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Sample records for hemolytic plaque assay

  1. Limitations of a hemolytic plaque assay for IgG-anti-IgG rheumatoid factor-producing cells.

    Venn, A J; Dresser, D W

    1987-09-24

    An attempt has been made to develop a hemolytic plaque assay capable of detecting homophile IgG rheumatoid factor (RF)-producing cells. Anti-immunoglobulin allotype-developing reagents were used to distinguish between target and effector IgG. The hemolytic assay has been used to demonstrate an apparently high level of homophile IgM and IgG RF-producing cells in the spleens and lymph nodes of mice stimulated by LPS. However, it appears that a large proportion of the plaques obtained in these assays are due to an artefact resulting from cross-linking of target and effector molecules by the developing reagents. In the case of IgM RF the artefact depends on the presence of a small contamination of the target IgG by IgM, allowing cross-linking of target and effector IgM by the anti-mu-specific developing reagent. With the IgG RF, cross-reactivity of the rabbit anti-Ighb allotype-developing serum for the 'wrong' (Igha) allotype, normally undetectable, becomes sufficient to be biologically relevant when the developing antibody is complexed by being bound to its target (Ighb) allotype. Nevertheless anti-allotype reagents may afford an accurate means of detecting homophile IgG RF producing cells using other assay systems.

  2. Kinetics of hemolytic plaque formation. IV. IgM plaque inhibition

    DeLisi, C

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the inhibition of hemolytic plaques formed against IgM antibodies is presented. The starting point is the equations of DeLisi and Bell (1974) which describe the kinetics of plaque growth, and DeLisi and Goldstein (1975) which describe inhibition of IgG plaques. However, the physical chemical models which were used previously to describe IgG inhibition data are shown to be inadequate for describing the characteristics of IgM inhibition curves. Moreover, it is shown that the experimental results place severe restrictions on the possible choices of physical chemical models for IgM upon which to base the calculations. It is argued that in order to account even qualitatively for all the data, one must assume (1) a very restricted motion of IgMs about the Fab hinge region and (2) a very narrow secretion rate distribution of IgM by antibody secreting cells. (auth)

  3. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  4. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  5. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  6. Immunofluorescence Plaque Assay for African Swine Fever Virus

    Tessler, J.; Hess, W. R.; Pan, I. C.; Trautman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Suitably diluted cell culture adapted African swine fever virus preparations were inoculated on VERO cell monolayers and grown on coverslips. Gum tragacanth was used as an overlay. After three days incubation at 37°C the infected cultures were fixed with acetone and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate. Fluorescing plaques consisted of 20-30 infected cells. Three statistical criteria for a quantitatively reliable assay were met: the Poisson distribution for plaque counts, linearity of the relationship between the concentration of virus and the plaque count and reproducibility of replicate titrations. The method is suitable for counts up to at least 70 plaques per 5 cm2 coverslip and computed titers are reproducible within 0.16 log units with a total of 300 plaques enumerated. PMID:4279763

  7. Detection and segmentation of virus plaque using HOG and SVM: toward automatic plaque assay.

    Mao, Yihao; Liu, Hong; Ye, Rong; Shi, Yonghong; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assaying, measurement of the number, diameter, and area of plaques in a Petri dish image, is a standard procedure gauging the concentration of phage in biology. This paper presented a novel and effective method for implementing automatic plaque assaying. The method was mainly comprised of the following steps: In the training stage, after pre-processing the images for noise suppression, an initial training set was readied by sampling positive (with a plaque at the center) and negative (plaque-free) patches from the training images, and extracting the HOG features from each patch. The linear SVM classifier was trained in a self-learnt supervised learning strategy to avoid possible missing detection. Specifically, the training set which contained positive and negative patches sampled manually from training images was used to train the preliminary classifier which exhaustively searched the training images to predict the label for the unlabeled patches. The mislabeled patches were evaluated by experts and relabeled. And all the newly labeled patches and their corresponding HOG features were added to the initial training set to train the final classifier. In the testing stage, a sliding-window technique was first applied to the unseen image for obtaining HOG features, which were inputted into the classifier to predict whether the patch was positive. Second, a locally adaptive Otsu method was performed on the positive patches to segment the plaques. Finally, after removing the outliers, the parameters of the plaques were measured in the segmented plaques. The experimental results demonstrated that the accuracy of the proposed method was similar to the one measured manually by experts, but it took less than 30 seconds.

  8. An improved microculture-hemolytic spot assay for the study of carrier-specific antibody responses.

    Kotkes, P; Weisman, Z; Mozes, E; Bentwich, Z

    1984-11-30

    A microculture system based on limiting dilution and a hemolytic spot assay was adapted for study of the carrier-specific anti-hapten response in vitro. Spleen or lymph node cells from normal mice or mice immunized with NIP-ovalbumin (NIP-OVA) or NIP-human thyroglobulin (NIP-Tg) were cultured for 5 days by the microculture technique. The anti-hapten (anti-NIP) response was measured by assaying the supernatants of the microcultures in a hemolytic spot test with NIP coupled to sheep red blood cells. A micro-ELISA reader was adapted to read the degree of lysis in the spot assay which gives an objective quantitation of the degree of lysis and thus reduces the number of culture replicates. In vivo induced specific helper cells in mice immunized with the carrier protein, human thyroglobulin, as well as carrier-specific T cell factors, gave rise to carrier-specific anti-NIP responses. The microculture system may enhance the expression of T-cell helper function when suppressor cells or their precursors are present in the initial cell preparation.

  9. Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013

  10. Discriminating the hemolytic risk of blood type A plasmas using the complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assay.

    Cunnion, Kenji M; Hair, Pamela S; Krishna, Neel K; Sass, Megan A; Enos, Clinton W; Whitley, Pamela H; Maes, Lanne Y; Goldberg, Corinne L

    2017-03-01

    The agglutination-based cross-matching method is sensitive for antibody binding to red blood cells but is only partially predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis, which is important in many acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Here, we describe complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assays that directly evaluate complement-mediated hemolysis between individual serum-plasma and red blood cell combinations. The CHUHE assay is used to evaluate correlations between agglutination titers and complement-mediated hemolysis as well as the hemolytic potential of plasma from type A blood donors. Plasma or serum from each type A blood donor was incubated with AB or B red blood cells in the CHUHE assay and measured for free hemoglobin release. CHUHE assays for serum or plasma demonstrate a wide, dynamic range and high sensitivity for complement-mediated hemolysis for individual serum/plasma and red blood cell combinations. CHUHE results suggest that agglutination assays alone are only moderately predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis. CHUHE results also suggest that plasma from particular type A blood donors produce minimal complement-mediated hemolysis, whereas plasma from other type A blood donors produce moderate to high-level complement-mediated hemolysis, depending on the red blood cell donor. The current results indicate that the CHUHE assay can be used to assess complement-mediated hemolysis for plasma or serum from a type A blood donor, providing additional risk discrimination over agglutination titers alone. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Plaque assay for human coronavirus NL63 using human colon carcinoma cells

    Drosten Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses cause a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. Human coronavirus (hCoV NL63 is associated with up to 10% of common colds. Viral plaque assays enable the characterization of virus infectivity and allow for purifying virus stock solutions. They are essential for drug screening. Hitherto used cell cultures for hCoV-NL63 show low levels of virus replication and weak and diffuse cytopathogenic effects. It has not yet been possible to establish practicable plaque assays for this important human pathogen. Results 12 different cell cultures were tested for susceptibility to hCoV-NL63 infection. Human colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2 replicated virus more than 100 fold more efficiently than commonly used African green monkey kidney cells (LLC-MK2. CaCo-2 cells showed cytopathogenic effects 4 days post infection. Avicel, agarose and carboxymethyl-cellulose overlays proved suitable for plaque assays. Best results were achieved with Avicel, which produced large and clear plaques from the 4th day of infection. The utility of plaque assays with agrose overlay was demonstrated for purifying virus, thereby increasing viral infectivity by 1 log 10 PFU/mL. Conclusion CaCo-2 cells support hCoV-NL63 better than LLC-MK2 cells and enable cytopathogenic plaque assays. Avicel overlay is favourable for plaque quantification, and agarose overlay is preferred for plaque purification. HCoV-NL63 virus stock of increased infectivity will be beneficial in antiviral screening, animal modelling of disease, and other experimental tasks.

