quails were taken on day 10, 14, and 21 post-day infections and were subjected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. Results: Depression and ruffled feathers, trachea rales, leg paralysis, and torticollis were shown in some of the quails in both infected groups. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in clinical signs between the infected groups. The results for RT-qPCR were found to be negative for all groups, and no gross pathological lesions of organs observed for quails in both infected groups. Trachea, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil were taken for the detection of NDV by RT-qPCR, and some of the organ samples showed positive detection of virus in both infected groups. HI assay showed an increase in mean titers of antibody across time and between infected groups. Conclusion: In summary, Japanese quails

  15. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

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    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  16. Utilization of Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr meal and extract as ration substitution to produce low chollesterol Japanese Quail product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein and phytosterol compound. This study was aimed to determine the ability of phytosterols in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf to obtain poultry product that has low cholesterol content. One hundred fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old, divided into three treatment diets, five replicates with 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 Control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 Diet with 9% SA ethanol 70% extract (SAE; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (SAM. Kolesterols were determined with CHOD-PAP-Method by Human, there is enzymatic Colorimetric Test for Cholesterol with Lipid Clearing Factor. The result showed that total cholesterol in the egg yolk, carcass and liver of SAE and SAM treated quails were lower (P<0.05 than that of the control-treated quails, except the cholesterol content in the serum. These findings indicated that the cholesterol concentration of female quails was decreased due to phytosterol content in katuk leaf.

  17. [Quantitative changes in the ultrastructure of myocardial cells in Japanese quail during hypergravity, hypodynamia and space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bózner, A; Boda, K; Dostál, J; Matĕjková, Z; Devecka, V

    1993-03-01

    The experimental work aimed at the quantitative ultrastructure of the myocardial cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica during hypergravitation, hypodynamism and space flight in a Soviet satellite. For the determination of quantitative changes of the myocardial ultrastructure a morphometrical method was used with parameters like the number of mitochondria, average mitochondrial size, relative mitochondrial volume, deficiency of cristae and relative volume of myofibrils. The quails were observed in 3 groups. The absolute control consisted of quails living in normal Earth conditions, in the laboratory group the quails were exposed to conditions of hypergravitation and hypodynamism in a specially constructed centrifuge, and in the flying group the quails were exposed to space flight in a Soviet orbital station MIR. In the group of absolute controls no pathological changes of the myocardial ultrastructure were found. In the flying group there were no significant changes, with the exception of decreased relative volume of myofibrils, which however agrees with the findings on symptoms corresponding to human and animal heart weakness during space flights. In the laboratory group, pathological changes were observed in each of the fractions. The most significant pathological findings were found in the group controls in the center and in hypergravitation combined with hypodynamism. It can be concluded that the laboratories can simulate conditions induced by the start and flight of space ships. (Fig. 2, Ref, 8.)

  18. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  19. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

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    L. SABAU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  20. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore...... of the implemented control strategy....

  1. The effect of organic quail egg supplementation on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus Norvegicus L.) during the lactation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).

  2. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    2003-01-01

    and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth...... quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year....... In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish...

  3. Economic issues of broiler production length

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    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  4. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S

    2018-02-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, FG; Baracho, MS; Nääs, IA; Lima, NSD; Salgado, DD; Souza, R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The pl...

  6. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  8. Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders to broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thoefner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly...... selected for Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST) to determine their clonal relationships. E. coli was the main cause of both salpingitis in parents and first week mortality in broilers, and E. coli dominated the bacterial flora of the cloaca of newly hatched...... chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types...

  9. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  10. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  11. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III and conventional cages (CC. The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05, and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05. The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05. The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05. In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  12. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  13. Feeding broiler breeder males. 4. Deficient feed allocation reduces fertility and broiler progeny body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Leksrisompong, N; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of male broiler breeder feed intake on broiler progeny performance. In experiment 1, a low cumulative nutrition program supplied 29,580 kcal of ME and 1,470 g of CP, whereas a high cumulative nutrition program supplied 33,500 kcal of ME and 1,730 g of CP to photostimulation at 21 wk of age. Two diets (HiDiet and LoDiet) were formulated, and a single feeding program was used to achieve the selected nutrient intakes. The HiDiet group of males in experiment 1 achieved greater BW and exhibited lower fertility when fed as the LoDiet males from the onset of egg production. The HiDiet breeder males subsequently produced male broilers from eggs laid at 29 wk of age that exhibited lower BW at 42 d. This was due to the heaviest 50% of the breeder males in this treatment not gaining BW consistently due to less-than-adequate ME intake relative to their greater BW requirements. Two feeding programs during the production period (constant or increasing) were compared in experiment 2. Broilers were hatched from eggs laid at 32 and 48 wk of age to evaluate the vertical effect of male treatments on progeny performance. No difference in fertility or broiler performance was found at 32 wk. However, the constant feeding program produced lower fertility from 36 to 55 wk of age, and this resulted in a lower male and female broiler progeny BW at 42 d of age from eggs collected at 48 wk of age. Adequate breeder male feed allocation during the production period improved fertility and favorably affected broiler progeny performance in both experiments. However, broiler progeny effects were observed only when there were differences in fertility, which suggests that the males with the greatest genetic potential were not mating at these times.

  14. Effects of selection for yolk cholesterol on growth and meat quality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bednarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Descendants ( of S18 generation of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, selected for low (line 11, n=15 or for high (line 12, n=6 yolk cholesterol content were used for this experiment. The high (12 and low (11 lines were developed from a control egg type (line13 wild color plumage stock 07, from Poultry Breeding Station in Ivanka at Danube (Slovakia that was maintained without conscious selection. The results of selected lines were compared to this one from unselected lines, egg type (line 13, n=15 and meat type (line 8, n=15, to study productive performance (growth and carcass weight as well as meat quality traits (intramuscular collagen properties, fatty and cholesterol content. The birds were grown up to 35 days of age. Quails were fed ad libitum with commercial diets according to their ages. Animals had free access to water during the experiment. The body weight of the quails was controlled every week (from week 1 to 5. At the slaughter (at avg. weight of 104.0, 107.7, 110.6 g vs 209.3 g for lines 11, 12, 13 vs 8, respectively; P<0.05 the hot carcass weight was recorded and dressing percentage was calculated. Pectoralis superficialis muscles were removed from the carcasses to assess intramuscular collagen (IMC properties (collagen and crosslink concentrations, intramuscular lipid and cholesterol contents. Growth and slaughter performance, intramuscular fat percentage and IMC properties of Pectoralis superficialis were not different between the birds selected for low (line 11 and high (line 12 yolk cholesterol content and were also found to be similar between the quails of egg type and those selected for yolk cholesterol content (lines 11 and 12. Compared to the birds of egg type line and those selected for yolk cholesterol content, the quails of meat type had higher growth and carcass traits (P<0.05, while meat quality traits were found to be similar. The meat of the quails selected for low cholesterol in the egg yolk (line 11

  15. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) as a representative of the avian order Galliformes. The heads, bodies, wings, and pelvic limbs of four adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal anatomy of these regions. A xeroradiograph of the tarsometatarsus of the domestic peacock (Pavo cristatus) was also included to demonstrate the metatarsal spur, which is not present in the quail

  16. Effects of alkoxy alkyl mercury derivative on hens in a feed test with disinfected cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, O; Kalliokoski, P K

    1968-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of feeding hens cereal that had been disinfected with either methoxyethyl mercury chloride or methoxyethyl mercury silicate. Two groups of hens were fed the grain and the results were compared. Both disinfectants decreased egg production and consumption of the feed. Two-thirds of the hens lost weight in the methoxyethyl mercury silicate test. The hens were not weighed in the other test. Estimated intakes of Hg were 2.5 mg for methoxyethyl mercury chloride and 0.45 mg for methoxyethyl mercury silicate.

