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Sample records for hemopexin pex domain

  1. The hemopexin and O-glycosylated domains tune gelatinase B/MMP-9 bioavailability via inhibition and binding to cargo receptors

    Van den Steen, Philippe E; Van Aelst, Ilse; Hvidberg, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a key regulator and effector of immunity, contains a C-terminal hemopexin domain preceded by a unique linker sequence of approximately 64 amino acid residues. This linker sequence is demonstrated to be an extensively O-glycosylated (OG) domain with...... domains down-regulate the bioavailability of active MMP-9 and the interactions with the cargo receptors are proposed to be the original function of hemopexin domains in MMPs....

  2. The dimer interface of the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase hemopexin domain: crystal structure and biological functions.

    Tochowicz, Anna; Goettig, Peter; Evans, Richard; Visse, Robert; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Palmisano, Ralf; Ito, Noriko; Richter, Klaus; Maskos, Klaus; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; Nagase, Hideaki; Bode, Wolfram; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2011-03-04

    Homodimerization is an essential step for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to activate proMMP-2 and to degrade collagen on the cell surface. To uncover the molecular basis of the hemopexin (Hpx) domain-driven dimerization of MT1-MMP, a crystal structure of the Hpx domain was solved at 1.7 Å resolution. Two interactions were identified as potential biological dimer interfaces in the crystal structure, and mutagenesis studies revealed that the biological dimer possesses a symmetrical interaction where blades II and III of molecule A interact with blades III and II of molecule B. The mutations of amino acids involved in the interaction weakened the dimer interaction of Hpx domains in solution, and incorporation of these mutations into the full-length enzyme significantly inhibited dimer-dependent functions on the cell surface, including proMMP-2 activation, collagen degradation, and invasion into the three-dimensional collagen matrix, whereas dimer-independent functions, including gelatin film degradation and two-dimensional cell migration, were not affected. These results shed light on the structural basis of MT1-MMP dimerization that is crucial to promote cellular invasion.

  3. A novel CD44-binding peptide from the pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 hemopexin domain impairs adhesion and migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Bailón, Elvira; Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Albar, Juan Pablo; García-Marco, José A; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2014-05-30

    (pro)MMP-9 binds to CLL cells through the PEX9 domain and contributes to CLL progression. To biochemically characterize this interaction and identify potential therapeutic targets, we prepared GST-PEX9 forms containing structural blades B1B2 or B3B4. We recently described a sequence in blade B4 (P3 sequence) that bound α4β1 integrin and partially impaired cell adhesion and migration. We have now studied the possible contribution of the B1B2 region to cell interaction with PEX9. CLL cells bound to GST-B1B2 and CD44 was the primary receptor. GST-B1B2 inhibited CLL cell migration as effectively as GST-B3B4. Overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the B1B2 region identified the sequence FDAIAEIGNQLYLFKDGKYW, present in B1 and contained in peptide P6, as the most effective site. P6 inhibited cell adhesion to PEX9 in a dose-dependent manner and with an IC50 value of 90 μM. P6 also inhibited cell adhesion to hyaluronan but had no effect on adhesion to VCAM-1 (α4β1 integrin ligand), confirming its specific interaction with CD44. Spatial localization analyses mapped P6 to the central cavity of PEX9, in close proximity to the previously identified P3 sequence. Both P6 and P3 equally impaired cell adhesion to (pro)MMP-9. Moreover, P6 synergistically cooperated with P3, resulting in complete inhibition of CLL cell binding to PEX9, chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration. Thus, P6 is a novel sequence in PEX9 involved in cell-PEX9/(pro)MMP-9 binding by interacting with CD44. Targeting both sites, P6 and P3, should efficiently prevent (pro)MMP-9 binding to CLL cells and its pathological consequences. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Construction and expression of pEgr-sHemopexin recombinant plasmid induced by ionizing radiation in vitro

    Wang Guiquan; Jilin Univ., Changchun; Xu Chuanjie; Yang Wen; Piao Chunji; Dong Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To clone mouse secretable Hemopexin (sPEX) cDNA, construct pEgr-sPEX recombinant plasmid and detect the expression of recombinant plasmid in B16F10 cells. Methods: Hemopexin cDNA was amplified from the NIH3T3 cells by RT-PCR. After the cDNA identified by sequencing, the pEgr-sPEX recombinant plasmid was constructed and the plasmid was transfected into B16F10 cells with liposome and the expression of PEX induced by ionizing radiation in B16F10 cells was detected by Western blotting. Results: The sequencing results proved the cloned sPEX cDNA to be completely identical with that reported in the GenBank. The mouse sPEX cDNA was inserted correctly into expression vector and expressed successfully. Conclusion: The mouse sPEX cDNA is cloned successfully and it is confirmed that pEgr-sPEX possesses the radiation inducing expression characteristics in vitro. (authors)

  5. Protease activity of plasma hemopexin

    Bakker, WW; Borghuis, T; Harmsen, MC; van den Berg, Anke; Kema, IP; Niezen, KE; Kapojos, JJ

    Background. Previous studies into the relevance of a putative circulating factor in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome have opened the possibility that plasma hemopexin might be an important effector molecule in this disorder. Thus, intra renal infusion of isolated plasma

  6. Fis1, DLP1, and Pex11p coordinately regulate peroxisome morphogenesis

    Kobayashi, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fujiki, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) and Pex11pβ function in morphogenesis of peroxisomes. In the present work, we investigated whether Fis1 is involved in fission of peroxisomes. Endogenous Fis1 was morphologically detected in peroxisomes as well as mitochondria in wild-type CHO-K1 and DLP1-defective ZP121 cells. Subcellular fractionation studies also revealed the presence of Fis1 in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal Fis1 showed the same topology, i.e., C-tail anchored membrane protein, as the mitochondrial one. Furthermore, ectopic expression of FIS1 induced peroxisome proliferation in CHO-K1 cells, while the interference of FIS1 RNA resulted in tubulation of peroxisomes, hence reducing the number of peroxisomes. Fis1 interacted with Pex11pβ, by direct binding apparently involving the C-terminal region of Pex11pβ in the interaction. Pex11pβ also interacted with each other, whereas the binding of Pex11pβ to DLP1 was not detectable. Moreover, ternary complexes comprising Fis1, Pex11pβ, and DLP1 were detected by chemical cross-linking. We also showed that the highly conserved N-terminal domain of Pex11pβ was required for the homo-oligomerization of Pex11pβ and indispensable for the peroxisome-proliferating activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that Fis1 plays important roles in peroxisome division and maintenance of peroxisome morphology in mammalian cells, possibly in a concerted manner with Pex11pβ and DLP1

  7. Structure and Function of p97 and Pex1/6 Type II AAA+ Complexes.

    Saffert, Paul; Enenkel, Cordula; Wendler, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Protein complexes of the Type II AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family are typically hexamers of 80-150 kDa protomers that harbor two AAA+ ATPase domains. They form double ring assemblies flanked by associated domains, which can be N-terminal, intercalated or C-terminal to the ATPase domains. Most prominent members of this family include NSF (N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor), p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), the Pex1/Pex6 complex and Hsp104 in eukaryotes and ClpB in bacteria. Tremendous efforts have been undertaken to understand the conformational dynamics of protein remodeling type II AAA+ complexes. A uniform mode of action has not been derived from these works. This review focuses on p97/VCP and the Pex1/6 complex, which both structurally remodel ubiquitinated substrate proteins. P97/VCP plays a role in many processes, including ER- associated protein degradation, and the Pex1/Pex6 complex dislocates and recycles the transport receptor Pex5 from the peroxisomal membrane during peroxisomal protein import. We give an introduction into existing knowledge about the biochemical and cellular activities of the complexes before discussing structural information. We particularly emphasize recent electron microscopy structures of the two AAA+ complexes and summarize their structural differences.

  8. Disparate peroxisome-related defects in Arabidopsis pex6 and pex26 mutants link peroxisomal retrotranslocation and oil body utilization.

    Gonzalez, Kim L; Fleming, Wendell A; Kao, Yun-Ting; Wright, Zachary J; Venkova, Savina V; Ventura, Meredith J; Bartel, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    Catabolism of fatty acids stored in oil bodies is essential for seed germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis. This fatty acid breakdown occurs in peroxisomes, organelles that sequester oxidative reactions. Import of peroxisomal enzymes is facilitated by peroxins including PEX5, a receptor that delivers cargo proteins from the cytosol to the peroxisomal matrix. After cargo delivery, a complex of the PEX1 and PEX6 ATPases and the PEX26 tail-anchored membrane protein removes ubiquitinated PEX5 from the peroxisomal membrane. We identified Arabidopsis pex6 and pex26 mutants by screening for inefficient seedling β-oxidation phenotypes. The mutants displayed distinct defects in growth, response to a peroxisomally metabolized auxin precursor, and peroxisomal protein import. The low PEX5 levels in these mutants were increased by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or by combining pex26 with peroxisome-associated ubiquitination machinery mutants, suggesting that ubiquitinated PEX5 is degraded by the proteasome when the function of PEX6 or PEX26 is reduced. Combining pex26 with mutations that increase PEX5 levels either worsened or improved pex26 physiological and molecular defects, depending on the introduced lesion. Moreover, elevating PEX5 levels via a 35S:PEX5 transgene exacerbated pex26 defects and ameliorated the defects of only a subset of pex6 alleles, implying that decreased PEX5 is not the sole molecular deficiency in these mutants. We found peroxisomes clustered around persisting oil bodies in pex6 and pex26 seedlings, suggesting a role for peroxisomal retrotranslocation machinery in oil body utilization. The disparate phenotypes of these pex alleles may reflect unanticipated functions of the peroxisomal ATPase complex. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Maniecki, Maciej B; Jacobsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    and is suggested to facilitate cellular heme metabolism. Using a ligand-affinity approach, we purified the human hemopexin-heme receptor and identified it as the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)/CD91, a receptor expressed in several cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, neurons......, and syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding experiments, including Biacore analysis, showed that hemopexin-heme complex formation elicits the high receptor affinity. Uptake studies of radio-labeled hemopexin-heme complex in LRP/CD91-expressing COS cells and confocal microscopy of the cellular processing of fluorescent hemopexin......-heme complexes are removed by a receptor-mediated pathway showing striking similarities to the CD163-mediated haptoglobin-hemoglobin clearance in macrophages. Furthermore, the data indicate a hitherto unknown role of LRP/CD91 in inflammation....

  10. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  11. Lack of Plasma Protein Hemopexin Results in Increased Duodenal Iron Uptake.

    Fiorito, Veronica; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Silengo, Lorenzo; Aime, Silvio; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    The body concentration of iron is regulated by a fine equilibrium between absorption and losses of iron. Iron can be absorbed from diet as inorganic iron or as heme. Hemopexin is an acute phase protein that limits iron access to microorganisms. Moreover, it is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for heme and thus it mediates heme-iron recycling. Considering its involvement in iron homeostasis, it was postulated that hemopexin may play a role in the physiological absorption of inorganic iron. Hemopexin-null mice showed elevated iron deposits in enterocytes, associated with higher duodenal H-Ferritin levels and a significant increase in duodenal expression and activity of heme oxygenase. The expression of heme-iron and inorganic iron transporters was normal. The rate of iron absorption was assessed by measuring the amount of (57)Fe retained in tissues from hemopexin-null and wild-type animals after administration of an oral dose of (57)FeSO4 or of (57)Fe-labelled heme. Higher iron retention in the duodenum of hemopexin-null mice was observed as compared with normal mice. Conversely, iron transfer from enterocytes to liver and bone marrow was unaffected in hemopexin-null mice. The increased iron level in hemopexin-null duodenum can be accounted for by an increased iron uptake by enterocytes and storage in ferritins. These data indicate that the lack of hemopexin under physiological conditions leads to an enhanced duodenal iron uptake thus providing new insights to our understanding of body iron homeostasis.

  12. PEX1 deficiency presenting as Leber congenital amaurosis

    Michelakakis, Helen M.; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I.; Moraitou, Marina S.; Gootjes, Jeannette; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders result from defects in peroxin proteins involved in peroxisomal matrix and membrane protein import. Peroxins are encoded in peroxin protein genes; to date, the PEX genes responsible for all 12 peroxisome biogenesis disorders complementation groups are known. Peroxin

  13. Pex35 is a regulator of peroxisome abundance

    Yofe, Ido; Soliman, Kareem; Chuartzman, Silvia G

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen...

  14. Spectrum of PEX6 mutations in Zellweger syndrome spectrum patients

    Ebberink, Merel S.; Kofster, Janet; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2010-01-01

    The autosomal recessive Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) disorders comprise a main subgroup of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The ZSS disorders can be caused by mutations in any of 12 different currently identified PEX genes resulting in severe, often lethal, multi-systemic disorders. Defects

  15. Hemopexin as biomarkers for analyzing the biological responses associated with exposure to silica nanoparticles

    Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kohei; Morishita, Yuki; Pan, Huiyan; Ogura, Toshinobu; Nagano, Takashi; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-10-01

    Practical uses of nanomaterials are rapidly spreading to a wide variety of fields. However, potential harmful effects of nanomaterials are raising concerns about their safety. Therefore, it is important that a risk assessment system is developed so that the safety of nanomaterials can be evaluated or predicted. Here, we attempted to identify novel biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced health effects by a comprehensive screen of plasma proteins using two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis. Initially, we used 2D-DIGE to analyze changes in the level of plasma proteins in mice after intravenous injection via tail veins of 0.8 mg/mouse silica nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or saline as controls. By quantitative image analysis, protein spots representing >2.0-fold alteration in expression were found and identified by mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, we focused on hemopexin as a potential biomarker. The levels of hemopexin in the plasma increased as the silica particle size decreased. In addition, the production of hemopexin depended on the characteristics of the nanomaterials. These results suggested that hemopexin could be an additional biomarker for analyzing the biological responses associated with exposure to silica nanoparticles. We believe that this study will contribute to the development of biomarkers to ensure the safety of silica nanoparticles.

  16. Pex11mediates peroxisomal proliferation by promoting deformation of the lipid membrane

    Yumi Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pex11p family proteins are key players in peroxisomal fission, but their molecular mechanisms remains mostly unknown. In the present study, overexpression of Pex11pβ caused substantial vesiculation of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. This vesicle formation was dependent on dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1 and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff, as knockdown of these proteins diminished peroxisomal fission after Pex11pβ overexpression. The fission-deficient peroxisomes exhibited an elongated morphology, and peroxisomal marker proteins, such as Pex14p or matrix proteins harboring peroxisomal targeting signal 1, were discernible in a segmented staining pattern, like beads on a string. Endogenous Pex11pβ was also distributed a striped pattern, but which was not coincide with Pex14p and PTS1 matrix proteins. Altered morphology of the lipid membrane was observed when recombinant Pex11p proteins were introduced into proteo-liposomes. Constriction of proteo-liposomes was observed under confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, and the reconstituted Pex11pβ protein localized to the membrane constriction site. Introducing point mutations into the N-terminal amphiphathic helix of Pex11pβ strongly reduced peroxisomal fission, and decreased the oligomer formation. These results suggest that Pex11p contributes to the morphogenesis of the peroxisomal membrane, which is required for subsequent fission by DLP1.

  17. Pex11mediates peroxisomal proliferation by promoting deformation of the lipid membrane

    Yoshida, Yumi; Niwa, Hajime; Honsho, Masanori; Itoyama, Akinori; Fujiki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Pex11p family proteins are key players in peroxisomal fission, but their molecular mechanisms remains mostly unknown. In the present study, overexpression of Pex11pβ caused substantial vesiculation of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. This vesicle formation was dependent on dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff), as knockdown of these proteins diminished peroxisomal fission after Pex11pβ overexpression. The fission-deficient peroxisomes exhibited an elongated morphology, and peroxisomal marker proteins, such as Pex14p or matrix proteins harboring peroxisomal targeting signal 1, were discernible in a segmented staining pattern, like beads on a string. Endogenous Pex11pβ was also distributed a striped pattern, but which was not coincide with Pex14p and PTS1 matrix proteins. Altered morphology of the lipid membrane was observed when recombinant Pex11p proteins were introduced into proteo-liposomes. Constriction of proteo-liposomes was observed under confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, and the reconstituted Pex11pβ protein localized to the membrane constriction site. Introducing point mutations into the N-terminal amphiphathic helix of Pex11pβ strongly reduced peroxisomal fission, and decreased the oligomer formation. These results suggest that Pex11p contributes to the morphogenesis of the peroxisomal membrane, which is required for subsequent fission by DLP1. PMID:25910939

  18. Emergence of the acute-phase protein hemopexin in jawed vertebrates

    Dooley, Helen; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2010-01-01

    When released from damaged erythrocytes free heme not only provides a source of iron for invading bacteria but is also highly toxic due to its ability to catalyze free radical formation. Hemopexin (Hx) binds free heme with very high affinity and thus protects against heme toxicity, sequesters heme from pathogens, and helps conserve valuable iron. Hx is also an acute-phase serum protein (APP), whose expression is induced by inflammation. To date Hx has been identified as far back in phylogeny ...

  19. Fetal hemoglobin, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin are potential predictive first trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia.

    Anderson, Ulrik Dolberg; Gram, Magnus; Ranstam, Jonas; Thilaganathan, Basky; Kerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the preeclamptic placenta has been recently implicated as a new etiological factor of preeclampsia. In this study, maternal serum levels of HbF and the endogenous hemoglobin/heme scavenging systems were evaluated as predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia in combination with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Case-control study including 433 women in early pregnancy (mean 13.7weeks of gestation) of which 86 subsequently developed preeclampsia. The serum concentrations of HbF, total cell-free hemoglobin, hemopexin, haptoglobin and α1-microglobulin were measured in maternal serum. All patients were examined with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Logistic regression models were developed, which included the biomarkers, ultrasound indices, and maternal risk factors. There were significantly higher serum concentrations of HbF and α1-microglobulin and significantly lower serum concentrations of hemopexin in patients who later developed preeclampsia. The uterine artery Doppler ultrasound results showed significantly higher pulsatility index values in the preeclampsia group. The optimal prediction model was obtained by combining HbF, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin in combination with the maternal characteristics parity, diabetes and pre-pregnancy hypertension. The optimal sensitivity for all preeclampsia was 60% at 95% specificity. Overproduction of placentally derived HbF and depletion of hemoglobin/heme scavenging mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The combination of HbF and α1-microglobulin and/or hemopexin may serve as a prediction model for preeclampsia in combination with maternal risk factors and/or uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of Fucosylated Hemopexin and Complement Factor H in Plasma of Patients with Liver Disease

    Benicky, J.; Sanda, M.; Pompach, Petr; Wu, J.; Goldman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 21 (2014), s. 10716-10723 ISSN 0793-0135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0503; GA MŠk LH13051 Grant - others:Charles University Project UNCE(CZ) 204025/2012 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fucose * hemopexin * complement Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  1. Hemopexin induces neuroprotection in the rat subjected to focal cerebral ischemia

    Dong, Beibei; Cai, Min; Fang, Zongping; Wei, Haidong; Zhu, Fangyun; Li, Guochao; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize

    2013-01-01

    Background The plasma protein hemopexin (HPX) exhibits the highest binding affinity to free heme. In vitro experiments and gene-knock out technique have suggested that HPX may have a neuroprotective effect. However, the expression of HPX in the brain was not well elucidated and its expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was also poorly studied. Furthermore, no in vivo data were available on the effect of HPX given centrally on the prognosis of focal cerebral ischemia. Results I...

  2. Effect of age on the expression of Pex (Phex) in the mouse.

    Meyer, R A; Young, C G; Meyer, M H; Garges, P L; Price, D K

    2000-04-01

    Pex is a newly discovered gene (also called Phex) whose mutation is the cause of X-linked hypophosphatemia. Other members of this gene family encode endopeptidases that activate or inactivate endocrine and paracrine factors. Though embryonic bone expresses mRNA for the Pex gene at relatively high levels, we have found Pex expression to be widespread in adult organs and to be poorly expressed in adult bone. This led to the hypothesis that Pex mRNA expression changes with age. To test this, genetically normal mice of the B6C3H hybrid strain were studied at 0 (newborn), 2, 3, 10, and 72 weeks of age. Organs known to express Pex were collected, and RNA was extracted from them. Following reverse transcription, cDNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction with primers for Pex and G3PDH, a housekeeping gene. The amplimers were separated by electrophoresis, blotted onto nylon membranes, and hybridized with radioactively labeled internal oligonucleotide probes. The radioactivity was quantified, and the data were analyzed as the Pex/G3PDH ratio. The brain samples had high levels of Pex mRNA expression that rose slightly with age. Calvaria, kidney, and lung samples had the highest Pex mRNA expression at birth. In these organs Pex mRNA expression fell with age to undetectable or barely detectable levels. Thymus, heart, and skeletal muscle samples had low Pex mRNA expression at birth that did not change with age. Some organs showed a decline in G3PDH levels with age, but Pex expression decreased more, leading to a reduced Pex/G3PDH ratio. The widespread expression of mRNA for Pex suggests a role beyond that of phosphate homeostasis. The high level of expression in newborn animals suggests a role in growth and development. This seems to occur in addition to its role for the endocrine regulation of phosphate homeostasis by as yet unknown humoral agents that must occur throughout life. In summary, Pex mRNA expression is high in brain and bone at birth. Expression remains

  3. Biochemical and functional characterization of an albumin protein belonging to the hemopexin superfamily from Lens culinaris seeds.

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Gualtieri, Elisa; Barbiroli, Alberto; Carpen, Aristodemo; Negri, Armando; Duranti, Marcello

    2011-09-14

    The present paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of an albumin identified in mature lentil seeds with high sequence similarity to pea PA2. These proteins are found in many edible seeds and are considered potentially detrimental for human health due to the potential allergenicity and lectin-like activity. Thus, the description of their possible presence in food and the assessment of the molecular properties are relevant. The M(r), pI, and N-terminal sequence of this protein have been determined. The work included the study of (i) the binding properties to hemine to assess the presence of hemopexin structural domains and (ii) the binding properties of the protein to thiamin. In addition, the structural changes induced by heating have been evaluated by means of spectroscopic techniques. Denaturation temperature has also been determined. The present work provides new insights about the structural molecular features and the ligand-binding properties and dynamics of this kind of seed albumin.

  4. Processing of the glycosomal matrix-protein import receptor PEX5 of Trypanosoma brucei

    Gualdrón-López, Melisa; Michels, Paul A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most eukaryotic cells have a single gene for the peroxin PEX5. ► PEX5 is sensitive to in vitro proteolysis in distantly related organisms. ► TbPEX5 undergoes N-terminal truncation in vitro and possibly in vivo. ► Truncated TbPEX5 is still capable of binding PTS1-containing proteins. ► PEX5 truncation is physiologically relevant or an evolutionary conserved artifact. -- Abstract: Glycolysis in kinetoplastid protists such as Trypanosoma brucei is compartmentalized in peroxisome-like organelles called glycosomes. Glycosomal matrix-protein import involves a cytosolic receptor, PEX5, which recognizes the peroxisomal-targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) present at the C-terminus of the majority of matrix proteins. PEX5 appears generally susceptible to in vitro proteolytic processing. On western blots of T. brucei, two PEX5 forms are detected with apparent M r of 100 kDa and 72 kDa. 5′-RACE-PCR showed that TbPEX5 is encoded by a unique transcript that can be translated into a protein of maximally 72 kDa. However, recombinant PEX5 migrates aberrantly in SDS–PAGE with an apparent M r of 100 kDa, similarly as observed for the native peroxin. In vitro protease susceptibility analysis of native and 35 S-labelled PEX5 showed truncation of the 100 kDa form at the N-terminal side by unknown parasite proteases, giving rise to the 72 kDa form which remains functional for PTS1 binding. The relevance of these observations is discussed

  5. Processing of the glycosomal matrix-protein import receptor PEX5 of Trypanosoma brucei

    Gualdrón-López, Melisa [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Michels, Paul A.M., E-mail: paul.michels@uclouvain.be [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Most eukaryotic cells have a single gene for the peroxin PEX5. ► PEX5 is sensitive to in vitro proteolysis in distantly related organisms. ► TbPEX5 undergoes N-terminal truncation in vitro and possibly in vivo. ► Truncated TbPEX5 is still capable of binding PTS1-containing proteins. ► PEX5 truncation is physiologically relevant or an evolutionary conserved artifact. -- Abstract: Glycolysis in kinetoplastid protists such as Trypanosoma brucei is compartmentalized in peroxisome-like organelles called glycosomes. Glycosomal matrix-protein import involves a cytosolic receptor, PEX5, which recognizes the peroxisomal-targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) present at the C-terminus of the majority of matrix proteins. PEX5 appears generally susceptible to in vitro proteolytic processing. On western blots of T. brucei, two PEX5 forms are detected with apparent M{sub r} of 100 kDa and 72 kDa. 5′-RACE-PCR showed that TbPEX5 is encoded by a unique transcript that can be translated into a protein of maximally 72 kDa. However, recombinant PEX5 migrates aberrantly in SDS–PAGE with an apparent M{sub r} of 100 kDa, similarly as observed for the native peroxin. In vitro protease susceptibility analysis of native and {sup 35}S-labelled PEX5 showed truncation of the 100 kDa form at the N-terminal side by unknown parasite proteases, giving rise to the 72 kDa form which remains functional for PTS1 binding. The relevance of these observations is discussed.

  6. A novel aberrant splicing mutation of the PEX16 gene in two patients with Zellweger syndrome

    Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Nagase, Tomoko; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fujiki, Yukio; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Human Pex16p, a peroxisomal membrane protein composed of 336 amino acids, plays a central role in peroxisomal membrane biogenesis. A nonsense mutation (R176ter) in the PEX16 gene has been reported in the case of only one patient (D-01) belonging to complementation group D of the peroxisome

  7. In the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, peroxisome formation from the ER is independent of Pex19p, but involves the function of p24 proteins

    Otzen, Marleen; Krikken, Arjen M; Ozimek, Paulina Z; Kurbatova, Elena; Nagotu, Shirisha; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2006-01-01

    The peroxin Pex19p is important for the formation of functional peroxisomal membranes. Here we show that Hansenula polymorpha Pex19p is also required for peroxisome inheritance. Peroxisome inheritance is partly defective when Pex19p farnesylation is blocked, whereas deletion of PEX19 resulted in a

  8. Distribution of mutations in the PEX gene in families with X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (HYP).

    Rowe, P S; Oudet, C L; Francis, F; Sinding, C; Pannetier, S; Econs, M J; Strom, T M; Meitinger, T; Garabedian, M; David, A; Macher, M A; Questiaux, E; Popowska, E; Pronicka, E; Read, A P; Mokrzycki, A; Glorieux, F H; Drezner, M K; Hanauer, A; Lehrach, H; Goulding, J N; O'Riordan, J L

    1997-04-01

    Mutations in the PEX gene at Xp22.1 (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases, on the X-chromosome), are responsible for X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (HYP). Homology of PEX to the M13 family of Zn2+ metallopeptidases which include neprilysin (NEP) as prototype, has raised important questions regarding PEX function at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyse 99 HYP families for PEX gene mutations, and to correlate predicted changes in the protein structure with Zn2+ metallopeptidase gene function. Primers flanking 22 characterised exons were used to amplify DNA by PCR, and SSCP was then used to screen for mutations. Deletions, insertions, nonsense mutations, stop codons and splice mutations occurred in 83% of families screened for in all 22 exons, and 51% of a separate set of families screened in 17 PEX gene exons. Missense mutations in four regions of the gene were informative regarding function, with one mutation in the Zn2+-binding site predicted to alter substrate enzyme interaction and catalysis. Computer analysis of the remaining mutations predicted changes in secondary structure, N-glycosylation, protein phosphorylation and catalytic site molecular structure. The wide range of mutations that align with regions required for protease activity in NEP suggests that PEX also functions as a protease, and may act by processing factor(s) involved in bone mineral metabolism.

  9. Crystal structure of a plant albumin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea) possessing hemopexin fold and hemagglutination activity.

    Sharma, Urvashi; Katre, Uma V; Suresh, C G

    2015-05-01

    Crystal structure of a reported PA2 albumin from Cicer arietinum shows that it belongs to hemopexin fold family, has four beta-propeller motifs and possesses hemagglutination activity, making it different from known legume lectins. A plant albumin (PA2) from Cicer arietinum, presumably a lectin (CAL) owing to its hemagglutination activity which is inhibited by complex sugars as well as glycoproteins such as fetuin, desialylated fetuin and fibrinogen. The three-dimensional structure of this homodimeric protein has been determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.2 Å in two crystal forms: orthorhombic (P21212) and trigonal (P3). The structure determined using molecular replacement method and refined in orthorhombic crystal form reached R-factors R free 22.6 % and R work 18.2 % and in trigonal form had 22.3 and 17.9 % in the resolution range of 20.0-2.2 and 35.3-2.2 Å, respectively. Interestingly, unlike the known legume lectin fold, the structure of this homodimeric hemagglutinin belonged to hemopexin fold that consisted of four-bladed β-propeller architecture. Each subunit has a central cavity forming a channel, inside of which is lined with hydrophobic residues. The channel also bears binding sites for ligands such as calcium, sodium and chloride ions, iodine atom in the case of iodine derivative and water molecules. However, none of these ligands seem important for the sugar recognition. No monosaccharide sugar specificity could be detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Chemical modification studies identified a potential sugar-binding site per subunit molecule. Comparison of C-alpha atom positions in subunit structures showed that the deviations between the two crystal forms were more with respect to blades I and IV. Differences also existed between subunits in two forms in terms of type and site of ligand binding.

  10. Evaluating the cost of adult voluntary medical male circumcision in a mixed (surgical and PrePex site compared to a hypothetical PrePex-only site in South Africa

    Hae-Young Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several circumcision devices have been evaluated for a safe and simplified male circumcision among adults. The PrePex device was prequalified for voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC in May 2013 by the World Health Organization and is expected to simplify the procedure safely while reducing cost. South Africa is scaling up VMMC. Objective: To evaluate the overall unit cost of VMMC at a mixed site vs. a hypothetical PrePex-only site in South Africa. Design: We evaluated the overall unit cost of VMMC at a mixed site where PrePex VMMC procedure was added to routine forceps-guided scalpel-based VMMC in Soweto, South Africa. We abstracted costs and then modeled these costs for a hypothetical PrePex-only site, at which 9,600 PrePex circumcisions per year could be done. We examined cost drivers and modeled costs, varying the price of the PrePex device. The healthcare system perspective was used. Results: In both sites, the main contributors of cost were personnel and consumables. If 10% of all VMMC were by PrePex at the mixed site, the overall costs of the surgical method and PrePex were similar – US$59.62 and $59.53, respectively. At the hypothetical PrePex-only site, the unit cost was US$51.10 with PrePex circumcisions having markedly lower personnel and biohazardous waste management costs. In sensitivity analysis with the cost of PrePex kit reduced to US$10 and $2, the cost of VMMC was further reduced. Conclusions: Adding PrePex to an existing site did not necessarily reduce the overall costs of VMMC. However, starting a new PrePex-only site is feasible and may significantly reduce the overall cost by lowering both personnel and capital costs, thus being cost-effective in the long term. Achieving a lower cost for PrePex will be an important contributor to the scale-up of VMMC.

  11. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme–hemopexin: A comparative study

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; Polticelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX–heme–Fe. ► Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX–heme–Fe. ► Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX–heme–Fe–cyanide. ► Cyanide binding to HHPX–heme–Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. ► Cyanide dissociation from HHPX–heme–Fe–cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme–Fe–hemopexin (HPX–heme–Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX–heme–Fe (HHPX–heme–Fe(III) and HHPX–heme–Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX–heme–Fe(III)–cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 °C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX–heme–Fe(III) and HHPX–heme–Fe(II) are K = (4.1 ± 0.4) × 10 −6 M, k on = (6.9 ± 0.5) × 10 1 M −1 s −1 , and k off = 2.8 × 10 −4 s −1 ; and H = (6 ± 1) × 10 −1 M, h on = 1.2 × 10 −1 M −1 s −1 , and h off = (7.1 ± 0.8) × 10 −2 s −1 , respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX–heme–Fe(III)–cyanide complex is l = 8.9 ± 0.8 M −1/2 s −1 . HHPX–heme–Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  12. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  13. Emergence of the acute-phase protein hemopexin in jawed vertebrates.

    Dooley, Helen; Buckingham, E Bryan; Criscitiello, Michael F; Flajnik, Martin F

    2010-01-01

    When released from damaged erythrocytes free heme not only provides a source of iron for invading bacteria but also highly toxic due to its ability to catalyze free radical formation. Hemopexin (Hx) binds free heme with very high-affinity and thus protects against heme toxicity, sequesters heme from pathogens, and helps conserve valuable iron. Hx is also an acute-phase serum protein (APP), whose expression is induced by inflammation. To date Hx has been identified as far back in phylogeny as bony fish where it is called warm-temperature acclimation-related 65 kDa protein (WAP65), as serum protein levels are increased at elevated environmental temperatures as well as by infection. During analysis of nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) plasma we isolated a Ni(2+)-binding serum glycoprotein and characterized it as the APP Hx. We subsequently cloned Hx from nurse shark and another cartilaginous fish species, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea. Functional analysis showed shark Hx, like that of mammals, binds heme but is found at unusually high levels in normal shark serum. As an Hx orthologue could not be found in the genomes of jawless vertebrates or lower deuterostomes it appears to have arisen just prior to the emergence of jawed vertebrates, coincident with the second round of genome-wide duplication and the appearance of tetrameric hemoglobin (Hb). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Recognition of PTS-1 Cargo Proteins by Pex5p: Implications for Protein Mistargeting in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    Noel Mesa-Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3–4 orders of magnitude reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.

  15. Fluorescence analysis of the Hansenula polymorpha peroxisomal targeting signal-1 receptor, Pex5p

    Boteva, R.; Koek, A.; Visser, N.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Krieger, E.; Zlateva, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Klei, van der I.