  12. An improved haemolytic plaque assay for the detection of cells secreting antibody to bacterial antigens

    Barington, T; Heilmann, C

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines for human use have stimulated interest in the use of assays detecting antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) with specificity for bacterial antigens. Here we present improved haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays detecting Ab......SC with specificity for tetanus and diphtheria toxoid as well as for Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. These assays were found to be less time consuming, more economical and yielded 1.9-3.4-fold higher plaque numbers than traditional Jerne-type PFC assays. In the case of anti......-polysaccharide antibodies aggregation of secreted monomeric antibody (IgG) is critical for plaque formation and increases the avidity of binding to target cells....

  13. Herpes simplex virus produces larger plaques when assayed on ultraviolet irradiated CV1 cells

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.A.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-01-01

    Plaque development for either untreated or UV treated irradiated Herpes simplex virus Type 1 was faster when assayed on UV irradiated CV1 cells. This Large Plaque Effect only occurred if a minimum delay of 12h between cell irradiation and viral inoculation was allowed. Shorter delays gave plaques that were smaller than controls (unirradiated virus-unirradiated cells). The effect was maximal for a 48-h delay and remained unchanged for delays as long as 84h. The effect was greatest for cell exposures of 10Jm -2 . (author)

  14. Validation of the Filovirus Plaque Assay for Use in Preclinical Studies

    Amy C. Shurtleff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A plaque assay for quantitating filoviruses in virus stocks, prepared viral challenge inocula and samples from research animals has recently been fully characterized and standardized for use across multiple institutions performing Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4 studies. After standardization studies were completed, Good Laboratory Practices (GLP-compliant plaque assay method validation studies to demonstrate suitability for reliable and reproducible measurement of the Marburg Virus Angola (MARV variant and Ebola Virus Kikwit (EBOV variant commenced at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID. The validation parameters tested included accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, stability of the virus stocks and system suitability. The MARV and EBOV assays were confirmed to be accurate to ±0.5 log10 PFU/mL. Repeatability precision, intermediate precision and reproducibility precision were sufficient to return viral titers with a coefficient of variation (%CV of ≤30%, deemed acceptable variation for a cell-based bioassay. Intraclass correlation statistical techniques for the evaluation of the assay’s precision when the same plaques were quantitated by two analysts returned values passing the acceptance criteria, indicating high agreement between analysts. The assay was shown to be accurate and specific when run on Nonhuman Primates (NHP serum and plasma samples diluted in plaque assay medium, with negligible matrix effects. Virus stocks demonstrated stability for freeze-thaw cycles typical of normal usage during assay retests. The results demonstrated that the EBOV and MARV plaque assays are accurate, precise and robust for filovirus titration in samples associated with the performance of GLP animal model studies.

  15. Hemolytic anemia

    Anemia - hemolytic ... bones that helps form all blood cells. Hemolytic anemia occurs when the bone marrow isn't making ... destroyed. There are several possible causes of hemolytic anemia. Red blood cells may be destroyed due to: ...

  16. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    Ahlstedt, S.; Rylander, H.

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, 125 I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not. (author)

  17. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    Ahlstedt, S; Rylander, H [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, /sup 125/I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not.

  18. Hemolytic crisis

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003270.htm Hemolytic crisis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemolytic crisis occurs when large numbers of red blood cells ...

  19. Hemolytic Anemia

    ... worsen your condition or lead to complications. Hemolytic Anemia and Children Parents of children who have hemolytic anemia usually ... members, friends, and your child's classmates about hemolytic anemia. You also may want to tell your child's teachers or other caregivers about the condition. Let ...

  20. A flow cytometry-based assay for quantifying non-plaque forming strains of yellow fever virus.

    Erika Hammarlund

    Full Text Available Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar could not be measured by plaque assay (PA, focus-forming assay (FFA, or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6 and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine. Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses.

  1. Use of gum tragacanth overlay, applied at room temperature, in the plaque assay of fish and other animal viruses.

    Dobos, P

    1976-01-01

    Fish cells derived from rainbow trout gonad or Atlantic salmon are sometimes damaged by the relatively high temperature of agar overlay widely used for plaquing animal viruses. This heat-induced cell damage can be avoided by the use of gum tragacanth, which may be applied at room temperature. When the medium was buffered with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-hydrochloride and NaHCO3, the plaque assay could be performed without the use of a CO2 incubator. Using this method, a number of animal viruses were plaqued on a variety of cell monolayers at different temperatures under atmospheric ocnditions. Images PMID:818114

  2. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multiplex enzyme assay for six enzymes associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Park, Chul Min; Lee, Kyunghoon; Jun, Sun-Hee; Song, Sang Hoon; Song, Junghan

    2017-08-15

    Deficiencies in erythrocyte metabolic enzymes are associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Here, we report the development of a novel multiplex enzyme assay for six major enzymes, namely glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase, hexokinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and adenosine deaminase, deficiencies in which are implicated in erythrocyte enzymopathies. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional spectrophotometric enzyme assays, the present assay was based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The products of the six enzymes were directly measured by using ion pairing UPLC-MS/MS, and the precision, linearity, ion suppression, optimal sample amounts, and incubation times were evaluated. Eighty-three normal individuals and 13 patients with suspected enzymopathy were analyzed. The UPLC running time was within 5min. No ion suppression was observed at the retention time for the products or internal standards. We selected an optimal dilution factor and incubation time for each enzyme system. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision values (CVs) were 2.5-12.1% and 2.9-14.3%, respectively. The linearity of each system was good, with R 2 values >0.97. Patient samples showed consistently lower enzyme activities than those from normal individuals. The present ion paring UPLC-MS/MS assay enables facile and reproducible multiplex evaluation of the activity of enzymes implicated in enzymopathy-associated hemolytic anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Autoreactive lymphocytes in thyroid disorders. 2. Comparison of anti-thyroglobulin antibody production by plaque-forming cell, radio-immunological and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Petersen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K; Hoeier-Madsen, M; Larsen, F; Husby, S

    1986-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from 9 randomly selected patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator. The secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) was assayed by means of haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays, radioimmune assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total Ig and TgAb production was maximal using MNC cultured at 1.0 x 10/sup 6//ml as estimated by PFC, RIA and ELISA. The Ig and TgAb production as measured by RIA and ELISA was 1.5 - 3 times higher after 12 days' culture compared to 6 days' culture. Ig and TgAb production measured by PFC-assays at day 6 correlated positively to the results obtained by RIA and ELISA at day 12. PWM-induced TgAb secretion correlated positively to TgAb titres in serum. As judged by PFC, TgAb production was found in 8/9 patients; about 5% (range 0 - 7.9%) of the total PWM-stimulated IgG-secreting cells were involved in TgAb secretion. TgAb production as measured by ELISA and RIA was found in 6/9 patients. By reference to an affinity-purified human TgAb preparation, the TgAb secretion was about 0.7% (range 0 - 21.3%) of the total PWM-induced IgG secretion.

  4. Subclass of individual IgA-secreting human lymphocytes. Investigation of in vivo pneumococcal polysaccharide-induced and in vitro mitogen-induced blood B cells by monolayer plaque-forming cell assays

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T; Sigsgaard, T

    1988-01-01

    The subclass of individual human IgA B cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays permitting analysis of all IgA-secreting cells as well as of cells secreting IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody. Center cells were examined by indirect immunofluorescence...

  5. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  6. Portrait of a viral infection: The infection cycle of Vibrio vulnificus phage VvAW1 visualized through plaque assay, electron microscopy, and proteomics

    Clah, K. E. Y.; Nigro, O. D.; Miranda, J.; Schvarcz, C.; Culley, A.; Saito, M. A.; Steward, G.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen that thrives in warm brackish waters. Viral infection is one of several mechanisms influencing the population dynamics of this bacterium in the natural environment. V. vulnificus-specific viruses have been isolated; however, the details of their infection cycle have not been reported. As a result, our current understanding of the interaction between the bacterium and its viruses in the environment is limited. To better understand the infection process, a strain of V. vulnificus (V93D1V) and its bacteriophage, Vibrio phage VvAW1, were isolated from the estuarine waters of the Ala Wai Canal, HI. A time-series infection experiment was conducted with the virus-host pair in which samples were collected every ten minutes for eighty minutes post-infection for analysis by plaque assay, electron microscopy, and proteomics. Using electron microscopy, visibly infected bacteria were observed forty minutes after the introduction of the virus, signaling the end of the eclipse period. The peak of infection occurred at seventy minutes with an average viral load of 78 viruses per bacterium. The percentage of visibly infected bacteria reached a maximum just prior to a rise in free viruses in the culture, indicating the end of the latent period. The percentage of infected cells that lysed was low and there was little effect on the bacterial population growth rate. Analysis of the proteome revealed that protein expression patterns, in particular capsid and other structural proteins, closely follow the timing of the observed infection cycle. Together, these analyses provided the first detailed view of a viral infection in a highly lethal aquatic bacterium. The apparent temperate nature of this virus suggests that it can be a source of mortality to V. vulnificus, but has evolved to avoid total destruction of its host by complete lysis, a characteristic that helps ensure its replication in subsequent generations.