  17. The influence of hen age on fatty acid composition of commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lešić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional composition of commercial eggs from Lohman Brown hens through fat and fatty acid content analysis, as well as to evaluate the effect of hen age on the above parameters. Egg samples (n=108 were collected every two weeks from 21- to 55- week old hens during the 2015/2016 autumn/winter period. The results revealed significant differences in fatty acid composition dependent on hen age (p 0.05. The total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was statistically significantly higher in eggs laid by 55- week old hens as compared to those laid by 21- week old hens. The n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios were more favourable in the elder hens. In general, the results revealed hen ageing-based variations in fatty acid composition of their eggs, in particular in the representation of linoleic (LA, alpha-linolenic (ALA and arachidonic acid (AA, for which statistically significant hen age-based differences were found.

  18. EFFECT OF THE DIETARY PELLET:MEAL RATIO ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary pellet:meal ratio on the performance of laying hens was evaluated using 60 Plymouth Barred Rock 30 week old hens. Hens were distributed at random to three treatments: 100:0, 75:25 and 50:50% of pellet:meal ratio in the diet along 49 days, with 20 replicates each. Final body weight of hens, polar and ecuatorial diameters of the egg, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and yolk colour were not different between treatments (p>0.05. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, food consumption, food conversion and production cost were affected by treatments (p

  19. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (Prange and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all Prange but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all Pfree-range system management practices.

  20. Assessment of welfare and egg production of laying hens moravia ssl in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the welfare of laying hens Moravia SSL housed in small-scale hen house with free range, behavior, egg production and selected physical indicators of eggs and chemical indicators of egg mass. The laying hens were kept in a hen house on deep litter. Breeding facility of hen house was within the meaning of recommendation for applying the principles of welfare, i.e. the space and breeding facility within the meaning of enriched breeding environment. Stocking density of the laying hens corresponded with recommendations for unrestricted movement and implementing natural activities. The hen house was equipped with the perch, nest, feeder and drinker. The commercial feed mixture was used for feeding, which is intended for laying hens. The kitchen remains were added to feed mixture, as are wet bread, the non-edible remains of foodstuffs. A feed mixture was served to laying hens 825 g per day. The laying hens had free access to drinking water, grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing and in the free range. We focused investigation of on the egg laying intensity, selected parameters of physical egg quality and chemical egg contents. Time to relax of laying hens was adjusted according to the summer and winter breeding seasons. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. These activities were investigated in laying hens too in dependent of year period, more in the summer. Housing of the hens was equipped with the perch. The laying hens regularly used a perch. A beginning of occupation the perch was at the time of time growing dark, at the end of the light day. A nesting material was selected regular, monthly exchange. It was meadow hay of excellent quality for the collection of high quality and safe eggs from nests in the hen house

  1. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Bestman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens. Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of ‘silver hybrids’: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol© was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol© instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go outside sooner after arrival on the laying farm. In 69% of the flocks, hens had peck wounds in the vent area: on average this was 18% of the hens. Keel bone deformations were found in all flocks, on average in 21% of the birds. In 78% of the flocks, an average of 13% of the hens

  2. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-06-20

    From 2007-2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens). Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of 'silver hybrids': white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol(©) was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol(©) instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go outside sooner after arrival on the laying farm. In 69% of the flocks, hens had peck wounds in the vent area: on average this was 18% of the hens. Keel bone deformations were found in all flocks, on average in 21% of the birds. In 78% of the flocks, an average of 13% of the hens had foot-sole wounds

  3. Medullary bone and humeral breaking strength in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.H.; McCormack, H.A.; McTeir, L.; Whitehead, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that large amounts of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis may increase breaking strength, various parameters of bone quality and quantity were examined in two large flocks of hens near end of lay. We conclude that the amount of medullary bone in the humerus of hens during the laying period influences bone strength. This medullary bone may not have any intrinsic strength, but may act by contributing to the fracture resistance of the surrounding cortical bone. Using a quantitative, low dose, radiographic technique, we can predict, from early in the laying period, those birds which will develop large amounts of medullary bone in their humeri by the end of the laying period. The formation of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis is not at the expense of the surrounding radiographed cortical bone

  4. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  5. Response analysis of the dynamic excitation of hen eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Severa

    2007-01-01

    Commercially produced hen eggs have been tested by means of dynamic excitation of the egg-shells with following analysis of their response. The falling steel ball have been chosen as a exciting instrument and the laser vibrometer have been used as a measuring device for the egg response. The reproductibility of the experiments has been relatively high and the surface velocity has been found to be significantly dependent on the position around the meridian. Analysed frequency spectrum has show...

  6. dd →3 Hen Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    The dd → 3 Hen reaction is considered at the energies between 200 and 520 MeV. The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations are iterated up to the lowest order terms over the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix. The parameterized 3He wave function including five components is used. The angular dependence of the differential cross section and energy dependence of tensor analyzing power T 20 at the zero scattering angle are presented in comparison with the experimental data. (author)

  7. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ioniţă

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  8. Genetic analysis of partial egg production records in Japanese quail using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; Farahat, G S; Emam, A M; El-Full, E A

    2017-08-01

    The main objectives of this study were to detect the most appropriate random regression model (RRM) to fit the data of monthly egg production in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail and to test the consistency of different criteria of model choice. Data from 1,200 female Japanese quails for the first 5 months of egg production from 4 consecutive generations of an egg line selected for egg production in the first month (EP1) was analyzed. Eight RRMs with different orders of Legendre polynomials were compared to determine the proper model for analysis. All criteria of model choice suggested that the adequate model included the second-order Legendre polynomials for fixed effects, and the third-order for additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. Predictive ability of the best model was the highest among all models (ρ = 0.987). According to the best model fitted to the data, estimates of heritability were relatively low to moderate (0.10 to 0.17) showed a descending pattern from the first to the fifth month of production. A similar pattern was observed for permanent environmental effects with greater estimates in the first (0.36) and second (0.23) months of production than heritability estimates. Genetic correlations between separate production periods were higher (0.18 to 0.93) than their phenotypic counterparts (0.15 to 0.87). The superiority of the selected line over the control was observed through significant (P egg production in earlier ages (first and second months) than later ones. A methodology based on random regression animal models can be recommended for genetic evaluation of egg production in Japanese quail. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Genetic analyses of partial egg production in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, K; Zerehdaran, S; Barzanooni, B; Lotfi, E

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP). The most optimal model was identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion. A model with second order of LP for fixed effects, second order of LP for additive genetic effects and third order of LP for permanent environmental effects (MTRR23) was found to be the best. 4. According to the MTRR23 model, direct heritability for EW increased from 0.26 in the second week to 0.53 in the sixth week of egg production, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.48 to 0.1. Direct heritability for EN was low, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.57 to 0.15 during the production period. 5. For each trait, estimated genetic correlations among weeks of egg production were high (from 0.85 to 0.98). Genetic correlations between EW and EN were low and negative for the first two weeks, but they were low and positive for the rest of the egg production period. 6. In conclusion, random regression models can be used effectively for analysing egg production traits in Japanese quail. Response to selection for increased egg weight would be higher at older ages because of its higher heritability and such a breeding program would have no negative genetic impact on egg production.

  10. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes. Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD values used were 0.617mm and 0.723mm (corn fine and coarse particle sizes, respectively, and 0.361mm, 0.721mm, and 0.947mm (limestone fine, intermediate and coarse particle sizes, respectively. The following treatments were applied: T1: fine corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T2: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T3: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone; T4: coarse corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T5: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T6: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone. The experiment lasted 112 days, consisting of 4 cycles of 28 days. No significant interaction was observed among corn and limestone particle sizes for any of the analyzed parameters. There were no significant effects (p>0.05 of the tested corn particle sizes on quail performance or egg quality. There were significant (p<0.05 isolated effects of limestone particle size only on the percentage of cracked eggs, which was reduced when birds fed 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm and 50% fine limestone (0.361mm as compared to those fed 100% fine limestone. Therefore, the inclusion of 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm is recommended for quail egg production.