    2003-01-01

    Correct sorting of newly synthesized peroxisomal matrix proteins is dependent on a peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS). So far two PTSs are known. PTS1 consists of a tripeptide that is located at the extreme C terminus of matrix proteins and is specifically recognized by the PTS1-receptor Pex5p. We

  16. OsPEX11, a peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11, contributes to salt stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

    Cui Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000, was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1 involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than wild type and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  17. OsPEX11, a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Factor 11, Contributes to Salt Stress Tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Islam, Faisal; Li, Lan; Farooq, Muhammad A; Ruan, Songlin; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H 2 O 2 -producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000), was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type (WT) and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with WT and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na + /K + ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters ( OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 , and OsAKT1 ) involved in Na + /K + homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than WT and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na + and K + regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  18. Physiologic and genetic evidence links hemopexin to triglycerides in mice and humans.

    Lawson, H A; Zayed, M; Wayhart, J P; Fabbrini, E; Love-Gregory, L; Klein, S; Semenkovich, C F

    2017-04-01

    Elevated triglycerides predict insulin resistance and vascular disease in obesity, but how the inert triglyceride molecule is related to development of metabolic disease is unknown. To pursue novel potential mediators of triglyceride-associated metabolic disease, we used a forward genetics approach involving inbred mice and translated our findings to human subjects. Hemopexin (HPX) was identified as a differentially expressed gene within a quantitative trait locus associated with serum triglycerides in an F 16 advanced intercross between the LG/J and SM/J strains of mice. Hpx expression was evaluated in both the reproductive fat pads and livers of mice representing three strains, LG/J (n=25), SM/J (n=27) and C57Bl/6J (n=19), on high- and low-fat diets. The effect of altered Hpx expression on adipogenesis was studied in 3T3-L1 cells. Circulating HPX protein along with HPX expression were characterized in subcutaneous white adipose tissue samples obtained from a cohort of metabolically abnormal (n=18) and of metabolically normal (n=24) obese human subjects. We further examined the relationship between HPX and triglycerides in human atherosclerotic plaques (n=18). HPX expression in mouse adipose tissue, but not in liver, was regulated by dietary fat regardless of genetic background. HPX increased in concert with adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, and disruption of its expression impaired adipocyte differentiation. RNAseq data from the adipose tissue of obese humans showed differential expression of HPX based on metabolic disease status (Ptriglycerides in these subjects (r=0.33; P=0.03). HPX was also found in an unbiased proteomic screen of human atherosclerotic plaques and shown to display differential abundance based on the extent of disease and triglyceride content (Ptriglycerides and provide a framework for understanding mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and metabolic disease.

  19. Hemopexin and haptoglobin: allies against heme toxicity from hemoglobin not contenders.

    Ann eSmith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal here is to describe our current understanding of heme metabolism and the deleterious effects of free heme on immunological processes, endothelial function, systemic inflammation, and various end-organ tissues (e.g. kidney, lung, liver, etc., with particular attention paid to the role of hemopexin (HPX. Because heme toxicity is the impetus for much of the pathology in sepsis, sickle cell disease, and other hemolytic conditions, the biological importance and clinical relevance of HPX, the predominant heme binding protein, is reinforced. A perspective on the function of HPX and haptoglobin (Hp is presented, updating how these two proteins and their respective receptors act simultaneously to protect the body in clinical conditions that entail hemolysis and/or systemic intravascular inflammation. Evidence from longitudinal studies in patients supports that HPX plays a Hp-independent role in genetic and non-genetic hemolytic diseases without the need for global Hp depletion. Evidence also supports that HPX has an important role in the prognosis of complex illnesses characterized predominantly by the presence of hemolysis, such as sickle cell disease, sepsis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and conditions involving intravascular and extravascular hemolysis, such as that generated by extracorporeal circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and from blood transfusions. We propose that quantitating the amounts of plasma heme, HPX, Hb-Hp, heme-HPX and heme-albumin levels in various disease states may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the above-mentioned conditions, which is crucial to developing targeted plasma protein supplementation (i.e. replenishment therapies for patients with heme toxicity due to HPX depletion.

  20. Hemopexin induces neuroprotection in the rat subjected to focal cerebral ischemia.

    Dong, Beibei; Cai, Min; Fang, Zongping; Wei, Haidong; Zhu, Fangyun; Li, Guochao; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize

    2013-06-10

    The plasma protein hemopexin (HPX) exhibits the highest binding affinity to free heme. In vitro experiments and gene-knock out technique have suggested that HPX may have a neuroprotective effect. However, the expression of HPX in the brain was not well elucidated and its expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was also poorly studied. Furthermore, no in vivo data were available on the effect of HPX given centrally on the prognosis of focal cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we systematically investigated expression of HPX in normal rat brain by immunofluorescent staining. The results showed that HPX was mainly expressed in vascular system and neurons, as well as in a small portion of astrocytes adjacent to the vessels in normal rat brain. Further, we determined the role of HPX in the process of focal cerebral ischemic injury and explored the effects of HPX treatment in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. After 2 h' middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h' reperfusion, the expression of HPX was increased in the neurons and astrocytes in the penumbra area, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Intracerebroventricular injection of HPX at the onset of reperfusion dose-dependently reduced the infarct volumes and improved measurements of neurological function of the rat subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of HPX sustained for up to 7 days after experiments. Our study provides a new insight into the potential neuroprotective role of HPX as a contributing factor of endogenous protective mechanisms against focal cerebral ischemia injury, and HPX might be developed as a potential agent for treatment of ischemic stroke.

  1. Reports and recommendations from COSPAR Planetary Exploration Committee (PEX) & International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration, the objectives of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) are to provide high quality, independent science input to support the development of a global space exploration program while working to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system bodies. PEX engages with COSPAR Commissions and Panels, science foundations, IAA, IAF, UN bodies, and IISL to support in particular national and international space exploration working groups and the new era of planetary exploration. COSPAR's input, as gathered by PEX, is intended to express the consensus view of the international scientific community and should ultimately provide a series of guidelines to support future space exploration activities and cooperative efforts, leading to outstanding scientific discoveries, opportunities for innovation, strategic partnerships, technology progression, and inspiration for people of all ages and cultures worldwide. We shall focus on the lunar exploration aspects, where the COSPAR PEX is building on previous COSPAR, ILEWG and community conferences. An updated COSPAR PEX report is published and available online (Ehrenfreund P. et al, COSPAR planetary exploration panel report, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/assets/COSPAR_PEX2012.pdf). We celebrate 20 years after the 1st International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon at Beatenberg in June 1994. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established the year after in April 1995 at an EGS meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon (http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ ). It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and

  2. Safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Kenya.

    Paul J Feldblum

    Full Text Available To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC in routine service delivery in Kenya.We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain.Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-8.5%, all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%. Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30-0.58, and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family.The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411.

  3. Dysmorphic Facial Features and Other Clinical Characteristics in Two Patients with PEX1 Gene Mutations

    Gunduz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders are a group of genetically heterogeneous metabolic diseases related to dysfunction of peroxisomes. Dysmorphic features, neurological abnormalities, and hepatic dysfunction can be presenting signs of peroxisomal disorders. Here we presented dysmorphic facial features and other clinical characteristics in two patients with PEX1 gene mutation. Follow-up periods were 3.5 years and 1 year in the patients. Case I was one-year-old girl that presented with neurodevelopmental delay, hepatomegaly, bilateral hearing loss, and visual problems. Ophthalmologic examination suggested septooptic dysplasia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed nonspecific gliosis at subcortical and periventricular deep white matter. Case II was 2.5-year-old girl referred for investigation of global developmental delay and elevated liver enzymes. Ophthalmologic examination findings were consistent with bilateral nystagmus and retinitis pigmentosa. Cranial MRI was normal. Dysmorphic facial features including broad nasal root, low set ears, downward slanting eyes, downward slanting eyebrows, and epichantal folds were common findings in two patients. Molecular genetic analysis indicated homozygous novel IVS1-2A>G mutation in Case I and homozygous p.G843D (c.2528G>A) mutation in Case II in the PEX1 gene. Clinical findings and developmental prognosis vary in PEX1 gene mutation. Kabuki-like phenotype associated with liver pathology may indicate Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD). PMID:27882258

  4. Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water.

    Skjevrak, Ingun; Due, Anne; Gjerstad, Karl Olav; Herikstad, Hallgeir

    2003-04-01

    High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which is a known degradation product from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168(R). In addition, a range of esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenoids were identified as migration products from HDPE pipes. Water in contact with HDPE pipes was assessed with respect to TON, and values > or =4 were determined for five out of seven brands of HDPE pipes. The total amount of VOC released to water during three successive test periods were fairly constant for the HDPE pipes. Corresponding migration tests carried out for PEX pipes showed that VOC migrated in significant amounts into the test water, and TON >/=5 of the test water were observed in all tests. Several of the migrated VOC were not identified. Oxygenates predominated the identified VOC in the test water from PEX pipes. Migration tests of PVC pipes revealed few volatile migrants in the test samples and no significant odour of the test water.

  5. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe early onset retinitis pigmentosa in a Moroccan patient with Heimler syndrome due to novel homozygous mutation of PEX1 gene.

    Ratbi, Ilham; Jaouad, Imane Cherkaoui; Elorch, Hamza; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Elalloussi, Mustapha; Lyahyai, Jaber; Berraho, Amina; Newman, William G; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2016-10-01

    Heimler syndrome (HS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), amelogenesis imperfecta, nail abnormalities, and occasional or late-onset retinal pigmentation. It is the mildest form known to date of peroxisome biogenesis disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations of PEX1 and PEX6 genes. We report on a second Moroccan family with Heimler syndrome with early onset, severe visual impairment and important phenotypic overlap with Usher syndrome. The patient carried a novel homozygous missense variant c.3140T > C (p.Leu1047Pro) of PEX1 gene. As standard biochemical screening of blood for evidence of a peroxisomal disorder did not provide a diagnosis in the individuals with HS, patients with SNHL and retinal pigmentation should have mutation analysis of PEX1 and PEX6 genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial community changes in copper and PEX drinking water pipeline biofilms under extra disinfection and magnetic water treatment.

    Inkinen, J; Jayaprakash, B; Ahonen, M; Pitkänen, T; Mäkinen, R; Pursiainen, A; Santo Domingo, J W; Salonen, H; Elk, M; Keinänen-Toivola, M M

    2018-02-01

    To study the stability of biofilms and water quality in pilot scale drinking water copper and PEX pipes in changing conditions (extra disinfection, magnetic water treatment, MWT). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) to describe total bacterial community and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to describe active bacterial members in addition to traditional microbiological methods were applied. Biofilms from control copper and PEX pipes shared same most abundant bacteria (Methylobacterium spp., Sphingomonas spp., Zymomonas spp.) and average species diversities (Shannon 3·8-4·2) in rDNA and rRNA libraries, whereas few of the taxa differed by their abundance such as lower total Mycobacterium spp. occurrence in copper (disinfection (total chlorine increase from c. 0·5 to 1 mg l -1 ) affected total and active population in biofilms seen as decrease in many bacterial species and diversity (Shannon 2·7, P disinfected copper and PEX samples formed separate clusters in unweighted non-metric multidimensional scaling plot (rRNA) similarly to MWT-treated biofilms of copper (but not PEX) pipes that instead showed higher species diversity (Shannon 4·8, P < 0·05 interaction). Minor chlorine dose addition increased selection pressure and many species were sensitive to chlorination. Pipe material seemed to affect mycobacteria occurrence, and bacterial communities with MWT in copper but not in PEX pipes. This study using rRNA showed that chlorination affects especially active fraction of bacterial communities. Copper and PEX differed by the occurrence of some bacterial members despite similar community profiles. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Mutation in the peroxin-coding gene PEX22 contributing to high malate production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Negoro, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Mitsuru; Kotaka, Atsushi; Matsumura, Kengo; Hata, Yoji

    2018-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces organic acids such as succinate, acetate, and malate during alcoholic fermentation. Since malate contributes to the pleasant taste of sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage), various methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeast strains have been developed. Here, a high-malate-producing yeast strain F-701H was isolated. This mutant was sensitive to dimethyl succinate (DMS) and harbored a nonsense mutation in the peroxin gene PEX22, which was identified as the cause of high malate production by comparative genome analysis. This mutation, which appeared to cause Pex22p dysfunction, was sufficient to confer increased malate productivity and DMS sensitivity to yeast cells. Next, we investigated the mechanism by which this mutation led to high malate production in yeast cells. Peroxins, such as Pex22p, maintain peroxisomal biogenesis. Analysis of 29 PEX disruptants revealed an increased malate production by deletion of the genes encoding peroxins responsible for importing proteins (containing peroxisomal targeting signal 1, PTS1) into the peroxisomal matrix, and those responsible for the assembly of peroxins themselves in the peroxisomal membrane. A defect in peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase (Mdh3p), harboring endogenous PTS1, inhibited the high malate-producing phenotype in the PEX22 mutant. Moreover, Mdh3p, which was normally sorted to the peroxisomal matrix, was potentially mislocalized to the cytosol in the PEX22 mutant. This suggested that an increase in malate production resulted from the mislocalization of Mdh3p from the peroxisome to the cytoplasm due to the loss of peroxin-mediated transportation. Thus, the present study revealed a novel mechanism for organic acid productions in yeast during sake brewing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment (SCoPEx): overview, status, and results from related laboratory experiments

    Keith, D.; Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment (SCoPEx), is a scientific experiment to advance understanding of stratospheric aerosols. It aims to make quantitative measurements of aerosol microphysics and atmospheric chemistry to improve large-scale models used to assess the risks and benefits of solar geoengineering. A perturbative experiment requires: (a) means to create a well-mixed, small perturbed volume, and (b) observation of time evolution of chemistry and aerosols in the volume. SCoPEx will used a propelled balloon gondola containing all instruments and drive system. The propeller wake forms a well-mixed volume (roughly 1 km long and 100 meters in diameter) that serves as an experimental `beaker' into which aerosols (e.g., budget, etc; (d) results from CFD simulation of propeller wake and simulation of chemistry and aerosol microphysics; and finally (e) proposed concept of operations and schedule. We will also provide an overview of the plans for governance including management of health safety and environmental risks, transparency, public engagement, and larger questions about governance of solar geoengineering experiments. Finally, we will briefly present results of laboratory experiments of the interaction of chemical such as ClONO2 and HCl on particle surfaces relevant for stratospheric solar geoengineering.

  10. PEX12, the pathogenic gene of group III Zellweger syndrome: cDNA cloning by functional complementation on a CHO cell mutant, patient analysis, and characterization of PEX12p

    Okumoto, K.; Shimozawa, N.; Kawai, A.; Tamura, S.; Tsukamoto, T.; Osumi, T.; Moser, H.; Wanders, R. J.; Suzuki, Y.; Kondo, N.; Fujiki, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Rat PEX12 cDNA was isolated by functional complementation of peroxisome deficiency of a mutant CHO cell line, ZP109 (K. Okumoto, A. Bogaki, K. Tateishi, T. Tsukamoto, T. Osumi, N. Shimozawa, Y. Suzuki, T. Orii, and Y. Fujiki, Exp. Cell Res. 233:11-20, 1997), using a transient transfection assay and

  11. Role of Pex21p for Piggyback Import of Gpd1p and Pnc1p into Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    Effelsberg, Daniel; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Tonillo, Jason; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Proteins designated for peroxisomal protein import harbor one of two common peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oleate-induced PTS2-dependent import of the thiolase Fox3p into peroxisomes is conducted by the soluble import receptor Pex7p in cooperation with the auxiliary Pex18p, one of two supposedly redundant PTS2 co-receptors. Here, we report on a novel function for the co-receptor Pex21p, which cannot be fulfilled by Pex18p. The data establish Pex21p as a general co-receptor in PTS2-dependent protein import, whereas Pex18p is especially important for oleate-induced import of PTS2 proteins. The glycerol-producing PTS2 protein glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1p shows a tripartite localization in peroxisomes, in the cytosol, and in the nucleus under osmotic stress conditions. We show the following: (i) Pex21p is required for peroxisomal import of Gpd1p as well as a key enzyme of the NAD+ salvage pathway, Pnc1p; (ii) Pnc1p, a nicotinamidase without functional PTS2, is co-imported into peroxisomes by piggyback transport via Gpd1p. Moreover, the specific transport of these two enzymes into peroxisomes suggests a novel regulatory role for peroxisomes under various stress conditions. PMID:26276932

  12. Role of Pex21p for Piggyback Import of Gpd1p and Pnc1p into Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Effelsberg, Daniel; Cruz-Zaragoza, Luis Daniel; Tonillo, Jason; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-10-16

    Proteins designated for peroxisomal protein import harbor one of two common peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oleate-induced PTS2-dependent import of the thiolase Fox3p into peroxisomes is conducted by the soluble import receptor Pex7p in cooperation with the auxiliary Pex18p, one of two supposedly redundant PTS2 co-receptors. Here, we report on a novel function for the co-receptor Pex21p, which cannot be fulfilled by Pex18p. The data establish Pex21p as a general co-receptor in PTS2-dependent protein import, whereas Pex18p is especially important for oleate-induced import of PTS2 proteins. The glycerol-producing PTS2 protein glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1p shows a tripartite localization in peroxisomes, in the cytosol, and in the nucleus under osmotic stress conditions. We show the following: (i) Pex21p is required for peroxisomal import of Gpd1p as well as a key enzyme of the NAD(+) salvage pathway, Pnc1p; (ii) Pnc1p, a nicotinamidase without functional PTS2, is co-imported into peroxisomes by piggyback transport via Gpd1p. Moreover, the specific transport of these two enzymes into peroxisomes suggests a novel regulatory role for peroxisomes under various stress conditions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Bile acid treatment alters hepatic disease and bile acid transport in peroxisome-deficient PEX2 Zellweger mice

    Keane, Megan H.; Overmars, Henk; Wikander, Thomas M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Duran, Marinus; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Faust, Phyllis L.

    2007-01-01

    The marked deficiency of peroxisomal organelle assembly in the PEX2(-/-) mouse model for Zellweger syndrome provides a unique opportunity to developmentally and biochemically characterize hepatic disease progression and bile acid products. The postnatal survival of homozygous mutants enabled us to

  14. A Missense Mutation of G257A at Exon 3 in PEX7 CDS Was Responsible for the Incidence of Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1

    Marziyeh Alamatsaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP type 1 is among of the rare autosomal recessive peroxisome biogenesis disorders caused by mutations in the PEX7 gene. RCDP patients with the classic form of RCDP1 do not live more than 10- year. Materials and Methods In the present study, a two-year-old girl with skeletal abnormalities and dysmorphic facial appearance is reported to be suffered from RCDP. The patient's parents were second cousins and healthy and there was no similar case in the parents’ family. PEX7 gene was sequenced in the patient and her parents. Results A homozygous mutation, G257A, was identified PEX7 in the genome of patient while the parents were compound heterozygous. Conclusion Taken together, clinical presentation and peroxisome profile of the patient suggested a missense mutation led to formation of a pathogenic PEX7, responsible for incidence of RCDP.

  15. Assessing Odor Level when Using PrePex for HIV Prevention: A Prospective, Randomized, Open Label, Blinded Assessor Trial to Improve Uptake of Male Circumcision.

    Vincent Mutabazi

    Full Text Available The PrePex is a WHO--prequalified medical device for adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. The Government of Rwanda was the first country to implement the PrePex device and acts as the leading center of excellence providing training and formal guidelines. As part of the Government's efforts to improve PrePex implementation, it made efforts to improve the psychological acceptability of device by men, thus increasing uptake with VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Some men who underwent the PrePex procedure complained of foreskin odor while wearing the PrePex 3-7 days after it was placed. This complaint was identified as potential risk for uptake of the device. Researchers from Rwanda assumed there is a possible relation between the level of foreskin odor and patient foreskin hygiene technique. The Government of Rwanda decided to investigate those assumptions in a scientific way and conduct a trial to test different hygiene-cleaning methods in order to increase the acceptability of PrePex and mitigate the odor concern. The main objective of the trial was to compare odor levels between three arms, having identical personal hygiene but different foreskin hygiene techniques using either clear water with soap during a daily shower, soapy water using a syringe, or chlorhexidine using a syringe. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled to the trial and randomly allocated into three trial arms. Using chlorhexidine solution daily almost completely eliminated odor, and was statistically significant more effective that the other two arms. The trial results suggest that odor from the foreskin, while wearing the PrePex device, could be related to the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can be prevented by a chlorhexidine cleaning method. This finding can be used to increase acceptability by men when considering PrePex as one of the leading methods for HIV prevention in VMMC programs.

  16. Pex11α in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Expression dynamics during the reproductive cycle reveals sex-specific seasonal patterns.

    Castro, L Filipe C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Rocha, Maria J; Urbatzka, Ralph; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    A negative correlation between female gonadal maturation kinetics and size variations of hepatic peroxisomes was earlier documented in brown trout, as a probable impact of serum estrogen changes during the reproductive cycle. Herein, we investigated whether the organelle volume/surface dynamics seen in female brown trout liver peroxisomes - without numerical changes within each hepatocyte - is followed by variations in the expression of the membrane peroxisome protein Pex11α gene. For comparison, we also studied males. We find in females a seasonal variation with the highest Pex11α expression in February, which was statistically different from all other tested periods. Overall, the expression of PEX11α had over a fivefold decrease from February to September. This period coincides with the reproductive transition between the earlier post-spawning gonadal remodeling and preparatory staging and the pre-spawning period. Males did not show changes. Our approach allowed the first characterization of a peroxin gene in a teleost, the Pex11α, while offering a correlation scenario were, as we hypothesized, the peroxisomal size kinetics is paralleled by membrane-related gene alterations (measured herein as proxy of Pex11α gene expression). Our data support and expand previous results on the regulation, function and morphology of peroxisome dynamics in brown trout, with a broader interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis of antioxidant degradation products migrating to drinking water from PE materials and PEX pipes

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Waul, Christopher Kevin; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    degradation products may leach and enter drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to develop a method for measuring these degradation products with a performance meeting the drinking water quality criteria of 20 µg L−1. Using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to a gas chromatograph......Polyethylene (PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes are frequently used in water supply systems. Such pipes contain added antioxidants with phenolic structures, e.g. Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010 and 1076, in order to improve durability. However, phenol, ketone and quinone antioxidant...

  18. Long-term study of migration of volatile organic compounds from cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes and effects on drinking water quality.

    Lund, Vidar; Anderson-Glenna, Mary; Skjevrak, Ingun; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes used for drinking water produced by different production methods, and to evaluate their potential risk for human health and/or influence on aesthetic drinking water quality. The migration tests were carried out in accordance with EN-1420-1, and VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The levels of VOC migrating from new PEX pipes were generally low, and decreasing with time of pipe use. No association was found between production method of PEX pipes and concentration of migration products. 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were two of the major individual components detected. In three new PEX pipes, MTBE was detected in concentrations above the recommended US EPA taste and odour value for drinking water, but decreased below this value after 5 months in service. However, the threshold odour number (TON) values for two pipes were similar to new pipes even after 1 year in use. For seven chemicals for which conclusions on potential health risk could be drawn, this was considered of no or very low concern. However, odour from some of these pipes could negatively affect drinking water for up to 1 year.

  19. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the debate and provide feedback. In particular

  20. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the

  1. The PrePex device is unlikely to achieve cost-savings compared to the forceps-guided method in male circumcision programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Walter Obiero

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition in men by approximately 60%. MC programs for HIV prevention are currently being scaled-up in fourteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The current standard surgical technique for MC in many sub-Saharan African countries is the forceps-guided male circumcision (FGMC method. The PrePex male circumcision (PMC method could replace FGMC and potentially reduce MC programming costs. We compared the potential costs of introducing the PrePex device into MC programming to the cost of the forceps-guided method.Data were obtained from the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (NRHS, an MC service delivery organization in Kenya, and from the Kenya Ministry of Health. Analyses are based on 48,265 MC procedures performed in four Districts in western Kenya from 2009 through 2011. Data were entered into the WHO/UNAIDS Decision Makers Program Planning Tool. The tool assesses direct and indirect costs of MC programming. Various sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were discounted at an annual rate of 6% and are presented in United States Dollars.Not including the costs of the PrePex device or referral costs for men with phimosis/tight foreskin, the costs of one MC surgery were $44.54-$49.02 and $54.52-$55.29 for PMC and FGMC, respectively.The PrePex device is unlikely to result in significant cost-savings in comparison to the forceps-guided method. MC programmers should target other aspects of the male circumcision minimum package for improved cost efficiency.

  2. The peroxisomal import receptor PEX5 functions as a stress sensor, retaining catalase in the cytosol in times of oxidative stress.

    Walton, Paul A; Brees, Chantal; Lismont, Celien; Apanasets, Oksana; Fransen, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peroxisome functioning, catalase localization, and cellular oxidative balance are intimately interconnected. Nevertheless, it remains largely unclear why modest increases in the cellular redox state especially interfere with the subcellular localization of catalase, the most abundant peroxisomal antioxidant enzyme. This study aimed at gaining more insight into this phenomenon. Therefore, we first established a simple and powerful approach to study peroxisomal protein import and protein-protein interactions in living cells in response to changes in redox state. By employing this approach, we confirm and extend previous observations that Cys-11 of human PEX5, the shuttling import receptor for peroxisomal matrix proteins containing a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1), functions as a redox switch that modulates the protein's activity in response to intracellular oxidative stress. In addition, we show that oxidative stress affects the import of catalase, a non-canonical PTS1-containing protein, more than the import of a reporter protein containing a canonical PTS1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that changes in the local redox state do not affect PEX5-substrate binding and that human PEX5 does not oligomerize in cellulo, not even when the cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Finally, we present evidence that catalase retained in the cytosol can protect against H 2 O 2 -mediated redox changes in a manner that peroxisomally targeted catalase does not. Together, these findings lend credit to the idea that inefficient catalase import, when coupled with the role of PEX5 as a redox-regulated import receptor, constitutes a cellular defense mechanism to combat oxidative insults of extra-peroxisomal origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel function of N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein and hemopexin: Implications for small molecule compound-mediated neuroprotection.

    Takuya Kanno

    Full Text Available Therapeutic agents to the central nervous system (CNS need to be efficiently delivered to the target site of action at appropriate therapeutic levels. However, a limited number of effective drugs for the treatment of neurological diseases has been developed thus far. Further, the pharmacological mechanisms by which such therapeutic agents can protect neurons from cell death have not been fully understood. We have previously reported the novel small-molecule compound, 2-[mesityl(methylamino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316, as a unique neuroprotectant against oxidative injury and a highly promising remedy for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. One of the remarkable characteristics of WN1316 is that its efficacious doses in ALS mouse models are much less than those against oxidative injury in cultured human neuronal cells. It is also noted that the WN1316 cytoprotective activity observed in cultured cells is totally dependent upon the addition of fetal bovine serum in culture medium. These findings led us to postulate some serum factors being tightly linked to the WN1316 efficacy. In this study, we sieved through fetal bovine serum proteins and identified two N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG and hemopexin (HPX, requisites to exert the WN1316 cytoprotective activity against oxidative injury in neuronal cells in vitro. Notably, the removal of glycan chains from these molecules did not affect the WN1316 cytoprotective activity. Thus, two glycoproteins, AHSG and HPX, represent a pivotal glycoprotein of the cytoprotective activity for WN1316, showing a concrete evidence for the novel glycan-independent function of serum glycoproteins in neuroprotective drug efficacy.

  4. Safety and efficacy of the PrePex device in HIV-positive men: A single-arm study in Zimbabwe.

    Mufuta Tshimanga

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine if the adverse event (AE rate was non-inferior to an AE rate of 2%, a rate considered the global standard of MC safety. Study procedures, AE definitions, and study staff were unchanged from previous PrePex Zimbabwe trials. After PrePex placement and removal, weekly visits assessed wound healing. Men returned on Day 90. Safety was defined as occurrence of moderate and serious clinical AEs. Efficacy was defined as ability to reach the endpoint of complete circumcision.Among 400 healthy, HIV-positive, consenting adults, median age was 40 years (IQR: 34, 46; 79.5% in WHO stage 2; median CD4 was 336.5c/μl (IQR: 232, 459; 337 (85% on anti-retroviral therapy. Among 385 (96% observed completely healed, median days to complete healing was 42 (IQR: 35-49. There was no association between time to healing and CD4 (p = 0.66. Four study-related severe AEs and no moderate AEs were reported: severe/moderate AE rate of 1.0% (95% CI: 0.27% to 2.5. This was non-inferior to 2% AEs (p = 0.0003. All AEs were device displacements resulting in surgical MC and, subsequently, complete healing.Male circumcision among healthy, HIV-positive men using PrePex is safe and effective. Reducing the barrier of HIV testing while improving counseling for safer sex practices among all MC clients could increase MC uptake and avert more HIV infections.

  5. Land-atmosphere interaction and disaster-causing process of drought in northern China: observation and experiment (DroughtPEX_China)

    Li, Yaohui

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the most common and frequent nature disasters in the world, particularly in China under the continental monsoonal climate with great variation. About thirty percent of economic loss caused by natural disasters is contributed by droughts in China, which is by far the most damaging weather disasters because of its long duration and extensive hazard areas. Droughts not only have a serious impact on the agriculture, water resources, ecology, natural environment, but also seriously affect the socio-economic such as human health, energy and transportation. Worsely, under the background of climate change, droughts in show increases in frequency, duration and scope in many places around the world, particularly northern China. Nowadays, droughts have aroused extensive concern of the scientists, governments and international community, and became one of the important scientific issues in geoscience research. However, most of researches on droughts in China so far were focused on the causes or regulars of one type of droughts (the atmosphere, agriculture or hydrological) from the perspective of the atmospheric circulation anomalies. Few of them considered a whole cycle of the drought-forming process from atmosphere-land interaction to agricultural/ecological one in terms of the land-atmosphere interaction; meanwhile, the feedback mechanism with the drought and land-atmosphere interaction is still unclear as well. All of them is because of lack of the relevant comprehensive observation experiment. "Land-atmosphere interaction and disaster-causing process of drought in northern China: observation and experiment" (DroughtPEX_China)is just launched in this requirement and background. DroughtPEX_China is supported by Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Industry (Meteorological) of China (Grant No.GYHY201506001)—"Drought Meteorology Scientific Research Project—the disaster-causing process and mechanism of drought in northern China". This project

  6. Domains and domain loss

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  7. 165. Reparación de fuga periprotésica mitral mediante dispositivo transcatéter desde el ápex ventricular izquierdo

    A. Juaristi Abaunz

    2010-01-01

    Se decidió realizar un acceso por vía transapical para la implantación del dispositivo de cierre. El equipo quirúrgico expuso el ápex ventricular izquierdo en la sala de hemodinámica, y el equipo de hemodinamistas procedió al cierre de la fuga periprotésica por vía transapical con gran facilidad, siendo este acceso mucho más directo y rápido. Se consiguió el cierre completo de la fuga periprotésica con desaparición de la hemólisis y de la insuficiencia cardíaca. Queda claramente demostrado el beneficio de la cooperación entre especialidades.

  8. Domain analysis

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  9. A PEX6-defective peroxisomal biogenesis disorder with severe phenotype in an infant, versus mild phenotype resembling Usher syndrome in the affected parents.

    Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Wanders, Ronald J A; Mooijer, Petra A W; Gootjes, Jeannette; Waterham, Hans R; Gutman, Alisa; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Naomi; Eshel, Gideon; Espeel, Marc; Roels, Frank; Korman, Stanley H

    2002-04-01

    Sensorineural deafness and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are the hallmarks of Usher syndrome (USH) but are also prominent features in peroxisomal biogenesis defects (PBDs); both are autosomal recessively inherited. The firstborn son of unrelated parents, who both had sensorineural deafness and RP diagnosed as USH, presented with sensorineural deafness, RP, dysmorphism, developmental delay, hepatomegaly, and hypsarrhythmia and died at age 17 mo. The infant was shown to have a PBD, on the basis of elevated plasma levels of very-long- and branched-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs and BCFAs), deficiency of multiple peroxisomal functions in fibroblasts, and complete absence of peroxisomes in fibroblasts and liver. Surprisingly, both parents had elevated plasma levels of VLCFAs and BCFAs. Fibroblast studies confirmed that both parents had a PBD. The parents' milder phenotypes correlated with relatively mild peroxisomal biochemical dysfunction and with catalase immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrating mosaicism and temperature sensitivity in fibroblasts. The infant and both of his parents belonged to complementation group C. PEX6 gene sequencing revealed mutations on both alleles, in the infant and in his parents. This unique family is the first report of a PBD with which the parents are themselves affected individuals rather than asymptomatic carriers. Because of considerable overlap between USH and milder PBD phenotypes, individuals suspected to have USH should be screened for peroxisomal dysfunction.

  10. Concrete domains

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  11. Purification and characterization of recombinant full-length and protease domain of murine MMP-9 expressed in Drosophila S2 cells

    Rasch, Morten G; Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    MMP-9. Constructs encoding zymogens of full-length murine MMP-9 and a version lacking the O-glycosylated linker region and hemopexin domains were therefore generated and expressed in stably transfected Drosophila S2 insect cells. After 7 days of induction the expression levels of the full......-length and truncated versions were 5 mg/l and 2 mg/l, respectively. The products were >95% pure after gelatin Sepharose chromatography and possessed proteolytic activity when analyzed by gelatin zymography. Using the purified full-length murine MMP-9 we raised polyclonal antibodies by immunizations of rabbits......Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a 92-kDa soluble pro-enzyme implicated in pathological events including cancer invasion. It is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic intervention studies in mouse models. Development of inhibitors requires sufficient amounts of correctly folded murine...