  7. Vulnerable Plaque

    ... plaque be prevented? Patients can lower their C-reactive protein levels in the same ways that they can cut their heart attack risk: take aspirin, eat a proper diet, quit smoking, and begin an exercise program. Researchers also think that obesity and diabetes may ...

  8. Hemolytic potential of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Chambers, S D; Bartlett, R H; Ceccio, S L

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hemolytic potentials of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation. To generate controlled cavitation events, a venturigeometry hydrodynamic device, called a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter (CSM), was constructed. A comparison between the hemolytic potential of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation was investigated with a single-pass flow apparatus and a recirculating flow apparatus, both utilizing the CSM. An analytical model, based on spherical bubble dynamics, was developed for predicting the hemolysis caused by discrete bubble cavitation. Experimentally, discrete bubble cavitation did not correlate with a measurable increase in plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHb), as predicted by the analytical model. However, attached cavitation did result in significant PFHb generation. The rate of PFHb generation scaled inversely with the Cavitation number at a constant flow rate, suggesting that the size of the attached cavity was the dominant hemolytic factor.

  9. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  10. Thrombotic Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia without Evidence of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Şinasi Özsoylu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of this journal Dr. Oymak and her colleagues presented a clinically and genetically well-studied 5-year-old boy who was seen with severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia without laboratory findings of renal involvement despite complement factor H gene mutations [1]. Because of Yeneral’s extensive review [2] on atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS published recently in the Turkish Journal of Hematology, I brought it to readers’ attention that more recently some authors do not use ‘aHUS’, which was historically used to distinguish heterogeneous uncharacterized syndromes from Shiga toxin-related HUS, since the term lacks both specificity and suggested causes [3]. Though in our patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura renal involvement was documented at the beginning but not in the last two recurrences, neither serum nor urinary findings indicated kidney involvement [4]. Although the discussions of Dr. Oymak et al. are well taken, the term ‘microangiopathic hemolytic anemia’ is covering the syndrome to a large extent as suggested by George and Nester

  11. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  12. Evaluation of anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of Aitchisonia rosea

    Shahid Rasool

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and hemolytic effect of Aitchisonia rosea. The anticonvulsant effect was studied at doses 400 and 800 mg/kg against pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and picrotoxin-induced seizures in albino mice. The antimicrobial assay was conducted by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. Hemolytic effect was analyzed by reported method. Phenolic compounds present in the n-butanol fraction of the plant were estimated by HPLC. The plant showed maximum response against drug-induced convulsions and provided protection to animals at both doses. It also showed maximum zone of inhibition and highly significant MIC against all bacterial and fungal strains. The plant protected the RBCs from hemolysis. The highest amount of phenolics found was caffeic acid (7.5 ± 0.04.

  13. Anticardiolipin antibodies in D+ hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Loo, D.M.W.M. te; Alfen-van der Velden, J. van; Onland, W.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The diarrhea-associated form of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) is characterized by a triad of symptoms, namely thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and acute renal failure. Histopathological studies of patients with D+ HUS show microthrombi in arterioles and glomeruli of the kidney. Recently,

  14. Retinal phlebitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Chew, Fiona L M; Tajunisah, Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    To describe a case of retinal phlebitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Observational case report. A 44-year-old Indian man diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia presented with a 1-week history of blurred vision in both eyes. Fundus biomicroscopy revealed bilateral peripheral retinal venous sheathing and cellophane maculopathy. Fundus fluorescent angiogram showed bilateral late leakage from the peripheral venous arcades and submacular fluid accumulation. The retinal phlebitis resolved following a blood transfusion and administration of systemic steroids. Retinopathy associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is not well known. This is thought to be the first documentation of retinal phlebitis occurring in this condition.

  15. The challenge of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

    Hassanain Hani Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA is a Coomb's-negative hemolytic anemia characterized by red cell fragmentation (schistocytes. Thrombotic microangiopathy anemia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenia and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, malignant hypertension, preeclampsia are among the most common causes. We present a case of MAHA presenting with thrombocytopenia initially diagnosed as MAHA secondary to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and received five sessions plasmapheresis without improvement but with worsening of anemia and thrombocytopenia. On further inquiry, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was identified, and the patient showed dramatic recovery after the trial of B12 and folate.

  16. Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental plaque microorganisms in situ.

    Rosenberg, M; Judes, H; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental plaque were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the plaque microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental plaque exhibit pronounced cell surface hydr...

  17. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber.

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (-C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  18. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque; is it related to brushing frequency, plaque load and oral health status?

    Chaudhry, Saima; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer

    2011-10-01

    To determine the relation between presence of H. pylori in supra-gingival dental plaque with oral hygiene habits and oral health status of patients suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia. Descriptive study. The Department of Oral Health Sciences, Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. One hundred and fifty dyspeptic subjects with dental plaque were enrolled. After recording brushing frequency, oral health status and plaque load, the supra-gingival dental plaque samples were collected by sterile curettes. Helicobacter pylori were detected in dental plaque samples through PCR assay. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be 37.5% in the sample. Most of the subjects brushed once daily, had plaque index score of 1 and had fair to poor oral hygiene status. Approximately 35% of the individuals who brushed once or twice a day harbored the bacterium in their dental plaque. There was no difference between bacterial detection rates among different categories of plaque index and oral health status of the study subjects. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be associated with neither brushing frequency nor with the plaque load nor with the oral health status of individuals suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia.

  19. Genetic diagnosis for congenital hemolytic anemia.

    Ohga, Shouichi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hemolytic anemia is a group of monogenic diseases presenting with anemia due to increased destruction of circulating erythrocytes. The etiology of inherited anemia accounts for germline mutations of the responsible genes coding for the structural components of erythrocytes and extra-erythrocytes. The erythrocyte abnormalities are classified into three major disorders of red cell membrane defects, hemoglobinopathies, and red cell enzymopathies. The extra-erythrocyte abnormalities, typified by consumption coagulopathy and intravascular hemolysis, include Upshaw-Schulman syndrome and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The clinical manifestations of congenital hemolytic anemia are anemia, jaundice, cholelithiasis and splenomegaly, while the onset mode and severity are both variable. Genetic overlapping of red cell membrane protein disorders, and distinct frequency and mutation spectra differing among races make it difficult to understand this disease entity. On the other hand, genetic modifiers for the phenotype of β-globin diseases provide useful information for selecting the optimal treatment and for long-term management. Recently, next generation sequencing techniques have enabled us to determine the novel causative genes in patients with undiagnosed hemolytic anemias. We herein review the concept and strategy for genetic diagnosis of inherited hemolytic anemias.

  20. Hematological outcome in neonatal alloimmune hemolytic disease

    Rath, Mirjam Eva Aafke

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects related to the hematological outcome of infants with hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to red blood cell alloimmunization, including pathogenesis and management of the disease. The presence of leukocytopenie and thrombocytopenia support the

  1. Imaging unstable plaque

    SRIRANJAN, Rouchelle S.; TARKIN, Jason M.; RUDD, James H.; EVANS, Nicholas R.; CHOWDHURY, Mohammed M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to utilise a range of diagnostic approaches to better characterise high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review current and emerging techniques used to detect and quantify unstable plaque in the context of large and small arterial systems and will focus on both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques. While the diagnosis of clinically relevant atherosclerosis still relies heavily on anatomical assessment of arterial luminal stenosis, evolving multimodal cross-sectional imaging techniques that encompass novel molecular probes can provide added information with regard to plaque composition and overall disease burden. Novel molecular probes currently being developed to track precursors of plaque rupture such as inflammation, micro-calcification, hypoxia and neoangiogenesis are likely to have translational applications beyond diagnostics and have the potential to play a part in quantifying early responses to therapeutic interventions and more accurate cardiovascular risk stratification.

  2. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    Arai, Ayako; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Shu [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1998-06-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  3. Hemolytic and Cytotoxic Properties of Saponin Purified from Holothuria leucospilota Sea Cucumber

    Mozhgan Soltani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH, alkyl (C-H, ether (C-O and ester (–C=O absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  4. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children.

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline Purease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni Purease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children's dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children.

  5. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Khatami S.F; Behjati SH.