  11. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  12. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  13. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  14. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  15. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF LYSOZYME FROM THE HEN EGG WHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the development of the method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins. Lysozyme was isolated by differential heat denaturation of proteins with changing of the medium pH value, followed by neutralization, dialysis and additional purification by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (with Micrococcus lysodeikticus 4698 as a substrate. The enzyme purity and molecular mass were determined using SDS-electrophoresis and massspectrometry. The method of lysozyme isolation from hen egg proteins with the enzyme yield of 3.2 ± 0.2% and bacteriolytic activity of 22 025 ± 1 500 U/mg is modified. According to electrophoresis data, the isolated enzyme is characterized by high degree of purity (~95–98% and is comparable with lysozyme of AppliChem company by main physical and chemical characteristics. The obtaining product is stored in a crystalline form at low temperature (–24 оC for 9 months. The proposed method allows obtaining active and stable lysozyme with high purity from hen egg protein in laboratory conditions for the usage in biotechnology.

  16. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  17. Comparison between the effects of animal and plant basal diets on productivity of Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease in cattle, known as m ad cow disease , make the European commission to take an action for preventing the spread of such disease by banning the feeding ruminant tissue and animal by-products to farm animals. This study suggested to compare between two basal diets originated from either plants or animal and their effects on some physiological parameters related to the bird growth. A total number of 800 one day old unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into two groups containing 400 birds each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 100 birds. Group one the birds were fed on animal diet and group two fed on plant diet. The two diets contained 24% crude protein (CP) and 4% fat and contains 3200 Kcal/kg diet in starter, while the layer diet contained 21% CP and 4% fat and contains 3000 Kcal/kg diet. Growth data were obtained by weighing the quails individually every week until 6 th weeks, 6 th months and 1 2th months. Eggs were collected daily and weighed for eight months starting from the onset of first egg lying. At 8 th month, a sample of 8 quails was sacrificed, organ weighted and blood samples were collected. Carcass composition was performed to determine % fat, % protein, % ash and total moisture. Hematological and histological parameters, liver and kidney functions, total protein, albumin, globulin, estradiol, testosterone, cholesterol and total lipids were evaluated. The results showed significant increase in body weights gain in one and three weeks only in animal protein diet but no difference were shown between animal and plant diet after 4 weeks and until 12 month. No difference between animal and plant diets were noted in total dry solids (TDS), fat %, ash and protein of TDS and egg production. Levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, total protein, albumin, hematological parameters and total lipids showed non-significant values. The histological parameters

  18. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by lesser snow geese and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the oxidative biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) by liver microsomes from wild lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Formation of hydroxy-metabolites was analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with avian liver microsomes produced sixteen hydroxy-metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by liver microsomes from individual lesser snow geese were 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49). By comparison, 4-OH-BDE-42 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, but not 3-OH-BDE-47, were major metabolites of Japanese quail liver microsomes. Unidentified metabolites included monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Incubation of BDE-99 with avian liver microsomes produced seventeen hydroxy-metabolites, twelve of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by lesser snow goose liver microsomes were 2,4,5-tribromophenol, 3-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-90), and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99). By comparison, the major metabolites produced by liver microsomes from Japanese quail included 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 2-hydroxy-2',3,4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2-OH-BDE-123), but not 3-OH-BDE-47. Unidentified metabolites consisted of monohydroxy-pentabromodiphenyl ethers, monohydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Another difference between the two species was that formation rates of BDE-47 and BDE-99 metabolites were greater with liver

  19. Incorporation of radioactive zinc into the eggs of Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaka, Naonori; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Isao; Yuyama, Akira

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 65 Zn into eggs was investigated after single or daily intraperitoneal administration to laying Japanese quails. After a single intraperitoneal administration, 65 Zn appeared first in the 2nd egg yolks and reached the highest level in the 3rd and 4th ones, followed by a gradual decrease. The cumulative amount of 65 Zn in the egg yolks over a period of 3 weeks accounted for about 40% of dose. After daily intraperitoneal administration, the 6th-9th egg's yolks contained the highest radioactivity of the eggs examined. Whole-body retention patterns were also observed in both of the experiments. (auth.)

  20. Kisspeptin-10 Enhanced Egg Production in Quails Associated with the Increase of Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injections via intraperitoneal (i.p. once daily for three weeks notably promoted the egg laying rate in quails. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the effects of Kp-10 on enhancing the egg laying rate in birds, this study focused on the alternations of lipids synthesis in liver after Kp-10 injections. 75 female quails (22 d of age were allocated to three groups randomly, and subjected to 0 (control, Con, 10 nmol (low dosage, L and 100 nmol (high dosage, H Kp-10 injections via i.p. once daily for three weeks, respectively. At d 52, quails were sacrificed and sampled for further analyses. Serum E2 concentration was increased by Kp-10 injections, and reached statistical significance in H group. Serum triglyceride (TG concentrations were increased by 46.7% in L group and 36.8% in H group, respectively, but did not reach statistical significance, and TG contents in liver were significantly elevated by Kp-10 injections in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol (Tch concentrations significantly decreased in H group, while in H group the hepatic Tch content was markedly increased. The level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, apolipoprotein A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB were not altered by Kp-10 injections. The genes expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS, apolipoprotein VLDL-II (apoVLDL-II, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and vitellogenin II (VTG-II were significantly up-regulated by high but not low dosage of Kp-10 injection compared to the control group. However, the expression of SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA (Δ9 desaturase 1 (SCD1, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1, fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR, estrogen receptor α, β (ERα and β mRNA were not affected by Kp-10 treatment. In line with hepatic mRNA abundance, hepatic SREBP

  1. Effect of Hypodynamy on Structure and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Kidney in Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Almášiová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the effect of experimental hypodynamy simulating weightlessness in space on the structure, ultrastructure and alkaline phosphatase activity of kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Two days after hatching, the quails were suspended in special shirts below the cage ceiling so their feet did not touch the floor. They could consume food and water ad libitum. Experimental animals were sacrificed after 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days of hypodynamy. Birds of the same age, hatched at the same time, and fed the same diet were used as a control. Samples of kidney were processed for light (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and alkaline phosphatase (AP analysis. Short-term (14–28 days hypodynamy caused no marked damage to the structure and ultrastructure of kidneys. However, after long-term (35–59 days hypodynamy, morphological changes were observed in some cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The dying cells in proximal tubules, observed in semi-thin sections by LM, were dark and contained a nucleus of irregular shape. Observation by TEM showed that their nucleus was dark and shrivelled and the electron-dense cytoplasm contained long, dense, rod-shaped mitochondria with thin mitochondrial cristae. Microvilli were present on the apical surface of cells and formed a brush border. Sporadic dying cells were also observed in distal tubules. Large, light vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of cells of collecting tubules, however, the structure of renal corpuscles and medullary loops remained undisturbed. Microscopical analysis by means of a direct TUNEL reaction on days 35 to 59 of hypodynamy showed a moderate occurrence of cellular apoptosis in the proximal and distal tubules of experimental Japanese quail. The activity of AP in the brush border of the proximal tubules on days 14–29 of hypodynamy was normal in experimental animals and showed no significant differences in

  2. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A

    2011-01-01

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  3. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Berto,DA; Garcia,EA; Móri,C; Faitarone,ABG; Pelícia,K; Molino,AB

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes). Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD) values used were 0.617mm and 0.72...