  12. Domain Engineering

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  13. A comparative evaluation of working length with digital radiography and third generation apex locator (ProPex in the presence of various intracanal irrigants: An in vivo/ex vivo study

    Irfana Khursheed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate working length determination is a pre-requisite for a successful endodontic treatment. Even with improved systems of working length measurement, different readings may be recorded in different electrolytes present in the canal. The purpose of this in vivo/ex vivo comparative study was to determine the accuracy in measuring the working length of root canal using Direct Digital Radiographic Method (Radiovisiography or RVG and ProPex electronic apex locator in the presence of three different irrigating solutions: 0.9% normal saline, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% NaOCl solutions. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted human teeth scheduled for extraction with mature apices were selected for this study. Measurements were performed by using RVG and ProPex in the presence of irrigating solutions. After extraction of the teeth, light microscope was used to confirm visually the relationship of the tip of the endodontic file to the apical foramen, and actual lengths were determined by reducing 0.5 mm from this length. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA test and Tukey-HSD post hoc procedure. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: No significant difference was found between overall mean electronic working length and digital radiographic length; however, prediction error (P < 0.05 was significant with respect to different irrigants. Among the irrigating solutions, chlorhexidine gluconate had the smallest distance to the actual lengths, whereas NaOCl had the greatest. Conclusion: Electronic apex locator ProPex yielded best result in the presence of chlorhexidine, whereas the largest error was demonstrated with NaOCl indicating that higher electroconductive irrigating solutions affect the precision of multi-frequency apex locators.

  14. Transanal anopexy with HemorPex System (HPS) is effective in treating grade II and III hemorrhoids: medium-term follow-up.

    Basile, M; Di Resta, V; Ranieri, E

    2016-06-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is a common proctologic disorder. The HemorPex System(®) (HPS) (Angiologica, S. Martino Siccomario PV, Italy) is an innovative surgical technique based on muco-hemorrhoidopexy without Doppler guidance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HPS in on the treatment of grade II and III hemorrhoids. One hundred patients with grade II and III hemorrhoidal disease were included in the study and operated on using HPS without Doppler guidance. The procedure consists of a mucopexy carried out by means of a dedicated rotating anoscope in the 6 relatively constant positions of the terminal branches of the superior hemorrhoidal artery. A direct follow-up was carried out on 100 patients for up to 3 months. A late analysis (>12 months postoperatively) was conducted by telephone interview. At follow-up the following parameters were considered: pain, bleeding, prolapse, difficulties with hygiene and patient satisfaction with treatment. Operative time was 16 ± 5 min. Three-month follow-up showed significant improvement of symptoms: pain was present in 10 (10 %) patients versus 45 (45 %) preoperatively; bleeding in 13 (13 %) of patients versus 57 (57 %) preoperatively; prolapse in 13 (13 %) of patients versus 45 (45 %) preoperatively and difficulties with hygiene in 1 (1 %) versus 24 (24 %) preoperatively (all p hemorrhoidal disease. Our results show that this simple technique may be an effective but due to the important limitations of this study (loss to follow-up, non-comparative study) further studies are required.

  15. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A. Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    The EPSPEX system is a distribution system for district heat with media pipes of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) insulated by blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS). In this low-pressure distribution system two pipes are used for a space heating circuit, having layers of EVAL to hinder oxygen diffusion, whereas two pipes without diffusion barrier are used for delivery of hot tap water and warm water circulation. The four pipes are placed in the insulating blocks of EPS. Environmental impacts from production, laying and use of an EPSPEX district heat distribution system have been investigated using life cycle methodology. The distribution system is a secondary system developed specially for areas with low heat density. The case studied is the installation and use of an EPSPEX system in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden. The environmental impacts are described in four categories: climate change, acidification, eutrophication and use of finite resources. Four weighting methods have also been used in the evaluation: EPS2000, Ecoscarcity, ExternE and EcoIndicator99. While carefully considering the precise circumstances of this study, the findings can be adapted for using the EPSPEX district heat distribution systems in other areas. During this study the question was raised of how this district heat delivery system compares with systems that use conventional district heating pipes. This has been further investigated and is reported in the second part of this report. In the second part the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system have been compared with the impacts from conventional twin pipes (polyurethane insulated steel media pipes) used in a comparable setting. A discussion on the environmental choice between media pipes of PEX and steel can also be found in the second part. It should be noted that the two systems for district heat distribution are not fully comparable in function. The EPSPEX system has stricter limitations regarding pressure and temperature compared with

  16. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    The EPSPEX system is a distribution system for district heat with media pipes of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) insulated by blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS). In this low-pressure distribution system two pipes are used for a space heating circuit, having layers of EVAL to hinder oxygen diffusion, whereas two pipes without diffusion barrier are used for delivery of hot tap water and warm water circulation. The four pipes are placed in the insulating blocks of EPS. Environmental impacts from production, laying and use of an EPSPEX district heat distribution system have been investigated using life cycle methodology. The distribution system is a secondary system developed specially for areas with low heat density. The case studied is the installation and use of an EPSPEX system in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden. The environmental impacts are described in four categories: climate change, acidification, eutrophication and use of finite resources. Four weighting methods have also been used in the evaluation: EPS2000, Ecoscarcity, ExternE and EcoIndicator99. While carefully considering the precise circumstances of this study, the findings can be adapted for using the EPSPEX district heat distribution systems in other areas. During this study the question was raised of how this district heat delivery system compares with systems that use conventional district heating pipes. This has been further investigated and is reported in the second part of this report. In the second part the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system have been compared with the impacts from conventional twin pipes (polyurethane insulated steel media pipes) used in a comparable setting. A discussion on the environmental choice between media pipes of PEX and steel can also be found in the second part. It should be noted that the two systems for district heat distribution are not fully comparable in function. The EPSPEX system has stricter limitations regarding pressure and temperature compared with

  17. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  18. Domain crossing

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  19. Trusted Domain

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  20. .Gov Domains API

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  1. Next-generation sequencing reveals the mutational landscape of clinically diagnosed Usher syndrome: copy number variations, phenocopies, a predominant target for translational read-through, and PEX26 mutated in Heimler syndrome.

    Neuhaus, Christine; Eisenberger, Tobias; Decker, Christian; Nagl, Sandra; Blank, Cornelia; Pfister, Markus; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Müller-Hofstede, Cornelie; Charbel Issa, Peter; Heller, Raoul; Beck, Bodo; Rüther, Klaus; Mitter, Diana; Rohrschneider, Klaus; Steinhauer, Ute; Korbmacher, Heike M; Huhle, Dagmar; Elsayed, Solaf M; Taha, Hesham M; Baig, Shahid M; Stöhr, Heidi; Preising, Markus; Markus, Susanne; Moeller, Fabian; Lorenz, Birgit; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Khan, Arif O; Bolz, Hanno J

    2017-09-01

    Combined retinal degeneration and sensorineural hearing impairment is mostly due to autosomal recessive Usher syndrome (USH1: congenital deafness, early retinitis pigmentosa (RP); USH2: progressive hearing impairment, RP). Sanger sequencing and NGS of 112 genes (Usher syndrome, nonsyndromic deafness, overlapping conditions), MLPA, and array-CGH were conducted in 138 patients clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome. A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 97% of both USH1 and USH2 patients, with biallelic mutations in 97% (USH1) and 90% (USH2), respectively. Quantitative readout reliably detected CNVs (confirmed by MLPA or array-CGH), qualifying targeted NGS as one tool for detecting point mutations and CNVs. CNVs accounted for 10% of identified USH2A alleles, often in trans to seemingly monoallelic point mutations. We demonstrate PTC124-induced read-through of the common p.Trp3955* nonsense mutation (13% of detected USH2A alleles), a potential therapy target. Usher gene mutations were found in most patients with atypical Usher syndrome, but the diagnosis was adjusted in case of double homozygosity for mutations in OTOA and NR2E3 , genes implicated in isolated deafness and RP. Two patients with additional enamel dysplasia had biallelic PEX26 mutations, for the first time linking this gene to Heimler syndrome. Targeted NGS not restricted to Usher genes proved beneficial in uncovering conditions mimicking Usher syndrome.

  2. Supersymmetric domain walls

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  3. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  4. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  5. 21 CFR 866.5490 - Hemopexin immunological test system.

    2010-04-01

    ... span) and sickle cell anemia. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt... diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as hemolytic anemia (anemia due to shortened in vivo...

  6. Domain: Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  7. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  8. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  9. GlycoDomainViewer

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2018-01-01

    features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...

  10. The framing of scientific domains

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...

  11. TENCompetence Domain Model

    2006-01-01

    This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release

  12. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  13. Isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum PEX1 and PEX6 encoding AAA proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis

    Kiel, JAKW; Hilbrands, RE; Bovenberg, RAL; Veenhuis, M

    In Penicillium chrysogenum, key enzymes involved in the production of penicillin reside in peroxisomes. As a first step to understand the role of these organelles in penicillin biosynthesis, we set out to isolate the genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis. Here we report the cloning and

  14. Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Functional Domain Driven Design

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  16. Feature-level domain adaptation

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  17. Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge

    Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    .... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...

  18. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  19. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  20. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  1. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  2. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  3. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  4. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  5. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  6. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  7. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  8. Domain wall networks on solitons

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  9. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  10. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  11. Resource Unavailability (RU) Per Domain Behavior

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Westberg, L.; Bader, A.; Tschofenig, Hannes; Tschofenig, H.

    2006-01-01

    This draft specifies a Per Domain Behavior that provides the ability to Diffserv nodes located outside Diffserv domain(s), e.g., receiver or other Diffserv enabled router to detect when the resources provided by the Diffserv domain(s) are not available. The unavailability of resources in the domain

  12. Efecto de la localización del electrodo ventricular derecho (tracto de salida vs. ápex sobre la sincronía ventricular mecánica, en pacientes sometidos a terapia de implante de marcapaso cardiaco Effect of right ventricular electrode location (outflow tract vs. apex on mechanical ventricular synchrony in patients that underwent pacemaker implant therapy

    Oscar S Rincón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar a profundidad el efecto de la estimulación ventricular desde el tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho y el ápex, sobre la sincronía ventricular mecánica. Materiales y métodos: estudio analítico de cohorte, en el que se realizó ecocardiograma transtorácico pre y post implante de marcapaso a 20 pacientes (diez por cada grupo con indicación de marcapaso definitivo, con implante del electrodo en el tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho y el ápex, sin cardiopatía estructural, fracción de eyección > 50%; QRS y conducción aurículo-ventricular normal, con el fin de evaluar la asincronía ventricular mecánica (modo M y Doppler tisular y los parámetros de implante y programación del dispositivo. Análisis estadístico: los resultados se presentan como promedios, desviación estándar o porcentajes. Las variables continuas se compararon utilizando prueba Chi cuadrado y ANOVA. Se consideró como estadísticamente significativa una p Objective: to assess in depth the effect of ventricular stimulation from the right ventricular outflow tract and the apex on mechanical ventricular synchrony. Materials and Methods: cohort analytical study. 20 patients with indication of definitive pacemaker indication underwent transthoracic echocardiogram before and after pacemaker implant with electrode implantation in the right ventricular outflow tract and in the apex (10 patients in each group. There was no structural cardiopathy, ejection fraction was > 50%, QRS and AV conduction were normal. Mechanical ventricular asynchrony (M mode and tissue doppler and implant and device parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: results are given as mean values, standard deviation or percentages. Continuous variables were compared using Chi-square test and ANOVA. A p <0.05 value was considered statistically significant. Results: in five patients (25% a pre-implant ventricular asynchrony was found; in seven (70% ventricular asynchrony

  13. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  14. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  15. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  16. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  17. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  18. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  19. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  20. Topology Based Domain Search (TBDS)

    Manning, William

    2002-01-01

    This effort will explore radical changes in the way Domain Name System (DNS) is used by endpoints in a network to improve the resilience of the endpoint and its applications in the face of dynamically changing infrastructure topology...

  1. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  2. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  3. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  4. Maneuver from the Air Domain

    2016-05-26

    Overload From the previous discussion, cognitive maneuver seeks to degrade the enemy’s capacity for...in all domains, the ability to maneuver from the air domain in the cognitive sense, comes primarily from air power’s unique ability to overload the... cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from

  5. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  6. Gravity and domain wall problem

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  7. Incompleteness in the finite domain

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 405-441 ISSN 1079-8986 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finite domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-symbolic-logic/article/incompleteness-in-the-finite-domain/D239B1761A73DCA534A4805A76D81C76

  8. EH domain of EHD1

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve, E-mail: scaplan@unmc.edu; Sorgen, Paul L. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Eppley Cancer Center (United States)], E-mail: psorgen@unmc.edu

    2007-12-15

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed.

  9. EH domain of EHD1

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed

  10. Domain-to-domain coupling in voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Sakata, Souhei; Matsuda, Makoto; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic enzyme region. The enzyme region contains the phosphatase and C2 domains, is structurally similar to the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN, and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoinositides. The transmembrane voltage sensor is connected to the phosphatase through a short linker region, and phosphatase activity is induced upon membrane depolarization. Although the detailed molecular characteristics of the voltage sensor domain and the enzyme region have been revealed, little is known how these two regions are coupled. In addition, it is important to know whether mechanism for coupling between the voltage sensor domain and downstream effector function is shared among other voltage sensor domain-containing proteins. Recent studies in which specific amino acid sites were genetically labeled using a fluorescent unnatural amino acid have enabled detection of the local structural changes in the cytoplasmic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP that occur with a change in membrane potential. The results of those studies provide novel insight into how the enzyme activity of the cytoplasmic region of VSP is regulated by the voltage sensor domain.

  11. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    Copeland, Dylan; Kolmbauer, Michael; Langer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    Copeland, Dylan

    2010-10-05

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Domain walls at finite temperature

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1983-08-01

    It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt

  14. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  15. The Distributed-SDF Domain

    Cuadrado, Daniel Lázaro; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Distributed-SDF domain for Ptolemy II is to allow distributed simulation of SDF models. It builds on top of the existing SDF domain by extending it. From the user’s point of view, using the Distributed-SDF director is sufficient to run the distributed version. It provides optio...... distributed nature. First of all, known memory bounds of the JVM can be overcome. Second, it yields smaller simulation times, mainly for models with high degree of parallelism and granularity....

  16. Improving the performance of DomainDiscovery of protein domain boundary assignment using inter-domain linker index

    Zomaya Albert Y

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of protein domain boundaries is critical for the characterisation and understanding of protein function. The ability to identify domains without the knowledge of the structure – by using sequence information only – is an essential step in many types of protein analyses. In this present study, we demonstrate that the performance of DomainDiscovery is improved significantly by including the inter-domain linker index value for domain identification from sequence-based information. Improved DomainDiscovery uses a Support Vector Machine (SVM approach and a unique training dataset built on the principle of consensus among experts in defining domains in protein structure. The SVM was trained using a PSSM (Position Specific Scoring Matrix, secondary structure, solvent accessibility information and inter-domain linker index to detect possible domain boundaries for a target sequence. Results Improved DomainDiscovery is compared with other methods by benchmarking against a structurally non-redundant dataset and also CASP5 targets. Improved DomainDiscovery achieves 70% accuracy for domain boundary identification in multi-domains proteins. Conclusion Improved DomainDiscovery compares favourably to the performance of other methods and excels in the identification of domain boundaries for multi-domain proteins as a result of introducing support vector machine with benchmark_2 dataset.

  17. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice with the ...

  18. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    Klausen, Louise Kjær; Schulze, Andrea; Seeger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite...... and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com)....

  19. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  20. Gradability in the nominal domain

    Constantinescu, Camelia

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates whether and how gradability is manifested in the nominal domain, as well as the implications this could have for theories of the representation of gradability. It is shown that the various gradability diagnostics proposed in the literature not only yield different

  1. The theory of syntactic domains

    Kracht, M.

    In this essay we develop a mathematical theory of syntactic domains with special attention to the theory of government and binding. Starting from an intrinsic characterization of command relations as defined in [Ba 90] we determine the structure of the distributive lattice of command relations.

  2. Impedance models in time domain

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Necessary conditions for an impedance function are derived. Methods available in the literature are discussed. A format with recipe is proposed for an exact impedance condition in time domain on a time grid, based on the Helmholtz resonator model. An explicit solution is given of a pulse reflecting

  3. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  4. An ontological approach to domain engineering

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Duarte, K.

    2002-01-01

    Domain engineering aims to support systematic reuse, focusing on modeling common knowledge in a problem domain. Ontologies have also been pointed as holding great promise for software reuse. In this paper, we present ODE (Ontology-based Domain Engineering), an ontological approach for domain

  5. Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions with formal concept analysis.

    Susan Khor

    Full Text Available Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains.

  6. Inferring Domain-Domain Interactions from Protein-Protein Interactions with Formal Concept Analysis

    Khor, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains. PMID:24586450

  7. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often only remains at the level of concept, as the notion of the public’s right of access to public domain works is not substantiated, nor is the notion of the correct or legal use of such works.

  8. Molecular mechanism of a temperature-sensitive phenotype in peroxisomal biogenesis disorder

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Zenichiro; Nagase, Tomoko; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kuwata, Kazuo; Omoya, Kentaro; Li, Ailian; Matsukuma, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Tochio, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders include Zellweger syndrome and milder phenotypes, such as neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD). Our previous study of a NALD patient with a marked deterioration by a fever revealed a mutation (Ile326Thr) within a SH3 domain of PEX13 protein (Pex13p), showing a

  9. Escalation of the Space Domain

    2015-04-01

    vision of Arnold and other Air Force pioneers. Manned flight becomes the domain of NASA , and the United States shelves the idea of an aircraft-like...are similar in nature and application to those seen in science fiction moves or on television (i.e., Star Trek ) that can provide direct kinetic...Space, Infobase Publishing, New York: NY, 2011, pg. 12. 45 Ibid., pg. 12. 46 “Whom Gods Destroy.” Star Trek (original television series), Season 3

  10. Domains of bosonic functional integrals

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.; Para Univ., Belem, PA

    1998-07-01

    We propose a mathematical framework for bosonic Euclidean quantum field functional integrals based on the theory of integration on the dual algebraic vector space of classical field sources. We present a generalization of the Minlos-Dao Xing theorem and apply it to determine exactly the domain of integration associated to the functional integral representation of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics Schwinger generating functional. (author)

  11. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2011-01-01

    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies....... This paper will highlight performance aspects which appear to be consistent with such an interpretation, as well as an important layman- expert knowledge asymmetry in affective categorization....

  12. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  13. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  14. Dressed Domain Walls and holography

    Grisa, Luca; Pujolas, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    The cutoff version of the AdS/CFT correspondence states that the Randall Sundrum scenario is dual to a Conformal Field Theory (CFT) coupled to gravity in four dimensions. The gravitational field produced by relativistic Domain Walls can be exactly solved in both sides of the correspondence, and thus provides one further check of it. We show in the two sides that for the most symmetric case, the wall motion does not lead to particle production of the CFT fields. Still, there are nontrivial effects. Due to the trace anomaly, the CFT effectively renormalizes the Domain Wall tension. On the five dimensional side, the wall is a codimension 2 brane localized on the Randall-Sundrum brane, which pulls the wall in a uniform acceleration. This is perceived from the brane as a Domain Wall with a tension slightly larger than its bare value. In both cases, the deviation from General Relativity appears at nonlinear level in the source, and the leading corrections match to the numerical factors.

  15. Alternative to domain wall fermions

    Neuberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative to commonly used domain wall fermions is presented. Some rigorous bounds on the condition number of the associated linear problem are derived. On the basis of these bounds and some experimentation it is argued that domain wall fermions will in general be associated with a condition number that is of the same order of magnitude as the product of the condition number of the linear problem in the physical dimensions by the inverse bare quark mass. Thus, the computational cost of implementing true domain wall fermions using a single conjugate gradient algorithm is of the same order of magnitude as that of implementing the overlap Dirac operator directly using two nested conjugate gradient algorithms. At a cost of about a factor of two in operation count it is possible to make the memory usage of direct implementations of the overlap Dirac operator independent of the accuracy of the approximation to the sign function and of the same order as that of standard Wilson fermions

  16. KEJAHATAN NAMA DOMAIN BERKAITAN DENGAN MEREK

    Muhammad Nizar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia already has an ITE Law governing domain names in general terms and on certain provisions in chapter VI, but the regulation of domain name crimes is not regulated in the ITE Law as mandated in the academic draft of the ITE Bill. The absence of regulation of domain name norm in the ITE Law creates problems with registrant of domain name (registrant which deliberately register the domain name is bad faith. The characteristic of a crime in a domain name relating to the mark is that the registered domain name has an equation in essence with another party’s well-known brand, the act of doing so by exploiting a reputation for well-known or previously commercially valuable names as domain names for addresses for sites (websites it manages. The Prosecutor may include articles of the KUHP in filing his indictment before the Court during the absence of special regulatory provisions concerning domain name crime.

  17. DIMA 3.0: Domain Interaction Map.

    Luo, Qibin; Pagel, Philipp; Vilne, Baiba; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA, available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/dima) is a database of predicted and known interactions between protein domains. It integrates 5807 structurally known interactions imported from the iPfam and 3did databases and 46,900 domain interactions predicted by four computational methods: domain phylogenetic profiling, domain pair exclusion algorithm correlated mutations and domain interaction prediction in a discriminative way. Additionally predictions are filtered to exclude those domain pairs that are reported as non-interacting by the Negatome database. The DIMA Web site allows to calculate domain interaction networks either for a domain of interest or for entire organisms, and to explore them interactively using the Flash-based Cytoscape Web software.

  18. A micromagnetic study of domain structure modeling

    Matsuo, Tetsuji; Mimuro, Naoki; Shimasaki, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a mesoscopic model for magnetic-domain behavior, a domain structure model (DSM) was examined and compared with a micromagnetic simulation. The domain structure of this model is given by several domains with uniform magnetization vectors and domain walls. The directions of magnetization vectors and the locations of domain walls are determined so as to minimize the magnetic total energy of the magnetic material. The DSM was modified to improve its representation capability for domain behavior. The domain wall energy is multiplied by a vanishing factor to represent the disappearance of magnetic domain. The sequential quadratic programming procedure is divided into two steps to improve an energy minimization process. A comparison with micromagnetic simulation shows that the modified DSM improves the representation accuracy of the magnetization process

  19. Ferromagnetic and twin domains in LCMO manganites

    Jung, G.; Markovich, V.; Mogilyanski, D.; Beek, C. van der; Mukovskii, Y.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic and twin domains in lightly Ca-doped La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 single crystals have been visualized and investigated by means of the magneto-optical technique. Both types of domains became visible below the Curie temperature. The dominant structures seen in applied magnetic field are associated with magneto-crystalline anisotropy and twin domains. In a marked difference to the twin domains which appear only in applied magnetic field, ferromagnetic domains show up in zero applied field and are characterized by oppositely oriented spontaneous magnetization in adjacent domains. Ferromagnetic domains take form of almost periodic, corrugated strip-like structures. The corrugation of the ferromagnetic domain pattern is enforced by the underlying twin domains

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF CROSS DOMAIN FIRES IN MULTI-DOMAIN BATTLE

    2017-04-06

    meeting the threats or defeating the challenges posed by today’s enemy. As such, in a rapidly changing and demanding environment, I would contend...Joint Power.”10 As such, the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force and Navy are developing a new joint concept in order to adequately meet the challenges of...TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, AOC, p. 13. 5 TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, AOC, p. 13. 6 Kris Osborn, “Cross-Domain Fires: US Military’s Master Plan to Win the

  1. Ang-(1-7) exerts protective role in blood-brain barrier damage by the balance of TIMP-1/MMP-9.

    Wu, Jitao; Zhao, Duo; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Dan

    2015-02-05

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) ranks as the top three health risks, specially cerebral ischemia characterized with the damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The angiotensin Ang-(1-7) was proven to have a protective effect on cerebrovascular diseases. However, its role on blood-brain barrier and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, Ang-(1-7) significantly relieved damage of ischemia reperfusion injury on blood-brain barrier in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) rats. Furthermore, its treatment attenuated BBB permeability and brain edema. Similarly, Ang-(1-7) also decreased the barrier permeability of brain endothelial cell line RBE4. Further analysis showed that Ang-(1-7) could effectively restore tight junction protein (claudin-5 and zonula occludens ZO-1) expression levels both in IRI-rats and hypoxia-induced RBE4 cells. Furthermore, Ang-(1-7) stimulation down-regulated hypoxia-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels, whose silencing with (matrix metalloproteinase-9 hemopexin domain) MMP9-PEX inhibitor significantly increased the expression of claudin-5 and ZO-1. Further mechanism analysis demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) might junction protein levels by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1)-MMP9 pathway, because Ang-(1-7) enhanced TIMP1 expression, whose silencing obviously attenuated the inhibitor effect of Ang-(1-7) on MMP-9 levels and decreased Ang-(1-7)-triggered increase in claudin-5 and ZO-1. Together, this study demonstrated a protective role of Ang-(1-7) in IRI-induced blood-brain barrier damage by TIMP1-MMP9-regulated tight junction protein expression. Accordingly, Ang-(1-7) may become a promising therapeutic agent against IRI and its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The YARHG domain: an extracellular domain in search of a function.

    Penny Coggill

    Full Text Available We have identified a new bacterial protein domain that we hypothesise binds to peptidoglycan. This domain is called the YARHG domain after the most highly conserved sequence-segment. The domain is found in the extracellular space and is likely to be composed of four alpha-helices. The domain is found associated with protein kinase domains, suggesting it is associated with signalling in some bacteria. The domain is also found associated with three different families of peptidases. The large number of different domains that are found associated with YARHG suggests that it is a useful functional module that nature has recombined multiple times.

  3. Beyond cross-domain learning: Multiple-domain nonnegative matrix factorization

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional cross-domain learning methods transfer learning from a source domain to a target domain. In this paper, we propose the multiple-domain learning problem for several equally treated domains. The multiple-domain learning problem assumes that samples from different domains have different distributions, but share the same feature and class label spaces. Each domain could be a target domain, while also be a source domain for other domains. A novel multiple-domain representation method is proposed for the multiple-domain learning problem. This method is based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and tries to learn a basis matrix and coding vectors for samples, so that the domain distribution mismatch among different domains will be reduced under an extended variation of the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) criterion. The novel algorithm - multiple-domain NMF (MDNMF) - was evaluated on two challenging multiple-domain learning problems - multiple user spam email detection and multiple-domain glioma diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is experimentally verified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beyond cross-domain learning: Multiple-domain nonnegative matrix factorization

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Traditional cross-domain learning methods transfer learning from a source domain to a target domain. In this paper, we propose the multiple-domain learning problem for several equally treated domains. The multiple-domain learning problem assumes that samples from different domains have different distributions, but share the same feature and class label spaces. Each domain could be a target domain, while also be a source domain for other domains. A novel multiple-domain representation method is proposed for the multiple-domain learning problem. This method is based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and tries to learn a basis matrix and coding vectors for samples, so that the domain distribution mismatch among different domains will be reduced under an extended variation of the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) criterion. The novel algorithm - multiple-domain NMF (MDNMF) - was evaluated on two challenging multiple-domain learning problems - multiple user spam email detection and multiple-domain glioma diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is experimentally verified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Domain specific MT in use

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  6. Meta-domains for Automated System Identification

    Easley, Matthew; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    .... In particular we introduce a new structure for automated model building known as a meta-domain which, when instantiated with domain-specific components tailors the space of candidate models to the system at hand...

  7. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  8. Diagrammatic Representations in Domain-Specific Languages

    Tourlas, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    One emerging approach to reducing the labour and costs of software development favours the specialisation of techniques to particular application domains. The rationale is that programs within a given domain often share enough common features and assumptions to enable the incorporation of substantial support mechanisms into domain-specific programming languages and associated tools. Instead of being machine-oriented, algorithmic implementations, programs in many domain-speci...

  9. A Domain Standard for Land Administration

    Lemmen, C.; Van Oosterom, P.; Van der Molen, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a Domain Model for Land Administration (LA). As a result a formal International Standard is available: ISO 19152 Geographic Information – Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) (ISO, 2012). Domain specific standardisation is needed to capture the semantics of the

  10. Latent domain models for statistical machine translation

    Hoàng, C.

    2017-01-01

    A data-driven approach to model translation suffers from the data mismatch problem and demands domain adaptation techniques. Given parallel training data originating from a specific domain, training an MT system on the data would result in a rather suboptimal translation for other domains. But does

  11. Domain-specific languages in perspective

    J. Heering (Jan); M. Mernik (Marjan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDomain-specific languages (DSLs) are languages tailored to a specific application domain. They offer substantial gains in expressiveness and ease of use compared with general-purpose languages in their domain of application. Although the use of DSLs is by no means new, it is receiving

  12. Classification of domains of closed operators

    Lassner, G.; Timmermann, W.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of domains of determining closed operators in the Hilbert space by means of sequence spaces is investigated. The final classification provides three classes of these domains. Necessary and sufficient conditions of equivalence of these domains are obtained in the form of equivalency of corresponding sequences of natural numbers. Connection with the perturbation theory is mentioned [ru

  13. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  14. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  15. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Rebekah Frankson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  16. One Health Core Competency Domains.

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  17. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  18. On the structure of order domains

    Geil, Olav; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    The notion of an order domain is generalized. The behaviour of an order domain by taking a subalgebra, the extension of scalars, and the tensor product is studied. The relation of an order domain with valuation theory, Gröbner algebras, and graded structures is given. The theory of Gröbner bases...... for order domains is developed and used to show that the factor ring theorem and its converse, the presentation theorem, hold. The dimension of an order domain is related to the rank of its value semigroup....

  19. Blocking-resistant communication through domain fronting

    Fifield David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe “domain fronting,” a versatile censorship circumvention technique that hides the remote endpoint of a communication. Domain fronting works at the application layer, using HTTPS, to communicate with a forbidden host while appearing to communicate with some other host, permitted by the censor. The key idea is the use of different domain names at different layers of communication. One domain appears on the “outside” of an HTTPS request—in the DNS request and TLS Server Name Indication—while another domain appears on the “inside”—in the HTTP Host header, invisible to the censor under HTTPS encryption. A censor, unable to distinguish fronted and nonfronted traffic to a domain, must choose between allowing circumvention traffic and blocking the domain entirely, which results in expensive collateral damage. Domain fronting is easy to deploy and use and does not require special cooperation by network intermediaries. We identify a number of hard-to-block web services, such as content delivery networks, that support domain-fronted connections and are useful for censorship circumvention. Domain fronting, in various forms, is now a circumvention workhorse. We describe several months of deployment experience in the Tor, Lantern, and Psiphon circumvention systems, whose domain-fronting transports now connect thousands of users daily and transfer many terabytes per month.

  20. Phylogeny of the TRAF/MATH domain.

    Zapata, Juan M; Martínez-García, Vanesa; Lefebvre, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain (TD), also known as the meprin and TRAF-C homology (MATH) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel p-helices that participates in protein-protein interactions. This fold is broadly represented among eukaryotes, where it is found associated with a discrete set of protein-domains. Virtually all protein families encompassing a TRAF/MATH domain seem to be involved in the regulation of protein processing and ubiquitination, strongly suggesting a parallel evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain and certain proteolysis pathways in eukaryotes. The restricted number of living organisms for which we have information of their genetic and protein make-up limits the scope and analysis of the MATH domain in evolution. However, the available information allows us to get a glimpse on the origins, distribution and evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain, which will be overviewed in this chapter.

  1. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  2. Interoperable domain models : The ISO land administration domain model LADM and its external classes

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Uitermark, H.T.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Cooper, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of one of the first spatial domain standards: a standard for the domain of Land Administration (LA). This standard is in the draft stage of development now (May 2011). The development of domain standards is a logical follow up after domain-independent standards,

  3. Penerapan Microskills dalam Domain Multicultural

    Happy Karlina Marjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Konselor multikultural menggunakan microskills yang bertujuan untuk memodifikasi interaksi konselor dalam membuat perbedaan yang signifikan pada kehidupan konseli dengan: (1 mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor dari respon nonverbal untuk diri konselor sendiri dan konseli, (2 memahami dasar intervieu microskills dalam proses menerima (attending, mendengarkan (listening, dan mempengaruhi (influencing, serta dampak potensial pada konseli untuk berubah, (3 mencatat fokus microskills, dan perhatian secara selektif yang merupakan dasar untuk masalah keluarga dan konseling multikultural, (4 mengetahui bagaimana dan kapan menggunakan konfrontasi microskill, dan (5 mengetahui keterampilan intervieu sebagai acuan frame multikultural. Sedangkan domain kompetensi konseling multikultural untuk pendidikan dan praktek, antara lain: (1 Counselor Awareness of Own Cultural Values and Biases, (2 Counselor Awareness of Client’ Worldview, dan (3 Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies.

  4. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  5. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  6. A Logic for Inclusion of Administrative Domains and Administrators in Multi-domain Authorization

    Iranmanesh, Zeinab; Amini, Morteza; Jalili, Rasool

    Authorization policies for an administrative domain or a composition of multiple domains in multi-domain environments are determined by either one administrator or multiple administrators' cooperation. Several logic-based models for multi-domain environments' authorization have been proposed; however, they have not considered administrators and administrative domains in policies' representation. In this paper, we propose the syntax, proof theory, and semantics of a logic for multi-domain authorization policies including administrators and administrative domains. Considering administrators in policies provides the possibility of presenting composite administration having applicability in many collaborative applications. Indeed, administrators and administrative domains stated in policies can be used in authorization. The presented logic is based on modal logic and utilizes two calculi named the calculus of administrative domains and the calculus of administrators. It is also proved that the logic is sound. A case study is presented signifying the logic application in practical projects.

  7. Dimers in Piecewise Temperleyan Domains

    Russkikh, Marianna

    2018-03-01

    We study the large-scale behavior of the height function in the dimer model on the square lattice. Richard Kenyon has shown that the fluctuations of the height function on Temperleyan discretizations of a planar domain converge in the scaling limit (as the mesh size tends to zero) to the Gaussian Free Field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We extend Kenyon's result to a more general class of discretizations. Moreover, we introduce a new factorization of the coupling function of the double-dimer model into two discrete holomorphic functions, which are similar to discrete fermions defined in Smirnov (Proceedings of the international congress of mathematicians (ICM), Madrid, Spain, 2006; Ann Math (2) 172:1435-1467, 2010). For Temperleyan discretizations with appropriate boundary modifications, the results of Kenyon imply that the expectation of the double-dimer height function converges to a harmonic function in the scaling limit. We use the above factorization to extend this result to the class of all polygonal discretizations, that are not necessarily Temperleyan. Furthermore, we show that, quite surprisingly, the expectation of the double-dimer height function in the Temperleyan case is exactly discrete harmonic (for an appropriate choice of Laplacian) even before taking the scaling limit.