    2007-01-01

    Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newbor...

  6. Dental plaque identification at home

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... a sticky substance that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where ...

  7. SEVERE IMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    A. I. Sushkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical case of successful treatment of severe immune hemolytic anemia after liver transplantation is represen- ted in this article. The cause of complication was so-called passenger lymphocyte syndrome (a type of graft- versus-host disease. Two plasmapheresis sessions and Ig (0.5 g/kg in combination with increased maintenance immunosuppression with a short course of oral methylprednisolone in a total dose of 150 mg during 12 days were effective. The patient was discharged from hospital 34 days after transplantation in a satisfactory condition with a stable hemoglobin level. 

  8. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: transfusion challenges and solutions

    Barros MM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melca M O Barros, Dante M Langhi Jr, José O Bordin Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is defined as the increased destruction of red blood cells (RBCs in the presence of anti-RBC autoantibodies and/or complement. Classification of AIHA is based on the optimal auto-RBC antibody reactivity temperatures and includes warm, cold-reactive, mixed AIHA, and drug-induced AIHA subtypes. AIHA is a rare disease, and recommendations for transfusion are based mainly on results from retrospective data and relatively small cohort studies, including heterogeneous patient samples or single case reports. In this article, we will review the challenges and solutions to safely transfuse AIHA patients. We will reflect on the indication for transfusion in AIHA and the difficulty in the accomplishment of immunohematological procedures for the selection of the safest and most compatible RBC units. Keywords: hemolytic anemia, RBC autoantibodies, autoimmunity, hemolysis, direct ­antiglobulin test

  9. Hemolytic anemia caused by kinking of dacron grafts implanted in ...

    Background: Hemolytic anemia caused by a kinked Dacron graft is a rare complication after repair of acute aortic dissection. We present a case of hemolytic anemia due to kinking of previously implanted Dacron graft for ascending aorta dissection treated by surgery and replaced with new Dacron. Case Details: We report a ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome

    ... Kidney Diseases: Kidney Failure: Choosing a Treatment That's Right for You Educational Resources (6 links) Disease InfoSearch: Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical MalaCards: genetic atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome Merck Manual Consumer Version: Overview of Anemia Merck Manual Consumer Version: ...

  11. A noninvasive method for the prediction of fetal hemolytic disease

    E. N. Kravchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the diagnosis of fetal hemolytic disease.Subjects and methods. A study group consisted of 42 pregnant women whose newborn infants had varying degrees of hemolytic disease. The women were divided into 3 subgroups according to the severity of neonatal hemolytic disease: 1 pregnant women whose neonates were born with severe hemolytic disease (n = 14; 2 those who gave birth to babies with moderate hemolytic disease (n = 11; 3 those who delivered infants with mild hemolytic disease (n = 17. A comparison group included 42 pregnant women whose babies were born without signs of hemolytic disease. Curvesfor blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery were analyzed in a fetus of 25 to 39 weeks’ gestation.Results. The peak systolic blood flow velocity was observed in Subgroup 1; however, the indicator did not exceed 1.5 MoM even in severe fetal anemic syndrome. The fetal middle artery blood flow velocity rating scale was divided into 2 zones: 1 the boundary values of peak systolic blood flow velocity from the median to the obtained midscore; 2 the boundary values of peak systolic blood flow velocity of the obtained values of as high as 1.5 MoM.Conclusion. The value of peak systolic blood flow velocity being in Zone 2, or its dynamic changes by transiting to this zone can serve as a prognostic factor in the development of severe fetal hemolytic disease. 

  12. [Treatment and results of therapy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia].

    Tasić, J; Macukanović, L; Pavlović, M; Koraćević, S; Govedarević, N; Kitić, Lj; Tijanić, I; Bakić, M

    1994-01-01

    Basic principles in the therapy of idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by warm antibody were glucocorticoides and splenectomy. Immunosupresive drugs, plasmaferesis and intravenous high doses gamma globulin therapy are also useful. In secundary autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by warm antibody we treated basic illness. During the period of 1990-1992 we treated 21 patients with primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia and 6 patients with secondary /4 CLL and 2 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/. Complete remission we found as a normalisation of reticulocites and hemoglobin level respectively. Complete remission by corticoides we got in 14/21 patients, partial response in 2/21 respectively. Complete response by splenectomy we got in 2/3 splenoctomized patients (idiopathic type). For successful treatment secondary hemolytic anemias we treated primary diseases (CLL and malignant lymphoma) and we got in 4/6 patients complete remission. Our results were standard in both type of autoimmune hemolytic anaemias induced by warm antibody.

  13. La pelade par plaques

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  14. Anticardiolipin antibodies in classic pediatric hemolytic-uremic syndrome: a possible pathogenic role.

    Ardiles, L G; Olavarría, F; Elgueta, M; Moya, P; Mezzano, S

    1998-01-01

    Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies have been associated with thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and an increased risk of thrombosis in different vascular locations, even in the absence of lupus. The classic hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a postinfectious acute renal failure characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and the presence of widespread glomerular thrombosis in the kidney, with pathogenic mechanisms that remain to be identified. In order to establish the frequency of aCL antibodies in this syndrome and to identify a possible role in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, 17 patients were studied during the reactant phase of the disease looking for an association between the presence of aCL antibodies (isotypes IgG, IgA and IgM) and the main clinical variables of the syndrome. In 8 patients IgG aCL was present, 2 patients had IgM aCL, and 1 had IgA antibodies on the solid-phase ELISA aCL assays, but no association could be demonstrated with the clinical variables studied. Although it might correspond to an epiphenomenon related to the triggering intestinal infection, a pathogenic role cannot be discarded and additional studies should be performed.

  15. Proteolytic activity and cooperative hemolytic effect of dermatophytes with different species of bacteria

    Pakshir, K; Mohamadi, T; Khodadadi, H; Motamedifar, M; Zomorodian, K; Alipour, S; Motamedi, M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Globally, dermatophytes are the most common filamentous group of fungi causing cutaneous mycoses. Dermatophytes were shown to secrete a multitude of enzymes that play a role in their pathogenesis. There is limited data on co-hemolytic (CAMP-like) effect of different bacterial species on dermatophyte species. In this study, we sought to the evaluate exoenzyme activity and co-hemolytic effect of four bacteria on clinical dermatophytes isolated from patients in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 clinical dermatophyte species were isolated from patients suffering dermatophytosis and identified by conventional methods. Hemolytic activity was evaluated with Columbia 5% sheep blood agar. Proteolytic activity was determined by plate clearance assay method, using gelatin 8% agar. CAMP-like factor was evaluated with four bacteria, namely, S. areus, S. saprophyticus, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae. Fisher's exact test was run for statistical analysis. Results: T. mentagrophytes was the most predominant agent (27 [32.1%]) followed by T. verrucosum(20 [23.8%]), T. tonsurans (10 [11.9%]), Microsporum canis (7 [8.3%]), T. rubrum (6 [7.1%]), E. floccosum (6 [7.1%]), M. gypseum (5 [6%]), and T. violaceum (3[3.6%]). The most common clinical area of dermatophytosis was the skin. All the isolates expressed the zone of incomplete alpha hemolysis. All the isolates had CAMP- positive reaction with S. aureus and the other bacteria were CAMP-negative. All the isolates expressed proteolytic activity and no significant differences were noted among diverse genera of dermatophytes and severities of proteolytic activity. Conclusion: This study indicated that hemolysin and proteolytic enzymes potentially play a role in dermatophyte pathogenesis and S. aureus could be considered as a main bacterium for creation of co-hemolytic effect in association with dermatophyte species. PMID:28959790

  16. ADAMTS13 Gene Mutations in Children with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Choi, Hyoung Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kim, Nam Keun

    2011-01-01

    We investigated ADAMTS13 activity as well as the ADAMTS13 gene mutation in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Eighteen patients, including 6 diarrhea-negative (D-HUS) and 12 diarrhea-associated HUS (D+HUS) patients, were evaluated. The extent of von Willebrand factor (VWF) degradation was assayed by multimer analysis, and all exons of the ADAMTS13 gene were PCR-amplified using Taq DNA polymerase. The median and range for plasma activity of ADAMTS13 in 6 D-HUS and 12 D+HUS patients were 71.8% (22.8-94.1%) and 84.9% (37.9-119.9%), respectively, which were not statistically significantly different from the control group (86.4%, 34.2-112.3%) (p>0.05). Five ADAMTS13 gene mutations, including 2 novel mutations [1584+2T>A, 3941C>T (S1314L)] and 3 polymorphisms (Q448E, P475S, S903L), were found in 2 D-HUS and one D+HUS patients, which were not associated with deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity. Whether these mutations without reduced ADAMTS13 activity are innocent bystanders or predisposing factors in HUS remains unanswered. PMID:21488199

  17. Hemolytic anemias during pregnancy and the reproductive years

    Mintz, U.; Moohr, J.W.; Ultmann, J.E.