  4. Impact of feeder space on laying hen feeding behavior and production performance in enriched colony housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J L; Xin, H; Wu, H

    2018-05-30

    Current feeder space recommendations in laying hen welfare guidelines are inconsistent among and within countries. One determining criterion forming the recommendations (e.g. 12.0 cm/hen for the EU guideline) is that all birds can feed simultaneously. However, if there are other resources in the environment, as in enriched colony housing (ECH), it is unknown whether group-housed hens will choose to feed simultaneously. This study assesses the impact of feeder space on feeding behavior of 60 laying hens (W-36) in ECH using a ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification-based tracking system. The feeder spaces investigated were 12.0, 9.5, 8.5 and 6.5 cm/hen, achieved by blocking portions of the overall feeder access to keep hens at the same stocking density. Each feeder space treatment, randomly assigned over the course of the experiment, lasted for 7 consecutive days. Feeding behaviors were characterized as daily time spent at the feeder (TS, min/hen-day), daily frequency of visits to the feeder (FV, #/hen-day), and maximum or average percentage of hens feeding simultaneously (MPB, APB, %). Group-average daily feed intake (FI, g/hen-day), water use (WU, g/hen-day), and hen-day egg production (HDEP, %) were also measured. The results revealed that at 12.0 cm/hen, where unoccupied feeder space was present, a maximum of 59.0±1.4% (average of 31.7±0.3%) hens fed simultaneously. No significant differences were detected among 12.0, 9.5 and 8.5 cm/hen in TS (293±10, 286±10 and 281±10 min/hen-day) and MPB (59.0±1.4, 57.3±1.4 and 53.3±1.4%) (P>0.05). The outcome of no significant differences also held true between 12.0 and 9.5 cm/hen in APB (31.7±0.3 v. 30.8±0.3%) and between 9.5 and 8.5 cm/hen in all response variables measured (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences in APB between 6.5 cm/hen and all other treatments; in TS and FV between 6.5 and 9.5 cm/hen; and in MPB between 6.5 and 12 cm/hen (P0.05). The results revealed that synchronous

  5. Effects of rye inclusion in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Vastenhouw, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 days of age on immune competence related parameters and performance of broiler. A total number of 960 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and

  6. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the

  7. Transmission dynamics of Eimeria acervulina in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by infections with Eimeria species, is a major challenge, especially for the broiler industry. Effective control strategies require a comprehensive understanding of processes that lead to infection and disease in a population. One of the key

  8. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  9. End-weight prediction in broiler growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cangar, O.; Aerts, J.-M.; Vranken, E.; Berckmans, D.

    2006-01-01

    1. Two different methods, categorised as input-output and single output models, were evaluated for slaughter weight prediction of broiler chickens. The input-output models included linear and non-linear recursive modelling with a time-varying model structure, whereas the output models consisted only

  10. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior

  11. Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of genetic variation in footpad dermatitis (FPD) and hock burns (HB) and the possibility to genetically select against these. A field trial including 10 commercial broiler lines (n = 102 to 265) was carried out at 2 Dutch farms. Footpad dermatitis and HB...

  12. Relationship between welfare and individual ranging behaviour in commercial free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, H; Hemsworth, P H; Cronin, G M; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Smith, C L; Rault, J-L

    2018-01-24

    Laying hens housed in free-range systems have access to an outdoor range, and individual hens within a flock differ in their ranging behaviour. Whether there is a link between ranging and laying hen welfare remains unclear. We analysed the relationships between ranging by individual hens on a commercial free-range layer farm and behavioural, physiological and health measures of animal welfare. We hypothesised that hens that access the range more will be (1) less fearful in general and in response to novelty and humans, (2) have better health in terms of physical body condition and (3) have a reduced physiological stress response to behavioural tests of fear and health assessments than hens that use the range less. Using radio frequency identification tracking across two flocks, we recorded individual hens' frequency, duration and consistency of ranging. We also assessed how far hens ventured into the range based on three zones: 0 to 2.4, 2.4 to 11.4 or >11.4 m from the shed. We assessed hen welfare using a variety of measures including: tonic immobility, open field, novel object, human approach, and human avoidance (HAV) behavioural tests; stress-induced plasma corticosterone response and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites; live weight, comb colour, and beak, plumage, footpad, and keel bone condition. Range use was positively correlated with plasma corticosterone response, faecal glucocorticoid metabolites, and greater flight distance during HAV. Hens that used the range more, moved towards rather than away from the novel object more often than hens that ranged less. Distance ranged from the shed was significantly associated with comb colour and beak condition, in that hens with darker combs and more intact beaks ranged further. Overall the findings suggest that there is no strong link between outdoor range usage and laying hen welfare. Alternatively, it may be that hens that differed in their ranging behaviour showed few differences in measures of welfare because

  13. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  14. THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN AMINO-ACIDS SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE LAYING HEN`S FODDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA SIMIZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been carried out on 69 Tetra SL hens, 27-36 weeks old, distributed into 3 groups consisted of 23 hens. They were fed with fodder recipes with different protein levels (17, 16 and respectively 15%. These recipes have been supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine up to the level of 0.80% lysine and 0.38% methionine. Fish flour has participated in a proportion of 3% in group 1, 1.5% in group 2 and it was absent from the fodder structure used in group 3. The reduction of crude protein with 1-2p% compared to the available commercial products, but with an amino acid supplementation, has led to the improvement of the economic criteria regarding egg production, generating savings of 7.7% in the group with 16% CP and of 12.8% in the group with 15% CP. The egg mass has not been affected significantly (p>0.05, the best yield being achieved from the hens fed with a 16%CP recipe.

  15. Incidence, species and antimicrobial resistance of naturally occurring Campylobacter isolates from quail carcasses sampled in a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the published information about the presence of Campylobacter on processed poultry is from studies with chickens and turkeys; therefore there is a paucity of published material about the presence of Campylobacter on commercially processed quail (Coturnix coturnix). The objective of this stud...

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail.

  17. EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; HAMODI, S.J.; EL AFIFI, SH.F.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

  18. Effect of feeding camphor (Eucalyptus Globules) levels on some immunity characteristics, growth and gut microflora of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Salah, H.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El Barkouky, E.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Eucalyptus globules Egypt to Japanese quail diet on performance and some metabolic functions and immunity. Four hundred,one day old, unsexed japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups containing 100 birds in each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 25 birds. Group one was supplemented with 1% Egypt in basal diet, group two was supplemented with 2% Egypt in basal diet, group three was used as negative control (-ve)without any addition of antibiotic in diet or water, while group four represented the positive control (+ ve) by addition antibiotics (0.5 g neomycin sulphate +0.5 g oxytetracyclin) in drinking water for 5 days post hatching. The experimented diet contained 3200 Kcal ME/kg and 24% crude proteins. The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, mortality, some organs weighs and some blood parameters were measured and some microbial population of small intestines was counted. Results indicated that the addition of Egypt led to significant increase in quails body weights, spleen, bursa and ovary and the measures of total proteins, globulins, haemagglutination inhibition (HI)and triiodothyronine (T3). Decrease in mortality ratio and less counts of microflora and salmonella of gut were also achieved as a result of diet camphor addition

  19. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  20. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of mercury and its transfer to the egg in the laying quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Urakawa, N; Ikeda, M

    1971-01-01

    Autoradiographic and tracer techniques were employed to investigate the distribution and movement of radiomercury in the form of /sup 203/Hg-nitrate, and its transfer to eggs in laying quails. After injection, the radiomercury tended to concentrate in the kidneys and ova, plateauing about 12 hours after injection. Within the egg, the mercury concentrated in the yolk.

  1. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  2. Age Maturity of Female Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Katuk Leave Meal (Sauropus androgynus L.Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wiradimadja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of katuk leave meal on sexual maturity in Japanese quail. Three hundred female Japanese quails, with 4 weeks age, were assigned into a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e., R1 (diet with neither katuk leave meal nor cholesterin, R2 (diet without katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin, R3 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal without cholesterin, and R4 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin. The parameters measured were estradiol hormone in plasma, and age maturity (five percent henday production. Estradiol hormone was measured with Radioimmunoassay. The data were collected and analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that the addition of 15% katuk leave meal in the diet significantly decreased the estrogen concentration (P<0.05, so that slow down on the age maturity of female Japanese quail. (Animal Production 9(2: 67-72 (2007Key Words : Katuk leave meal, estradiol hormone, age maturity, quail

  3. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  4. The Effect of Divergent Selection on 4-wk BW on the Shape of Growth Curve in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Beyki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term divergent selection on the shape growth curve in different lines of Japanese quail. The Quail lines utilized in this study were two divergently selected for high (HW and low (LW 4-wk body weight during 7 generation and also a control line (C. The Richard function parameters were used to describe growth curves of different lines. The weight at hatch was approximately similar among lines (8.08 g, 7.55 g and 8.76 g for HW, LW and C line respectively. The results of current study indicated that the selected lines (HW & LW were immediately diverged from the C line after hatch. Sexes within each line had no difference in average growth rate, age and body weight at inflection point and adult body weight. However significant differences were found in the growth curve parameters among lines. The results of current study indicated that short term divergent selection for 4-wk BW in Japanese quail can change the growth pattern and the carcass compartments of the selected birds. Therefore to avoid undesirable side effects due to selection in Japanese quails it is recommended to consider the growth pattern changes of the selected birds in the breeding programs

  5. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available.