  8. Domain-Specific Control of Selective Attention

    Lin, Szu-Hung; Yeh, Yei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that loading information on working memory affects selective attention. However, whether the load effect on selective attention is domain-general or domain-specific remains unresolved. The domain-general effect refers to the findings that load in one content (e.g. phonological) domain in working memory influences processing in another content (e.g., visuospatial) domain. Attentional control supervises selection regardless of information domain. The domain-specific effect refers to the constraint of influence only when maintenance and processing operate in the same domain. Selective attention operates in a specific content domain. This study is designed to resolve this controversy. Across three experiments, we manipulated the type of representation maintained in working memory and the type of representation upon which the participants must exert control to resolve conflict and select a target into the focus of attention. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants maintained digits and nonverbalized objects, respectively, in working memory while selecting a target in a letter array. In Experiment 2, we presented auditory digits with a letter flanker task to exclude the involvement of resource competition within the same input modality. In Experiments 3a and 3b, we replaced the letter flanker task with an object flanker task while manipulating the memory load on object and digit representation, respectively. The results consistently showed that memory load modulated distractibility only when the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in the same domain. The magnitude of distractor interference was larger under high load than under low load, reflecting a lower efficacy of information prioritization. When the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in different domains, memory load did not modulate distractibility. Control of processing priority in selective attention demands domain-specific resources. PMID:24866977

  9. Using context to improve protein domain identification

    Llinás Manuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying domains in protein sequences is an important step in protein structural and functional annotation. Existing domain recognition methods typically evaluate each domain prediction independently of the rest. However, the majority of proteins are multidomain, and pairwise domain co-occurrences are highly specific and non-transitive. Results Here, we demonstrate how to exploit domain co-occurrence to boost weak domain predictions that appear in previously observed combinations, while penalizing higher confidence domains if such combinations have never been observed. Our framework, Domain Prediction Using Context (dPUC, incorporates pairwise "context" scores between domains, along with traditional domain scores and thresholds, and improves domain prediction across a variety of organisms from bacteria to protozoa and metazoa. Among the genomes we tested, dPUC is most successful at improving predictions for the poorly-annotated malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for which over 38% of the genome is currently unannotated. Our approach enables high-confidence annotations in this organism and the identification of orthologs to many core machinery proteins conserved in all eukaryotes, including those involved in ribosomal assembly and other RNA processing events, which surprisingly had not been previously known. Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrate that this new context-based approach will provide significant improvements in domain and function prediction, especially for poorly understood genomes for which the need for additional annotations is greatest. Source code for the algorithm is available under a GPL open source license at http://compbio.cs.princeton.edu/dpuc/. Pre-computed results for our test organisms and a web server are also available at that location.

  10. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  11. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. On the domain of the Nelson Hamiltonian

    Griesemer, M.; Wünsch, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Nelson Hamiltonian is unitarily equivalent to a Hamiltonian defined through a closed, semibounded quadratic form, the unitary transformation being explicitly known and due to Gross. In this paper, we study the mapping properties of the Gross-transform in order to characterize the regularity properties of vectors in the form domain of the Nelson Hamiltonian. Since the operator domain is a subset of the form domain, our results apply to vectors in the domain of the Hamiltonian as well. This work is a continuation of our previous work on the Fröhlich Hamiltonian.

  13. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  15. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    Anyiwo, David

    2001-01-01

    The project captured additional functional and technical requirements for collaboration and exchange in the electronics industry's value chain, and refined the eCommerce domain ontology requirements...

  16. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.

    Jun, S; Desplan, C

    1996-09-01

    The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire.

  17. On Domain Registries and Website Content

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2018-01-01

    such as Internet access service providers, hosting platforms, and websites that link to content. This article shows that in recent years, however, that the (secondary) liability of domain registries and registrars, and more specifically country code top-level domain registries (ccTLDs) for website content, has...... been tested in several EU Member States. The article investigates tendencies in the national lower-court jurisprudence and explores to what extent the liability exemption regime of the E-Commerce Directive applies to domain registries. The analysis concludes that whereas domain registries fall under...

  18. Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub Strategy

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an initial high level strategy for carrying out the responsibilities of the national Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub to deliver a standards based service...

  19. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  20. Same but not alike: Structure, flexibility and energetics of domains in multi-domain proteins are influenced by the presence of other domains.

    Vishwanath, Sneha; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the proteins encoded in the genomes of eukaryotes contain more than one domain. Reasons for high prevalence of multi-domain proteins in various organisms have been attributed to higher stability and functional and folding advantages over single-domain proteins. Despite these advantages, many proteins are composed of only one domain while their homologous domains are part of multi-domain proteins. In the study presented here, differences in the properties of protein domains in single-domain and multi-domain systems and their influence on functions are discussed. We studied 20 pairs of identical protein domains, which were crystallized in two forms (a) tethered to other proteins domains and (b) tethered to fewer protein domains than (a) or not tethered to any protein domain. Results suggest that tethering of domains in multi-domain proteins influences the structural, dynamic and energetic properties of the constituent protein domains. 50% of the protein domain pairs show significant structural deviations while 90% of the protein domain pairs show differences in dynamics and 12% of the residues show differences in the energetics. To gain further insights on the influence of tethering on the function of the domains, 4 pairs of homologous protein domains, where one of them is a full-length single-domain protein and the other protein domain is a part of a multi-domain protein, were studied. Analyses showed that identical and structurally equivalent functional residues show differential dynamics in homologous protein domains; though comparable dynamics between in-silico generated chimera protein and multi-domain proteins were observed. From these observations, the differences observed in the functions of homologous proteins could be attributed to the presence of tethered domain. Overall, we conclude that tethered domains in multi-domain proteins not only provide stability or folding advantages but also influence pathways resulting in differences in

  1. The extended-domain-eigenfunction method for solving elliptic boundary value problems with annular domains

    Aarao, J; Bradshaw-Hajek, B H; Miklavcic, S J; Ward, D A, E-mail: Stan.Miklavcic@unisa.edu.a [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-07

    Standard analytical solutions to elliptic boundary value problems on asymmetric domains are rarely, if ever, obtainable. In this paper, we propose a solution technique wherein we embed the original domain into one with simple boundaries where the classical eigenfunction solution approach can be used. The solution in the larger domain, when restricted to the original domain, is then the solution of the original boundary value problem. We call this the extended-domain-eigenfunction method. To illustrate the method's strength and scope, we apply it to Laplace's equation on an annular-like domain.

  2. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  3. Strong diamagnetism for general domains and applications

    Fournais, Søren; Helffer, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Neumann Laplacian with constant magnetic field on a regular domain. Let $B$ be the strength of the magnetic field, and let $\\lambda_1(B)$ be the first eigenvalue of the magnetic Neumann Laplacian on the domain. It is proved that $B \\mapsto \\lambda_1(B)$ is monotone increasing for ...

  4. UBA domain containing proteins in fission yeast

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Semple, Colin A M; Ponting, Chris P

    2003-01-01

    characterised on both the functional and structural levels. One example of a widespread ubiquitin binding module is the ubiquitin associated (UBA) domain. Here, we discuss the approximately 15 UBA domain containing proteins encoded in the relatively small genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...

  5. Time versus frequency domain measurements: layered model ...

    ... their high frequency content while among TEM data sets with low frequency content, the averaging times for the FEM ellipticity were shorter than the TEM quality. Keywords: ellipticity, frequency domain, frequency electromagnetic method, model parameter, orientation error, time domain, transient electromagnetic method

  6. Patient Centric Ontology for Telehealth Domain

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper; Demazeau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology for the telehealth domain, a domain that concerns the use of telecommunication to support and deliver health related services e.g. patient monitoring and rehabilitative training. Our vision for the future of telehealth solutions is that they adapt their behavior to...

  7. Frequency Domain Image Filtering Using CUDA

    Muhammad Awais Rajput

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA?s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture. In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA?s parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butterworth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output image quality on both the processing architectures

  8. Frequency domain image filtering using cuda

    Rajput, M.A.; Khan, U.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA's parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butter worth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output) image quality on both the processing architectures. (author)

  9. Domain wall engineering through exchange bias

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The control of the structure and position of magnetic domain walls is at the basis of the development of different magnetic devices and architectures. Several nanofabrication techniques have been proposed to geometrically confine and shape domain wall structures; however, a fine tuning of the position and micromagnetic configuration is hardly achieved, especially in continuous films. This work shows that, by controlling the unidirectional anisotropy of a continuous ferromagnetic film through exchange bias, domain walls whose spin arrangement is generally not favored by dipolar and exchange interactions can be created. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the domain wall width, position and profile can be tuned by establishing an abrupt change in the direction and magnitude of the exchange bias field set in the system. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic simulations study domain walls in exchange biased thin films. • Novel domain wall configurations can be stabilized via exchange bias. • Domain walls nucleate at the boundary of regions with different exchange bias. • Domain wall width and spin profile are controlled by tuning the exchange bias.

  10. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  11. Transposition of Domain Knowledge into Educational Games

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Jensen, Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Starting from Rogoff’s (1990) theory of apprenticeship in thinking and Apter’s (1987) reversal theory, this paper discusses the formulation of PlayDT (Playful Domain Transposition), a new approach to support the transposition of complex concepts, from different knowledge domains, into playful int...

  12. Domain Theory, Its Models and Concepts

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.; Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt

    2014-01-01

    Domain Theory is a systems approach for the analysis and synthesis of products. Its basic idea is to view a product as systems of activities, organs and parts and to define structure, elements, behaviour and function in these domains. The theory is a basis for a long line of research contribution...

  13. Fractional-Fourier-domain weighted Wigner distribution

    Stankovic, L.; Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    A fractional-Fourier-domain realization of the weighted Wigner distribution (or S-method), producing auto-terms close to the ones in the Wigner distribution itself, but with reduced cross-terms, is presented. The computational cost of this fractional-domain realization is the same as the

  14. Database Concepts in a Domain Ontology

    Gorskis Henrihs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are multiple approaches for mapping from a domain ontology to a database in the task of ontology-based data access. For that purpose, external mapping documents are most commonly used. These documents describe how the data necessary for the description of ontology individuals and other values, are to be obtained from the database. The present paper investigates the use of special database concepts. These concepts are not separated from the domain ontology; they are mixed with domain concepts to form a combined application ontology. By creating natural relationships between database concepts and domain concepts, mapping can be implemented more easily and with a specific purpose. The paper also investigates how the use of such database concepts in addition to domain concepts impacts ontology building and data retrieval.

  15. Text Processing of Domain-Related Information for Individuals with High and Low Domain Knowledge.

    Spilich, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The way in which previously acquired knowledge affects the processing on new domain-related information was investigated. Text processing was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of the domain of baseball. A knowledge structure for the domain was constructed, and text propositions were classified. (SW)

  16. Interoperable domain models: the ISO land administration domain model LADM and its external classes

    Lemmen, CHJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of one of the first spatial domain standards: a standard for the domain of Land Administration (LA). This standard is in the draft stage of development now (May 2011). The development of domain standards is a...

  17. Jahn-teller domains and magnetic domains in Mn2FeO4

    Kub, J.; Brabers, V.A.M.; Novák, P.; Gemperle, R.; Simsova, J.

    2000-01-01

    Elastic (Jahn–Teller) domains and magnetic domains in the tetragonal spinel Mn2FeO4 were studied using X-ray double-crystal topography, X-ray diffractometry and the colloid-SEM method. The Jahn–Teller domains of the measured samples are tetragonal with the [0 0 1] c-axis alternating perpendicularly

  18. Time-domain modeling of electromagnetic diffusion with a frequency-domain code

    Mulder, W.A.; Wirianto, M.; Slob, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    We modeled time-domain EM measurements of induction currents for marine and land applications with a frequency-domain code. An analysis of the computational complexity of a number of numerical methods shows that frequency-domain modeling followed by a Fourier transform is an attractive choice if a

  19. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  20. A thermodynamic definition of protein domains.

    Porter, Lauren L; Rose, George D

    2012-06-12

    Protein domains are conspicuous structural units in globular proteins, and their identification has been a topic of intense biochemical interest dating back to the earliest crystal structures. Numerous disparate domain identification algorithms have been proposed, all involving some combination of visual intuition and/or structure-based decomposition. Instead, we present a rigorous, thermodynamically-based approach that redefines domains as cooperative chain segments. In greater detail, most small proteins fold with high cooperativity, meaning that the equilibrium population is dominated by completely folded and completely unfolded molecules, with a negligible subpopulation of partially folded intermediates. Here, we redefine structural domains in thermodynamic terms as cooperative folding units, based on m-values, which measure the cooperativity of a protein or its substructures. In our analysis, a domain is equated to a contiguous segment of the folded protein whose m-value is largely unaffected when that segment is excised from its parent structure. Defined in this way, a domain is a self-contained cooperative unit; i.e., its cooperativity depends primarily upon intrasegment interactions, not intersegment interactions. Implementing this concept computationally, the domains in a large representative set of proteins were identified; all exhibit consistency with experimental findings. Specifically, our domain divisions correspond to the experimentally determined equilibrium folding intermediates in a set of nine proteins. The approach was also proofed against a representative set of 71 additional proteins, again with confirmatory results. Our reframed interpretation of a protein domain transforms an indeterminate structural phenomenon into a quantifiable molecular property grounded in solution thermodynamics.

  1. Domain switching in single-phase multiferroics

    Jia, Tingting; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo

    2018-06-01

    Multiferroics are a time-honoured research subject by reason for their tremendous application potential in the information industry, such as in multi-state information storage devices and new types of sensors. An outburst of studies on multiferroicity has been witnessed in the 21st century, although this field has a long research history since the 19th century. Multiferroicity has now become one of the hottest research topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. Numerous efforts have been made to investigate the cross-coupling phenomena among ferroic orders such as ferroelectricity, (anti-)ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity, especially the coupling between electric and magnetic orderings that would account for the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in multiferroic materials. The magnetoelectric properties and coupling behavior of single phase multiferroics are dominated by their domain structures. It was also noted that, however, the multiferroic materials exhibit very complicated domain structures. Studies on domain structure characterization and domain switching are a crucial step in the exploration of approaches to the control and manipulation of magnetic (electric) properties using an electric (magnetic) field or other means. In this review, following a concise outline of our current basic knowledge on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect, we summarize some important research activities on domain switching in single-phase multiferroic materials in the form of single crystals and thin films, especially domain switching behavior involving strain and the related physics in the last decade. We also introduce recent developments in characterization techniques for domain structures of ferroelectric or multiferroic materials, which have significantly advanced our understanding of domain switching dynamics and interactions. The effects of a series of issues such as electric field, magnetic field, and stress effects on domain switching are been discussed as well. It

  2. MIT domain of Vps4 is a Ca2+-dependent phosphoinositide-binding domain.

    Iwaya, Naoko; Takasu, Hirotoshi; Goda, Natsuko; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hamada, Daizo; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2013-05-01

    The microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain is a small protein module that is conserved in proteins of diverged function, such as Vps4, spastin and sorting nexin 15 (SNX15). The molecular function of the MIT domain is protein-protein interaction, in which the domain recognizes peptides containing MIT-interacting motifs. Recently, we identified an evolutionarily related domain, 'variant' MIT domain at the N-terminal region of the microtubule severing enzyme katanin p60. We found that the domain was responsible for binding to microtubules and Ca(2+). Here, we have examined whether the authentic MIT domains also bind Ca(2+). We found that the loop between the first and second α-helices of the MIT domain binds a Ca(2+) ion. Furthermore, the MIT domains derived from Vps4b and SNX15a showed phosphoinositide-binding activities in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. We propose that the MIT domain is a novel membrane-associating domain involved in endosomal trafficking.

  3. Insights into function of PSI domains from structure of the Met receptor PSI domain

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Perreault, Audrey; Schrag, Joseph D.; Park, Morag; Cygler, Miroslaw; Gehring, Kalle; Ekiel, Irena

    2004-01-01

    PSI domains are cysteine-rich modules found in extracellular fragments of hundreds of signaling proteins, including plexins, semaphorins, integrins, and attractins. Here, we report the solution structure of the PSI domain from the human Met receptor, a receptor tyrosine kinase critical for proliferation, motility, and differentiation. The structure represents a cysteine knot with short regions of secondary structure including a three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and two α-helices. All eight cysteines are involved in disulfide bonds with the pattern consistent with that for the PSI domain from Sema4D. Comparison with the Sema4D structure identifies a structurally conserved core comprising the N-terminal half of the PSI domain. Interestingly, this part links adjacent SEMA and immunoglobulin domains in the Sema4D structure, suggesting that the PSI domain serves as a wedge between propeller and immunoglobulin domains and is responsible for the correct positioning of the ligand-binding site of the receptor

  4. Detecting atypical examples of known domain types by sequence similarity searching: the SBASE domain library approach.

    Dhir, Somdutta; Pacurar, Mircea; Franklin, Dino; Gáspári, Zoltán; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Kocsor, András; Eisenhaber, Frank; Pongor, Sándor

    2010-11-01

    SBASE is a project initiated to detect known domain types and predicting domain architectures using sequence similarity searching (Simon et al., Protein Seq Data Anal, 5: 39-42, 1992, Pongor et al, Nucl. Acids. Res. 21:3111-3115, 1992). The current approach uses a curated collection of domain sequences - the SBASE domain library - and standard similarity search algorithms, followed by postprocessing which is based on a simple statistics of the domain similarity network (http://hydra.icgeb.trieste.it/sbase/). It is especially useful in detecting rare, atypical examples of known domain types which are sometimes missed even by more sophisticated methodologies. This approach does not require multiple alignment or machine learning techniques, and can be a useful complement to other domain detection methodologies. This article gives an overview of the project history as well as of the concepts and principles developed within this the project.

  5. System Identification A Frequency Domain Approach

    Pintelon, Rik

    2012-01-01

    System identification is a general term used to describe mathematical tools and algorithms that build dynamical models from measured data. Used for prediction, control, physical interpretation, and the designing of any electrical systems, they are vital in the fields of electrical, mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering. Focusing mainly on frequency domain techniques, System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, Second Edition also studies in detail the similarities and differences with the classical time domain approach. It high??lights many of the important steps in the identi

  6. Multi-domain comparison of safety standards

    Baufreton, Ph.; Derrien, J.C.; Ricque, B.; Blanquart, J.P.; Boulanger, J.L.; Delseny, H.; Gassino, J.; Ladier, G.; Ledinot, E.; Leeman, M.; Quere, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of safety standards and their implementation in certification strategies from different domains such as aeronautics, automation, automotive, nuclear, railway and space. This work, performed in the context of the CG2E ('Club des Grandes Entreprises de l'Embarque'), aims at identifying the main similarities and dissimilarities, for potential cross-domain harmonization. We strive to find the most comprehensive 'trans-sectorial' approach, within a large number of industrial domains. Exhibiting the 'true goals' of their numerous applicable standards, related to the safety of system and software, is a first important step towards harmonization, sharing common approaches, methods and tools whenever possible. (authors)

  7. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain...... for deciding reaction rule causation. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the modular construction of domain-specic modelling languages as bigraphical reactive systems, exploring the relationship between vertical renement and language specialisation in this setting. The thesis is composed of several...

  8. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  9. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  10. Characterization of domain reorientation in Pzt ceramics

    Lente, Manuel Henrique; Povoa, Jose Marques; Eiras, Jose Antonio

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic of domains in ferroelectric materials has been intensively studied due to its importance in applications like non volatile memories. Domain reorientation was characterized in lead zirconate titanate samples, pure and doped, through measurements of the transient current, after reversal a electric field. The reorientation behavior of the domains showed to be influenced by type of impurity (Nb or Fe) and by the electrical field intensity. Analysis of the experimental results reveals mainly the existence of two contributions: a dependent (t 0.1 s) of the field intensity. (author)

  11. Booted domain wall and charged Kaigorodov space

    Cai Ronggen

    2003-01-01

    The Kaigorodov space is a homogeneous Einstein space and it describes a pp-wave propagating in anti-de Sitter space. It is conjectured in the literature that M-theory or string theory on the Kaigorodov space times a compact manifold is dual to a conformal field theory in an infinitely-boosted frame with constant momentum density. In this Letter we present a charged generalization of the Kaigorodov space by boosting a non-extremal charged domain wall to the ultrarelativity limit where the boost velocity approaches the speed of light. The finite boost of the domain wall solution gives the charged generalization of the Carter-Novotny-Horsky metric. We study the thermodynamics associated with the charged Carter-Novotny-Horsky space and discuss its relation to that of the static black domain walls and its implications in the domain wall/QFT (quantum field theory) correspondence

  12. Collaborative Networks for biodiversity domain organizations

    Ermilova, E.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2010-01-01

    European scientific research and development organizations, operating in the domains of biology, ecology, and biodiversity, strongly need to cooperate/collaborate with other centers. Unavailability of interoperation infrastructure as well as the needed collaboration environment among research

  13. Calibration of TAMA300 in time domain

    Telada, Souichi; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Akutsu, Tomomi; Ando, Masaki; Kanda, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We could reconstruct the strain of gravitational wave signals from acquired data in the time domain by using the infinite impulse response filter technique in TAMA300. We would like to analyse the waveform in the time domain for burst-like signal, merger phase waveform of binary neutron stars, and so on. We established the way to make a continuous time-series gravitational wave strain signal. We compared the time-domain reconstruction with the Fourier-space reconstruction. Both coincided within 3% in the observation range. We could also produce the voltage signal which would be recorded by the data-acquisition system from a simulated gravitational wave. This is useful for some analyses of simulations and signal injections. We could extract the waveform of the hardware injection signal in an observational run in the time domain. The extracted waveform was similar to the injection signal

  14. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    Liu, Lu; Guo, Bowen; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity

  15. Climiate Resilience Screening Index and Domain Scores

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CRSI and related-domain scores for all 50 states and 3135 counties in the U.S. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: They are already available within the...

  16. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  17. Technique for designing a domain ontology

    Palagin, A. V.; Petrenko, N. G.; Malakhov, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the technique for designing a domain ontology, shows the flowchart of algorithm design and example of constructing a fragment of the ontology of the subject area of Computer Science is considered.

  18. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  19. Flavor changing strings and domain walls

    Dvali, G.; Senjanovic, G.

    1993-04-01

    We consider the cosmological consequences of a spontaneous breaking of non-abelian discrete symmetries, which may appear as a natural remnant of a continuous symmetry, such as a family symmetry. The result may be a stable domain wall across which an electron would turn into a muon (orν e into ν μ ) or a flavor analogue of an Alice string-domain wall structure with the same property. (author). 16 refs

  20. Domain Adversarial for Acoustic Emotion Recognition

    Abdelwahab, Mohammed; Busso, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The performance of speech emotion recognition is affected by the differences in data distributions between train (source domain) and test (target domain) sets used to build and evaluate the models. This is a common problem, as multiple studies have shown that the performance of emotional classifiers drop when they are exposed to data that does not match the distribution used to build the emotion classifiers. The difference in data distributions becomes very clear when the training and testing...

  1. Domain Specific Languages for Interactive Web Services

    Brabrand, Claus

    This dissertation shows how domain specific languages may be applied to the domain of interactive Web services to obtain flexible, safe, and efficient solutions. We show how each of four key aspects of interactive Web services involving sessions, dynamic creation of HTML/XML documents, form field......, , that supports virtually all aspects of the development of interactive Web services and provides flexible, safe, and efficient solutions....

  2. Domain knowledge patterns in pedagogical diagnostics

    Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows a proposal of representation of knowledge patterns in RDF(S) language. Knowledge patterns are used for reuse of knowledge. They can be divided into two groups - Top-level knowledge patterns and Domain knowledge patterns. Pedagogical diagnostics is aimed at testing of knowledge of students at primary and secondary school. An example of domain knowledge pattern from pedagogical diagnostics is part of this paper.

  3. Imaging magnetic domains in Ni nanostructures

    Asenjo, A.; Jaafar, M.; Gonzalez, E.M.; Martin, J.I.; Vazquez, M.; Vicent, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of nanomagnets is the subject of increasing scientific effort. The size, the thickness and the geometric shape of the elements determine the magnetic properties and then the domain configuration. In this work, we fabricated by electron-beam lithography the three different arrays of Ni nanostructures keeping the size, the thickness and also the distance constant between the elements but varying the geometry: square, triangular and circular. The domain structure of the nanomagnets is studied by magnetic force microscopy

  4. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIP...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  5. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  6. Between-Domain Relations of Students’ Academic Emotions and Their Judgments of School Domain Similarity

    Thomas eGoetz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual emotions reflected students’ judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals’ beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students’ perspective. In Study 2 (N=1709; 8th and 11th graders the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  7. Joining RDC data from flexible protein domains

    Sgheri, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We study the inverse problem of determining the conformational freedom of two protein domains from residual dipolar coupling (RDC) measurements. For each paramagnetic ion attached to one of the domains we obtain a magnetic susceptibility tensor χ from the RDC of couples of atoms of that domain, and a mean paramagnetic susceptibility tensor χ-bar from the RDC of couples of atoms of the other domain. The latter is an integral average of rotations of χ which depends on the conformational freedom of the two domains. In this paper we consider the case when we have data from paramagnetic ions attached separately to each of the domains. We prove that in this case not all the elements of χ and χ-bar are independent. We derive the mathematical equations for the compatibility of the measurements and show how these relations can be used in the presence of noisy data to determine a compatible set of χ and χ-bar with an unconstrained minimization. If available, information about the shape of the noise can be included in the target function. We show that in this case the compatible set obtained has a reduced error with respect to the noisy data

  8. Work domain constraints for modelling surgical performance.

    Morineau, Thierry; Riffaud, Laurent; Morandi, Xavier; Villain, Jonathan; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Three main approaches can be identified for modelling surgical performance: a competency-based approach, a task-based approach, both largely explored in the literature, and a less known work domain-based approach. The work domain-based approach first describes the work domain properties that constrain the agent's actions and shape the performance. This paper presents a work domain-based approach for modelling performance during cervical spine surgery, based on the idea that anatomical structures delineate the surgical performance. This model was evaluated through an analysis of junior and senior surgeons' actions. Twenty-four cervical spine surgeries performed by two junior and two senior surgeons were recorded in real time by an expert surgeon. According to a work domain-based model describing an optimal progression through anatomical structures, the degree of adjustment of each surgical procedure to a statistical polynomial function was assessed. Each surgical procedure showed a significant suitability with the model and regression coefficient values around 0.9. However, the surgeries performed by senior surgeons fitted this model significantly better than those performed by junior surgeons. Analysis of the relative frequencies of actions on anatomical structures showed that some specific anatomical structures discriminate senior from junior performances. The work domain-based modelling approach can provide an overall statistical indicator of surgical performance, but in particular, it can highlight specific points of interest among anatomical structures that the surgeons dwelled on according to their level of expertise.

  9. Domains and naïve theories.

    Gelman, Susan A; Noles, Nicholaus S

    2011-09-01

    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This article examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children's classification of biological and nonbiological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 490-502 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.124 This article is categorized under: Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2013-08-20

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  11. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  12. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and choroidal thickness in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative syndrome.

    Ozge, Gokhan; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Gundogan, Fatih Cakir; Ozgonul, Cem; Ayyildiz, Onder; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat

    2016-05-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements in eyes with pseudoexfoliative (PEX) glaucoma, PEX syndrome and healthy control eyes. Eighteen patients with PEX glaucoma in one eye and PEX syndrome in the fellow eye were included. The right eyes of thirty-nine age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included as control group. All participants underwent a detailed biomicroscopic and funduscopic examination. RNFLT and ChT measurements were performed with a commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). ChT measurements were performed by using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode. Patients with PEX underwent diurnal IOP measurements with 4-hour intervals before inclusion in the study. RNFLT results included the average measurement and 6 quadrants (temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal and supero-temporal). ChT measurements were performed in the subfoveal region and around the fovea (500µm and 1500 µm nasal and temporal to the fovea), as well as around the optic disc (average peripapillary and eight quadrants in the peripapillary region (temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal, superior, supero-temporal)). RNFLT in all quadrants and average thickness were significantly lower in PEX glaucoma eyes compared to PEX syndrome eyes and healthy control eyes (p0.05) except the inferotemporal quadrant. ChT measurements were similar between groups (p>0.05). Thinning of the RNFL in association with unchanged ChT may mean that the presence of PEX material is a much more significant risk factor than choroidal changes in the progression of PEX syndrome to PEX glaucoma.

  13. Separating Cognitive and Content Domains in Mathematical Competence

    Harks, Birgit; Klieme, Eckhard; Hartig, Johannes; Leiss, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the empirical separability of mathematical (a) content domains, (b) cognitive domains, and (c) content-specific cognitive domains. There were 122 items representing two content domains (linear equations vs. theorem of Pythagoras) combined with two cognitive domains (modeling competence vs. technical competence)…

  14. The SHOCT domain: a widespread domain under-represented in model organisms.

    Ruth Y Eberhardt

    Full Text Available We have identified a new protein domain, which we have named the SHOCT domain (Short C-terminal domain. This domain is widespread in bacteria with over a thousand examples. But we found it is missing from the most commonly studied model organisms, despite being present in closely related species. It's predominantly C-terminal location, co-occurrence with numerous other domains and short size is reminiscent of the Gram-positive anchor motif, however it is present in a much wider range of species. We suggest several hypotheses about the function of SHOCT, including oligomerisation and nucleic acid binding. Our initial experiments do not support its role as an oligomerisation domain.

  15. Conversion of Dielectric Data from the Time Domain to the Frequency Domain

    Vladimir Durman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarisation and conduction processes in dielectric systems can be identified by the time domain or the frequency domain measurements. If the systems is a linear one, the results of the time domain measurements can be transformed into the frequency domain, and vice versa. Commonly, the time domain data of the absorption conductivity are transformed into the frequency domain data of the dielectric susceptibility. In practice, the relaxation are mainly evaluated by the frequency domain data. In the time domain, the absorption current measurement were prefered up to now. Recent methods are based on the recovery voltage measurements. In this paper a new method of the recovery data conversion from the time the frequency domain is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the recovery voltage transient based on the Maxwell equation for the current density in a dielectric. Unlike the previous published solutions, the Laplace fransform was used to derive a formula suitable for practical purposes. the proposed procedure allows also calculating of the insulation resistance and separating the polarisation and conduction losses.

  16. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals

    John E. Huber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.

  17. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Anderson, Thomas G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  18. Extracting meronomy relations from domain-specific, textual corporate databases

    Ittoo, R.A.; Bouma, G.; Maruster, L.; Wortmann, J.C.; Hopfe, C.J.; Rezgui, Y.; Métais, E.; Preece, A.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    Various techniques for learning meronymy relationships from open-domain corpora exist. However, extracting meronymy relationships from domain-specific, textual corporate databases has been overlooked, despite numerous application opportunities particularly in domains like product development and/or

  19. Wavefield Extrapolation in Pseudo-depth Domain

    Ma, Xuxin

    2011-12-11

    Wave-equation based seismic migration and inversion tools are widely used by the energy industry to explore hydrocarbon and mineral resources. By design, most of these techniques simulate wave propagation in a space domain with the vertical axis being depth measured from the surface. Vertical depth is popular because it is a straightforward mapping of the subsurface space. It is, however, not computationally cost-effective because the wavelength changes with local elastic wave velocity, which in general increases with depth in the Earth. As a result, the sampling per wavelength also increases with depth. To avoid spatial aliasing in deep fast media, the seismic wave is oversampled in shallow slow media and therefore increase the total computation cost. This issue is effectively tackled by using the vertical time axis instead of vertical depth. This is because in a vertical time representation, the "wavelength" is essentially time period for vertical rays. This thesis extends the vertical time axis to the pseudo-depth axis, which features distance unit while preserving the properties of the vertical time representation. To explore the potentials of doing wave-equation based imaging in the pseudo-depth domain, a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is derived to describe acoustic wave in this new domain. This new PDE is inherently anisotropic because the use of a constant vertical velocity to convert between depth and vertical time. Such anisotropy results in lower reflection coefficients compared with conventional space domain modeling results. This feature is helpful to suppress the low wavenumber artifacts in reverse-time migration images, which are caused by the widely used cross-correlation imaging condition. This thesis illustrates modeling acoustic waves in both conventional space domain and pseudo-depth domain. The numerical tool used to model acoustic waves is built based on the lowrank approximation of Fourier integral operators. To investigate the potential

  20. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  1. Changing domains in human capital measurement

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox

    2014-09-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and describe changing domains within human capital management to be managed and measured. Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of changing measurement domains to aid practitioners to manage and measure the contribution of the human resource function and employees, in order to unlock and add value and ultimately contribute to the success of an organisation. Research design, approach and method: Unstructured, in-depth interview data of purposively selected cases from a selected panel of human resource practitioners specialising in human capital measurement was thematically analysed in this exploratory-descriptive investigation. Main findings: Findings suggested that seven domains should be managed and measured. These domains highlight new areas of impact and levels of management. In addition, crossdomain relationships in measurement allow for an understanding of the impact and potential value on which to capitalise. Practical/managerial implications: New domains to manage and measure focus the attention of practitioners beyond the transactional performance management paradigm to a transformational approach to influence the business strategy. Higher education institutions need to develop students’ cognitive skills to facilitate systems thinking. Contribution: This study suggests a new approach to managing and measuring the human capital function and the workforce.

  2. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  3. The SH2 domain interaction landscape.