    1977-11-01

    Anemia is a common phenomenon in women during the reproductive years. In pregnancy, it is associated with an increased incidence of maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. The approach to the investigation of anemic women suspected of having hemolytic anemia of either congenital or acquired etiology is the subject of this article. Various conditions in the pregnant women can have hematologic consequences for the newborn infant; these conditions include sensitization to fetal blood cells, infections, drug ingestion and the possession of genes for hereditary hemolytic disorders, which may be transmitted to the fetus. Because several forms of hemolytic anemias are hereditary or are caused by an altered gene, genetic consultation is important.

  18. Medicago truncatula CYP716A12 Is a Multifunctional Oxidase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Hemolytic Saponins[W

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Panara, Francesco; Tava, Aldo; Scaramelli, Laura; Porceddu, Andrea; Graham, Neil; Odoardi, Miriam; Piano, Efisio; Arcioni, Sergio; May, Sean; Scotti, Carla; Calderini, Ornella

    2011-01-01

    Saponins, a group of glycosidic compounds present in several plant species, have aglycone moieties that are formed using triterpenoid or steroidal skeletons. In spite of their importance as antimicrobial compounds and their possible benefits for human health, knowledge of the genetic control of saponin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In the Medicago genus, the hemolytic activity of saponins is related to the nature of their aglycone moieties. We have identified a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP716A12) involved in saponin synthesis in Medicago truncatula using a combined genetic and biochemical approach. Genetic loss-of-function analysis and complementation studies showed that CYP716A12 is responsible for an early step in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. Mutants in CYP716A12 were unable to produce hemolytic saponins and only synthetized soyasaponins, and were thus named lacking hemolytic activity (lha). In vitro enzymatic activity assays indicate that CYP716A12 catalyzes the oxidation of β-amyrin and erythrodiol at the C-28 position, yielding oleanolic acid. Transcriptome changes in the lha mutant showed a modulation in the main steps of triterpenic saponin biosynthetic pathway: squalene cyclization, β-amyrin oxidation, and glycosylation. The analysis of CYP716A12 expression in planta is reported together with the sapogenin content in different tissues and stages. This article provides evidence for CYP716A12 being a key gene in hemolytic saponin biosynthesis. PMID:21821776

  19. Medicago truncatula CYP716A12 is a multifunctional oxidase involved in the biosynthesis of hemolytic saponins.

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Panara, Francesco; Tava, Aldo; Scaramelli, Laura; Porceddu, Andrea; Graham, Neil; Odoardi, Miriam; Piano, Efisio; Arcioni, Sergio; May, Sean; Scotti, Carla; Calderini, Ornella

    2011-08-01

    Saponins, a group of glycosidic compounds present in several plant species, have aglycone moieties that are formed using triterpenoid or steroidal skeletons. In spite of their importance as antimicrobial compounds and their possible benefits for human health, knowledge of the genetic control of saponin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In the Medicago genus, the hemolytic activity of saponins is related to the nature of their aglycone moieties. We have identified a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP716A12) involved in saponin synthesis in Medicago truncatula using a combined genetic and biochemical approach. Genetic loss-of-function analysis and complementation studies showed that CYP716A12 is responsible for an early step in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. Mutants in CYP716A12 were unable to produce hemolytic saponins and only synthetized soyasaponins, and were thus named lacking hemolytic activity (lha). In vitro enzymatic activity assays indicate that CYP716A12 catalyzes the oxidation of β-amyrin and erythrodiol at the C-28 position, yielding oleanolic acid. Transcriptome changes in the lha mutant showed a modulation in the main steps of triterpenic saponin biosynthetic pathway: squalene cyclization, β-amyrin oxidation, and glycosylation. The analysis of CYP716A12 expression in planta is reported together with the sapogenin content in different tissues and stages. This article provides evidence for CYP716A12 being a key gene in hemolytic saponin biosynthesis.

  20. Antimicrobial, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities of some new N ...

    . Hemolytic and thrombolytic activities were determined by measuring absorbance before and after incubation of blood cells with test compound. Results: Compound 9d strongly inhibited Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with zone of ...

  1. Hemolytic activity of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Geraldo A De Carli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The hemolytic activity of live isolates and clones of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus was investigated. The isolates were tested against human erythrocytes. No hemolytic activity was detected by the isolates of T. foetus. Whereas the isolates of T. vaginalis lysed erythrocytes from all human blood groups. No hemolysin released by the parasites could be detected. Our preliminary results suggest that hemolysis depend on the susceptibility of red cell membranes to destabilization and the intervention of cell surface receptors as a mechanism of the hemolytic activity. The mechanism could be subject to strain-species-genera specific variation of trichomonads. The hemolytic activity of T. vaginalis is not due to a hemolysin or to a product of its metabolism. Pretreatment of trichomonads with concanavalin A reduced levels of hemolysis by 40%.

  2. Thyroid storm and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Moore, Joseph A; Gliga, Louise; Nagalla, Srikanth

    2017-08-01

    Graves' disease is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, including rare associations with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We describe a unique presentation of thyroid storm and warm AIHA diagnosed concurrently in a young female with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and altered mental status. Laboratory studies revealed hemoglobin 3.9g/dL, platelets 171×10 9 L -1 , haptoglobin storm and warm AIHA. She was started on glucocorticoids to treat both warm AIHA and thyroid storm, as well as antithyroid medications, propranolol and folic acid. Due to profound anemia and hemodynamic instability, the patient was transfused two units of uncrossmatched packed red blood cells slowly and tolerated this well. She was discharged on methimazole as well as a prolonged prednisone taper, and achieved complete resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and anemia at one month. Hyperthyroidism can affect all three blood cell lineages of the hematopoietic system. Anemia can be seen in 10-20% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Several autoimmune processes can lead to anemia in Graves' disease, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, and warm AIHA. This case illustrates a rarely described presentation of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recommendations regarding splenectomy in hereditary hemolytic anemias

    Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Barcellini, Wilma; Corcione, Francesco; Garçon, Loïc; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pignata, Claudio; Graziadei, Giovanna; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Rees, David C.; de Montalembert, Mariane; Rivella, Stefano; Gambale, Antonella; Russo, Roberta; Ribeiro, Leticia; Vives-Corrons, Jules; Martinez, Patricia Aguilar; Kattamis, Antonis; Gulbis, Beatrice; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Roberts, Irene; Tamary, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. PMID:28550188

  4. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside

    R K Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The "best match" or "least incompatible units" can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue "best match" packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services.

  5. Intraplaque Hemorrhage and the Plaque Surface in Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Plaque At RISK Study (PARISK)

    van Dijk, A. C.; Truijman, M. T. B.; Hussain, B.; Zadi, T.; Saiedie, G.; de Rotte, A. A. J.; Liem, M. I.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Hendrikse, J.; Kooi, M. E.; van der Lugt, A.

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of vulnerable plaque, intraplaque hemorrhage, may predict plaque rupture. Plaque rupture can be visible on noninvasive imaging as a disruption of the plaque surface. We investigated the association between intraplaque hemorrhage and disruption of the plaque surface. We

  6. Hemolytic Anemia after Aortic Valve Replacement: a Case Report

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic anemia is exceedingly rare and an underestimated complication after aortic valve replacement (AVR.The mechanism responsible for hemolysis most commonly involves a regurgitated flow or jet that related to paravalvar leak or turbulence of subvalvar stenosis. It appears to be independent of its severity as assessed by echocardiography. We present a case of a 24-year-old man with a history of AVR in 10 year ago that developed severe hemolytic anemia due to a mild subvalvar stenosis caused by pannus formation and mild hypertrophic septum. After exclusion of other causes of hemolytic anemia and the lack of clinical and laboratory improvement, the patient underwent redo valve surgery with pannus and subvalvar hypertrophic septum resection. Anemia and heart failure symptoms gradually resolved after surgery

  7. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemolytic anemias: Pathophysiology and treatment.