  7. Produksi dan Pemasaran Komoditas Broiler di Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptana Saptana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of broiler industry can be a basis for the economic growth and employment opportunities. There are three broiler breeding patterns i.e. independent breeders, internal-business partnerships, and external-business partnerships. This research aims to analyze broiler production and marketing in West Java Province. The research objectives are: (1 to analyze the performance of each broiler breeding farm; (2 to analyze the market structure of broilers; (3 to evaluate the marketing margin of broilers; and (4 to study market integration of broilers. The method used in this study was a survey method using structured questionnaires. The primary and secondary data used in this study were analyzed using the broiler breeding feasibility analysis, R/C ratio, marketing margin, and market integration analysis. The results showed that: (1 broiler breeding business in various patterns remains profitable and has an effective return to capital in moderate level, (2 both independent and plasma broiler breeders face an oligopolistic market structure, and the brokers also confronts oligopolistic market structure in dealing with the core enterprise through specific prices, and (3 retailers receive the biggest profit margin per unit of output, while the inter-regional wholesalers receive the largest total margin due to its large sales turnover, and (4 broiler markets are not integrated. In summary it can be concluded that broiler farming in various business patterns is profitable; however, and the marketing system is inefficient.Keywords: R/C ratio, market structure, marketing margins, market integration, broilerABSTRAKPengembangan komoditas broiler dapat menjadi basis pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pemerataan kesempatan kerja jika dikelola dengan baik. Paling tidak terdapat tiga pola usaha ternak broiler yakni usaha ternak mandiri, kemitraan usaha internal dan kemitraan usaha eksternal. Tujuan penelitian adalah (1 mmenganalisis kinerja usaha ternak broiler; (2

  8. Mixed housing of different genetic lines of laying hens negatively affects feather pecking and fear related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Decuypere, E.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Adult laying hens from Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin both express lower levels of feather pecking and lower fear responses towards a novel object than laying hens from White Leghorn (WL) origin. The present study investigated whether mixed housing of RIR and WL laying hens would affect their

  9. Examination of egg number and egg weight variables and their effects on daily management in aviary systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Keen, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Characteristics of egg numbers and mean egg weight were examined for their usefulness in the daily management of aviary systems for laying hens. 2. A number of 3238 brown Isabrown/Warren hens were housed in 1 compartment, a separated part of the house where the hens could move around freely, of a

  10. Habitat selection of Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Merriami) hens with poults in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1993-01-01

    We studied habitat selection patterns of Merriam's Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) hens with poults in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystem. Thirty-six radio-marked hens produced 19 broods, and we obtained 230 locations of hens with poults. We described vegetation of habitats using criteria from the Rocky...

  11. Lead pellet retention time and associated toxicity in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Steven; Jarrett, Timothy; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Jeremy; Williams, Jamie; Gogal, Robert

    2010-12-01

    Birds are exposed to Pb by oral ingestion of spent Pb shot as grit. A paucity of data exists for retention and clearance of these particles in the bird gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were orally gavaged with 1, 5, or 10 Pb shot pellets, of 2-mm diameter, and radiographically followed over time. Blood Pb levels and other measures of toxicity were collected, to correlate with pellet retention. Quail dosed with either 5 or 10 pellets exhibited morbidity between weeks 1 and 2 and were removed from further study. Most of the Pb pellets were absorbed or excreted within 14 d of gavage, independent of dose. Pellet size in the ventriculus decreased over time in radiographs, suggesting dissolution caused by the acidic pH. Birds dosed with one pellet showed mean blood Pb levels that exceeded 1,300 µg/dl at week 1, further supporting dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Limited signs of toxicity were seen in the one-pellet birds; however, plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) activity was persistently depressed, suggesting possible impaired hematological function. © 2010 SETAC.

  12. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  13. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  14. Interactions between aromatase (estrogen synthase) and dopamine in the control of male sexual behavior in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-05-01

    In male quail, like in other vertebrates including rodents, testosterone acting especially through its estrogenic metabolites is necessary for the activation of male sexual behavior. Also, the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists profoundly influences male sexual behavior. How the steroid-sensitive neural network and dopamine interact physiologically, remains largely unknown. It is often implicitly assumed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, stimulates male sexual behavior via the modification of dopaminergic transmission. We have now identified in quail two possible ways in which dopamine could potentially affect sexual behavior by modulating the aromatization of testosterone into an estrogen. One is a long-acting mechanism that presumably involves the modification of dopaminergic transmission followed by the alteration of the genomic expression of aromatase. The other is a more rapid mechanism that does not appear to be dopamine receptor-mediated and may involve a direct interaction of dopamine with aromatase (possibly via substrate competition). We review here the experimental data supporting the existence of these controls of aromatase activity by dopamine and discuss the possible contribution of these controls to the activation of male sexual behavior.

  15. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on mutability in male gametes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J [Vyskumny Ustav Chovu a Slachtenia Hydiny, Laboratorim Genetiky, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the mutability of developmental stages of male gametes of the japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), after irradiation with /sup 60/Co exposures (5.16; 15.48; and 30.96)x10/sup -2/C kg/sup -1/, i.e. 200, 600 and 1200 R, at an exposure rate of 8.59x10/sup -5/C kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/, i.e. O.33 R s/sup -1/, has shown that the rate of overall induced dominant lethality as well as the rate of mutation were highest in spermatocytes of the second order at all exposures. Starting from an exposure of 200 R the following values were found for lethal interference per 1 gamete for 1 R: spermatozoa 2.0x10/sup -3/, spermatides 1.95x10/sup -3/, spermatocytes II 6.1x10/sup -3/, spermatocytes I 4.06x10/sup -3/, spermatogonia in the process of differentiation 6.8x10/sup -3/. When analysing overall embryonic lethality, according to early and late lethality, dominant lethal mutations mainly manifested themsel--ves in the oviductal and germinal developmental periods, so that these periods can be considered as sensitive indices of genetic changes. The spermatogenic epithelium of the japanese quail was found to be greatly radioresistant since not even an exposure to 1200 R caused complete and permanent sterility.

  17. Factorial correspondence analysis of fear-related behaviour traits in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, S; Roussot, O; Delaby, C; Faure, J M.; Mills, A; Leterrier, C; Guéméné, D; Constantin, P; Mills, M; Lepape, G; Beaumont, C

    2003-02-28

    Factorial correspondence analysis was performed on 341 quails from a F2 cross between two lines divergently selected on the duration of tonic immobility over 29 generations. Several fear- or stress-related traits were recorded, i.e. tonic immobility duration, number of inductions needed to induce tonic immobility, open-field behaviour (time spent walking, latency before first movement and number of defecations), asymmetry of tibia lengths and corticosterone concentration after restraint stress. Variables were categorised in classes and analysed by factorial correspondence analysis. The first axis was mostly described by open-field behaviour, and the second by tonic immobility traits (duration of tonic immobility and number of inductions), which showed that these behaviours were almost independent. No relationship was found between axes of the factorial correspondence analysis and corticosterone concentration or asymmetry of tibia lengths, showing that these variables reflected other characteristics of stress susceptibility than those described by tonic immobility and open-field behaviour. These results show that reaction to stress of quails is a multidimensional trait and cannot be summarised by one trait.