    Tinti, Michele; Kiemer, Lars; Costa, Stefano; Miller, Martin L; Sacco, Francesca; Olsen, Jesper V; Carducci, Martina; Paoluzi, Serena; Langone, Francesca; Workman, Christopher T; Blom, Nikolaj; Machida, Kazuya; Thompson, Christopher M; Schutkowski, Mike; Brunak, Søren; Mann, Matthias; Mayer, Bruce J; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2013-04-25

    Members of the SH2 domain family modulate signal transduction by binding to short peptides containing phosphorylated tyrosines. Each domain displays a distinct preference for the sequence context of the phosphorylated residue. We have developed a high-density peptide chip technology that allows for probing of the affinity of most SH2 domains for a large fraction of the entire complement of tyrosine phosphopeptides in the human proteome. Using this technique, we have experimentally identified thousands of putative SH2-peptide interactions for more than 70 different SH2 domains. By integrating this rich data set with orthogonal context-specific information, we have assembled an SH2-mediated probabilistic interaction network, which we make available as a community resource in the PepspotDB database. A predicted dynamic interaction between the SH2 domains of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the phosphorylated tyrosine in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation loop was validated by experiments in living cells. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The SH2 Domain Interaction Landscape

    Michele Tinti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the SH2 domain family modulate signal transduction by binding to short peptides containing phosphorylated tyrosines. Each domain displays a distinct preference for the sequence context of the phosphorylated residue. We have developed a high-density peptide chip technology that allows for probing of the affinity of most SH2 domains for a large fraction of the entire complement of tyrosine phosphopeptides in the human proteome. Using this technique, we have experimentally identified thousands of putative SH2-peptide interactions for more than 70 different SH2 domains. By integrating this rich data set with orthogonal context-specific information, we have assembled an SH2-mediated probabilistic interaction network, which we make available as a community resource in the PepspotDB database. A predicted dynamic interaction between the SH2 domains of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the phosphorylated tyrosine in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation loop was validated by experiments in living cells.

  5. Ferroelastic domain switching in tetragonal zirconia

    Chan, C.J.; Ruhle, M.; Jue, J.F.; Virkar, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Ferroelastic domain switching is one of the possible toughening mechanisms in ceramic materials. Microstructural evidence of domain reorientation (switching) in polydomain tetragonal zirconia single crystals is observed upon the application of a unidirectional compressive stress. Dark field imaging of the three (112) tetragonal twin variants in a [111] zone indicates that two sets of twin variants grow at the expense of the third set upon application of uniaxial compression. The diminishing variant is the one with its c axis parallel to the compression axis. Indentation experiments on uniaxially compressed samples show an anisotropy in crack length. Crack propogates more easily along the loading direction. In this paper construction for the orientation relationship of domains and their twin boundaries is presented

  6. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  7. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr 0.48 Ti 0.52 O 3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue

  8. Bragg projection ptychography on niobium phase domains

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique which combines the strengths of scanning microscopy with the phase contrast of x-ray ptychography. Here we apply it for high resolution imaging of the phase-shifted crystalline domains associated with epitaxial growth. The advantages of BPP are that the spatial extent of the sample is arbitrary, it is nondestructive, and it gives potentially diffraction limited spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the application of BPP for revealing the domain structure caused by epitaxial misfit in a nanostructured metallic thin film. Experimental coherent diffraction data were collected from a niobium thin film, epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate as the beam was scanned across the sample. The data were analyzed by BPP using a carefully selected combination of refinement procedures. The resulting image shows a close packed array of epitaxial domains, shifted with respect to each other due to misfit between the film and its substrate.

  9. Crystal shapes on striped surface domains

    Valencia, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium shapes of a simple cubic crystal in contact with a planar chemically patterned substrate are studied theoretically using an effective interface model. The substrate is primarily made of lyophobic material and is patterned with a lyophilic (easily wettable) stripe domain. Three regimes can be distinguished for the equilibrium shapes of the crystal. The transitions between these regimes as the volume of the crystal is changed are continuous or discontinuous depending on the strength of the couplings between the crystal and the lyophilic and lyophobic surface domains. If the crystal grows through a series of states close to equilibrium, the discontinuous transitions correspond to growth instabilities. These transitions are compared with similar results that have been obtained for a volume of liquid wetting a lyophilic stripe domain

  10. Multi-Domain Modeling Based on Modelica

    Liu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the application of simulation technology in large-scale and multi-field problems, multi-domain unified modeling become an effective way to solve these problems. This paper introduces several basic methods and advantages of the multidisciplinary model, and focuses on the simulation based on Modelica language. The Modelica/Mworks is a newly developed simulation software with features of an object-oriented and non-casual language for modeling of the large, multi-domain system, which makes the model easier to grasp, develop and maintain.It This article shows the single degree of freedom mechanical vibration system based on Modelica language special connection mechanism in Mworks. This method that multi-domain modeling has simple and feasible, high reusability. it closer to the physical system, and many other advantages.

  11. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    Liu, Lu

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).

  12. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure

  13. Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics

    Seidel, J.; Martin, L. W.; He, Q.; Zhan, Q.; Chu, Y.-H.; Rother, A.; Hawkridge, M. E.; Maksymovych, P.; Yu, P.; Gajek, M.; Balke, N.; Kalinin, S. V.; Gemming, S.; Wang, F.; Catalan, G.; Scott, J. F.; Spaldin, N. A.; Orenstein, J.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-03-01

    Domain walls may play an important role in future electronic devices, given their small size as well as the fact that their location can be controlled. Here, we report the observation of room-temperature electronic conductivity at ferroelectric domain walls in the insulating multiferroic BiFeO3. The origin and nature of the observed conductivity are probed using a combination of conductive atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and first-principles density functional computations. Our analyses indicate that the conductivity correlates with structurally driven changes in both the electrostatic potential and the local electronic structure, which shows a decrease in the bandgap at the domain wall. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential for device applications of such conducting nanoscale features.

  14. Work-domain knowledge in usability evaluation

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Usability evaluation helps to determine whether interactive systems support users in their work tasks. However, knowledge about those tasks and, more generally, about the work-domain is difficult to bring to bear on the processes and outcome of usability evaluation. One way to include such work......-domain knowledge might be Cooperative Usability Testing, an evaluation method that consists of (a) interaction phases, similar to classic usability testing, and (b) interpretation phases, where the test participant and the moderator discuss incidents and experiences from the interaction phases. We have studied...... whether such interpretation phases improve the relevance of usability evaluations in the development of work-domain specific systems. The study included two development cases. We conclude that the interpretation phases generate additional insight and redesign suggestions related to observed usability...

  15. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  16. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  17. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  18. Polarized Epithermal Neutron Studies of Magnetic Domains

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason, L.; Mareev, Yu. D.; Novitsky, V.V.; Pikelner, L.B.; Skoy, V.R.; Tsulaya, M.I.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Roberson, N.R.

    1997-01-01

    The average size and shape of magnetic domains in a material can be determined from the precession of polarized neutrons traversing the material. Epithermal neutrons (0.5eV< En<100eV), which process more slowly than thermals, effectively probe the internal structure of samples that are thick or have large domains or large internal fields. Such epithermal neutron measurements require a neutron polarizer and analyzer based on cryogenically polarized spin filters. We discuss the measurements at JINR, Dubna, of magnetic domains in a 2.0 cm. diam. crystal of holmium using 1.7 to 59eV neutrons polarized by a dynamically polarized proton target and analyzed with a statically polarized dysprosium target

  19. Polarized epithermal neutron studies of magnetic domains

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason, L.; Mareev, Y.D.; Novitsky, V.V.; Pikelner, L.B.; Skoy, V.R.; Tsulaya, M.I.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina; Roberson, N.R.; the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina

    1997-01-01

    The average size and shape of magnetic domains in a material can be determined from the precession of polarized neutrons traversing the material. Epithermal neutrons (0.5eV n <100eV), which precess more slowly than thermals, effectively probe the internal structure of samples that are thick or have large domains or large internal fields. Such epithermal neutron measurements require a neutron polarizer and analyzer based on cryogenically polarized spin filters. We discuss the measurement at JINR, Dubna, of magnetic domains in a 2.0 cm. diam. crystal of holmium using 1.7 to 59 eV neutrons polarized by a dynamically polarized proton target and analyzed with a statically polarized dysprosium target. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  1. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  2. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-10-20

    A multi-institutional project known as D-TEC (short for “Domain- specific Technology for Exascale Computing”) set out to explore technologies to support the construction of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) to map application programs to exascale architectures. DSLs employ automated code transformation to shift the burden of delivering portable performance from application programmers to compilers. Two chief properties contribute: DSLs permit expression at a high level of abstraction so that a programmer’s intent is clear to a compiler and DSL implementations encapsulate human domain-specific optimization knowledge so that a compiler can be smart enough to achieve good results on specific hardware. Domain specificity is what makes these properties possible in a programming language. If leveraging domain specificity is the key to keep exascale software tractable, a corollary is that many different DSLs will be needed to encompass the full range of exascale computing applications; moreover, a single application may well need to use several different DSLs in conjunction. As a result, developing a general toolkit for building domain-specific languages was a key goal for the D-TEC project. Different aspects of the D-TEC research portfolio were the focus of work at each of the partner institutions in the multi-institutional project. D-TEC research and development work at Rice University focused on on three principal topics: understanding how to automate the tuning of code for complex architectures, research and development of the Rosebud DSL engine, and compiler technology to support complex execution platforms. This report provides a summary of the research and development work on the D-TEC project at Rice University.

  3. Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size

    Leduc, Martin; Laprise, René

    2009-05-01

    Regional climate models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBC). It is well known that the limited area over which a model is integrated must be large enough to allow the full development of small-scale features. On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large scale nudging is applied. The issue of domain size is studied here by using the “perfect model” approach. This method consists first of generating a high-resolution climatic simulation, nicknamed big brother (BB), over a large domain of integration. The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter emulating the usual coarse-resolution LBC. The filtered nesting data (FBB) are hence used to drive a set of four simulations (LBs for Little Brothers), with the same model, but on progressively smaller domain sizes. The LB statistics for a climate sample of four winter months are compared with BB over a common region. The time average (stationary) and transient-eddy standard deviation patterns of the LB atmospheric fields generally improve in terms of spatial correlation with the reference (BB) when domain gets smaller. The extraction of the small-scale features by using a spectral filter allows detecting important underestimations of the transient-eddy variability in the vicinity of the inflow boundary, which can penalize the use of small domains (less than 100 × 100 grid points). The permanent “spatial spin-up” corresponds to the characteristic distance that the large-scale flow needs to travel before developing small-scale features. The spin-up distance tends to grow in size at higher levels in the atmosphere.

  4. Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size

    Leduc, Martin [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics (CRCMD) Network, ESCER Centre, Montreal (Canada); UQAM/Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada); Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics (CRCMD) Network, ESCER Centre, Montreal (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Regional climate models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBC). It is well known that the limited area over which a model is integrated must be large enough to allow the full development of small-scale features. On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large scale nudging is applied. The issue of domain size is studied here by using the ''perfect model'' approach. This method consists first of generating a high-resolution climatic simulation, nicknamed big brother (BB), over a large domain of integration. The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter emulating the usual coarse-resolution LBC. The filtered nesting data (FBB) are hence used to drive a set of four simulations (LBs for Little Brothers), with the same model, but on progressively smaller domain sizes. The LB statistics for a climate sample of four winter months are compared with BB over a common region. The time average (stationary) and transient-eddy standard deviation patterns of the LB atmospheric fields generally improve in terms of spatial correlation with the reference (BB) when domain gets smaller. The extraction of the small-scale features by using a spectral filter allows detecting important underestimations of the transient-eddy variability in the vicinity of the inflow boundary, which can penalize the use of small domains (less than 100 x 100 grid points). The permanent ''spatial spin-up'' corresponds to the characteristic distance that the large-scale flow needs to travel before developing small-scale features. The spin-up distance tends to grow in size at higher levels in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  5. Intellectual Growth in Children as a Function of Domain Specific and Domain General Working Memory Subgroups

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether children's growth on measures of fluid (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices) and crystallized (reading and math achievement) intelligence was attributable to domain-specific or domain-general functions of working memory (WM). A sample of 290 elementary school children was tested on measures of intelligence across three…

  6. Full waveform inversion in the frequency domain using classified time-domain residual wavefields

    Son, Woohyun; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Byoung-Yeop; Lee, Ho-Young; Joo, Yonghwan

    2017-04-01

    We perform the acoustic full waveform inversion in the frequency domain using residual wavefields that have been separated in the time domain. We sort the residual wavefields in the time domain according to the order of absolute amplitudes. Then, the residual wavefields are separated into several groups in the time domain. To analyze the characteristics of the residual wavefields, we compare the residual wavefields of conventional method with those of our residual separation method. From the residual analysis, the amplitude spectrum obtained from the trace before separation appears to have little energy at the lower frequency bands. However, the amplitude spectrum obtained from our strategy is regularized by the separation process, which means that the low-frequency components are emphasized. Therefore, our method helps to emphasize low-frequency components of residual wavefields. Then, we generate the frequency-domain residual wavefields by taking the Fourier transform of the separated time-domain residual wavefields. With these wavefields, we perform the gradient-based full waveform inversion in the frequency domain using back-propagation technique. Through a comparison of gradient directions, we confirm that our separation method can better describe the sub-salt image than the conventional approach. The proposed method is tested on the SEG/EAGE salt-dome model. The inversion results show that our algorithm is better than the conventional gradient based waveform inversion in the frequency domain, especially for deeper parts of the velocity model.

  7. SH3 Domains Differentially Stimulate Distinct Dynamin I Assembly Modes and G Domain Activity.

    Sai Krishnan

    Full Text Available Dynamin I is a highly regulated GTPase enzyme enriched in nerve terminals which mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. One regulatory mechanism involves its interactions with proteins containing Src homology 3 (SH3 domains. At least 30 SH3 domain-containing proteins bind dynamin at its proline-rich domain (PRD. Those that stimulate dynamin activity act by promoting its oligomerisation. We undertook a systematic parallel screening of 13 glutathione-S-transferase (GST-tagged endocytosis-related SH3 domains on dynamin binding, GTPase activity and oligomerisation. No correlation was found between dynamin binding and their potency to stimulate GTPase activity. There was limited correlation between the extent of their ability to stimulate dynamin activity and the level of oligomerisation, indicating an as yet uncharacterised allosteric coupling of the PRD and G domain. We examined the two variants, dynamin Iab and Ibb, which differ in the alternately splice middle domain α2 helix. They responded differently to the panel of SH3s, with the extent of stimulation between the splice variants varying greatly between the SH3s. This study reveals that SH3 binding can act as a heterotropic allosteric regulator of the G domain via the middle domain α2 helix, suggesting an involvement of this helix in communicating the PRD-mediated allostery. This indicates that SH3 binding both stabilises multiple conformations of the tetrameric building block of dynamin, and promotes assembly of dynamin-SH3 complexes with distinct rates of GTP hydrolysis.

  8. Chemical Shift Assignments of the C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain-3 EH Domain*

    Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The C-terminal Eps15 homology (EH) domain 3 (EHD3) belongs to a eukaryotic family of endocytic regulatory proteins and is involved in the recycling of various receptors from the early endosome to the endocytic recycling compartment or in retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi. EH domains are highly conserved in the EHD family and function as protein-protein interaction units that bind to Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motif-containing proteins. The EH domain of EHD1 was the first C-terminal EH domain from the EHD family to be solved by NMR. The differences observed between this domain and proteins with N-terminal EH domains helped describe a mechanism for the differential binding of NPF-containing proteins. Here, structural studies were expanded to include the EHD3 EH domain. While the EHD1 and EHD3 EH domains are highly homologous, they have different protein partners. A comparison of these structures will help determine the selectivity in protein binding between the EHD family members and lead to a better understanding of their unique roles in endocytic regulation. PMID:23754701

  9. Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe

    Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.

  10. Domains within domains and walls within walls: Evidence for polar domains in cryogenic SrTiO.sub.3./sub..

    Salje, E.K.H.; Aktas, O.; Carpenter, M.A.; Laguta, Valentyn; Scott, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 24 (2013), "247603-1"-"247603-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric domains * SrTiO 3 * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  11. Casimir forces in the time domain: Theory

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. The method involves the time evolution of electric and magnetic fields in response to a set of current sources, in a modified medium with frequency-independent conductivity. The advantage of this approach is that it allows one to exploit existing FDTD software, without modification, to compute Casimir forces. In this paper, we focus on the derivation, implementation choices, and essential properties of the time-domain algorithm, both considered analytically and illustrated in the simplest parallel-plate geometry.

  12. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  13. Clojure for domain-specific languages

    Kelker, Ryan D

    2013-01-01

    An example-oriented approach to develop custom domain-specific languages.If you've already developed a few Clojure applications and wish to expand your knowledge on Clojure or domain-specific languages in general, then this book is for you. If you're an absolute Clojure beginner, then you may only find the detailed examples of the core Clojure components of value. If you've developed DSLs in other languages, this Lisp and Java-based book might surprise you with the power of Clojure.

  14. Magnetic domains the analysis of magnetic microstructures

    Hubert, Alex

    1998-01-01

    The book gives a systematic and comprehensive survey of the complete area of magnetic microstructures. It reaches from micromagnetism of nanoparticles to complex structures of extended magnetic materials. The book starts with a comprehensive evaluation of traditional and modern experimental methods for the observation of magnetic domains and continues with the treatment of important methods for the theoretical analysis of magnetic microcstructures. A survey of the necessary techniques in materials characterization is given. The book offers an observation and analysis of magnetic domains in all

  15. DEPONTO: A Reusable Dependability Domain Ontology

    Teodora Sanislav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dependability reusable ontology for knowledge representation. The fundamental knowledge related to dependability follows its taxonomy. Thus, this paper gives an analysis of what is the dependability domain ontology andof its components.The dependability domain ontology plays an important role in ensuring the dependability of information systems by providing support for their diagnosis in case of faults, errors and failures.The proposed ontology is used as a dependability framework in two case study Cyber-Physical Systemswhich demonstrate its reusability within this category of systems.

  16. [Development of domain specific search engines].

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing.

  17. Predicting detection performance with model observers: Fourier domain or spatial domain?

    Chen, Baiyu; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James; Favazza, Christopher; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-02-27

    The use of Fourier domain model observer is challenged by iterative reconstruction (IR), because IR algorithms are nonlinear and IR images have noise texture different from that of FBP. A modified Fourier domain model observer, which incorporates nonlinear noise and resolution properties, has been proposed for IR and needs to be validated with human detection performance. On the other hand, the spatial domain model observer is theoretically applicable to IR, but more computationally intensive than the Fourier domain method. The purpose of this study is to compare the modified Fourier domain model observer to the spatial domain model observer with both FBP and IR images, using human detection performance as the gold standard. A phantom with inserts of various low contrast levels and sizes was repeatedly scanned 100 times on a third-generation, dual-source CT scanner at 5 dose levels and reconstructed using FBP and IR algorithms. The human detection performance of the inserts was measured via a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) test. In addition, two model observer performances were calculated, including a Fourier domain non-prewhitening model observer and a spatial domain channelized Hotelling observer. The performance of these two mode observers was compared in terms of how well they correlated with human observer performance. Our results demonstrated that the spatial domain model observer correlated well with human observers across various dose levels, object contrast levels, and object sizes. The Fourier domain observer correlated well with human observers using FBP images, but overestimated the detection performance using IR images.

  18. Type checking by domain analysis in Ampersand

    Joosten, S.M.M.; Joosten, S.J.C.; Kahl, W.; Winter, M.; Oliveira, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    In the process of incorporating subtyping in relation algebra, an algorithm was found to derive the subtyping relation from the program to be checked. By using domain analysis rather than type inference, this algorithm offers an attractive visualization of the type derivation process. This

  19. Membrane domains and polarized trafficking of sphingolipids

    Maier, O; Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    The plasma membrane of polarized cells consists of distinct domains, the apical and basolateral membrane that are characterized by a distinct lipid and protein content. Apical protein transport is largely mediated by (glyco)sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched membrane microdomains, so called rafts. In

  20. Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Engliš, Miroslav

    Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910

  1. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  2. Memetic Algorithms, Domain Knowledge, and Financial Investing

    Du, Jie

    2012-01-01

    While the question of how to use human knowledge to guide evolutionary search is long-recognized, much remains to be done to answer this question adequately. This dissertation aims to further answer this question by exploring the role of domain knowledge in evolutionary computation as applied to real-world, complex problems, such as financial…

  3. Measuring the global domain name system

    Casalicchio, E.; Shen, Xuemin; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a worldwide distributed critical infrastructure, and it is composed of many vital components. While IP routing is the most important service, today the Domain Name System can be classified as the second most important, and has been defined as a critical infrastructure as well. DNS

  4. Domain wall partition functions and KP

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M; Zuparic, M

    2009-01-01

    We observe that the partition function of the six-vertex model on a finite square lattice with domain wall boundary conditions is (a restriction of) a KP τ function and express it as an expectation value of charged free fermions (up to an overall normalization)

  5. The Hardy Space of a Slit Domain

    Aleman, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with an exposition of Hardy spaces of slit domains, this book proceeds to several descriptions of the invariant subspaces of the operator multiplication by z. It also discusses and characterizes the nearly invariant subspaces of these Hardy spaces and examines conditions for z-invariant subspaces to be cyclic.

  6. Entanglement versus negative domains of Wigner functions

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Mack, H.; Wolf, A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that s waves, that is wave functions that only depend on a hyperradius, are entangled if and only if the corresponding Wigner functions exhibit negative domains. We illustrate this feature using a special class of s waves which allows us to perform the calculations analytically. This class...

  7. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  8. Domain walls in single-chain magnets

    Pianet, Vivien; Urdampilleta, Matias; Colin, Thierry; Clérac, Rodolphe; Coulon, Claude

    2017-12-01

    The topology and creation energy of domain walls in different magnetic chains (called Single-Chain Magnets or SCMs) are discussed. As these domain walls, that can be seen as "defects", are known to control both static and dynamic properties of these one-dimensional systems, their study and understanding are necessary first steps before a deeper discussion of the SCM properties at finite temperature. The starting point of the paper is the simple regular ferromagnetic chain for which the characteristics of the domain walls are well known. Then two cases will be discussed (i) the "mixed chains" in which isotropic and anisotropic classical spins alternate, and (ii) the so-called "canted chains" where two different easy axis directions are present. In particular, we show that "strictly narrow" domain walls no longer exist in these more complex cases, while a cascade of phase transitions is found for canted chains as the canting angle approaches 45∘. The consequence for thermodynamic properties is briefly discussed in the last part of the paper.

  9. JavaScript domain-driven design

    Fehre, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced JavaScript developer who wants to improve the design of his or her applications, or find yourself in a situation to implement an application in an unfamiliar domain, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of JavaScript is required and prior experience with Node.js will also be helpful.

  10. Ecological Automation Design, Extending Work Domain Analysis

    Amelink, M.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In high–risk domains like aviation, medicine and nuclear power plant control, automation has enabled new capabilities, increased the economy of operation and has greatly contributed to safety. However, automation increases the number of couplings in a system, which can inadvertently lead to more

  11. Generating Dynamic Persistence in the Time Domain

    Guerrero, A.; Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.; Kaplan, D. T.

    2001-12-01

    Many dynamical systems present long-range correlations. Physically, these systems vary from biological to economical, including geological or urban systems. Important geophysical candidates for this type of behaviour include weather (or climate) and earthquake sequences. Persistence is characterised by slowly decaying correlation function; that, in theory, never dies out. The Persistence exponent reflects the degree of memory in the system and much effort has been expended creating and analysing methods that successfully estimate this parameter and model data that exhibits persistence. The most widely used methods for generating long correlated time series are not dynamical systems in the time domain, but instead are derived from a given spectral density. Little attention has been drawn to modelling persistence in the time domain. The time domain approach has the advantage that an observation at certain time can be calculated using previous observations which is particularly suitable when investigating the predictability of a long memory process. We will describe two of these methods in the time domain. One is a traditional approach using fractional ARIMA (autoregressive and moving average) models; the second uses a novel approach to extending a given series using random Fourier basis functions. The statistical quality of the two methods is compared, and they are contrasted with weather data which shows, reportedly, persistence. The suitability of this approach both for estimating predictability and for making predictions is discussed.

  12. Atomic resolution imaging of ferroelectric domains

    Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron optical principles involved in obtaining atomic resolution images of ferroelectric domains are reviewed, including the methods available to obtain meaningful interpretation and analysis of the image detail in terms of the atomic structures. Recent work is concerned with establishing the relationship between the essentially static chemical nanodomains and the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the nanoscale polar domains present in the relaxor class of materials, including lead scandium tantalate (PST) and lead magnesium niobate (PMN). Correct interpretation of the images required use of Next Nearest Neighbour Ising model simulations for the chemical domain textures upon which we must superimpose the polar domain textures; an introduction to this work is presented. A thorough analysis of the atomic scale chemical inhomogeneities, based upon the HRTEM results, has lead to an improved formulation of the theory of the dielectric response of PMN and PST, which is capable to predict the observed temperature and frequency dependence. HRTEM may be combined with solid state and statistical physics principles to provide a deeper understanding of structure/property relationships. 15 refs., 6 figs

  13. Compactified webs and domain wall partition functions

    Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper we use the topological vertex formalism to calculate a generalization of the ''domain wall'' partition function of M-strings. This generalization allows calculation of partition function of certain compactified webs using a simple gluing algorithm similar to M-strings case. (orig.)

  14. Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains

    Xin, Y.L.

    1994-06-01

    A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs

  15. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available behavioural invariances in the domain, by identifying actions to be prioritised in local contexts, invariant to task details. This information has the effect of greatly increasing the speed of solving new problems. We formalise this notion as action priors...

  16. On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations

    Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.

    2003-01-01

    We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic formu...

  17. Resonant tunneling across a ferroelectric domain wall

    Li, M.; Tao, L. L.; Velev, J. P.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we explore electron transport properties of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) with an embedded head-to-head ferroelectric domain wall, using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We consider a FTJ with L a0.5S r0.5Mn O3 electrodes separated by a BaTi O3 barrier layer and show that an in-plane charged domain wall in the ferroelectric BaTi O3 can be induced by polar interfaces. The resulting V -shaped electrostatic potential profile across the BaTi O3 layer creates a quantum well and leads to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas, which stabilizes the domain wall. The confined electronic states in the barrier are responsible for resonant tunneling as is evident from our quantum-transport calculations. We find that the resonant tunneling is an orbital selective process, which leads to sharp spikes in the momentum- and energy-resolved transmission spectra. Our results indicate that domain walls embedded in FTJs can be used to control the electron transport.

  18. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated by ...

  19. Domain of attraction computation for tumor dynamics

    Doban, A.I.; Lazar, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose the use of rational Lyapunov functions to estimate the domain of attraction of the tumor dormancy equilibrium of immune cells-malignant cells interaction dynamics. A procedure for computing rational Lyapunov functions is worked out, with focus on obtaining a meaningful

  20. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Biology as an Integrating Natural Science Domain: A Proposal for BSc (Hons) in Integrated Biology. Kambadur Muralidhar. Classroom Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 272-276 ...

  1. Is It Kingdom or Domains? Confusion & Solutions

    Blackwell, Will H.

    2004-01-01

    A confusion regarding the number of kingdoms that should be recognized and the inclusion of domains in the traditional kingdom-based classification found in the higher levels of classification of organisms is presented. Hence, it is important to keep in mind future modifications that may occur in the classification systems and to recognize…

  2. Time-Domain Simulation of RF Couplers

    Smithe, David; Carlsson, Johan; Austin, Travis

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) fluid-like approach to integrated plasma-and-coupler simulation [1], and show how it can be used to model LH and ICRF couplers in the MST and larger tokamaks.[2] This approach permits very accurate 3-D representation of coupler geometry, and easily includes non-axi-symmetry in vessel wall, magnetic equilibrium, and plasma density. The plasma is integrated with the FDTD Maxwell solver in an implicit solve that steps over electron time-scales, and permits tenuous plasma in the coupler itself, without any need to distinguish or interface between different regions of vacuum and/or plasma. The FDTD algorithm is also generalized to incorporate a time-domain sheath potential [3] on metal structures within the simulation, to look for situations where the sheath potential might generate local sputtering opportunities. Benchmarking of the time-domain sheath algorithm has been reported in the references. Finally, the time-domain software [4] permits the use of particles, either as field diagnostic (test particles) or to self-consistently compute plasma current from the applied RF power.

  3. Magnetization process and domains in MTJ

    Czapkiewicz, M.; Zoladz, M.; Wrona, J.; Wisniowski, P.; Rak, R.; Stobiecki, T. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O. [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, 305-764 Daejon (Korea); Takahashi, M.; Tsunoda, M. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    The magnetization process and domain structure of free layers in as deposited and annealed magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) of Si/Ta/Cu/Ta/NiFe/Cu/IrMn(10)/CoFe(2.5)/Al-O(1.5)/CoFe(2.5)/NiFe(t)/Ta, where t=10, 30 and 100 nm, were investigated by Kerr microscopy, R-VSM and MOKE magnetometers. Different types of domain patterns observed in free layers (CoFe(2.5)/NiFe(t)) depending on the mutual relation between interlayer coupling energy and free layer magnetostatic energy. For as deposited samples fuzzy domains with fine irregular ''patches'' pattern, typical for weak interlayer coupling, are observed. Annealed MTJs, however, are characterized by large domains superimposed by crossed stripes, which led to the blocking of coherent rotation of magnetization. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Theory of topological edges and domain walls

    Bais, F.A.; Slingerland, J.K.; Haaker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate domain walls between topologically ordered phases in two spatial dimensions. We present a method which allows for the determination of the superselection sectors of excitations of such walls and which leads to a unified description of the kinematics of a wall and the two phases to

  5. Productivity? Domain Complexity vs. Tacit Knowledge

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Mikkelsen, Lars Lindegaard

    This paper discusses productivity in relation to tacit knowledge (which in the paper is regarded as skills, experiences, competences and attitudes) and domain complexity. The study is based on five very different case studies; three studies are conducted in Den¬mark, China, and the Czech Republic...

  6. Dynamic behavior of DNA replication domains

    Manders, E. M.; Stap, J.; Strackee, J.; van Driel, R.; Aten, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Like many nuclear processes, DNA replication takes place in distinct domains that are scattered throughout the S-phase nucleus. Recently we have developed a fluorescent double-labeling procedure that allows us to visualize nascent DNA simultaneously with "newborn" DNA that had replicated earlier in

  7. Promoting the Affective Domain within Online Education

    Roche, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade Higher Education Institutions have experienced tremendous growth in enrollments. To meet this demand, many higher education institutions have embraced online education and its requisite technologies. Online education has matured, and studies focusing on the cognitive domain indicate that distance education is as effective as the…

  8. Structural Time Domain Identification Toolbox User's Guide

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    This manual describes the Structural Time Domain Identification toolbox for use with MA TLAB. This version of the tool box has been developed using the PC-based MA TLAB version 4.2c, but is compatible with prior versions of MATLAB and UNIX-based versions. The routines of the toolbox are the so...

  9. A frequency domain approach for MPC tuning

    Özkan, L.; Meijs, J.B.; Backx, A.C.P.M.; Karimi, I.A.; Srinivasan, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a frequency domain based approach to tune the penalty weights in the model predictive control (MPC) formulation. The two-step tuning method involves the design of a favourite controller taking into account the model-plant mismatch followed by the controller matching. We implement

  10. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. We...

  11. Ketidakseimbangan Instrumen Penilaian Pada Domain Pembelajaran

    Yuberti Yuberti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the result of teaching and learning process pointed to three basic aspects, they are; cognitive, affective, and psycomotoric that must be achieved by the students. These three aspects can not be divided because they are a unity. Teaching and learning hold one important aspect in education, that is to develop and empower cognitive, affective, and psycomotoric to create students effectively. The three domains should be underwritten in teaching learning process they cover lesson planning, lesson implementation, the result of evaluation and supervision of teaching and learning process. Based on the concept result teaching and learning throughly, the teacher are obligated to make instruments for three domains in teaching and learning process and it’s application. Various kind of evaluation are made to get the responsibly result of students’ teaching and learning can describe students ability comprehensively. Secara umum, hasil pembelajaran mengarah pada tiga hal pokok yang harus mampu dicapai peserta didik, yaitu Afektif, Kognitif dan Psikomotorik. Ketiga hal ini tidak boleh dipisahkan karena merupakan satu kesatuan. Pembelajaran sebagai salah satu aspek penting dalam pendidikan memegang peranan mengembangkan dan memberdayakan domain kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotor bagi peserta didik secara seimbang. Keseimbangan pengembangan dan pemberdayaan ketiga domain tersebut harus tertuang dengan jelas dalam proses pembelajaran, meliputi perencanaan pembelajaran, pelaksanaan pembelajaran, penilaian hasil pembelajaran, dan pengawasan proses pembelajaran. Berdasarkan konsep hasil belajar yang bersifat menyeluruh, sudah menjadi keharusan bahwa guru harus membuat instrumen pada ketiga ranah dalam pembelajaran tersebut dan melakukan penerapan penilaiannya. Berbagai bentuk penilaian dibuat untuk memperoleh hasil belajar peserta didik yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan serta benar-benar dapat menggambarkan kemampuan peserta didik secara komprehensif

  12. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  13. Domain fusion analysis by applying relational algebra to protein sequence and domain databases.

    Truong, Kevin; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2003-05-06

    Domain fusion analysis is a useful method to predict functionally linked proteins that may be involved in direct protein-protein interactions or in the same metabolic or signaling pathway. As separate domain databases like BLOCKS, PROSITE, Pfam, SMART, PRINTS-S, ProDom, TIGRFAMs, and amalgamated domain databases like InterPro continue to grow in size and quality, a computational method to perform domain fusion analysis that leverages on these efforts will become increasingly powerful. This paper proposes a computational method employing relational algebra to find domain fusions in protein sequence databases. The feasibility of this method was illustrated on the SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL sequence database using domain predictions from the Pfam HMM (hidden Markov model) database. We identified 235 and 189 putative functionally linked protein partners in H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, respectively. From scientific literature, we were able to confirm many of these functional linkages, while the remainder offer testable experimental hypothesis. Results can be viewed at http://calcium.uhnres.utoronto.ca/pi. As the analysis can be computed quickly on any relational database that supports standard SQL (structured query language), it can be dynamically updated along with the sequence and domain databases, thereby improving the quality of predictions over time.

  14. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be “specific” to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  15. Individual globular domains and domain unfolding visualized in overstretched titin molecules with atomic force microscopy.