    Haw, Alexandra; Palevsky, Harold I

    2018-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemoglobinopathies and chronic hemolytic anemias. These hematological diseases include - but are not limited to - sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria, and hereditary spherocytosis. Although most studies have been based on the use of echocardiography as a screening tool for pulmonary hypertension as opposed to the gold standard of right heart catheterization for definitive diagnosis, the association between chronic hemolytic anemia and pulmonary hypertension is evident. Studies have shown that patients with SCD and a tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) ≥ 2.5 m/sec are at increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and are at increased mortality risk. Additional markers of risk of pulmonary hypertension and increased mortality include a pro-BNP >160 pg/mL combined with a 6-min walk distance of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemolytic anemias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  9. Denitrification in human dental plaque

    Verstraete Willy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3- concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-. Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and dinitrogen (N2 using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.

  10. Pulmonary aspergillosis and central nervous system hemorrhage as complications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with corticosteroids.

    Cleri, Dennis J; Moser, Robert L; Villota, Francisco J; Wang, Yue; Husain, Syed A; Nadeem, Shahzinah; Anjari, Tarek; Sajed, Mohammad

    2003-06-01

    Warm, active antibody adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia is the most common form of hemolytic anemia not related to drug therapy. Mortality in adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia is related to the inability to successfully treat patients' underlying disease, or the infectious complications of splenectomy and prolonged steroid therapy. Predisposing factors for invasive aspergillosis are neutropenia and steroid therapy. We present a fatal case of aspergillosis complicating a nonneutropenic case of warm active antibody adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with prolonged steroid therapy.

  11. Investigation into the hemolytic activity of tentacle venom from jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    Cyanea nozakii Kishinouy e ( C. nozakii), a giant cnidarian of the class Scyphomedusae, order Semaeostomeae and family Cyaneidae, is widely distributed in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and is abundant from late summer to early autumn. Venom produced by C. nozakii during mass agglomerations can contaminate seawater resulting in death of the halobios and seriously damage commercial fisheries. Swimmers and fishermen commonly suff er painful stings from this jellyfish, resulting in local edema, tingling, breathing difficulties, depressed blood pressure and even death. Such effects arise from the complex mixture of biologically active molecules that make up jellyfish venom. In the present study, the hemolytic activity of venom from tentacles of C. nozakii and factors aff ecting its activity were assayed. The HU50 ( defined as the amount of protein required to lyse 50 % of erythrocytes) of the venom against dove and chicken erythrocytes was 34 and 59 μg/mL, respectively. Carboxylmethyl chitosan and glycerol could increase hemolytic activity at concentrations greater than 0.06% and 0.2 mol/L, respectively.

  12. Immunoglobulin for alloimmune hemolytic disease in neonates.

    Zwiers, Carolien; Scheffer-Rath, Mirjam Ea; Lopriore, Enrico; de Haas, Masja; Liley, Helen G

    2018-03-18

    Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions. We performed electronic searches of CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase (Ovid), Web of Science, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Academic Search Premier, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and controlled-trials.com in May 2017. We also searched reference lists of included and excluded trials and relevant reviews for further relevant studies. We considered all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of IVIg in the treatment of alloimmune HDN. Trials must have used predefined criteria for the use of IVIg and exchange transfusion therapy to be included. We used the standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group. We assessed studies for inclusion and two review authors independently assessed quality and extracted data. We discussed any differences of opinion to reach consensus. We contacted investigators for additional or missing information. We calculated risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for categorical outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) for continuous variables. We used GRADE criteria to assess the risk of bias for major outcomes and to summarize the level of evidence. Nine studies with 658 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Term and preterm infants with Rh or ABO (or both) incompatibility were included. The use of exchange transfusion decreased significantly in the immunoglobulin treated group (typical RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.49; typical RD -0.22, 95% CI -0.27 to

  13. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  14. Evaluation of Neonatal Hemolytic Jaundice: Clinical and Laboratory Parameters

    Anet Papazovska Cherepnalkovski

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The laboratory profile in ABO/Rh isoimmunisation cases depicts hemolytic mechanism of jaundice. These cases carry a significant risk for early and severe hyperbilirubinemia and are eligible for neurodevelopmental follow-up. Hematological parameters and blood grouping are simple diagnostic methods that assist the etiological diagnosis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Atypical relapse of hemolytic uremic syndrome after transplantation

    Olie, Karolien H.; Florquin, Sandrine; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Verlaak, René; Strain, Lisa; Goodship, Timothy H. J.; Weening, Jan J.; Davin, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) frequently leads to end-stage renal failure and can relapse after transplantation. A 12-year-old girl presenting with familial atypical HUS with a factor H mutation was successfully transplanted 6 years after a first transplant that had failed because of

  16. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  17. Contemporary perspective on plaque control.

    Marsh, P D

    2012-06-22

    The aim of this review article is to provide a scientific platform that will enable the dental team to develop a rational approach to plaque control based on the latest knowledge of the role of the oral microflora in health and disease. The resident oral microflora is natural and forms spatially-organised, interactive, multi-species biofilms on mucosal and dental surfaces in the mouth. These resident oral microbial communities play a key function in the normal development of the physiology of the host and are important in preventing colonisation by exogenous and often undesirable microbes. A dynamic balance exists between the resident microflora and the host in health, and disease results from a breakdown of this delicate relationship. Patients should be taught effective plaque control techniques that maintain dental biofilms at levels compatible with oral health so as to retain the beneficial properties of the resident microflora while reducing the risk of dental disease from excessive plaque accumulation. Antimicrobial and antiplaque agents in oral care products can augment mechanical plaque control by several direct and indirect mechanisms that not only involve reducing or removing dental biofilms but also include inhibiting bacterial metabolism when the agents are still present at sub-lethal concentrations.

  18. In vitro assessment of recombinant, mutant immunoglobulin G anti-D devoid of hemolytic activity for treatment of ongoing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    Nielsen, Leif K; Green, Trine H; Sandlie, Inger

    2008-01-01

    A specific treatment for ongoing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to anti-D would be very attractive. One approach could be administration to the mother of nonhemolytic anti-D, which by crossing the placenta can block the binding of hemolytic maternal anti-D.......A specific treatment for ongoing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to anti-D would be very attractive. One approach could be administration to the mother of nonhemolytic anti-D, which by crossing the placenta can block the binding of hemolytic maternal anti-D....

  19. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  20. Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection

    J.A. Schaar (Johannes); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. Identification of vulnerable plaques is therefore essential to enable the development of treatment modalities to stabilize such plaques. Several diagnostic methods are currently tested

  1. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions.

    Kalpesh B Ishnava

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria.The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0. Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract.The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50 value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein.Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

  2. Severe late anemia of hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Mitchell, Simon; James, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Late anemia is a well-recognized complication of Rhesus hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The incidence of Rhesus HDN is declining, with a tendency for more severely affected pregnancies to be managed in specialist centres. Consequently, many paediatric departments may see relatively few affected infants with comparatively mild disease, and the risk of late anemia in such cases may not always be appreciated. Two cases of infants born with evidence of Rhesus isoimmunization noted at birth and encountering no immediate problems other than mild hyperbilirubinemia are described. After an uneventful early neonatal course, both infants were discharged without follow-up and presented in the second to third weeks of life with severe, life-threatening anemia, leading to neurological sequelae in one case. The importance of close surveillance, including hemoglobin measurements, in all infants with Rhesus hemolytic disease, irrespective of initial severity, is reiterated. PMID:20212966

  3. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: An enigma

    M Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  4. Anti-M causing delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction

    Alperin, J.B.; Riglin, H.; Branch, D.R.; Gallagher, M.T.; Petz, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 52-year-old gravida 1, para 1 woman with M- red cells experienced a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction and exhibited an anti-M antibody following the infusion of four units of M+ red cells. Measurements of erythrocyte survival using 51 Cr-labeled donor M+ and M- red cells and in vitro studies of monocyte-macrophage phagocytosis of sensitized reagent red cells implicate anti-M in the pathogenesis of hemolysis

  5. Intravenous immunoglobulin in ABO and Rh hemolytic diseases of newborn.

    Nasseri, Fatemeh; Mamouri, Gholam A; Babaei, Homa

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate whether the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic jaundice due to Rh and ABO incompatibility is an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion. This study included all direct Coombs' test positive Rh and ABO isoimmunized babies, who admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from October 2003 to October 2004. Significant hyperbilirubinemia was defined as rising by >or=0.5 mg/dl per hour. Babies were randomly assigned to received phototherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) 0.5 g/kg over 4 hours, every 12 hours for 3 doses (study group) or phototherapy alone (control group). Exchange transfusion was performed in any group if serum bilirubin exceeded >or=20mg/dl or rose by >or=1mg/dl/h. A total of 34 babies were eligible for this study (17 babies in each group). The number of exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and hospitalization days, were significant shorter in the study group versus control group. When we analyzed the outcome results in ABO and Rh hemolytic disease separately, the efficacy of IVIg was significantly better in Rh versus ABO isoimmunization. Late anemia was more common in the IVIg group 11.8% versus 0%, p=0.48. Adverse effects were not observed during IVIg administration. Administration of IVIg to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to Rh hemolytic disease reduced the need for exchange transfusion but in ABO hemolytic disease there was no significant difference between IVIg and double surface blue light phototherapy.