  18. Comparative metabolism and fate of fenvalerate in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and rats (Rattus norwegicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.M.; Menzer, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Adult Japanese quail were administered 100 mg/kg chlorophenyl-labeled [ 14 C]fenvalerate, α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovalerate, for study of its distribution, elimination, and metabolism. Ninety percent of the administered dose was eliminated in the excreta within the first 24 h. In addition to fenvalerate, the following metabolites were present: benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-,cyano(3-phenoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl ester [4'-OH-fenvalerate]; benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-,(aminocarbonyl)(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester [CONH 2 -fenvalerate]; 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)benzeneacetic acid[Cl-V acid]; 4-chloro-α-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)benzeneacetic acid[4-OH-Cl-V acid]. In time course studies radiocarbon peaked at 3 h (9μg/g) in the liver and gradually declined, while in the blood it peaked within 2 h and fell quickly to an equilibrium value of 1.5 μg/mL blood. In liver microsomal and isolated heptatocyte preparations of Japanese quail and rat, the following metabolites were identified: Cl-V acid, 4-OH-Cl-V acid, 4'-OH-fenvalerate, CONH 2 -fenvalerate. Oxidation was found to be the predominant route of degradation either pre- or post-hydrolysis of the parent compound. Rapid excretion, lesser absorption, and faster metabolism probably explain the lower toxicity of fenvalerate to birds compared to rats

  19. RADIOIODINATION OF OCHRATOXIN TO STUDY THE ROLE OF YEAST IN COUNTERACTING ITS EFFECT ON JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; EL-BARKOUKY, E.E.; AYYOUB, S.M.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioiodination of ochratoxin using iodogen as an oxidizing agent was studied. The factors affecting the radioiodination yield, such as reaction time, concentration of substrate and oxidizing agent, pH, stability of iodogen coated tubes have been investigated. Separation and purification of the labelled product using thin layer chromatography and gel chromatography on sephadex G-25 column were described.A total number of 80 quail chicks at eight weeks age were divided into two groups 40 birds each. The first group (control) feed basal diet and the second group was supplemented with 0.5% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in basal diet. All groups were given orally labelled ochratoxin. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours from oral feeding, the quails (5 birds from every group) were slaughtered and blood samples were collected when slaughtering. The organs; liver, heart, spleen lung, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine content, kidney, testis, ovary, oviduct, breast and thigh, were removed and weighed individually and their weights related to body weight have been calculated. Also, manure and eggs were collected. The radioactivity levels in the second group that supplemented yeast in diet was lower than the first group (control) except manure

  20. Number and size of nucleoli in the spermatocytes of chicken and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Knaga, Sebastian; Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoli are the product of nucleolus organizing region activity (NOR) of specific chromosomes. Their basic function is to synthetise ribosomal RNA precursors and promote the maturation and assemblage of preribosomal RNP molecules. Information on rRNA-coding gene activity can be provided by the analysis of the number and size of nucleoli in the prophase of the first meiotic division. The morphology and ultrastructure of a nucleolus depends, among others, on the species and cell growth cycle as well as the physiological and pathological state of an organism. The purpose of this research was to determine the number and size of nucleoli in the spermatocytes of the domestic chicken and the Japanese quail. Diverse numbers and sizes of nucleoli in the cells of the analysed birds were observed. 1-4 nucleoli were identified in chicken cells (1.91 +/- 0.63 on average) and 1-2 in quail cells (1.13 +/- 0.33 on average). For the total of 957 nucleoli observed in Gallus cells, 329 were classified as large and 628 as small. In Coturnix cells, 563 nucleoli were identified (66 large and 497 small ones). An analysis of the numbers and sizes of nucleoli can be performed at the cytogenetic level and serve as an alternative source of information on rRNA encoding gene and nucleolus organising region (NOR) activities.

  1. Effect of immobilized lipase supplementation of diets on the performance of the Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; Saleh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, lipase was immobilized onto two different supports, agarose and gelatin. Some physico-chemical properties of the free and immobilized lipase such as optimum temperature, optimum ph and storage stability were studied. Storage of the enzymes for 2 months showed that the free enzyme lost its activity, while the immobilized on the gelatin showed better resistance towards ph and temperature variations than that immobilized onto agarose. Four experiments were conducted to test the effect of the immobilized lipase supplementation on the productive performance of the Japanese quails. During the first 3 weeks, the addition of lipase to poultry diets caused an increase in the body weight gain of birds than the enzyme-free diet. An obvious improvement in quail day egg production during the laying period was observed with the groups fed on a diet supplemented with 3000 and 2000 I U of immobilized lipase per kilogram feed. Blood cholesterol was not affected with lipase addition, while total lipids were significantly increased. Significant reduction was also observed in thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) as compared with the control group

  2. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  3. Performance of japanese quail chickens injected with monosodium glutamate in the early post hatch period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E. and others

    2002-01-01

    Neo hatched Japanese quails chicks were divided equally into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and injected once subcutaneously with monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0,2 or 4 mg/g body weight for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The obtained results clear that, 1-At-marketing stage, body weight increased by about 4% and 6%, feed conversion ratio reduced by 8.7% and 5.7% in-groups G2 and G3 respectively. 2-MSG had no significant effect on male and female serum T4 as well as male serum T3. The injection with 2-mg MSG per gram body weight increased female serum T3 significantly. 3-MSG increased significantly fat % DM in the male and female quails. This treatment in was positively correlated with the amount of injected MSG. Ash % DM and protein % DM were decreased significantly in both injected males and females and the reduction was dose dependent. 5-in males, weights of heart, spleen and testes besides weights and lengths of gastrointestinal tract regions were not significantly affected by MSG administration. 6-in females, the injection with MSG (2 mg/g body weight) significantly reduced the weight as percent body weight, moreover, the administration of MSG had no significant effect on the weights or the lengths of the remain parameters of the females gastrointestinal tract regions, ovary, oviduct, heart and spleen

  4. The Effect of Different Foam Concentrations on Sperm Motility in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of foam extract on sperm motility in the male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Adult male quails (<12 weeks of heavy body weight strain were housed in individual cages and divided into 5 groups according to the size of their cloacal glands. The data indicated that the size of the cloacal gland was positively correlated with the frequency of foam secretion and total foam production. One gram of freshly collected clean foam was mixed with 1.0 mL of normal saline and homogenized for 10 minutes. After centrifugation at 35 000 rpm, the supernatant was used as 100% foam extract. The extract was diluted to 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, and 1:4 with normal saline to produce 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 25% foam extracts, respectively. 5% foam extract enhanced sperm survival at room temperature (30°–35°C for 2 to 3 hrs, whereas higher concentrations (10% and above suppressed sperm motility. From this study, it may be concluded that foam secretion and quantity of foam are directly proportional to the size of the cloacal gland and that the foam enhances and prolongs sperm motility, in vitro at an optimum concentration of 5%.

  5. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...

  6. Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Flachs, Esben M.

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures...

  7. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  8. Immune response of laying hens exposed to 30 ppm ammonia for 25 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is one of the most prominent aerial pollutants inside poultry production facilities, affecting chicken health and well-being based on its levels and exposure durations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 ppm ammonia on the immune response of laying hens. Hens at 18 wk ...

  9. The value of feed consumption data for breeding in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiting, P.

    1991-01-01

    The results of statistical and experimental analyses of residual feed consumption (RFC) in White Leghorn laying hens are presented. RFC is defined as the difference between the observed feed consumption of a hen and its feed consumption predicted from its egg mass production, body weight

  10. Ammonia emission from aviary housing systems for laying hens : inventory, characteristics and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    1998-01-01

    The development and practical application of welfare friendly aviary housing systems for laying hens, that generally emit more ammonia per hen than battery cage housing systems, would conflict with the Dutch policy to substantially reduce the total emission of ammonia from animal

  11. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  12. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, J.L.T.; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage

  13. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the

  14. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lowman Brown hens, 37 - week - old, were used to study the effect of dietary inclusion of 10 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize on hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed ...