    Zsolt Mártonfalvi

    Full Text Available Titin is a giant elastomeric protein responsible for the generation of passive muscle force. Mechanical force unfolds titin's globular domains, but the exact structure of the overstretched titin molecule is not known. Here we analyzed, by using high-resolution atomic force microscopy, the structure of titin molecules overstretched with receding meniscus. The axial contour of the molecules was interrupted by topographical gaps with a mean width of 27.7 nm that corresponds well to the length of an unfolded globular (immunoglobulin and fibronectin domain. The wide gap-width distribution suggests, however, that additional mechanisms such as partial domain unfolding and the unfolding of neighboring domain multimers may also be present. In the folded regions we resolved globules with an average spacing of 5.9 nm, which is consistent with a titin chain composed globular domains with extended interdomain linker regions. Topographical analysis allowed us to allocate the most distal unfolded titin region to the kinase domain, suggesting that this domain systematically unfolds when the molecule is exposed to overstretching forces. The observations support the prediction that upon the action of stretching forces the N-terminal ß-sheet of the titin kinase unfolds, thus exposing the enzyme's ATP-binding site and hence contributing to the molecule's mechanosensory function.

  16. Functional interchangeability of late domains, late domain cofactors and ubiquitin in viral budding.

    Maria Zhadina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The membrane scission event that separates nascent enveloped virions from host cell membranes often requires the ESCRT pathway, which can be engaged through the action of peptide motifs, termed late (L- domains, in viral proteins. Viral PTAP and YPDL-like L-domains bind directly to the ESCRT-I and ALIX components of the ESCRT pathway, while PPxY motifs bind Nedd4-like, HECT-domain containing, ubiquitin ligases (e.g. WWP1. It has been unclear precisely how ubiquitin ligase recruitment ultimately leads to particle release. Here, using a lysine-free viral Gag protein derived from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV, where attachment of ubiquitin to Gag can be controlled, we show that several different HECT domains can replace the WWP1 HECT domain in chimeric ubiquitin ligases and drive budding. Moreover, artificial recruitment of isolated HECT domains to Gag is sufficient to stimulate budding. Conversely, the HECT domain becomes dispensable if the other domains of WWP1 are directly fused to an ESCRT-1 protein. In each case where budding is driven by a HECT domain, its catalytic activity is essential, but Gag ubiquitination is dispensable, suggesting that ubiquitin ligation to trans-acting proteins drives budding. Paradoxically, however, we also demonstrate that direct fusion of a ubiquitin moiety to the C-terminus of PFV Gag can also promote budding, suggesting that ubiquitination of Gag can substitute for ubiquitination of trans-acting proteins. Depletion of Tsg101 and ALIX inhibits budding that is dependent on ubiquitin that is fused to Gag, or ligated to trans-acting proteins through the action of a PPxY motif. These studies underscore the flexibility in the ways that the ESCRT pathway can be engaged, and suggest a model in which the identity of the protein to which ubiquitin is attached is not critical for subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding components of the ESCRT pathway and viral budding to proceed.

  17. Improving the Effectiveness of Speaker Verification Domain Adaptation With Inadequate In-Domain Data

    2017-08-20

    M speakers. We seek a probabilistic solution to domain adap- tation, and so we encode knowledge of the out-of-domain data in prior distributions...the VB solution from (16)-(21) becomes: µ =αȳ + (1− α)µout, (24) Σa =α ( 1 NT NT∑ n=1 〈ynyTn 〉 − ȳȳT ) + (1− α) Σouta (25) + α (1− α) ( ȳ − µout...non- English languages and from unseen channels. An inadequate in-domain set was provided, which consisted of 2272 samples from 1164 speakers, and

  18. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  19. Domain Adaptation of Translation Models for Multilingual Applications

    2009-04-01

    employed. In the past two years, domain adaptation for NLP tasks has become an active research area [3, 38, 25, 23]. New domain adaptation tasks have...and unlabeled data in the target domain and learn a mixture model to adapt from the source domain. Other NLP tasks where domain adaptation has been...evaluation forum, http://www.clef-campaign.org. [13] K. Darwish and D. Oard, CLIR experiments at maryland for TREC-2002: Evidence combination for arabic

  20. Thermal Loss of High-Q Antennas in Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain Solver

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    High-Q structures pose great challenges to their loss simulations in Time Domain Solvers (TDS). Therefore, in this work the thermal loss of high-Q antennas is calculated both in TDS and Frequency Domain Solver (FDS), which are then compared with each other and with the actual measurements....... The thermal loss calculation in FDS is shown to be more accurate for high-Q antennas....

  1. Quantifying information transfer by protein domains: Analysis of the Fyn SH2 domain structure

    Serrano Luis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient communication between distant sites within a protein is essential for cooperative biological response. Although often associated with large allosteric movements, more subtle changes in protein dynamics can also induce long-range correlations. However, an appropriate formalism that directly relates protein structural dynamics to information exchange between functional sites is still lacking. Results Here we introduce a method to analyze protein dynamics within the framework of information theory and show that signal transduction within proteins can be considered as a particular instance of communication over a noisy channel. In particular, we analyze the conformational correlations between protein residues and apply the concept of mutual information to quantify information exchange. Mapping out changes of mutual information on the protein structure then allows visualizing how distal communication is achieved. We illustrate the approach by analyzing information transfer by the SH2 domain of Fyn tyrosine kinase, obtained from Monte Carlo dynamics simulations. Our analysis reveals that the Fyn SH2 domain forms a noisy communication channel that couples residues located in the phosphopeptide and specificity binding sites and a number of residues at the other side of the domain near the linkers that connect the SH2 domain to the SH3 and kinase domains. We find that for this particular domain, communication is affected by a series of contiguous residues that connect distal sites by crossing the core of the SH2 domain. Conclusion As a result, our method provides a means to directly map the exchange of biological information on the structure of protein domains, making it clear how binding triggers conformational changes in the protein structure. As such it provides a structural road, next to the existing attempts at sequence level, to predict long-range interactions within protein structures.

  2. Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio

    Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis

    2018-01-01

    This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...

  3. Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.

  4. Scaling properties of domain wall networks

    Leite, A. M. M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the cosmological evolution of domain wall networks, taking advantage of recent improvements in computing power. We carry out high-resolution field theory simulations in two, three and four spatial dimensions to study the effects of dimensionality and damping on the evolution of the network. Our results are consistent with the expected scale-invariant evolution of the network, which suggests that previous hints of deviations from this behavior may have been due to the limited dynamical range of those simulations. We also use the results of very large (1024 3 ) simulations in three cosmological epochs to provide a calibration for the velocity-dependent one-scale model for domain walls: we numerically determine the two free model parameters to have the values c w =0.5±0.2 and k w =1.1±0.3.

  5. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  6. Evidence of benzenoid domains in nanographenes.

    Baldoni, Matteo; Mercuri, Francesco

    2015-01-21

    Calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate the occurrence of local deformations of the perfect honeycomb lattice in nanographenes to form arrangements, with triangular symmetry, composed of six-membered ring patterns. The formation of these locally regular superstructures, which can be considered as benzenoid-like domains on the 2D graphene lattice, is ascribed to the gain in resonance energy deriving from aromaticity. The relationship between the atomic morphology of nanographenes and details of the relaxed structure is rationalized in terms of Clar's theory of the aromatic sextet and by extending concepts borrowed from valence bond theory to 2D carbon nanostructures. Namely, two regular arrangements can be evidenced, defined as Clar (fully benzenoid) and Kekulé domains, which correspond to two different regular bond patterns in sets of adjacent six-membered rings. Our findings are compatible with recent experiments and have potentially relevant consequences in the development of novel electronic devices based on graphene materials.

  7. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  8. Estimation of Poisson noise in spatial domain

    Švihlík, Jan; Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Kukal, Jaromír.; Krbcová, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with modeling of astronomical images in the spatial domain. We consider astronomical light images contaminated by the dark current which is modeled by Poisson random process. Dark frame image maps the thermally generated charge of the CCD sensor. In this paper, we solve the problem of an addition of two Poisson random variables. At first, the noise analysis of images obtained from the astronomical camera is performed. It allows estimating parameters of the Poisson probability mass functions in every pixel of the acquired dark frame. Then the resulting distributions of the light image can be found. If the distributions of the light image pixels are identified, then the denoising algorithm can be applied. The performance of the Bayesian approach in the spatial domain is compared with the direct approach based on the method of moments and the dark frame subtraction.

  9. Light-Activated Gigahertz Ferroelectric Domain Dynamics

    Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Yuan, Yakun; Stoica, Vladimir A.; Stone, Greg; Yang, Tiannan; Hong, Zijian; Lei, Shiming; Zhu, Yi; Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Freeland, John W.; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Haidan; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2018-03-01

    Using time- and spatially resolved hard x-ray diffraction microscopy, the striking structural and electrical dynamics upon optical excitation of a single crystal of BaTiO3 are simultaneously captured on subnanoseconds and nanoscale within individual ferroelectric domains and across walls. A large emergent photoinduced electric field of up to 20 ×106 V /m is discovered in a surface layer of the crystal, which then drives polarization and lattice dynamics that are dramatically distinct in a surface layer versus bulk regions. A dynamical phase-field modeling method is developed that reveals the microscopic origin of these dynamics, leading to gigahertz polarization and elastic waves traveling in the crystal with sonic speeds and spatially varying frequencies. The advances in spatiotemporal imaging and dynamical modeling tools open up opportunities for disentangling ultrafast processes in complex mesoscale structures such as ferroelectric domains.

  10. Spatial domain decomposition for neutron transport problems

    Yavuz, M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    A spatial Domain Decomposition method is proposed for modifying the Source Iteration (SI) and Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) algorithms for solving discrete ordinates problems. The method, which consists of subdividing the spatial domain of the problem and performing the transport sweeps independently on each subdomain, has the advantage of being parallelizable because the calculations in each subdomain can be performed on separate processors. In this paper we describe the details of this spatial decomposition and study, by numerical experimentation, the effect of this decomposition on the SI and DSA algorithms. Our results show that the spatial decomposition has little effect on the convergence rates until the subdomains become optically thin (less than about a mean free path in thickness)

  11. Echothymia: environmental dependency in the affective domain.

    Marin, Robert S; Gorovoy, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Echothymia is stimulus-bound affective behavior, an echophenomenon in the domain of affect. Like echolalia and echopraxia, it is a concomitant of the environmental dependency associated with dysfunction of the frontal-striatal systems that mediate so-called frontal lobe functions. The authors introduce the definition and phenomenology of echothymia, overview its differential diagnosis and clinical significance, and suggest ways in which understanding echothymia may contribute to clinical management.

  12. Innovative User Interfaces in the Industrial Domain

    Jutterström, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to explore how the HMI of a process control system can be improved by applying modern interaction technologies. Many new interaction possibilities are arising on the market, while the interaction in the industrial domain still is quite conservative, with computer mouse and keyboard as the central method of interaction. It is believed that by making use of technology available today, the user interface can provide further assistance to the process control operators a...

  13. Hidden Supersymmetry of Domain Walls and Cosmologies

    Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    We show that all domain-wall solutions of gravity coupled to scalar fields for which the world-volume geometry is Minkowski or anti-de Sitter admit Killing spinors, and satisfy corresponding first-order equations involving a superpotential determined by the solution. By analytic continuation, all flat or closed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmologies are shown to satisfy similar first-order equations arising from the existence of 'pseudo Killing' spinors

  14. 2015 Cross-Domain Deterrence Seminar Bibliography

    Juarez, Anthony [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-04

    In November 2015, the Center for Global Security Research, NSO, and Global Security program jointly sponsored a seminar investigating questions related to cross-domain deterrence at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the seminar, experts were asked to moderate discussion based on the four topics below. For each of these topics, we have compiled a short list of literature that will help analysts develop a baseline understanding of the issue.

  15. Strategic Leadership Development: An Operation Domain Application

    1997-03-01

    effectiveness. The Stratified Systems Theory Model is used to identify skills and attributes for the three leadership domains of Direct, Operation, and...tools they need to help the organization achieve its goals. In discussing leadership , it is important to distinguish between management and leadership ...Peter Drucker and Warren Bennis, two noted authors on leadership , offered the following differentiation: “ Management is doing things right

  16. Inviscid incompressible limits on expanding domains

    Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka; Sun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2014), s. 2465-2477 ISSN 0951-7715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * large domain * inviscid limit * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0951-7715/27/10/2465/

  17. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  18. 2017 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey

    2017-10-01

    REV-03.18.2016.0 2017 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey Daniel Klinedinst Joel Land Kyle O’Meara October 2017 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI...Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is Unlimited. List of Tables Table 1: New and Emerging Technologies 2 Table 2: Security...Impact of New and Emerging Technologies 4 Table 3: Severity Classifications and Impact Scores 5 CMU/SEI-2017-TR-008 | SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

  19. Domain decomposition methods for fluid dynamics

    Clerc, S.

    1995-01-01

    A domain decomposition method for steady-state, subsonic fluid dynamics calculations, is proposed. The method is derived from the Schwarz alternating method used for elliptic problems, extended to non-linear hyperbolic problems. Particular emphasis is given on the treatment of boundary conditions. Numerical results are shown for a realistic three-dimensional two-phase flow problem with the FLICA-4 code for PWR cores. (from author). 4 figs., 8 refs

  20. Domain decomposition multigrid for unstructured grids

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-01-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems using finite element schemes on possibly unstructured meshes is introduced. It is based on a domain decomposition and a Galerkin scheme for the coarse level vertex unknowns. For both the implementation and the analysis, it is not required that the curves of discontinuity in the coefficients of the PDE match the interfaces between subdomains. Generalizations to nonmatching or overlapping grids are made.

  1. National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain

    2015-05-22

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Soldiers. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) commander, Lieutenant General Edward Cardon stated that Guard will begin to build combat power with...90 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review, 15. 91 Ibid. 92 Edward C. Cardon , "ARMY.MIL, The Official Homepage of the United

  2. Dynamic Domains in Data Production Planning

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a planner-based approach to automating data production tasks, such as producing fire forecasts from satellite imagery and weather station data. Since the set of available data products is large, dynamic and mostly unknown, planning techniques developed for closed worlds are unsuitable. We discuss a number of techniques we have developed to cope with data production domains, including a novel constraint propagation algorithm based on planning graphs and a constraint-based approach to interleaved planning, sensing and execution.

  3. High energy transients: The millisecond domain

    Rao, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    The search for high energy transients in the millisecond domain has come to the focus in recent times due to the detection of gravitational wave events and the identification of fast radio bursts as cosmological sources. Here we highlight the sensitivity limitations in the currently operating hard X-ray telescopes and give some details of the search for millisecond events in the AstroSat CZT Imager data.

  4. 2016 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey

    2016-04-05

    measures upon which the CERT/CC based its recommendations and how each domain was triaged for importance. 6. Exploitation Examples details concepts or...Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 2 Methodology A measured approach to analysis is required when...only a few vehicles had access to a cellular Internet connection, and only at 3G speeds. Some vehicles already have LTE connections, and many

  5. New Challenges in Cross Domain Deterrence

    2018-06-01

    to obscure the identity of the instigator of a conflict. The uniforms worn by insurgents, the weapons issued to them, social media postings...of the insti- gator. Software might be developed to expose social media trolls from the cyber domain that are being employed for the purposes of...and Influence , New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966. Social Security Administration, Office of the Inspector General, The Social Security

  6. Matter-antimatter domains in the universe

    Dolgov, A.

    2001-01-01

    A possible existence of cosmologically large domains of antimatter or astronomical 'anti-objects' is discussed. A brief review of different scenarios of baryogenesis predicting a noticeable amount of antimatter is given. Though both theory and observations indicate that the universe is most possibly uniformly charge asymmetric without any noticeable amount of antimatter, several natural scenarios are possible that allow for cosmologically (astronomically) interesting objects in close vicinity to us. The latter may be discovered by observation of cosmic ray antinuclei

  7. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  8. Levels and domains in personality: an introduction.

    Emmons, R A

    1995-09-01

    This special issue is centered around the problem of levels and domains in personality functioning. What kind of constructs--and at what levels and in what domains--are needed to understand what a person is like? To account for the complexity and scope of human lives, personality psychologists have traditionally put forth lists and taxonomies of factors, features, and variables that must be taken into consideration in formulating an adequate psychological portrait of the whole person. The five-factor model of personality traits has recently been offered as a comprehensive framework; however, critical analyses of the trait concept have revealed the limitations of a trait-based model of personality. Recognizing that the concept of trait is indispensable to a vital psychology of personality, this special issue aims to (a) communicate recent developments and organizational frameworks for understanding the person at multiple levels and in varied domains, and (b) articulate and elaborate units of analysis that, when combined with trait assessments, yield a psychology of personality that is commensurate with the complexity of individual functioning and that offers greater potential for the attainment of the original goals of the discipline.

  9. Constricted nanowire with stabilized magnetic domain wall

    Sbiaa, R.; Al Bahri, M.

    2016-01-01

    Domain wall (DW)-based magnetic memory offers the possibility for increasing the storage capacity. However, stability of DW remains the major drawback of this scheme. In this letter, we propose a stepped nanowire for pinning DW in a desirable position. From micromagnetic simulation, the proposed design applied to in-plane magnetic anisotropy materials shows that by adjusting the nanowire step size and its width it is possible to stabilize DW for a desirable current density range. In contrast, only a movement of DW could be seen for conventional nanowire. An extension to a multi-stepped nanowire could be used for multi-bit per cell magnetic memory. - Highlights: • A stepped nanowire is proposed to pin domain wall in desired position. • The new structure can be made by a simple off set of two single nanowires. • The critical current for moving domain wall from one state to the other could be tuned by adjusting the geometry of the device. • The device could be used for multi-bit per cell memory by extending the steps in the device.

  10. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  11. Bregmanized Domain Decomposition for Image Restoration

    Langer, Andreas

    2012-05-22

    Computational problems of large-scale data are gaining attention recently due to better hardware and hence, higher dimensionality of images and data sets acquired in applications. In the last couple of years non-smooth minimization problems such as total variation minimization became increasingly important for the solution of these tasks. While being favorable due to the improved enhancement of images compared to smooth imaging approaches, non-smooth minimization problems typically scale badly with the dimension of the data. Hence, for large imaging problems solved by total variation minimization domain decomposition algorithms have been proposed, aiming to split one large problem into N > 1 smaller problems which can be solved on parallel CPUs. The N subproblems constitute constrained minimization problems, where the constraint enforces the support of the minimizer to be the respective subdomain. In this paper we discuss a fast computational algorithm to solve domain decomposition for total variation minimization. In particular, we accelerate the computation of the subproblems by nested Bregman iterations. We propose a Bregmanized Operator Splitting-Split Bregman (BOS-SB) algorithm, which enforces the restriction onto the respective subdomain by a Bregman iteration that is subsequently solved by a Split Bregman strategy. The computational performance of this new approach is discussed for its application to image inpainting and image deblurring. It turns out that the proposed new solution technique is up to three times faster than the iterative algorithm currently used in domain decomposition methods for total variation minimization. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  12. Prion-Like Domains in Phagobiota

    George Tetz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prions are molecules characterized by self-propagation, which can undergo a conformational switch leading to the creation of new prions. Prion proteins have originally been associated with the development of mammalian pathologies; however, recently they have been shown to contribute to the environmental adaptation in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Bacteriophages are widespread and represent the important regulators of microbiota homeostasis and have been shown to be diverse across various bacterial families. Here, we examined whether bacteriophages contain prion-like proteins and whether these prion-like protein domains are involved in the regulation of homeostasis. We used a computational algorithm, prion-like amino acid composition, to detect prion-like domains in 370,617 publicly available bacteriophage protein sequences, which resulted in the identification of 5040 putative prions. We analyzed a set of these prion-like proteins, and observed regularities in their distribution across different phage families, associated with their interactions with the bacterial host cells. We found that prion-like domains could be found across all phages of various groups of bacteria and archaea. The results obtained in this study indicate that bacteriophage prion-like proteins are predominantly involved in the interactions between bacteriophages and bacterial cell, such as those associated with the attachment and penetration of bacteriophage in the cell, and the release of the phage progeny. These data allow the identification of phage prion-like proteins as novel regulators of the interactions between bacteriophages and bacterial cells.

  13. Evolution of a protein domain interaction network

    Li-Feng, Gao; Jian-Jun, Shi; Shan, Guan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to understand complex network evolution from the underlying evolutionary relationship between biological organisms. Firstly, we construct a Pfam domain interaction network for each of the 470 completely sequenced organisms, and therefore each organism is correlated with a specific Pfam domain interaction network; secondly, we infer the evolutionary relationship of these organisms with the nearest neighbour joining method; thirdly, we use the evolutionary relationship between organisms constructed in the second step as the evolutionary course of the Pfam domain interaction network constructed in the first step. This analysis of the evolutionary course shows: (i) there is a conserved sub-network structure in network evolution; in this sub-network, nodes with lower degree prefer to maintain their connectivity invariant, and hubs tend to maintain their role as a hub is attached preferentially to new added nodes; (ii) few nodes are conserved as hubs; most of the other nodes are conserved as one with very low degree; (iii) in the course of network evolution, new nodes are added to the network either individually in most cases or as clusters with relative high clustering coefficients in a very few cases. (general)

  14. Dispersive elastic properties of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls

    Pellegren, James; Lau, Derek; Sokalski, Vincent

    Recent studies on the asymmetric field-driven growth of magnetic bubble domains in perpendicular thin films exhibiting an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) have provided a wealth of experimental evidence to validate models of creep phenomena, as key properties of the domain wall (DW) can be altered with the application of an external in-plane magnetic field. While asymmetric growth behavior has been attributed to the highly anisotropic DW energy, σ (θ) , which results from the combination of DMI and the in-plane field, many experimental results remain anomalous. In this work, we demonstrate that the anisotropy of DW energy alters the elastic response of the DW as characterized by the surface stiffness, σ (θ) = σ (θ) + σ (θ) , and evaluate the impact of this stiffness on the creep law. We find that at in-plane fields larger than and antiparallel to the effective field due to DMI, the DW stiffness decreases rapidly, suggesting that higher energy walls can actually become more mobile than their low energy counterparts. This result is consistent with experiments on CoNi multilayer films where velocity curves for domain walls with DMI fields parallel and antiparallel to the applied field cross over at high in-plane fields.

  15. SH3 domain tyrosine phosphorylation--sites, role and evolution.

    Zuzana Tatárová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains. RESULTS: To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to c-Src Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F. This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains. CONCLUSIONS: While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners.

  16. Classification and Lineage Tracing of SH2 Domains Throughout Eukaryotes.

    Liu, Bernard A

    2017-01-01

    Today there exists a rapidly expanding number of sequenced genomes. Cataloging protein interaction domains such as the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain across these various genomes can be accomplished with ease due to existing algorithms and predictions models. An evolutionary analysis of SH2 domains provides a step towards understanding how SH2 proteins integrated with existing signaling networks to position phosphotyrosine signaling as a crucial driver of robust cellular communication networks in metazoans. However organizing and tracing SH2 domain across organisms and understanding their evolutionary trajectory remains a challenge. This chapter describes several methodologies towards analyzing the evolutionary trajectory of SH2 domains including a global SH2 domain classification system, which facilitates annotation of new SH2 sequences essential for tracing the lineage of SH2 domains throughout eukaryote evolution. This classification utilizes a combination of sequence homology, protein domain architecture and the boundary positions between introns and exons within the SH2 domain or genes encoding these domains. Discrete SH2 families can then be traced across various genomes to provide insight into its origins. Furthermore, additional methods for examining potential mechanisms for divergence of SH2 domains from structural changes to alterations in the protein domain content and genome duplication will be discussed. Therefore a better understanding of SH2 domain evolution may enhance our insight into the emergence of phosphotyrosine signaling and the expansion of protein interaction domains.

  17. PREFACE: Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures

    Marrows, C. H.; Meier, G.

    2012-01-01

    Domain structures in magnetic materials are ubiquitous and have been studied for decades. The walls that separate them are topological defects in the magnetic order parameter and have a wide variety of complex forms. In general, their investigation is difficult in bulk materials since only the domain structure on the surface of a specimen is visible. Cutting the sample to reveal the interior causes a rearrangement of the domains into a new form. As with many other areas of magnetism, the study of domain wall physics has been revitalised by the advent of nanotechnology. The ability to fabricate nanoscale structures has permitted the formation of simplified and controlled domain patterns; the development of advanced microscopy methods has permitted them to be imaged and then modelled; subjecting them to ultrashort field and current pulses has permitted their dynamics to be explored. The latest results from all of these advances are described in this special issue. Not only has this led to results of great scientific beauty, but also to concepts of great applicability to future information technologies. In this issue the reader will find the latest results for these domain wall dynamics and the high-speed processes of topological structures such as domain walls and magnetic vortices. These dynamics can be driven by the application of magnetic fields, or by flowing currents through spintronic devices using the novel physics of spin-transfer torque. This complexity has been studied using a wide variety of experimental techniques at the edge of the spatial and temporal resolution currently available, and can be described using sophisticated analytical theory and computational modelling. As a result, the dynamics can be engineered to give rise to finely controlled memory and logic devices with new functionality. Moreover, the field is moving to study not only the conventional transition metal ferromagnets, but also complex heterostructures, novel magnets and even other

  18. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  19. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong (Toronto); (Penn)

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  20. Domain Walls and Matter-Antimatter Domains in the Early Universe

    Dolgov A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a scenario of spontaneous (or dynamical C and CP violation according to which it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated matter and antimatter domains. So this scenario does not suffer from the problem of domain walls. According to this scenario the width of the domain wall should grow exponentially to prevent annihilation at the domain boundaries. Though there is a classical result obtained by Basu and Vilenkin that the width of the wall tends to the one of the stationary solution (constant physical width. That is why we considered thick domain walls in a de Sitter universe following paper by Basu and Vilenkin. However, we were interested not only in stationary solutions found therein, but also investigated the general case of domain wall evolution with time. When the wall thickness parameter, δ0 , is smaller than H−1/2 where H is the Hubble parameter in de Sitter space-time, then the stationary solutions exist, and initial field configurations tend with time to the stationary ones. However, there are no stationary solutions for δ0>H−1/2 We have calculated numerically the rate of the wall expansion in this case and have found that the width of the wall grows exponentially fast for δ0≫H−1 An explanation for the critical value δ0c=H−1/2 is also proposed.

  1. Domain-General Factors Influencing Numerical and Arithmetic Processing

    André Knops

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains 18 articles that address the question how numerical processes interact with domain-general factors. We start the editorial with a discussion of how to define domain-general versus domain-specific factors and then discuss the contributions to this special issue grouped into two core numerical domains that are subject to domain-general influences (see Figure 1. The first group of contributions addresses the question how numbers interact with spatial factors. The second group of contributions is concerned with factors that determine and predict arithmetic understanding, performance and development. This special issue shows that domain-general (Table 1a as well as domain-specific (Table 1b abilities influence numerical and arithmetic performance virtually at all levels and make it clear that for the field of numerical cognition a sole focus on one or several domain-specific factors like the approximate number system or spatial-numerical associations is not sufficient. Vice versa, in most studies that included domain-general and domain-specific variables, domain-specific numerical variables predicted arithmetic performance above and beyond domain-general variables. Therefore, a sole focus on domain-general aspects such as, for example, working memory, to explain, predict and foster arithmetic learning is also not sufficient. Based on the articles in this special issue we conclude that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to numerical cognition. But the how, why and when of their contribution still needs to be better understood. We hope that this special issue may be helpful to readers in constraining future theory and model building about the interplay of domain-specific and domain-general factors.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of protein domain architecture in plants

    Zhang Xue-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domains are the structural, functional and evolutionary units of the protein. Protein domain architectures are the linear arrangements of domain(s in individual proteins. Although the evolutionary history of protein domain architecture has been extensively studied in microorganisms, the evolutionary dynamics of domain architecture in the plant kingdom remains largely undefined. To address this question, we analyzed the lineage-based protein domain architecture content in 14 completed green plant genomes. Results Our analyses show that all 14 plant genomes maintain similar distributions of species-specific, single-domain, and multi-domain architectures. Approximately 65% of plant domain architectures are universally present in all plant lineages, while the remaining architectures are lineage-specific. Clear examples are seen of both the loss and gain of specific protein architectures in higher plants. There has been a dynamic, lineage-wise expansion of domain architectures during plant evolution. The data suggest that this expansion can be largely explained by changes in nuclear ploidy resulting from rounds of whole genome duplications. Indeed, there has been a decrease in the number of unique domain architectures when the genomes were normalized into a presumed ancestral genome that has not undergone whole genome duplications. Conclusions Our data show the conservation of universal domain architectures in all available plant genomes, indicating the presence of an evolutionarily conserved, core set of protein components. However, the occurrence of lineage-specific domain architectures indicates that domain architecture diversity has been maintained beyond these core components in plant genomes. Although several features of genome-wide domain architecture content are conserved in plants, the data clearly demonstrate lineage-wise, progressive changes and expansions of individual protein domain architectures, reinforcing

  3. [Family of ribosomal proteins S1 contains unique conservative domain].

    Deriusheva, E I; Machulin, A V; Selivanova, O M; Serdiuk, I N

    2010-01-01

    Different representatives of bacteria have different number of amino acid residues in the ribosomal proteins S1. This number varies from 111 (Spiroplasma kunkelii) to 863 a.a. (Treponema pallidum). Traditionally and for lack of this protein three-dimensional structure, its architecture is represented as repeating S1 domains. Number of these domains depends on the protein's length. Domain's quantity and its boundaries data are contained in the specialized databases, such as SMART, Pfam and PROSITE. However, for the same object these data may be very different. For search of domain's quantity and its boundaries, new approach, based on the analysis of dicted secondary structure (PsiPred), was used. This approach allowed us to reveal structural domains in amino acid sequences of S1 proteins and at that number varied from one to six. Alignment of S1 proteins, containing different domain's number, with the S1 RNAbinding domain of Escherichia coli PNPase elicited a fact that in family of ribosomal proteins SI one domain has maximal homology with S1 domain from PNPase. This conservative domain migrates along polypeptide chain and locates in proteins, containing different domain's number, according to specified pattern. In this domain as well in the S1 domain from PNPase, residues Phe-19, Phe-22, His-34, Asp-64 and Arg-68 are clustered on the surface and formed RNA binding site.

  4. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  5. Lattice gas simulations of replicating domains

    Dawson, S.P.; Hasslacher, B.; Pearson, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    We use the lattice gas cellular automation (LGCA) developed to simulate a process of pattern-formation recently observed in reaction-diffusion systems. We study the reaction mechanism, which is an extension of the Selkov model for glycolytic oscillations. We are able to reproduce the self-replicating domains observed in this work. We use the LGCA simulation to estimate the smallest length-scale on which this process can occur under conditions encountered in the cell. These estimates are similar to those obtained for Turing patterns in the same setting

  6. Lattice gas simulations of replicating domains

    Dawson, S.P.; Hasslacher, B.; Pearson, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    We use the lattice gas cellular automation (LGCA) developed to simulate a process of pattern-formation recently observed in reaction-diffusion systems. We study the reaction mechanism, which is an extension of the Selkov model for glycolytic oscillations. We are able to reproduce the self-replicating domains observed in this work. We use the LGCA simulation to estimate the smallest length-scale on which this process can occur under conditions encountered in the cell. These estimates are similar to those obtained for Turing patterns in the same setting.

  7. Fourier transforms in the complex domain

    Wiener, N

    1934-01-01

    With the aid of Fourier-Mellin transforms as a tool in analysis, the authors were able to attack such diverse analytic questions as those of quasi-analytic functions, Mercer's theorem on summability, Milne's integral equation of radiative equilibrium, the theorems of Münz and Szász concerning the closure of sets of powers of an argument, Titchmarsh's theory of entire functions of semi-exponential type with real negative zeros, trigonometric interpolation and developments in polynomials of the form \\sum^N_1A_ne^{i\\lambda_nx}, lacunary series, generalized harmonic analysis in the complex domain,

  8. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....

  9. Domain Wall Evolution in Phase Transforming Oxides

    2015-01-14

    Chemically Derived PZT Thin Films on Pt Substrates, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, (09 2014): 2973. doi: 10.1111/jace.13007 Jacob L. Jones...Mari-Ann Einarsrud, D. Johnson. Piezoelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics textured using needle-like K0.5Na0.5NbO3 templates, Journal of the American...Jones. Quantitative comparison between the degree of domain orientation and nonlinear properties of a PZT ceramic during electrical and mechanical

  10. Topological Luttinger liquids from decorated domain walls

    Parker, Daniel E.; Scaffidi, Thomas; Vasseur, Romain

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a systematic construction of a gapless symmetry-protected topological phase in one dimension by "decorating" the domain walls of Luttinger liquids. The resulting strongly interacting phases provide a concrete example of a gapless symmetry-protected topological (gSPT) phase with robust symmetry-protected edge modes. Using boundary conformal field theory arguments, we show that while the bulks of such gSPT phases are identical to conventional Luttinger liquids, their boundary critical behavior is controlled by a different, strongly coupled renormalization group fixed point. Our results are checked against extensive density matrix renormalization group calculations.

  11. Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer

    Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Sathyam, Ujwal S. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.

  12. Convectons in periodic and bounded domains

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa; Knobloch, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Numerical continuation is used to compute spatially localized convection in a binary fluid with no-slip laterally insulating boundary conditions and the results are compared with the corresponding ones for periodic boundary conditions (PBC). The change in the boundary conditions produces a dramatic change in the snaking bifurcation diagram that describes the organization of localized states with PBC: the snaking branches turn continuously into a large amplitude state that resembles periodic convection with defects at the sidewalls. Odd parity convectons are more affected by the boundary conditions since the sidewalls suppress the horizontal pumping action that accompanies these states in spatially periodic domains.

  13. Convectons in periodic and bounded domains

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Knobloch, Edgar [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical continuation is used to compute spatially localized convection in a binary fluid with no-slip laterally insulating boundary conditions and the results are compared with the corresponding ones for periodic boundary conditions (PBC). The change in the boundary conditions produces a dramatic change in the snaking bifurcation diagram that describes the organization of localized states with PBC: the snaking branches turn continuously into a large amplitude state that resembles periodic convection with defects at the sidewalls. Odd parity convectons are more affected by the boundary conditions since the sidewalls suppress the horizontal pumping action that accompanies these states in spatially periodic domains.