  6. Hemolytic disease of the newborn- anti c antibody induced hemolysis.

    Murki, Srinivas; Kandraju, Hemasree; Devi, Surekha A

    2012-02-01

    Hemolytic disease in the newborn, as a cause of early jaundice, is not uncommon. This is mostly due to Rh (D), ABO incompatibility and rarely due to other minor blood group incompatibility. The authors report two cases of Rh anti c isoimmunization presenting as significant early neonatal jaundice within the 20 h of life. Both the babies were treated with intensive phototherapy. One baby underwent exchange transfusion and the other required packed cell transfusion for anemia.

  7. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn from anti-e.

    McAdams, R M; Dotzler, S A; Winter, L W; Kerecman, J D

    2008-03-01

    Maternal antibody-mediated fetal red blood cell destruction secondary to non-D Rhesus (Rh) antibodies is a significant cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Here, we report a rare case of severe HDN associated with maternal antibody to Rh e. In addition to severe anemia, the infant developed thrombocytopenia, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and cholelithiasis. Resolution of the infant's cholelithiasis occurred following treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

  8. Management of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in children

    Grisaru, Silviu

    2014-01-01

    Silviu GrisaruUniversity of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Acute renal failure associated with a fulminant, life-threatening systemic disease is rare in previously healthy young children; however, when it occurs, the most common cause is hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In most cases (90%), this abrupt and devastating illness is a result of ingestion of food or drink contaminated with pathogens that produce very potent toxins. Currently, there ...

  9. [The immunometaboic effects of benfotiamine and riboxine on hemolytic anemia].

    Uteshev, B S; Lazareva, G A; Prokopenko, L G

    2002-01-01

    Single (80 mg/kg) or multiply repeated (30 mg/kg) intramuscular injections of phenylhydrazine decrease the functional activity of mononuclear blood cells and the reduces immunological reactivity of the organism. Benfotiamine and riboxin decrease the extent of changes in the immunological response to a single administration of phenylhydrazine but do not significantly influence the immunological functions impaired by repeated injections of the hemolytic toxin.

  10. Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  11. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    Ingar Olsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  12. Serratamolide is a hemolytic factor produced by Serratia marcescens.

    Robert M Q Shanks

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens is a common contaminant of contact lens cases and lenses. Hemolytic factors of S. marcescens contribute to the virulence of this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. We took advantage of an observed hyper-hemolytic phenotype of crp mutants to investigate mechanisms of hemolysis. A genetic screen revealed that swrW is necessary for the hyper-hemolysis phenotype of crp mutants. The swrW gene is required for biosynthesis of the biosurfactant serratamolide, previously shown to be a broad-spectrum antibiotic and to contribute to swarming motility. Multicopy expression of swrW or mutation of the hexS transcription factor gene, a known inhibitor of swrW expression, led to an increase in hemolysis. Surfactant zones and expression from an swrW-transcriptional reporter were elevated in a crp mutant compared to the wild type. Purified serratamolide was hemolytic to sheep and murine red blood cells and cytotoxic to human airway and corneal limbal epithelial cells in vitro. The swrW gene was found in the majority of contact lens isolates tested. Genetic and biochemical analysis implicate the biosurfactant serratamolide as a hemolysin. This novel hemolysin may contribute to irritation and infections associated with contact lens use.

  13. Assesment, treatment and prevention of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    Azar Nickavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is a heterogeneous group of hemolytic disorders. Different terminologies have been described in HUS, which are as follows: (1 D+ HUS: Presentation with a preceding diarrhea; (2 typical HUS: D+ HUS with a single and self-limited episode; (3 atypical HUS (aHUS: Indicated those with complement dysregulation; (4 recurrent HUS: Recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia and/or microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA after improvement of hematologic abnormalities; and (5 familial HUS: Necessary to distinct synchronous outbreaks of D+ HUS in family members and asynchronous disease with an inherited risk factor. aHUS is one of the potential causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in children. It has a high recurrence after renal transplantation in some genetic forms. Therefore, recognition of the responsible mechanism and proper prophylactic treatment are recommended to prevent or delay the occurrence of ESRD and prolong the length of survival of the transplanted kidney. A computerized search of MEDLINE and other databases was carried out to find the latest results in pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of aHUS.

  14. Chair-side detection of Prevotella Intermedia in mature dental plaque by its fluorescence.

    Nomura, Yoshiaki; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Sogabe, Kaoru; Okada, Ayako; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens is one of the well-known pathogens causing periodontal diseases, and the red florescence excited by the visible blue light caused by the protoporphyrin IX in the bacterial cells could be useful for the chair-side detection. The aim of this study was to evaluated levels of periodontal pathogen, especially P. intermedia in clinical samples of red fluorescent dental plaque. Thirty two supra gingival plaque samples from six individuals were measured its fluorescence at 640nm wavelength excited by 409nm. Periodontopathic bacteria were counted by the Invader PLUS PCR assay. Co-relations the fluorescence intensity and bacterial counts were analyzed by Person's correlation coefficient and simple and multiple regression analysis. Positive and negative predictive values of the fluorescence intensities for with or without P. intermedia in supragingival plaque was calculated. When relative fluorescence unit (RFU) were logarithmic transformed, statistically significant linear relations between RFU and bacterial counts were obtained for P. intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. By the multiple regression analysis, only P. intermedia had statistically significant co-relation with fluorescence intensities. All of the fluorescent dental plaque contained P. intermedia m. In contrast, 28% of non-fluorescent plaques contained P. intermedia. To check the fluorescence dental plaque in the oral cavity could be the simple chair-side screening of the mature dental plaque before examining the periodontal pathogens especially P. intermedia by the PCR method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Denture plaque--past and recent concerns.

    Nikawa, H; Hamada, T; Yamamoto, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the history of denture plaque and identifies some concerns with the presence of Candida in the mouth. This review covers literature sources related to Candida albicans and its relationship to denture plaque. The articles selected for this review are from referred journals and describe C. albicans and its relationship to oral, gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary infections. The relationship to caries, root caries and periodontal disease is also covered. Denture plaque containing Candida could cause not only oral candidiasis, like oral thrush or denture-induced stomatitis, but also caries, root caries and periodontitis of abutment teeth. However, there is only limited experimental evidence or information available on the cariogenicity of Candida. The continuous swallowing or aspiration of micro-organisms from denture plaque exposes patients, particularly the immunocompromised host or medicated elderly, to the risks of unexpected infections. The term, 'denture plaque' has been used throughout the review. However, the term 'plaque on denture' should be used because the microbial flora and its pathogenicity of denture plaque resembles those of plaque formed on the tooth surface, so called dental plaque. In addition, the term 'denture related stomatitis' would be preferable to 'denture induced stomatitis', since the inflammation of (palatal) mucosa is not induced by the denture, but by wearing the denture or by plaque on the denture.

  16. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MR plaque imaging of the carotid artery

    Watanabe, Yuji; Nagayama, Masako

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic carotid plaque represents a major cause of cerebral ischemia. The detection of vulnerable plaque is important for preventing future cardiovascular events. The key factors in advanced plaque that are most likely to lead to patient complications are the condition of the fibrous cap, the size of the necrotic core and hemorrhage, and the extent of inflammatory activity within the plaque. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has excellent soft tissue contrast and can allow for a more accurate and objective estimation of carotid wall morphology and plaque composition. Recent advances in MR imaging techniques have permitted serial monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution and the identification of intraplaque risk factors for accelerated progression. The purpose of this review article is to review the current state of techniques of carotid wall MR imaging and the characterization of plaque components and surface morphology with MR imaging, and to describe the clinical practice of carotid wall MR imaging for the determination of treatment plan. (orig.)

  18. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia as a Complication of Nivolumab Therapy.