  15. The layering and physical characteristics of Shaver Brown Hens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were collected from 120 Shaver Brown hens for a period of 56 days in order to determine their oviposition time, sequence of laying, lag time, laying intensity and egg weight. The hens were subsequently divided into three classes on the basis of their laying performance namely: good layers, intermediate layers and ...

  16. The prevention and control of feather pecking in laying hens : identifying the underlying principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T. B.; van Krimpen, M. M.; de Jong, I. C.; de Haas, E. N.; Kops, M. S.; Riedstra, B. J.; Nordquist, R. E.; Wagenaar, J. P.; Bestman, M.; Nicol, C. J.

    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens remains an important economic and welfare issue. This paper reviews the literature on causes of FP in laying hens. With the ban on conventional cages in the EU from 2012 and the expected future ban on beak trimming in many European countries, addressing this

  17. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Kwakernaak, C.; Kan, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14¿32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems

  18. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg damage and dirty, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the damage and dirty eggs and egg weight, depending on two different breeding systems and different ages of laying hens. Object of investigation were table eggs, their damage and dirty in the laying hens of the final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and the free range system.  In both rearing systems were ensured the conditions for laying hens in accordance with legislation establishing minimum standards for the laying hens minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, protection of animals kept for farming purposes in accordance with the principles of the so-called five freedoms. That was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in both breeding systems. The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand every day and the same day were supplemented water to drinking troughs.  Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding hens and production of high quality and safe of table eggs. Based on the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that to the damage and dirty eggs are not affected by the age of the breeding system and age of laying hens. Statistically significant difference     (p ≤ 0.05 in the egg weight was observed between breeding cage system and breeding free range system and   between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  19. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...

  20. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  1. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyotiprabha; Abraham, Robinson J J; Rao, V Appa; Rajini, R Asha; Mishra, B P; Sarangi, N R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.

  2. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Reportable diseases, such as avian influenza, spread rapidly among poultry, resulting in the death of a large number of birds. Once such a disease has been diagnosed at a farm, infected and susceptible birds are rapidly killed to prevent the spread of the disease. The methods to eliminate infected caged laying hens are limited. An experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of foam made from compressed air, water, and soap to kill laying hens in cages. The study found that stress levels of the hens killed using compressed air foam in cages to be similar to the hens killed by carbon dioxide or the negative control. Hens exposed to carbon dioxide died earlier as compared to the foam methods. The authors conclude that application of compressed air foam in cages is an alternative to methods such as gas inhalation and ventilation shutdown to rapidly and humanely kill laying hens during epidemics. Abstract During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly

  3. Application of Paracoccus marcusii as a potential feed additive for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Tersia A; Pieterse, Elsje; Jacobs, Karin

    2018-03-01

    Carotenoids have been used for many years as an added pigment to enhance egg yolk color. One such carotenoid, astaxanthin, has a strong antioxidant activity and is produced by several microorganisms, including the bacterium Paracoccus marcusii, which has shown promise to be used as a feed additive. Therefore, this study investigated the use of P. marcusii as a possible source of pigmentation in layer hen feed to enhance egg yolk color. Paracoccus marcusii was fed to hens in a sucrose solution (10% m/v). The hens were fed daily and all eggs were collected for analysis. Dilutions of egg contents were plated onto selective media to detect the presence of known food pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella). In the feeding trial, there was no negative effect on hen body weight, egg production, or overall egg quality. There was a significant increase (P feed additive for laying hens.

  4. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    . In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based

  5. Typhaea stercorea (Coleoptera : Mycetophagidae), a carrier of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in a Danish broiler house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Olsen, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    . We investigated the ability of T. stercorea to act as a carrier of S. Infantis in the broiler house between 2 broiler cycles. We examined the empty, cleaned, and disinfected broiler house for S, Infantis 3 d before stocking the 7th broiler nock, and S. Infantis was isolated from the beetles only...

  6. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  7. Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: leandromachadovet@yahoo.com.br The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient

  8. Motivation of hens to obtain feed during a molt induced by feed withdrawal, wheat middlings, or melengestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Lay, D C; McMunn, K A; Moritz, J S; Wilson, M E

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, molting was initiated by withdrawing feed. However, public criticism of feed deprivation, based on the perception that it inhumanely increases hunger, has led the poultry industry to ban the practice. Thus far, alternatives have not been demonstrated to ameliorate the increase in hunger that led to the ban on inducing molting by feed deprivation. Incorporating melengestrol acetate (MGA), an orally active progestin, into a balanced layer diet induces molting and increases postmolt egg quality. Hy-Line W-98 hens (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a balanced layer ration (control), a balanced layer ration containing MGA, or a 94% wheat middlings diet (wheat) for 20 d, or were feed deprived for 8 d. Hens were trained to peck a switch to receive a feed reward based on a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule. Motivation of hens to acquire feed was measured as the total number of pecks recorded in 15 min on d 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20. On d 20, abdominal fat pad and digesta-free gizzards were weighed. The number of pecks in the feed-deprived group was greater than controls by d 4 and remained greater at d 8, when these hens were removed from the experiment. Hens in the wheat group that were rewarded with a layer diet pecked more than controls from d 8 to 20. Hens in the MGA group pecked for a reward at the same rate as control hens throughout the experiment. Hens fed the wheat diet had heavier gizzards compared with control and MGA-fed hens. Hens fed MGA had greater abdominal fat pad compared with wheat and control hens. Hens molted using a diet containing MGA have a similar motivation to obtain feed as control hens; therefore, this alternative does not appear to increase hunger. However, hens molted with a wheat middling diet appear to be as motivated to obtain feed as did the feed-deprived hens.

  9. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Prange with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  10. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etterlin Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P P P Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 2001–2004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic

  11. Laying hens behave differently in artificially and naturally sourced ammoniated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, B B; Dos Santos, V M; Wood, D; Van Heyst, B; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2017-12-01

    Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior. A total of 20 laying hens was exposed to artificially sourced [A] (from an anhydrous NH3 cylinder) and naturally sourced [N] (from conspecific laying hen excreta) gas mixtures. Hens were exposed to A and N mixtures with NH3 concentrations of 25 and 45 ppm, as well as fresh air [FA]. During the experiment, all birds were exposed to each treatment 3 times using a custom-built polycarbonate chamber, containing a foraging area (containing raisins, mealworms, and feed mix) and a gas delivery system. All testing sessions were video recorded, analyzed with INTERACT® software, and subjected to a GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Our results showed that the laying hens spent less time foraging overall (P hens were more likely to forage for a longer time (with fewer interruptions) in N than in A treatments (P hens also reacted with greater aversion towards treatment A compared to treatment N (P hens of our study preferred fresh to ammoniated air and that they behaved differently in artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures, possibly due to the presence of familiar stimuli from the excreta. These findings have implications for new developments in methodological approaches for behavioral testing and for recommendations regarding NH3 levels inside poultry barns. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (phens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (phens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (phens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  13. Effects of Propolis, Royal Jelly, Bee Pollen and Ronozyme Supplementation in Diets of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) on Yolk Lipid Peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz S; Tatli Seven P; Kaya E

    2017-01-01

    This study discovers the possible effect propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen and Ronozyme supplementation in diets that can be beneficial for Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Total one hundred and sixty Japanese quails at 43 days of age were used and divided randomly into 4 replicate groups each containing 32 animals. The experimental groups as follows: control group was feed a basal diet, royal jelly group was added to the water with 500 mg/kg diet, propolis group was feed orally ...

  14. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  15. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  18. Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Flemming

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with 2,400 broilers was carried out to compare the effect of the use of mannanoligosaccharides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall or growth promoter (Olaquindox in the diet on broiler. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and the obtained data were evaluated by analysis of variance and test of Tukey at a level of 5%. The following parameters were measured: feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. It was concluded that the effect of the inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides in the diet on the studied parameters was significantly higher as compared to the inclusion of cell wall or to the control diet, but the effect was not different as compared to the inclusion of growth promoter.