  14. Black holes escaping from domain walls

    Flachi, Antonino; Sasaki, Misao; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies concerning the interaction of branes and black holes suggested that a small black hole intersecting a brane may escape via a mechanism of reconnection. Here we consider this problem by studying the interaction of a small black hole and a domain wall composed of a scalar field and simulate the evolution of this system when the black hole acquires an initial recoil velocity. We test and confirm previous results, however, unlike the cases previously studied, in the more general set-up considered here, we are able to follow the evolution of the system also during the separation, and completely illustrate how the escape of the black hole takes place

  15. Ontological Engineering for the Cadastral Domain

    Stubkjær, Erik; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner

    2000-01-01

    conceptualization of the world is that much information remains implicit. Ontologies have set out to overcome the problem of implicit and hidden knowledge by making the conceptualization of a domain (e.g. mathematics) explicit. Ontological engineering is thus an approach to achieve a conceptual rigor...... that characterizes established academic disciplines, like geodesy. Many university courses address more application oriented fields, like cadastral law, and spatial planning, and they may benefit from the ontological engineering approach. The paper provides an introduction to the field of ontological engineering...

  16. Time-domain multiple-quantum NMR

    Weitekamp, D.P.

    1982-11-01

    The development of time-domain multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance is reviewed through mid 1982 and some prospects for future development are indicated. Particular attention is given to the problem of obtaining resolved, interpretable, many-quantum spectra for anisotropic magnetically isolated systems of coupled spins. New results are presented on a number of topics including the optimization of multiple-quantum-line intensities, analysis of noise in two-dimensional spectroscopy, and the use of order-selective excitation for cross polarization between nuclear-spin species

  17. Logic for specifying partially observable stochastic domains

    Rens, G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available to place it back on the floor. In situations where the oil-can is full, the robot gets 5 units of reward for grabbing the can, and it gets 10 units for a drink action. Otherwise, the robot gets no rewards. Rewards motivate an agent to behave as desired... with notions of probability. It will be shown how stochastic domains can be specified, including new kinds of axioms dealing with perception and a frame solution for the proposed logic. 1 Introduction and Motivation In the physical real world...

  18. Neutron scattering from polarised proton domains

    Van den Brandt, B; Kohbrecher, J; Konter, J A; Mango, S; Glattli, H; Leymarie, E; Grillo, I; May, R P; Jouve, H; Stuhrmann, H B; Stuhrmann, H B; Zimmer, O

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent small-angle polarised neutron scattering from domains of polarised protons has been observed at the onset of dynamic nuclear polarisation in a frozen solution of 98% deuterated glycerol-water at 1 K containing a small concentration of paramagnetic centres (EHBA-Cr sup V). Simultaneous NMR measurements show that the observed scattering arises from protons around the Cr sup V -ions which are polarised to approx 10% in a few seconds, much faster than the protons in the bulk. (authors)

  19. Non-slipping domains of a pulled spool

    Wagner, Clemens; Vaterlaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pulled spool by considering pulling angles up to 360 ∘ . Our focus was on downward pulling forces with pulling angles in the range of 180 ∘ to 360 ∘ . In this range we have found a domain of pulling angles where the spool never starts to slip independent of the strength of the pulling force. The size of the domain depends on the static friction coefficient and on the moment of inertia of the spool. The non-slipping domain is mainly formed around the critical angle where the static friction force becomes zero. For low static friction the non-slipping domain decays into two different domains. We have determined the limiting angles of the non-slipping domains and explored the transitions from a single domain to two separated domains in parameter space. (paper)

  20. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

  1. Single-domain versus two-domain configuration in thin ferromagnetic prisms

    Pini, Maria Gloria; Politi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Thin ferromagnetic elements in the form of rectangular prisms are theoretically investigated in order to study the transition from single-domain to two-domain state, with changing the in-plane aspect ratio p. We address two main questions: first, how general is the transition; second, how the critical value p c depends on the physical parameters. We use two complementary methods: discrete-lattice calculations and a micromagnetic continuum approach. Ultrathin films do not appear to split in two domains. Instead, thicker films may undergo the above transition. We have used the continuum approach to analyze recent magnetic force microscopy observations in 30nm-thick patterned permalloy elements, finding a good agreement for p c

  2. Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Tong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.

  3. Effects of sub-domain structure on initial magnetization curve and domain size distribution of stacked media

    Sato, S.; Kumagai, S.; Sugita, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in order to confirm the sub-domain structure in stacked media demagnetized with in-plane field, initial magnetization curves and magnetic domain size distribution were investigated. Both experimental and simulation results showed that an initial magnetization curve for the medium demagnetized with in-plane field (MDI) initially rose faster than that for the medium demagnetized with perpendicular field (MDP). It is inferred that this is because the MDI has a larger number of domain walls than the MDP due to the existence of the sub-domains, resulting in an increase in the probability of domain wall motion. Dispersion of domain size for the MDI was larger than that for the MDP. This is because sub-domains are formed not only inside the domain but also at the domain boundary region, and they change the position of the domain boundary to affect the domain size. - Highlights: • An initial magnetization curve for MDI initially rose faster than that for MDP. • Dispersion of domain size for the MDI was larger than that for the MDP. • Experimental and simulation results can be explained by existence of sub-domains

  4. A systemic domain model for ambient pervasive persuasive games

    Eglin, Roger; Eyles, Mark; Dansey, Neil

    2008-01-01

    By the development of the system domain model it is hoped that a greater conceptual and theoretical clarity may be brought to understanding the complex and multifaceted nature of pervasive and ambient computer games. This paper presents a conceptual model, the system domain model, to illustrate domain areas that exist in a console, pervasive or ambient game. It is implicit that the regions that the systemic domain model describes are contextually dependent. By developing this model it is poss...

  5. SH2 domains: modulators of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activity

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed ...

  6. Identification of structural domains in proteins by a graph heuristic

    Wernisch, Lorenz; Hunting, M.M.G.; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel automatic procedure for identifying domains from protein atomic coordinates is presented. The procedure, termed STRUDL (STRUctural Domain Limits), does not take into account information on secondary structures and handles any number of domains made up of contiguous or non-contiguous chain

  7. Finite difference time domain analysis of a chiro plasma

    Torres-Silva, H.; Obligado, A.; Reggiani, N.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is one of the most widely used computational methods in electromagnetics. Using FDTD, Maxwell's equations are solved directly in the time domain via finite differences and time stepping. The basic approach is relatively easy to understand and is an alternative to the more usual frequency-domain approaches. (author). 5 refs

  8. A global reference model of the domain name system

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes

  9. Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pedersen, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    configurations are presented. The SH generation enhancement is found especially pronounced for the polarization of the SH radiation being perpendicular to the domain walls. The origin and selection rules for the contrast in SH images of domain walls are discussed. The results obtained suggest that the domain...

  10. The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains across Emerging Adulthood

    Sneed, Joel R.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2007-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period in which profound role changes take place across a number of life domains including finance, romance, and residence. On the basis of dynamic systems theory, change in one domain should be related to change in another domain, because the concept of development according to this approach is a relational one. To…

  11. Entropy based classifier for cross-domain opinion mining

    Jyoti S. Deshmukh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the growth of social network has increased the interest of people in analyzing reviews and opinions for products before they buy them. Consequently, this has given rise to the domain adaptation as a prominent area of research in sentiment analysis. A classifier trained from one domain often gives poor results on data from another domain. Expression of sentiment is different in every domain. The labeling cost of each domain separately is very high as well as time consuming. Therefore, this study has proposed an approach that extracts and classifies opinion words from one domain called source domain and predicts opinion words of another domain called target domain using a semi-supervised approach, which combines modified maximum entropy and bipartite graph clustering. A comparison of opinion classification on reviews on four different product domains is presented. The results demonstrate that the proposed method performs relatively well in comparison to the other methods. Comparison of SentiWordNet of domain-specific and domain-independent words reveals that on an average 72.6% and 88.4% words, respectively, are correctly classified.

  12. Estimation for small domains in double sampling for stratification ...

    In this article, we investigate the effect of randomness of the size of a small domain on the precision of an estimator of mean for the domain under double sampling for stratification. The result shows that for a small domain that cuts across various strata with unknown weights, the sampling variance depends on the within ...

  13. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  14. Deposition and growth of domains in one dimension

    Rodgers, G. J.; Tavassoli, Z.

    1998-09-01

    A model of deposition and growth in one dimension is studied in which finite sized domains are deposited by the random sequential adsorption process. The domains then grow with a time dependent growth rate. When the initial deposited domains are monomers and dimers the coverage is found exactly for a number of different growth rates. A continuum version of this model is also considered.

  15. Recognition specificity of individual EH domains of mammals and yeast

    Paoluzi, S; Castagnoli, L; Lauro, I

    1998-01-01

    by characterizing the peptide-binding preference of 11 different EH domains from mammal and yeast proteins. Ten of the eleven EH domains could bind at least some peptides containing an Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motif. By contrast, the first EH domain of End3p preferentially binds peptides containing an His-Thr/Ser-Phe (HT...

  16. A Methodology to Develop Ontologies for Emerging Domains

    Meenorngwar, Chai

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic of complex, dynamic domains, such as an emerging domain, is that the information necessary to describe them is not fully established. Standards are not yet established for these domains, and hence they are difficult to describe and present, and methods are needed that will reflect the changes that will occur as the domains…

  17. SH2 domains: modulators of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed that the presence of the SH2 domain is frequently required for catalytic activity, suggesting a crucial function stabilizing the active state of many nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, the structure of the SH2-kinase domain of Fes revealed that the SH2 domain stabilizes the active kinase conformation by direct interactions with the regulatory helix alphaC. Stabilizing interactions between the SH2 and the kinase domains have also been observed in the structures of active Csk and Abl. Interestingly, mutations in the SH2 domain found in human disease can be explained by SH2 domain destabilization or incorrect positioning of the SH2. Here we summarize our understanding of mechanisms that lead to tyrosine kinase activation by direct interactions mediated by the SH2 domain and discuss how mutations in the SH2 domain trigger kinase inactivation.

  18. Domain Specificity between Peer Support and Self-Concept

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer support interventions have mostly neglected the domain specificity of intervention effects. In two studies, the present investigation examined the domain specificity of peer support interventions targeting specific domains of self-concept. In Study 1, participants ("n" = 50) who had received an academically oriented peer support…

  19. The role of domain analysis in prediction instrument development

    van der Spoel, Sjoerd; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop prediction instruments that have sufficient predictive power, it is essential to understand the specific domain the prediction instrument is developed for. This domain analysis is especially important for domains where human behavior, politics, or other soft factors play a role.

  20. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  1. Domain general constraints on statistical learning.

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2011-01-01

    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of patterns, such as the phonotactic patterns of an infants' native language. Infants in these experiments were presented with a visual analog of a phonotactic learning task used by J. R. Saffran and E. D. Thiessen (2003). Saffran and Thiessen found that infants' phonotactic learning was constrained such that some patterns were learned more easily than other patterns. The current results indicate that infants' learning of visual patterns shows the same constraints as infants' learning of phonotactic patterns. This is consistent with theories suggesting that constraints arise from domain-general sources and, as such, should operate over many kinds of stimuli in addition to linguistic stimuli. © 2011 The Author. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Evaluation Codes from Order Domain Theory

    Andersen, Henning Ejnar; Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    bound is easily extended to deal with any generalized Hamming weights. We interpret our methods into the setting of order domain theory. In this way we fill in an obvious gap in the theory of order domains. [28] T. Shibuya and K. Sakaniwa, A Dual of Well-Behaving Type Designed Minimum Distance, IEICE......The celebrated Feng-Rao bound estimates the minimum distance of codes defined by means of their parity check matrices. From the Feng-Rao bound it is clear how to improve a large family of codes by leaving out certain rows in their parity check matrices. In this paper we derive a simple lower bound...... on the minimum distance of codes defined by means of their generator matrices. From our bound it is clear how to improve a large family of codes by adding certain rows to their generator matrices. The new bound is very much related to the Feng-Rao bound as well as to Shibuya and Sakaniwa's bound in [28]. Our...

  3. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  4. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    Wei Zhan-Hong; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian; Xu Shu-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. (paper)

  5. Domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders.

    Ro, Eunyoe; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

    2018-06-07

    This study examined relations between comprehensive domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders to determine (1) whether differential patterns of associations exist between psychosocial disability dimensions and commonly diagnosed mental disorders and (2) whether these relations differ between self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial disability domains. Self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning measures and an interviewer-rated diagnostic assessment tool were administered to 181 psychiatric outpatients. Internalizing disorders showed the strongest and most pervasive associations with psychosocial impairment across both self-reported and interviewer-rated measures, followed by thought disorder; externalizing showed the weakest associations. More specifically, logistic regression analyses indicated that lower well-being factor score significantly increased the odds of distress-disorder diagnoses, and poor basic functioning increased the odds of PTSD. Results clearly showed differences in the magnitude of associations between three dimensions of psychosocial-disability and commonly diagnosed disorders, and that these differences were similar regardless of rater type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Horsburgh, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  7. The SACSESS hydrometallurgy domain - an overview

    Geist, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Institute for Nuclear Wsaste Disposal - INE, Karlsruhe (Germany); Taylor, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [Chalmers University of Technology, Nuclear Chemistry/Industrial Materials Recycling, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Guilbaud, P.; Bourg, S. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH - FZJ, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - IEK-6, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The EURATOM FP7 project SACSESS (Safety of Actinide Separation Processes) is in continuity of a long line of preceding EURATOM projects. SACSESS is organised along four domains, one of them related to the development of hydrometallurgical (i.e. solvent extraction based) actinide separations processes. Within this domain, the most promising processes developed in previous projects are further developed, improving their technology readiness level (TRL) towards the point at which safe industrial implementation will be achievable. The SACSESS reference compounds are: TODGA, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP, HEDTA and DTPA. TODGA is used to co-extract actinides and lanthanides from high-acidity raffinate solutions, separating from the non-lanthanide fission products. TODGA is also used to accelerate the extraction kinetics of CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP. CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP extracts actinides selectively over lanthanides and many other fission products. HEDTA and DTPA are used to strip actinides selectively over lanthanides from an organic phase containing both actinides and lanthanides. SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTP was developed to overcome some of the drawbacks of HEDTA and DTPA, such as the narrow pH window they are effective in.

  8. Face recognition in the thermal infrared domain

    Kowalski, M.; Grudzień, A.; Palka, N.; Szustakowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    Biometrics refers to unique human characteristics. Each unique characteristic may be used to label and describe individuals and for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavioural properties. One of the most natural and the most popular biometric trait is a face. The most common research methods on face recognition are based on visible light. State-of-the-art face recognition systems operating in the visible light spectrum achieve very high level of recognition accuracy under controlled environmental conditions. Thermal infrared imagery seems to be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its relatively high resistance to illumination changes. A thermal infrared image of the human face presents its unique heat-signature and can be used for recognition. The characteristics of thermal images maintain advantages over visible light images, and can be used to improve algorithms of human face recognition in several aspects. Mid-wavelength or far-wavelength infrared also referred to as thermal infrared seems to be promising alternatives. We present the study on 1:1 recognition in thermal infrared domain. The two approaches we are considering are stand-off face verification of non-moving person as well as stop-less face verification on-the-move. The paper presents methodology of our studies and challenges for face recognition systems in the thermal infrared domain.

  9. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  10. Frequency domain analysis of knock images

    Qi, Yunliang; He, Xin; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-12-01

    High speed imaging-based knock analysis has mainly focused on time domain information, e.g. the spark triggered flame speed, the time when end gas auto-ignition occurs and the end gas flame speed after auto-ignition. This study presents a frequency domain analysis on the knock images recorded using a high speed camera with direct photography in a rapid compression machine (RCM). To clearly visualize the pressure wave oscillation in the combustion chamber, the images were high-pass-filtered to extract the luminosity oscillation. The luminosity spectrum was then obtained by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) to three basic colour components (red, green and blue) of the high-pass-filtered images. Compared to the pressure spectrum, the luminosity spectra better identify the resonant modes of pressure wave oscillation. More importantly, the resonant mode shapes can be clearly visualized by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of luminosity spectra at the corresponding resonant frequencies, which agree well with the analytical solutions for mode shapes of gas vibration in a cylindrical cavity.

  11. The SPOR Domain, a Widely Conserved Peptidoglycan Binding Domain That Targets Proteins to the Site of Cell Division.

    Yahashiri, Atsushi; Jorgenson, Matthew A; Weiss, David S

    2017-07-15

    Sporulation-related repeat (SPOR) domains are small peptidoglycan (PG) binding domains found in thousands of bacterial proteins. The name "SPOR domain" stems from the fact that several early examples came from proteins involved in sporulation, but SPOR domain proteins are quite diverse and contribute to a variety of processes that involve remodeling of the PG sacculus, especially with respect to cell division. SPOR domains target proteins to the division site by binding to regions of PG devoid of stem peptides ("denuded" glycans), which in turn are enriched in septal PG by the intense, localized activity of cell wall amidases involved in daughter cell separation. This targeting mechanism sets SPOR domain proteins apart from most other septal ring proteins, which localize via protein-protein interactions. In addition to SPOR domains, bacteria contain several other PG-binding domains that can exploit features of the cell wall to target proteins to specific subcellular sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. A Highly Accurate Regular Domain Collocation Method for Solving Potential Problems in the Irregular Doubly Connected Domains

    Zhao-Qing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedding the irregular doubly connected domain into an annular regular region, the unknown functions can be approximated by the barycentric Lagrange interpolation in the regular region. A highly accurate regular domain collocation method is proposed for solving potential problems on the irregular doubly connected domain in polar coordinate system. The formulations of regular domain collocation method are constructed by using barycentric Lagrange interpolation collocation method on the regular domain in polar coordinate system. The boundary conditions are discretized by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. An additional method is used to impose the boundary conditions. The least square method can be used to solve the overconstrained equations. The function values of points in the irregular doubly connected domain can be calculated by barycentric Lagrange interpolation within the regular domain. Some numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the presented method.

  13. A Fast, Efficient Domain Adaptation Technique for Cross-Domain Electroencephalography(EEG-Based Emotion Recognition

    Xin Chai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG-based emotion recognition is an important element in psychiatric health diagnosis for patients. However, the underlying EEG sensor signals are always non-stationary if they are sampled from different experimental sessions or subjects. This results in the deterioration of the classification performance. Domain adaptation methods offer an effective way to reduce the discrepancy of marginal distribution. However, for EEG sensor signals, both marginal and conditional distributions may be mismatched. In addition, the existing domain adaptation strategies always require a high level of additional computation. To address this problem, a novel strategy named adaptive subspace feature matching (ASFM is proposed in this paper in order to integrate both the marginal and conditional distributions within a unified framework (without any labeled samples from target subjects. Specifically, we develop a linear transformation function which matches the marginal distributions of the source and target subspaces without a regularization term. This significantly decreases the time complexity of our domain adaptation procedure. As a result, both marginal and conditional distribution discrepancies between the source domain and unlabeled target domain can be reduced, and logistic regression (LR can be applied to the new source domain in order to train a classifier for use in the target domain, since the aligned source domain follows a distribution which is similar to that of the target domain. We compare our ASFM method with six typical approaches using a public EEG dataset with three affective states: positive, neutral, and negative. Both offline and online evaluations were performed. The subject-to-subject offline experimental results demonstrate that our component achieves a mean accuracy and standard deviation of 80.46% and 6.84%, respectively, as compared with a state-of-the-art method, the subspace alignment auto-encoder (SAAE, which

  14. Recovering protein-protein and domain-domain interactions from aggregation of IP-MS proteomics of coregulator complexes.

    Amin R Mazloom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coregulator proteins (CoRegs are part of multi-protein complexes that transiently assemble with transcription factors and chromatin modifiers to regulate gene expression. In this study we analyzed data from 3,290 immuno-precipitations (IP followed by mass spectrometry (MS applied to human cell lines aimed at identifying CoRegs complexes. Using the semi-quantitative spectral counts, we scored binary protein-protein and domain-domain associations with several equations. Unlike previous applications, our methods scored prey-prey protein-protein interactions regardless of the baits used. We also predicted domain-domain interactions underlying predicted protein-protein interactions. The quality of predicted protein-protein and domain-domain interactions was evaluated using known binary interactions from the literature, whereas one protein-protein interaction, between STRN and CTTNBP2NL, was validated experimentally; and one domain-domain interaction, between the HEAT domain of PPP2R1A and the Pkinase domain of STK25, was validated using molecular docking simulations. The scoring schemes presented here recovered known, and predicted many new, complexes, protein-protein, and domain-domain interactions. The networks that resulted from the predictions are provided as a web-based interactive application at http://maayanlab.net/HT-IP-MS-2-PPI-DDI/.

  15. Crystal structure of the Ig1 domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 displays domain swapping

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the first immunoglobulin (Ig1) domain of neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM) is presented at a resolution of 2.7 A. NCAM2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs). In the structure, two Ig domains interact by domain...

  16. Single-domain epitaxial silicene on diboride thin films

    Fleurence, A., E-mail: antoine@jaist.ac.jp; Friedlein, R.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamada-Takamura, Y. [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Gill, T. G. [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, UCL, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Sadowski, J. T. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Copel, M.; Tromp, R. M. [IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Hirjibehedin, C. F. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, UCL, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-11

    Epitaxial silicene, which forms spontaneously on ZrB{sub 2}(0001) thin films grown on Si(111) wafers, has a periodic stripe domain structure. By adsorbing additional Si atoms on this surface, we find that the domain boundaries vanish, and a single-domain silicene sheet can be prepared without altering its buckled honeycomb structure. The amount of Si required to induce this change suggests that the domain boundaries are made of a local distortion of the silicene honeycomb lattice. The realization of a single domain sheet with structural and electronic properties close to those of the original striped state demonstrates the high structural flexibility of silicene.

  17. Application of modern tensor calculus to engineered domain structures. 2. Tensor distinction of domain states

    Kopský, Vojtěch

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 62, - (2006), s. 65-76 ISSN 0108-7673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : tensorial covariants * domain states * stability spaces Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2006

  18. Differences between time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in imaging tissues.

    Gao, W; Wu, X

    2017-11-01

    It has been numerously demonstrated that both time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high-resolution depth-resolved images of living tissues and cells. In this work, we compare the common points and differences between two methods when the continuous and random properties of live tissue are taken into account. It is found that when relationships that exist between the scattered light and tissue structures are taken into account, spectral interference measurements in Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT) is more advantageous than interference fringe envelope measurements in time domain OCT (TDOCT) in the cases where continuous property of tissue is taken into account. It is also demonstrated that when random property of tissue is taken into account FDOCT measures the Fourier transform of the spatial correlation function of the refractive index and speckle phenomena will limit the effective limiting imaging resolution in both TDOCT and FDOCT. Finally, the effective limiting resolution of both TDOCT and FDOCT are given which can be used to estimate the effective limiting resolution in various practical applications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Domain Adaptation for Opinion Classification: A Self-Training Approach

    Yu, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Domain transfer is a widely recognized problem for machine learning algorithms because models built upon one data domain generally do not perform well in another data domain. This is especially a challenge for tasks such as opinion classification, which often has to deal with insufficient quantities of labeled data. This study investigates the feasibility of self-training in dealing with the domain transfer problem in opinion classification via leveraging labeled data in non-target data domain(s and unlabeled data in the target-domain. Specifically, self-training is evaluated for effectiveness in sparse data situations and feasibility for domain adaptation in opinion classification. Three types of Web content are tested: edited news articles, semi-structured movie reviews, and the informal and unstructured content of the blogosphere. Findings of this study suggest that, when there are limited labeled data, self-training is a promising approach for opinion classification, although the contributions vary across data domains. Significant improvement was demonstrated for the most challenging data domain-the blogosphere-when a domain transfer-based self-training strategy was implemented.

  20. Magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic spirals via domain wall motion

    Schumm, Ryan D.; Kunz, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Domain wall dynamics have been investigated in a variety of ferromagnetic nanostructures for potential applications in logic, sensing, and recording. We present a combination of analytic and simulated results describing the reliable field driven motion of a domain wall through the arms of a ferromagnetic spiral nanowire. The spiral geometry is capable of taking advantage of the benefits of both straight and circular wires. Measurements of the in-plane components of the spirals' magnetization can be used to determine the angular location of the domain wall, impacting the magnetoresistive applications dependent on the domain wall location. The spirals' magnetization components are found to depend on the spiral parameters: the initial radius and spacing between spiral arms, along with the domain wall location. The magnetization is independent of the parameters of the rotating field used to move the domain wall, and therefore the model is valid for current induced domain wall motion as well. The speed of the domain wall is found to depend on the frequency of the rotating driving field, and the domain wall speeds can be reliably varied over several orders of magnitude. We further demonstrate a technique capable of injecting multiple domain walls and show the reliable and unidirectional motion of domain walls through the arms of the spiral.

  1. Structural and functional analysis of multi-interface domains.

    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available A multi-interface domain is a domain that can shape multiple and distinctive binding sites to contact with many other domains, forming a hub in domain-domain interaction networks. The functions played by the multiple interfaces are usually different, but there is no strict bijection between the functions and interfaces as some subsets of the interfaces play the same function. This work applies graph theory and algorithms to discover fingerprints for the multiple interfaces of a domain and to establish associations between the interfaces and functions, based on a huge set of multi-interface proteins from PDB. We found that about 40% of proteins have the multi-interface property, however the involved multi-interface domains account for only a tiny fraction (1.8% of the total number of domains. The interfaces of these domains are distinguishable in terms of their fingerprints, indicating the functional specificity of the multiple interfaces in a domain. Furthermore, we observed that both cooperative and distinctive structural patterns, which will be useful for protein engineering, exist in the multiple interfaces of a domain.

  2. Thermal stability of bubble domains in ferromagnetic discs

    Hrkac, G [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Bance, S [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Goncharov, A [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Schrefl, T [University of Sheffield, Engineering Materials, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom) ; Suess, D [Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10e, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-05-07

    The transition and thermal stability of disc-shaped ferromagnetic particles at the temperature of T = 300 K with a uniaxial anisotropy along the symmetry axis from a bi-domain to a single domain state has been studied. The nudge elastic band method was used to map the energy landscape and to calculate the energy barrier between the transition states. For single FePt disc-shaped particles with perpendicular anisotropy three transition configurations have been found: single domain, stripe- and stable bubble domains at zero applied field. The single domain configuration along the positive anisotropy axis is reached by an annihilation process of the domain wall and the all-down state by a complex domain expansion process. Magnetization configurations in two interacting discs show an increase in thermal stability compared with single disc systems, which is attributed to the interacting magnetostatic energy between the two particles.

  3. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  4. The architectural design of networks of protein domain architectures.

    Hsu, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2013-08-23

    Protein domain architectures (PDAs), in which single domains are linked to form multiple-domain proteins, are a major molecular form used by evolution for the diversification of protein functions. However, the design principles of PDAs remain largely uninvestigated. In this study, we constructed networks to connect domain architectures that had grown out from the same single domain for every single domain in the Pfam-A database and found that there are three main distinctive types of these networks, which suggests that evolution can exploit PDAs in three different ways. Further analysis showed that these three different types of PDA networks are each adopted by different types of protein domains, although many networks exhibit the characteristics of more than one of the three types. Our results shed light on nature's blueprint for protein architecture and provide a framework for understanding architectural design from a network perspective.

  5. Introduction: History of SH2 Domains and Their Applications.

    Liu, Bernard A; Machida, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain is the prototypical protein interaction module that lies at the heart of phosphotyrosine signaling. Since its serendipitous discovery, there has been a tremendous advancement in technologies and an array of techniques available for studying SH2 domains and phosphotyrosine signaling. In this chapter, we provide a glimpse of the history of SH2 domains and describe many of the tools and techniques that have been developed along the way and discuss future directions for SH2 domain studies. We highlight the gist of each chapter in this volume in the context of: the structural biology and phosphotyrosine binding; characterizing SH2 specificity and generating prediction models; systems biology and proteomics; SH2 domains in signal transduction; and SH2 domains in disease, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Many of the individual chapters provide an in-depth approach that will allow scientists to interrogate the function and role of SH2 domains.

  6. Domain Engineering, A Software Engineering Discipline in Need of Research

    Bjørner, Dines

    2000-01-01

    . The aim of this paper is to advocate: that researchers study these development method components, and that universities focus their education on basing well-nigh any course on the use of formal techniques: Specification and verification, and that software engineers take heed: Start applying formal......, and these again seem more stable than software designs. Thus, almost like the universal laws of physics, it pays off to first develop theories of domains. But domain engineering, as in fact also requirements engineering, really is in need of thoroughly researched development principles, techniques and tools...... techniques. A brief example of describing stake-holder perspectives will be given - on the background of which we then proceed to survey the notions of domain intrinsics, domain support technologies, domain management & organisation, domain rules & regulations, domain human behaviour, etc. We show elsewhere...

  7. Combinatorial geometry domain decomposition strategies for Monte Carlo simulations

    Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Deng, L.; Mo, Z.; Liu, Z.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Li, S.; Hu, Z. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Analysis and modeling of nuclear reactors can lead to memory overload for a single core processor when it comes to refined modeling. A method to solve this problem is called 'domain decomposition'. In the current work, domain decomposition algorithms for a combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code are developed on the JCOGIN (J Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo transport INfrastructure). Tree-based decomposition and asynchronous communication of particle information between domains are described in the paper. Combination of domain decomposition and domain replication (particle parallelism) is demonstrated and compared with that of MERCURY code. A full-core reactor model is simulated to verify the domain decomposition algorithms using the Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT (J Monte Carlo Transport Code), which has being developed on the JCOGIN infrastructure. Besides, influences of the domain decomposition algorithms to tally variances are discussed. (authors)

  8. Combinatorial geometry domain decomposition strategies for Monte Carlo simulations

    Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Deng, L.; Mo, Z.; Liu, Z.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Li, S.; Hu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and modeling of nuclear reactors can lead to memory overload for a single core processor when it comes to refined modeling. A method to solve this problem is called 'domain decomposition'. In the current work, domain decomposition algorithms for a combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code are developed on the JCOGIN (J Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo transport INfrastructure). Tree-based decomposition and asynchronous communication of particle information between domains are described in the paper. Combination of domain decomposition and domain replication (particle parallelism) is demonstrated and compared with that of MERCURY code. A full-core reactor model is simulated to verify the domain decomposition algorithms using the Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT (J Monte Carlo Transport Code), which has being developed on the JCOGIN infrastructure. Besides, influences of the domain decomposition algorithms to tally variances are discussed. (authors)

  9. Thermal stability of bubble domains in ferromagnetic discs

    Hrkac, G; Bance, S; Goncharov, A; Schrefl, T; Suess, D

    2007-01-01

    The transition and thermal stability of disc-shaped ferromagnetic particles at the temperature of T = 300 K with a uniaxial anisotropy along the symmetry axis from a bi-domain to a single domain state has been studied. The nudge elastic band method was used to map the energy landscape and to calculate the energy barrier between the transition states. For single FePt disc-shaped particles with perpendicular anisotropy three transition configurations have been found: single domain, stripe- and stable bubble domains at zero applied field. The single domain configuration along the positive anisotropy axis is reached by an annihilation process of the domain wall and the all-down state by a complex domain expansion process. Magnetization configurations in two interacting discs show an increase in thermal stability compared with single disc systems, which is attributed to the interacting magnetostatic energy between the two particles

  10. Effective Domain Partitioning for Multi-Clock Domain IP Core Wrapper Design under Power Constraints

    Yu, Thomas Edison; Yoneda, Tomokazu; Zhao, Danella; Fujiwara, Hideo

    The rapid advancement of VLSI technology has made it possible for chip designers and manufacturers to embed the components of a whole system onto a single chip, called System-on-Chip or SoC. SoCs make use of pre-designed modules, called IP-cores, which provide faster design time and quicker time-to-market. Furthermore, SoCs that operate at multiple clock domains and very low power requirements are being utilized in the latest communications, networking and signal processing devices. As a result, the testing of SoCs and multi-clock domain embedded cores under power constraints has been rapidly gaining importance. In this research, a novel method for designing power-aware test wrappers for embedded cores with multiple clock domains is presented. By effectively partitioning the various clock domains, we are able to increase the solution space of possible test schedules for the core. Since previous methods were limited to concurrently testing all the clock domains, we effectively remove this limitation by making use of bandwidth conversion, multiple shift frequencies and properly gating the clock signals to control the shift activity of various core logic elements. The combination of the above techniques gains us greater flexibility when determining an optimal test schedule under very tight power constraints. Furthermore, since it is computationally intensive to search the entire expanded solution space for the possible test schedules, we propose a heuristic 3-D bin packing algorithm to determine the optimal wrapper architecture and test schedule while minimizing the test time under power and bandwidth constraints.

  11. Peroxisomal matrix protein import - Suppression of protein import defects in Hansenula polymorpha pex mutants by overproduction of the PTS1 receptor pex5p

    Kiel, JAKW; Veenhuis, M

    2000-01-01

    In the past decade, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that govern sorting of proteins to the peroxisomal lumen. This article summarizes the principal features of how peroxisomal matrix enzymes are thought to reach the peroxisome. In addition, it describes recent data that

  12. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes generate specific functions through compartmentalized regions such as cholesterol-enriched membrane nanodomains that host selected proteins. Despite the biological significance of nanodomains, details on their structure remain elusive. They cannot be observed via microscopic...... dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol - the "minimal standard" for nanodomain formation. The simulations reveal how cholesterol drives the formation of fluid cholesterol-rich nanodomains hosting hexagonally packed cholesterol-poor lipid nanoclusters, both of which show registration between the membrane leaflets....... The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  13. Denotational semantics in Synthetic Guarded Domain Theory

    Paviotti, Marco

    In functional programming, features such as recursion, recursive types and general references are central. To define semantics of this kind of languages one needs to come up with certain definitions which may be non-trivial to show well-defined. This is because they are circular. Domain theory has...... been used to solve this kind of problems for specific languages, unfortunately, this technique does not scale for more featureful languages, which prevented it from being widely used. Step-indexing is a more general technique that has been used to break circularity of definitions. The idea is to tweak...... the definition by adding a well- founded structure that gives a handle for recursion. Guarded dependent Type Theory (gDTT) is a type theory which implements step-indexing via a unary modality used to guard recursive definitions. Every circular definition is well-defined as long as the recursive variable...

  14. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    Ma, Xuxin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  15. Cultural Heritage and the Public Domain

    Bas Savenije

    2012-09-01

    by providing their resources on the Internet” (Berlin Declaration 2003. Therefore, in the spirit of the Berlin Declaration, the ARL encourages its members’ libraries to grant all non-commercial users “a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship”. And: “If fees are to be assessed for the use of digitised public domain works, those fees should only apply to commercial uses” (ARL Principles July 2010. In our view, cultural heritage institutions should make public domain material digitised with public funding as widely available as possible for access and reuse. The public sector has the primary responsibility to fund digitisation. The involvement of private partners, however, is encouraged by ARL as well as the Comité des Sages. Private funding for digitisation is a complement to the necessary public investment, especially in times of economic crisis, but should not be seen as a substitute for public funding. As we can see from these reports there are a number of arguments in favour of digitisation and also of providing maximum accessibility to the digitised cultural heritage. In this paper we will investigate the legal aspects of digitisation of cultural heritage, especially public domain material. On the basis of these we will make an inventory of policy considerations regarding reuse. Furthermore, we will describe the conclusions the National Library of the Netherlands (hereafter: KB has formulated and the arguments that support these. In this context we will review public-private partnerships and also the policy of the KB. We will conclude with recommendations for cultural heritage institutions concerning a reuse policy for digitised public domain material.

  16. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  17. Music genre classification using temporal domain features

    Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in the music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. In addition to other features, the temporal domain features of a music signal are exploited so as to increase the classification rate in this research. Three temporal techniques are examined in depth. First, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to emulate the time-varying properties of music signals. Second, to further increase the classification rate, we propose another feature set that focuses on the residual part of music signals. Third, the overall classification rate is enhanced by classifying smaller segments from a test material individually and making decision via majority voting. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques.

  18. The time domain triple probe method

    Meier, M.A.; Hallock, G.A.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new Langmuir probe technique based on the triple probe method is being developed to provide simultaneous measurement of plasma temperature, potential, and density with the temporal and spatial resolution required to accurately characterize plasma turbulence. When the conventional triple probe method is used in an inhomogeneous plasma, local differences in the plasma measured at each probe introduce significant error in the estimation of turbulence parameters. The Time Domain Triple Probe method (TDTP) uses high speed switching of Langmuir probe potential, rather than spatially separated probes, to gather the triple probe information thus avoiding these errors. Analysis indicates that plasma response times and recent electronics technology meet the requirements to implement the TDTP method. Data reduction techniques of TDTP data are to include linear and higher order correlation analysis to estimate fluctuation induced particle and thermal transport, as well as energy relationships between temperature, density, and potential fluctuations

  19. Western cratonic domains in Uruguay: geochronology

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, E.; Muzio, E.; Ledesma, R.; Guerequiz, R.

    2001-01-01

    The western cratonic domains in Uruguay are divided into three major units: Piedra Alta Terrane, Valentines Block and Pavas Block. Piedra Alta Terrane lacks of evidence of Neoproterozoic orogenesis (deformation, metamorphism or magmatism). Sarandí del Yi - Arroyo Solís Grande shear zone, separates it from Valentines Block. Valentines Block is separated from Pavas Block by Cueva del Tigre shear zone. Magmatic rocks with different ages, compositions and emplacements occur all over the Piedra Alta Terrane distributed in three metamorphic belts (Arroyo Grande, San José and Montevideo) as well as in the Central Gneissic-Migmatitic Complex (Figure 1). Samples from the Gneissic-Migmatitic complex, late tectonic granitoids and basic rocks associated to the metamorphic belts were analyzed using Rb/Sr, U/Pb, K/Ar and Sm/Nd methodologies. The age ranges obtained for granitoids

  20. Domain decomposition and multilevel integration for fermions

    Ce, Marco; Giusti, Leonardo; Schaefer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The numerical computation of many hadronic correlation functions is exceedingly difficult due to the exponentially decreasing signal-to-noise ratio with the distance between source and sink. Multilevel integration methods, using independent updates of separate regions in space-time, are known to be able to solve such problems but have so far been available only for pure gauge theory. We present first steps into the direction of making such integration schemes amenable to theories with fermions, by factorizing a given observable via an approximated domain decomposition of the quark propagator. This allows for multilevel integration of the (large) factorized contribution to the observable, while its (small) correction can be computed in the standard way.

  1. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  2. Local coercive force of domain boundaries

    Kandaurova, G.S.; Vas'kovskij, V.O.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show the variety of effects resulting from local coercivity using RFeO 3 orthoferrites crystals-plates, to separate factors which are not directly connected with the nature of every single defect but influence significantly Hsub(cw) local coercivity and, at last, to attract attention of physisists-theorists to new tasks of the magnetic hysteresis theory. Measurements have been carried out on a great number of defect of YFeO 3 and PyFeO 3 crystals. Such peculiarities of local coercivity as Hsub(cw) anisotropy and asymmetry, Hsub(cw) nonstability and its dependence on the sample magnetic prehistory. Qualitative explanation of these effects in based on the presumable interaction of the domain wall with magnetic heterogeneities existing in a region of structural defects

  3. Local coercive force of domain boundaries

    Kandaurova, G S; Vas' kovskii, V O [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1980-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show the variety of effects resulting from local coercivity using RFeO/sub 3/ orthoferrites crystals-plates, to separate factors which are not directly connected with the nature of every single defect but influence significantly H/sub cw/ local coercivity and, at last, to attract attention of physisists-theorists to new tasks of the magnetic hysteresis theory. Measurements have been carried out on a great number of defect of YFeO/sub 3/ and PyFeO/sub 3/ crystals. Such peculiarities of local coercivity as H/sub cw/ anisotropy and asymmetry, H/sub cw/ nonstability and its dependence on the sample magnetic prehistory. Qualitative explanation of these effects in based on the presumable interaction of the domain wall with magnetic heterogeneities existing in a region of structural defects.

  4. On the domain of string perturbation theory

    Davis, S.

    1989-06-01

    For a large class of effectively closed surfaces, it is shown that the only divergences in string scattering amplitudes at each order in perturbation theory are those associated with the coincidence of vertex operators and the boundary of moduli space. This class includes all closed surfaces of finite genus, and infinite-genus surfaces which can be uniformized by a group of Schottky type. While the computation is done explicitly for bosonic strings in their ground states, it can also be extended to excited states and to superstrings. The properties of these amplitudes lead to a definition of the domain of perturbation theory as the set of effectively closed surfaces. The implications of the restriction to effectively closed surfaces on the behavior of the perturbation series are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 6 figs

  5. Domain decomposition methods and parallel computing

    Meurant, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to efficiently solve large linear systems on parallel computers. These linear systems arise from discretization of scientific computing problems described by systems of partial differential equations. We show how to get a discrete finite dimensional system from the continuous problem and the chosen conjugate gradient iterative algorithm is briefly described. Then, the different kinds of parallel architectures are reviewed and their advantages and deficiencies are emphasized. We sketch the problems found in programming the conjugate gradient method on parallel computers. For this algorithm to be efficient on parallel machines, domain decomposition techniques are introduced. We give results of numerical experiments showing that these techniques allow a good rate of convergence for the conjugate gradient algorithm as well as computational speeds in excess of a billion of floating point operations per second. (author). 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs., 1 inset

  6. Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain

    Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2018-01-09

    A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.

  7. Domain wall motion in magnetically frustrated nanorings

    Lubarda, M. V.; Escobar, M. A.; Li, S.; Chang, R.; Fullerton, E. E.; Lomakin, V.

    2012-06-01

    We describe a magnetically frustrated nanoring (MFNR) configuration which is formed by introducing antiferromagnetic coupling across an interface orthogonal to the ring's circumferential direction. Such structures have the unique characteristic that only one itinerant domain wall (DW) can exist in the ring, which does not need to be nucleated or injected into the structure and can never escape making it analogous to a magnetic Möbius strip. Numerical simulations show that the DW in a MFNR can be driven consecutively around the ring with a prescribed cyclicity, and that the frequency of revolutions can be controlled by the applied field. The energy landscapes can be controlled to be flat allowing for low fields of operation or to have a barrier for thermal stability. Potential logic and memory applications of MFNRs are considered and discussed.

  8. Subjective time pressure: general or domain specific?

    Kleiner, Sibyl

    2014-09-01

    Chronic time pressure has been identified as a pervasive societal problem, exacerbated by high demands of the labor market and the home. Yet time pressure has not been disaggregated and examined separately across home and work contexts, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the sources and potentially stressful consequences of time pressure. Using data collected in the United States General Social Survey waves 2002 and 2004, this study disaggregates time pressure into the domains of home and work, and asks whether considering time pressures within distinct work and home contexts reveals distinct predictors or associations with stress. Findings show that both predictors and stress associations differ across work and home pressures, revealing both methodological and theoretical implications for the study of time pressure and work and family life more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetostriction and magnetoelastic domains in antiferromagnets

    Gomonay, Helen; Loktev, Vadim M.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of the observable equilibrium domain structure (DS) in pure antiferromagnets is investigated with the use of continuous elasticity theory. It is shown that the difference between the bulk and surface magnetoelastic strains causes imaginary 'incompatibility elastic charges' analogous to the surface 'magnetic' charges in ferromagnets. The corresponding long-range field is shown to contribute to the 'stray' energy of the sample that governs the appearance of the DS, the contribution from the 'elastic charges' being proportional to the sample volume. Competition between the elastic 'stray' field, which favours inhomogeneous strain distribution, and an external field, which tends to make the sample homogeneous, provides a reversible reconstruction of the DS under the action of the external magnetic field. (author)

  10. Structure and dynamics of the human pleckstrin DEP domain: distinct molecular features of a novel DEP domain subfamily.

    Civera, Concepcion; Simon, Bernd; Stier, Gunter; Sattler, Michael; Macias, Maria J

    2005-02-01

    Pleckstrin1 is a major substrate for protein kinase C in platelets and leukocytes, and comprises a central DEP (disheveled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domain, which is flanked by two PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. DEP domains display a unique alpha/beta fold and have been implicated in membrane binding utilizing different mechanisms. Using multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions, we find that 6 subfamilies of the DEP domain exist, of which pleckstrin represents a novel and distinct subfamily. To clarify structural determinants of the DEP fold and to gain further insight into the role of the DEP domain, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the pleckstrin DEP domain using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Pleckstrin DEP shares main structural features with the DEP domains of disheveled and Epac, which belong to different DEP subfamilies. However, the pleckstrin DEP fold is distinct from these structures and contains an additional, short helix alpha4 inserted in the beta4-beta5 loop that exhibits increased backbone mobility as judged by NMR relaxation measurements. Based on sequence conservation, the helix alpha4 may also be present in the DEP domains of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are members of the same DEP subfamily. In pleckstrin, the DEP domain is surrounded by two PH domains. Structural analysis and charge complementarity suggest that the DEP domain may interact with the N-terminal PH domain in pleckstrin. Phosphorylation of the PH-DEP linker, which is required for pleckstrin function, could regulate such an intramolecular interaction. This suggests a role of the pleckstrin DEP domain in intramolecular domain interactions, which is distinct from the functions of other DEP domain subfamilies found so far.

  11. Phase transitions and domain structures in multiferroics

    Vlahos, Eftihia

    2011-12-01

    Thin film ferroelectrics and multiferroics are two important classes of materials interesting both from a scientific and a technological prospective. The volatility of lead and bismuth as well as environmental issues regarding the toxicity of lead are two disadvantages of the most commonly used ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) materials such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9. Therefore lead-free thin film ferroelectrics are promising substitutes as long as (a) they can be grown on technologically important substrates such as silicon, and (b) their T c and Pr become comparable to that of well established ferroelectrics. On the other hand, the development of functional room temperature ferroelectric ferromagnetic multiferroics could lead to very interesting phenomena such as control of magnetism with electric fields and control of electrical polarization with magnetic fields. This thesis focuses on the understanding of material structure-property relations using nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Nonlinear spectroscopy is an excellent tool for probing the onset of ferroelectricity, and domain dynamics in strained ferroelectrics and multiferroics. Second harmonic generation was used to detect ferroelectricity and the antiferrodistortive phase transition in thin film SrTiO3. Incipient ferroelectric CaTiO3 has been shown to become ferroelectric when strained with a combination of SHG and dielectric measurements. The tensorial nature of the induced nonlinear polarization allows for probing of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 polarization contributions in nanoscale BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. In addition, nonlinear optics was used to demonstrate ferroelectricity in multiferroic EuTiO3. Finally, confocal SHG and Raman microscopy were utilized to visualize polar domains in incipient ferroelectric and ferroelastic CaTiO3.

  12. Digital Image Watermarking in Transform Domains

    EL-Shazly, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of internet and availability of huge digital content make it easy to create, modify and copy digital media such as audio, video and images. This causes a problem for owners of that content and hence a need to copy right protection tool was essential. First, encryption was proposed but it ensures protection during transmission only and once decryption occurred any one can modify the data. at that point watermarking was introduced as a solution to such problem. Watermarking is a process of inserting a low energy signal in to a high energy one so that it doesn't affect the main signal features. A good digital image watermarking technique should satisfy four requirements: 1) Embedding of a watermark should not degrade the host image visual quality (imperceptibility). 2) The embedded watermark should stick to the host image so that it couldn’t be removed by common image processing operation and could be extracted from the attacked watermarked image (robustness). 3) Knowing the embedding and extraction procedures is sufficient but not enough to extract the watermark; extra keys should be needed (security). 4) The watermarking technique should allow embedding and extraction of more than one watermark each independent of the other (capacity). This thesis presents a watermarking scheme that full fill the mentioned four requirements by jointing transform domains with Fractional Fourier Transform Domain (FracFT). More work on cascaded Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT with FracFT was done to develop a joint transform simply called Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT). The proposed schemes were tested with different image processing attacks to verify its robustness. Finally, the watermarked image is transmitted over simulated MC CDMA channel to prove robustness in real transmission conditions case.

  13. Health numeracy: the importance of domain in assessing numeracy.

    Levy, Helen; Ubel, Peter A; Dillard, Amanda J; Weir, David R; Fagerlin, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Existing research concludes that measures of general numeracy can be used to predict individuals' ability to assess health risks. We posit that the domain in which questions are posed affects the ability to perform mathematical tasks, raising the possibility of a separate construct of "health numeracy" that is distinct from general numeracy. The objective was to determine whether older adults' ability to perform simple math depends on domain. Community-based participants completed 4 math questions posed in 3 different domains: a health domain, a financial domain, and a pure math domain. Participants were 962 individuals aged 55 and older, representative of the community-dwelling US population over age 54. We found that respondents performed significantly worse when questions were posed in the health domain (54% correct) than in either the pure math domain (66% correct) or the financial domain (63% correct). Our experimental measure of numeracy consisted of only 4 questions, and it is possible that the apparent effect of domain is specific to the mathematical tasks that these questions require. These results suggest that health numeracy is strongly related to general numeracy but that the 2 constructs may not be the same. Further research is needed into how different aspects of general numeracy and health numeracy translate into actual medical decisions.

  14. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Xuecheng [School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Tu, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmtu@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-11-13

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca{sup 2+} binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca{sup 2+}-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  15. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca"2"+ binding property of LigA4 Big domain. - Highlights: • Determining the solution structure of a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain from a surface protein of Leptospira. • The solution structure shows some structural characteristics significantly different from the classic Ig-like domains. • A potential Ca"2"+-binding site was identified by strains-all and NMR chemical shift perturbation.

  16. Recombinant spider silk genetically functionalized with affinity domains.

    Jansson, Ronnie; Thatikonda, Naresh; Lindberg, Diana; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Nygren, Per-Åke; Hedhammar, My

    2014-05-12

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials for presentation of active protein domains is an area of growing interest. Herein, we describe a strategy for functionalization of recombinant spider silk via gene fusion to affinity domains of broad biotechnological use. Four affinity domains of different origin and structure; the IgG-binding domains Z and C2, the albumin-binding domain ABD, and the biotin-binding domain M4, were all successfully produced as soluble silk fusion proteins under nondenaturing purification conditions. Silk films and fibers produced from the fusion proteins were demonstrated to be chemically and thermally stable. Still, the bioactive domains are concluded to be folded and accessible, since their respective targets could be selectively captured from complex samples, including rabbit serum and human plasma. Interestingly, materials produced from mixtures of two different silk fusion proteins displayed combined binding properties, suggesting that tailor-made materials with desired stoichiometry and surface distributions of several binding domains can be produced. Further, use of the IgG binding ability as a general mean for presentation of desired biomolecules could be demonstrated for a human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) model system, via a first capture of anti-VEGF IgG to silk containing the Z-domain, followed by incubation with hVEGF. Taken together, this study demonstrates the potential of recombinant silk, genetically functionalized with affinity domains, for construction of biomaterials capable of presentation of almost any desired biomolecule.

  17. Rating knowledge sharing in cross-domain collaborative filtering.

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Xingquan; Li, Ruijiang; Zhang, Chengqi

    2015-05-01

    Cross-domain collaborative filtering (CF) aims to share common rating knowledge across multiple related CF domains to boost the CF performance. In this paper, we view CF domains as a 2-D site-time coordinate system, on which multiple related domains, such as similar recommender sites or successive time-slices, can share group-level rating patterns. We propose a unified framework for cross-domain CF over the site-time coordinate system by sharing group-level rating patterns and imposing user/item dependence across domains. A generative model, say ratings over site-time (ROST), which can generate and predict ratings for multiple related CF domains, is developed as the basic model for the framework. We further introduce cross-domain user/item dependence into ROST and extend it to two real-world cross-domain CF scenarios: 1) ROST (sites) for alleviating rating sparsity in the target domain, where multiple similar sites are viewed as related CF domains and some items in the target domain depend on their correspondences in the related ones; and 2) ROST (time) for modeling user-interest drift over time, where a series of time-slices are viewed as related CF domains and a user at current time-slice depends on herself in the previous time-slice. All these ROST models are instances of the proposed unified framework. The experimental results show that ROST (sites) can effectively alleviate the sparsity problem to improve rating prediction performance and ROST (time) can clearly track and visualize user-interest drift over time.

  18. Evolution based on domain combinations: the case of glutaredoxins

    Herrero Enrique

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domains represent the basic units in the evolution of proteins. Domain duplication and shuffling by recombination and fusion, followed by divergence are the most common mechanisms in this process. Such domain fusion and recombination events are predicted to occur only once for a given multidomain architecture. However, other scenarios may be relevant in the evolution of specific proteins, such as convergent evolution of multidomain architectures. With this in mind, we study glutaredoxin (GRX domains, because these domains of approximately one hundred amino acids are widespread in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes and participate in fusion proteins. GRXs are responsible for the reduction of protein disulfides or glutathione-protein mixed disulfides and are involved in cellular redox regulation, although their specific roles and targets are often unclear. Results In this work we analyze the distribution and evolution of GRX proteins in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. We study over one thousand GRX proteins, each containing at least one GRX domain, from hundreds of different organisms and trace the origin and evolution of the GRX domain within the tree of life. Conclusion Our results suggest that single domain GRX proteins of the CGFS and CPYC classes have, each, evolved through duplication and divergence from one initial gene that was present in the last common ancestor of all organisms. Remarkably, we identify a case of convergent evolution in domain architecture that involves the GRX domain. Two independent recombination events of a TRX domain to a GRX domain are likely to have occurred, which is an exception to the dominant mechanism of domain architecture evolution.

  19. Quantifying information transfer by protein domains: Analysis of the Fyn SH2 domain structure

    Lenaerts, Tom; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Stricher, Francois

    2008-01-01

    instance of communication over a noisy channel. In particular, we analyze the conformational correlations between protein residues and apply the concept of mutual information to quantify information exchange. Mapping out changes of mutual information on the protein structure then allows visualizing how...... distal communication is achieved. We illustrate the approach by analyzing information transfer by the SH2 domain of Fyn tyrosine kinase, obtained from Monte Carlo dynamics simulations. Our analysis reveals that the Fyn SH2 domain forms a noisy communication channel that couples residues located......Background: Efficient communication between distant sites within a protein is essential for cooperative biological response. Although often associated with large allosteric movements, more subtle changes in protein dynamics can also induce long-range correlations. However, an appropriate formalism...

  20. Is the isolated ligand binding domain a good model of the domain in the native receptor?

    Deming, Dustin; Cheng, Qing; Jayaraman, Vasanthi

    2003-05-16

    Numerous studies have used the atomic level structure of the isolated ligand binding domain of the glutamate receptor to elucidate the agonist-induced activation and desensitization processes in this group of proteins. However, no study has demonstrated the structural equivalence of the isolated ligand binding fragments and the protein in the native receptor. In this report, using visible absorption spectroscopy we show that the electronic environment of the antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline is identical for the isolated protein and the native glutamate receptors expressed in cells. Our results hence establish that the local structure of the ligand binding site is the same in the two proteins and validate the detailed structure-function relationships that have been developed based on a comparison of the structure of the isolated ligand binding domain and electrophysiological consequences in the native receptor.

  1. Data cleaning in the energy domain

    Akouemo Kengmo Kenfack, Hermine N.

    This dissertation addresses the problem of data cleaning in the energy domain, especially for natural gas and electric time series. The detection and imputation of anomalies improves the performance of forecasting models necessary to lower purchasing and storage costs for utilities and plan for peak energy loads or distribution shortages. There are various types of anomalies, each induced by diverse causes and sources depending on the field of study. The definition of false positives also depends on the context. The analysis is focused on energy data because of the availability of data and information to make a theoretical and practical contribution to the field. A probabilistic approach based on hypothesis testing is developed to decide if a data point is anomalous based on the level of significance. Furthermore, the probabilistic approach is combined with statistical regression models to handle time series data. Domain knowledge of energy data and the survey of causes and sources of anomalies in energy are incorporated into the data cleaning algorithm to improve the accuracy of the results. The data cleaning method is evaluated on simulated data sets in which anomalies were artificially inserted and on natural gas and electric data sets. In the simulation study, the performance of the method is evaluated for both detection and imputation on all identified causes of anomalies in energy data. The testing on utilities' data evaluates the percentage of improvement brought to forecasting accuracy by data cleaning. A cross-validation study of the results is also performed to demonstrate the performance of the data cleaning algorithm on smaller data sets and to calculate an interval of confidence for the results. The data cleaning algorithm is able to successfully identify energy time series anomalies. The replacement of those anomalies provides improvement to forecasting models accuracy. The process is automatic, which is important because many data cleaning processes

  2. Hepatitis C virus NS4B carboxy terminal domain is a membrane binding domain

    Spaan Willy JM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces membrane rearrangements during replication. All HCV proteins are associated to membranes, pointing out the importance of membranes for HCV. Non structural protein 4B (NS4B has been reported to induce cellular membrane alterations like the membranous web. Four transmembrane segments in the middle of the protein anchor NS4B to membranes. An amphipatic helix at the amino-terminus attaches to membranes as well. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of NS4B is highly conserved in Hepaciviruses, though its function remains unknown. Results A cytosolic localization is predicted for the NS4B-CTD. However, using membrane floatation assays and immunofluorescence, we now show targeting of the NS4B-CTD to membranes. Furthermore, a profile-profile search, with an HCV NS4B-CTD multiple sequence alignment, indicates sequence similarity to the membrane binding domain of prokaryotic D-lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH. The crystal structure of E. coli d-LDH suggests that the region similar to NS4B-CTD is located in the membrane binding domain (MBD of d-LDH, implying analogy in membrane association. Targeting of d-LDH to membranes occurs via electrostatic interactions of positive residues on the outside of the protein with negative head groups of lipids. To verify that anchorage of d-LDH MBD and NS4B-CTD is analogous, NS4B-CTD mutants were designed to disrupt these electrostatic interactions. Membrane association was confirmed by swopping the membrane contacting helix of d-LDH with the corresponding domain of the 4B-CTD. Furthermore, the functionality of these residues was tested in the HCV replicon system. Conclusion Together these data show that NS4B-CTD is associated to membranes, similar to the prokaryotic d-LDH MBD, and is important for replication.

  3. Institutionalizing the Human Domain: Achieving Cross Domain Synergy for Every Day Missions

    2017-04-06

    others rely on more primitive and traditional sources of information or are characterized by strong central government censorship . Technology can play...many societies, others rely on more primitive and traditional sources of information or are characterized by strong central government censorship and...Capabilities for Operations in the Human Domain 92 31 Notes 1 The National Military Strategy of the United States of America , 2015

  4. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    O' Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  5. Transition from many domain to single domain martensite morphology in small-scale shape memory alloys

    Ueland, Stian M.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the martensitic transformation during a superelastic cycle is studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy deformation experiments in microwires of Cu–Zn–Al. The diameters of the wires studied (21–136 μm) span the range in which significant size effects upon transformation hysteresis have been observed. In larger wires the transformation is accommodated by the continual nucleation of many new martensite plates that grow and eventually coalesce with their neighbors. In small wires a single martensite plate nucleates at the start of transformation and then proceeds to grow in a monolithic fashion; the wire transforms by smooth axial propagation of a single interface. The transition from many domain to single domain transformation is gradual with wire diameter, and is based upon scaling of the domain density with sample size. We attribute it to a crossover from bulk to surface obstacle control of transformation front propagation. This observation also sheds light on reported size effects in energy dissipation in shape memory alloys

  6. Ballistic rectification of vortex domain wall chirality at nanowire corners

    Omari, K.; Bradley, R. C.; Broomhall, T. J.; Hodges, M. P. P.; Hayward, T. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Rosamond, M. C.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Im, M.-Y. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Fischer, P. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The interactions of vortex domain walls with corners in planar magnetic nanowires are probed using magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy. We show that when the domain walls are propagated into sharp corners using applied magnetic fields above a critical value, their chiralities are rectified to either clockwise or anticlockwise circulation depending on whether the corners turn left or right. Single-shot focused magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements are then used to demonstrate how, when combined with modes of domain propagation that conserve vortex chirality, this allows us to dramatically reduce the stochasticity of domain pinning at artificial defect sites. Our results provide a tool for controlling domain wall chirality and pinning behavior both in further experimental studies and in future domain wall-based memory, logic and sensor technologies.

  7. The DIMA web resource--exploring the protein domain network.

    Pagel, Philipp; Oesterheld, Matthias; Stümpflen, Volker; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2006-04-15

    Conserved domains represent essential building blocks of most known proteins. Owing to their role as modular components carrying out specific functions they form a network based both on functional relations and direct physical interactions. We have previously shown that domain interaction networks provide substantially novel information with respect to networks built on full-length protein chains. In this work we present a comprehensive web resource for exploring the Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA), interactively. The tool aims at integration of multiple data sources and prediction techniques, two of which have been implemented so far: domain phylogenetic profiling and experimentally demonstrated domain contacts from known three-dimensional structures. A powerful yet simple user interface enables the user to compute, visualize, navigate and download domain networks based on specific search criteria. http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/dima

  8. Beta oscillations define discrete perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain.

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2015-09-29

    Whether seeing a movie, listening to a song, or feeling a breeze on the skin, we coherently experience these stimuli as continuous, seamless percepts. However, there are rare perceptual phenomena that argue against continuous perception but, instead, suggest discrete processing of sensory input. Empirical evidence supporting such a discrete mechanism, however, remains scarce and comes entirely from the visual domain. Here, we demonstrate compelling evidence for discrete perceptual sampling in the somatosensory domain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a tactile temporal discrimination task in humans, we find that oscillatory alpha- and low beta-band (8-20 Hz) cycles in primary somatosensory cortex represent neurophysiological correlates of discrete perceptual cycles. Our results agree with several theoretical concepts of discrete perceptual sampling and empirical evidence of perceptual cycles in the visual domain. Critically, these results show that discrete perceptual cycles are not domain-specific, and thus restricted to the visual domain, but extend to the somatosensory domain.

  9. Dynamics of domain wall driven by spin-transfer torque

    Chureemart, P.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-torque switching of magnetic devices offers new technological possibilities for data storage and integrated circuits. We have investigated domain-wall motion in a ferromagnetic thin film driven by a spin-polarized current using an atomistic spin model with a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation including the effect of the spin-transfer torque. The presence of the spin-transfer torque is shown to create an out-of-plane domain wall, in contrast to the external-field-driven case where an in-plane wall is found. We have investigated the effect of the spin torque on domain-wall displacement, domain-wall velocity, and domain-wall width, as well as the equilibration time in the presence of the spin-transfer torque. We have shown that the minimum spin-current density, regarded as the critical value for domain-wall motion, decreases with increasing temperature.

  10. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). METHODS: At OMERACT 2016, research...... conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. RESULTS: We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted...... and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health...

  11. Catalytic properties of ADAM12 and its domain deletion mutants

    Jacobsen, Jonas; Visse, Robert; Sørensen, Hans Peter

    2008-01-01

    of pro, catalytic, disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF domains. Here we present a novel activity of recombinant ADAM12-S and its domain deletion mutants on S-carboxymethylated transferrin (Cm-Tf). Cleavage of Cm-Tf occurred at multiple sites, and N-terminal sequencing showed that the enzyme exhibits...... restricted specificity but a consensus sequence could not be defined as its subsite requirements are promiscuous. Kinetic analysis revealed that the noncatalytic C-terminal domains are important regulators of Cm-Tf activity and that ADAM12-PC consisting of the pro domain and catalytic domain is the most...... active on this substrate. It was also observed that NaCl inhibits ADAM12. Among the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) examined, the N-terminal domain of TIMP-3 (N-TIMP-3) inhibits ADAM12-S and ADAM12-PC with low nanomolar Ki(app) values while TIMP-2 inhibits them with a slightly lower...

  12. Towards Domain-specific Flow-based Languages

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.

    2018-01-01

    describe their problems and solutions, instead of using general purpose programming languages. The goal of these languages is to improve the productivity and efficiency of the development and simulation of concurrent scientific models and systems. Moreover, they help to expose parallelism and to specify...... the concurrency within a component or across different independent components. In this paper, we introduce the concept of domain-specific flowbased languages which allows domain experts to use flow-based languages adapted to a particular problem domain. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrency, while......Due to the significant growth of the demand for data-intensive computing, in addition to the emergence of new parallel and distributed computing technologies, scientists and domain experts are leveraging languages specialized for their problem domain, i.e., domain-specific languages, to help them...

  13. Domain Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection Based on Prediction Consistency

    Yu Li-ping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection is an active area of research in computer vision. It remains a quite challenging problem in many applications where many factors cause a mismatch between source dataset used to train the pedestrian detector and samples in the target scene. In this paper, we propose a novel domain adaptation model for merging plentiful source domain samples with scared target domain samples to create a scene-specific pedestrian detector that performs as well as rich target domain simples are present. Our approach combines the boosting-based learning algorithm with an entropy-based transferability, which is derived from the prediction consistency with the source classifications, to selectively choose the samples showing positive transferability in source domains to the target domain. Experimental results show that our approach can improve the detection rate, especially with the insufficient labeled data in target scene.

  14. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    Jué , Emilie; Safeer, C.  K.; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stephane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  15. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  16. Quadratic polynomial interpolation on triangular domain

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Congcong; Yu, Qian

    2018-04-01

    In the simulation of natural terrain, the continuity of sample points are not in consonance with each other always, traditional interpolation methods often can't faithfully reflect the shape information which lie in data points. So, a new method for constructing the polynomial interpolation surface on triangular domain is proposed. Firstly, projected the spatial scattered data points onto a plane and then triangulated them; Secondly, A C1 continuous piecewise quadric polynomial patch was constructed on each vertex, all patches were required to be closed to the line-interpolation one as far as possible. Lastly, the unknown quantities were gotten by minimizing the object functions, and the boundary points were treated specially. The result surfaces preserve as many properties of data points as possible under conditions of satisfying certain accuracy and continuity requirements, not too convex meantime. New method is simple to compute and has a good local property, applicable to shape fitting of mines and exploratory wells and so on. The result of new surface is given in experiments.

  17. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    Jué, Emilie

    2015-12-21

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  18. Refocusing your domain (until a better title)

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    This forum's subject is from 'Zero to Production'. But what exactly goes on during the 'zero' phase? What are the questions that you and your team ask yourselves before starting to code, and which are the first decisions you make? 'Apache or Nginx? Flask or Django? PostreSQL or MongoDB? Containers or VMs?', are usual questions that are brought forward during the design phase. Albeit cool and exciting, these issues are the wrong things to consider ourselves with during the first stages of software development. What is the domain your application operates on? What are your core entities and how do they interract with each other on a logical level? Which are the business rules that would persist whether you would be creating a Web application, a Command Line Interface or simple drawings on a whiteboard? Not only should these issues be the first for a developer to consider but their importance should be clearly reflected in the application's code. In 2012, Robert C. Martin (Uncle Bob) proposed a layered soft...

  19. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    Blum, T.; Christ, N.H.; Frison, J.; Garron, N.; Hudspith, R.J.; Izubuchi, T.; Janowski, T.; Jung, C.; Jüttner, A.; Kelly, C.; Kenway, R.D.; Lehner, C.; Marinkovic, M.; Mawhinney, R.D.; McGlynn, G.; Murphy, D.J.; Ohta, S.; Portelli, A.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Soni, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\bar {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, $B_K$...

  20. Dynamics of domain wall networks with junctions

    Avelino, P. P.; Oliveira, J. C. R. E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Menezes, J.; Menezes, R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a combination of analytic tools and an extensive set of the largest and most accurate three-dimensional field theory numerical simulations to study the dynamics of domain wall networks with junctions. We build upon our previous work and consider a class of models which, in the limit of large number N of coupled scalar fields, approaches the so-called ''ideal'' model (in terms of its potential to lead to network frustration). We consider values of N between N=2 and N=20, and a range of cosmological epochs, and we also compare this class of models with other toy models used in the past. In all cases we find compelling evidence for a gradual approach to scaling, strongly supporting our no-frustration conjecture. We also discuss the various possible types of junctions (including cases where there is a hierarchy of them) and their roles in the dynamics of the network. Finally, we provide a cosmological Zel'dovich-type bound on the energy scale of this kind of defect network: it must be lower than 10 keV.