  19. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  20. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  1. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  2. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  3. Effects of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) day- old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of graded levels of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens. The study was carried out using complete randomized design. Commercial starter and finisher diets were used for the experiment which lasted for eight weeks. The folic ...

  4. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  5. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  6. Technical Efficiency of Enugu Urban Broiler Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study measured the level of technical efficiency and among determinants in broiler farmers in Enugu urban of Enugu State, Nigeria using stochastic frontier production function. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 broiler farmers from which data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and ...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Broiler Production Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the cost implications of raising broilers under the battery cage and deep litter system of poultry production. The data used in the study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of broiler farmers in Edo State from October– December, 2013. A multi-stage sampling process was used to select the 211 ...

  8. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  9. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and body ...

  10. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  11. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield)

  12. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  13. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308 in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27; however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.

  14. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic broiler chicken production has recently received more attention worldwide. This study carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. In this study, 400 slow-growing broilers (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system and the same number of fast-growing broilers (Ross-308 were reared in a conventional system. Profitability was deduced from an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was €0.75, which is 180% higher compared with the conventional system (€0.27; however, organic broiler meat was sold at a twice as high price than the conventional one. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more economical than conventional rearing.

  15. Haematology and serum chemistry of finisher broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the haematology and serum chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize-cassava diets supplemented with methionine and inorganic sulphur. A total of 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups of 30 birds making 10 birds per replicate group. Starter and ...

  16. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  17. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  18. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.

  19. Effect of effective microorganisms on broiler chicken performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...

  20. Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.

  1. Performance and ileal characteristics of finishing broilers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of prebiotics supplemented diets on performance characteristics and gut morphology of broiler chickens. The study involved 320 day-old Anak broiler chicks, used to assess the utilization of prebiotics [Mannose oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactose oligosaccharides ...

  2. Response of broiler chickens to feed supplemented with claybased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight week study was carried out to evaluate the effects of MFeed®, a nanotechnology growth promoter as feed additive in the diets of broiler chickens. Two hundred, day old Marshal broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomised design to five dietary treatments supplemented with MFeed® at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ...

  3. ( Rosa damascena Mill.) dreg: an alternative litter material in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of using dried rose dreg (DRD) as an alternative litter material for broiler performance and microbiological characteristics of litter. A total of 225 day-old broiler chicks was raised on pine wood shavings (PS), DRD and PS+DRD until 42 days. The effects of litter ...

  4. Broiler farm size in relation tot sustainability aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the number of broiler farms has been reduced by 50%, while farm size doubled between 1990 and 2008. A debate on the positive and negative aspects of large farms emerge. Many entrepreneurs in the broiler sector use increase in scale as strategy to reduce production cost. However, a

  5. Fungal biodegradation of plantain peel for broiler finisher feeding: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein, cholesterol and glucose were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the treatments. Fungal biodegradation of PPL using A.niger has the potential of enhancing feed intake, nutrient digestibility and the body weight gain of broiler finisher. Keywords: Aspergillus niger, biodegradation, nutrient enhancement and broilers.

  6. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of

  7. Histomorphometry of the esophagus of adult ross broilers | Mobini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the histomorphometrical variations of esophagus at different regions in Ross broilers. Twenty four apparently healthy adult Ross broilers (12 females and 12 males), aged from 7 to 9 weeks, were used. Tissue samples were taken from middle parts of cervical and thoracic regions of ...

  8. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  9. Responses of broiler chickens under hot humid tropical climate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NLP) on the growth, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters of broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments which contained 0, 5, 10 and 15g/Kg diets in a Completely ...

  10. Effect of bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens ) extract on broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens ) extract on broiler chickens under cold stress. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... powdered bamboo extract (BFRE) as a feed additive for chickens was effective in maintaining body weight gain and serum enzymatic activity when birds are exposed to cold stress. Broiler ...

  11. Gypsum as a bedding source for broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials examined the feasibility of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a bedding material for raising broilers. Gypsum was used alone, under or on top of pine shavings and pine bark. Test materials were placed as bedding in pens to simulate commercial broiler production through three growout cy...

  12. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  13. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  14. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...

  15. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, SIFR; Stringhini, JH; Ribeiro, AML; Pontalti, G; MacManus, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. ...

  16. Effect of shed rooftype and babassu pie on the productive characteristics of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane de Oliveira Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the effects of shed roof(SR typeand the inclusion of babassu pie (BP in rations on the productive characteristics ofmeat quailsfrom days 14 to 28 and days14 to 40. We studied 896 meatquails. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, using four types of shedroofs (fiber cement, ceramic, straw, and painted fiber cement and four rations (with 0, 5, 10, and 15% inclusion of babassu pie. The performance variables evaluated from 14 to 28 and 14 to 40 days included food intake (FI, g/bird, mean weight gain (WG, g/bird, food conversion (FC, g/g, mean live weight on day 28 (MW28, g/bird, mean live weight on day 40 (MW40, g/bird, and energy efficiency (EF; g Mcal. After slautherthe birds on day 40, we measured the carcass weight (CW and the carcass yield (CY, %, obtained for the breast (BY, legs (LGY, and wings (WINGY. We also obtained the relative weight of the heart (HRW, liver (LRW, gizzard (GRW, and intestine (IRW. To compare the economic efficiency between the experimental rations, we analyzed the cost of ration per kg of carcass (CC and determined the gross margin (GM. Between day 14 and day 28, we found that the use of SR influenced the FI28, WG28, and the MW28 of the quails (p 0.05, but it linearly improved WG28, FC28, MW28, and EF28. Between days 14 and 40, we found that SR influenced the WG40, FC40, MW40, and EF40 of the quails (p < 0.05 and that a BP increased the FI40, WG40, and MW40 in a quadratic manner. SR and BP did not affect the CW, BY, WINGY, LGY, HRW, LRW,or IRW. However, BP influenced MGRW, which increased linearly with the inclusion of BP. We concluded that a ceramic roof provides better environmental conditions than do other shed roofs. The inclusion of BP improved the performance characteristics, and it was technically feasible to include up to 15% BP in the rations of meat quails. Based on the current cost analysis, however, the inclusion of BP is economically

  17. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    In this study, four broiler parent flocks have been followed from the onset of the production period (week 20) until slaughter (week 60). Every week, approximately ten dead broiler breeders, randomly selected among birds dead on their own, were collected and subjected to a full post mortem analysis...... including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same...... from both broiler breeders and broilers. Three isolates were whole genome sequenced to obtain knowledge on virulence genes. The isolates harbored a number of genes encoding different fibrinogen binding proteins and toxins which might be important for virulence. The present findings demonstrate that S...

  19. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...

  20. Ghrelin plasma concentration does not covary with energy demand in adult laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, A; Schrader, L; Weigend, S; Petow, S

    2017-10-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is suggested to be involved in food intake regulation in young growing chicken. Whether ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energetic balance associated with laying performance in adult laying hens was studied by use of 4 chicken lines that differ in laying performance and phylogeny (4 lines; 16 hens per line). As housing conditions are also known to affect energy demand, half of the hens per line were housed in single cages and the other half of hens were maintained in a floor housing system. Plasma samples were collected at 17 to 19, 33 to 35, 49 to 51, and 72 wk of age and analyzed with a chicken ghrelin ELISA Kit. From caged hens, individual food consumption and laying performance additionally was recorded. Due to its function in growth and its relationship with ghrelin, also GH plasma concentrations were analyzed. Ghrelin concentrations did not differ between the 4 lines at any of the test periods (all P > 0.05). Ghrelin was negatively related to food consumption only in the growing period of the high-performing lines (both P ghrelin concentrations compared with caged hens (P ghrelin is not involved in regulating energy intake related to laying performance but rather seems to be related to body growth and housing condition before start of lay, the latter possibly due to differences in hens' behavioral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.