    Palla, Amruth R; Kennedy, Devin; Mosharraf, Hossain; Doll, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Recently, immunotherapeutic drugs, including PD-1 inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab, avelumab), and CTLA4 inhibitors (ipiliumumab), have emerged as important additions to the armamentarium against certain malignancies and have been incorporated into therapeutic protocols for first-, second-, or third-line agents for these metastatic cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab is currently FDA approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma [Redman et al.: BMC Med 2016;14: 20], metastatic non-small cell lung cancer [Guibert and Mazières: Expert Opin Biol Ther 2015;15: 1789-1797], metastatic renal cell cancer [Farolfi et al.: Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2016;12: 1089-1096], and relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin's lymphoma [Villasboas and Ansell: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2016;16: 5-12]. Given the current and increasing indications for these drugs, it is essential for all physicians to become well versed with their common adverse effects and to be observant for other less documented clinical conditions that could be unmasked with the use of such medications. A definite association between autoimmune hemolytic anemia and the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab has not been clearly documented, although a few cases have been reported recently [Kong et al.: Melanoma Res 2016;26: 202-204; Schwab et al.: Case Rep Oncol 2016;9: 373-378; Tardy et al.: Hematol Oncol 2016, DOI: 10.1002/hon.2338]. We report a case of fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia refractory to steroids in a patient treated with nivolumab for metastatic lung cancer, and reflect on the other reported cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia after the use of nivolumab.

  19. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia as a Complication of Nivolumab Therapy

    Amruth R. Palla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, immunotherapeutic drugs, including PD-1 inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab, avelumab, and CTLA4 inhibitors (ipiliumumab, have emerged as important additions to the armamentarium against certain malignancies and have been incorporated into therapeutic protocols for first-, second-, or third-line agents for these metastatic cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab is currently FDA approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma [Redman et al.: BMC Med 2016;14: 20], metastatic non-small cell lung cancer [Guibert and Mazières: Expert Opin Biol Ther 2015;15: 1789–1797], metastatic renal cell cancer [Farolfi et al.: Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2016;12: 1089–1096], and relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma [Villasboas and Ansell: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2016;16: 5–12]. Given the current and increasing indications for these drugs, it is essential for all physicians to become well versed with their common adverse effects and to be observant for other less documented clinical conditions that could be unmasked with the use of such medications. A definite association between autoimmune hemolytic anemia and the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab has not been clearly documented, although a few cases have been reported recently [Kong et al.: Melanoma Res 2016;26: 202–204; Schwab et al.: Case Rep Oncol 2016;9: 373–378; Tardy et al.: Hematol Oncol 2016, DOI: 10.1002/hon.2338]. We report a case of fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia refractory to steroids in a patient treated with nivolumab for metastatic lung cancer, and reflect on the other reported cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia after the use of nivolumab.

  20. Neutropenia in infants with hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Blanco, Esther; Johnston, Donna L

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the incidence, outcome and risk factors of neutropenia in infants with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). A retrospective chart review was performed on infants with HDN. Of 69 evaluable infants, 45% developed neutropenia. Only one infectious complication was recorded. In most instances the neutropenia resolved spontaneously, but in seven infants it persisted for a median of 397 days. Males were at higher risk for developing neutropenia, but severity of HDN, antibody specificity, or therapy were not significant risk factors. Neutropenia is a common feature of HDN, regardless of severity of disease, treatment received, or antibody specificity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome triggered by varicella infection

    Pauline Condom

    2017-01-01

    The current case describes an aHUS associated to varicella infection as demonstrated by the simultaneous occurrence of the viral infection and aHUS manifestations. Apart from typical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome which is triggered by bacteria mostly Shiga toxin producing Echerichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae or Shigella, aHUS may be linked to viral infections such as HIV, EBV and enteroviruses, but very rarely by varicella. This case highlights a possible even rare complication of varicella infection a very common childhood disease. This complication could be avoided by to anti-VZV vaccination.

  2. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  3. Effect of chlorphenesin on localized hemolysis in gel assay.

    Fukui, G M; Berger, F M; Chandlee, G C; Goldenbaum, E G

    1968-10-01

    Chlorphenesin, a simple glycerol ether, when added to Jerne plates greatly reduced the number of hemolytic plaques. This effect appeared to be related to dose, and was clearly demonstrable with antibody-forming spleen cells from mice that had been immunized either with sheep red blood cells or with penicillin G conjugated with Keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Chlorphenesin did not affect the antigen, destroy complement, or interfere with the interaction of complement and the antigen-antibody complexes. Incubation of spleen cell suspensions with chlorphenesin prior to plating was more effective in reducing the number of plaques than was addition of the substance to the plates. It may act by reducing the ability of antibodies to react with antigens or by affecting the release of antibodies from the spleen cells.

  4. Simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes: more reliable method of Helicobacter pylori detection in microbial rich dental plaque samples.

    Chaudhry, Saima; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Khan, Ayyaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) assay is considered superior to other methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity; however, it also has limitations when sample under study is microbial rich dental plaque. The type of gene targeted and number of primers used for bacterial detection in dental plaque samples can have a significant effect on the results obtained as there are a number of closely related bacterial species residing in plaque biofilm. Also due to high recombination rate of H. pylori some of the genes might be down regulated or absent. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of H. pylori colonization of dental plaque by simultaneously amplifying two genes of the bacterium. One hundred dental plaque specimens were collected from dyspeptic patients before their upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and presence of H. pylori was determined through PCR assay using primers targeting two different genes of the bacterium. Eighty-nine of the 100 samples were included in final analysis. With simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes 51.6% of the dental plaque samples were positive for H. pylori while this prevalence increased to 73% when only one gene amplification was used for bacterial identification. Detection of H. pylori in dental plaque samples is more reliable when two genes of the bacterium are simultaneously amplified as compared to one gene amplification only.

  5. Cobalt-doped nanohydroxyapatite: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies

    Tank, Kashmira P., E-mail: kashmira_physics@yahoo.co.in [Saurashtra University, Crystal Growth Laboratory, Physics Department (India); Chudasama, Kiran S.; Thaker, Vrinda S. [Saurashtra University, Bioscience Department (India); Joshi, Mihir J., E-mail: mshilp24@rediffmail.com [Saurashtra University, Crystal Growth Laboratory, Physics Department (India)

    2013-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}; HAP) is a major mineral component of the calcified tissues, and it has various applications in medicine and dentistry. In the present investigation, cobalt-doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAP) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-mediated approach and characterized by different techniques. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the amount of doping in Co-HAP. The transmission electron microscopy result suggested the transformation of morphology from needle shaped to spherical type on increasing the doping concentration. The powder XRD study indicated the formation of a new phase of brushite for higher concentration of cobalt. The average particle size and strain were calculated using Williamson-Hall analysis. The average particle size was found to be 30-60 nm. The FTIR study confirmed the presence of various functional groups in the samples. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against four organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri as Gram negative as well as Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram positive. The hemolytic test result suggested that all samples were non-hemolytic. The photoluminescence study was carried out to identify its possible applicability as a fluorescent probe.

  6. Cobalt-doped nanohydroxyapatite: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies

    Tank, Kashmira P.; Chudasama, Kiran S.; Thaker, Vrinda S.; Joshi, Mihir J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ; HAP) is a major mineral component of the calcified tissues, and it has various applications in medicine and dentistry. In the present investigation, cobalt-doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAP) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-mediated approach and characterized by different techniques. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the amount of doping in Co-HAP. The transmission electron microscopy result suggested the transformation of morphology from needle shaped to spherical type on increasing the doping concentration. The powder XRD study indicated the formation of a new phase of brushite for higher concentration of cobalt. The average particle size and strain were calculated using Williamson–Hall analysis. The average particle size was found to be 30–60 nm. The FTIR study confirmed the presence of various functional groups in the samples. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against four organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri as Gram negative as well as Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram positive. The hemolytic test result suggested that all samples were non-hemolytic. The photoluminescence study was carried out to identify its possible applicability as a fluorescent probe.

  7. Neonatal management and outcome in alloimmune hemolytic disease.

    Ree, Isabelle M C; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; van der Bom, Johanna G; van Klink, Jeanine M M; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2017-07-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) occurs when fetal and neonatal erythroid cells are destroyed by maternal erythrocyte alloantibodies, it leads to anemia and hydrops in the fetus, and hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus in the newborn. Postnatal care consists of intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusions to treat severe hyperbilirubinemia and top-up transfusions to treat early and late anemia. Other postnatal complications have been reported such as thrombocytopenia, iron overload and cholestasis requiring specific management. Areas covered: This review focusses on the current neonatal management and outcome of hemolytic disease and discusses postnatal treatment options as well as literature on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Expert commentary: Despite major advances in neonatal management, multiple issues have to be addressed to optimize postnatal management and completely eradicate kernicterus. Except for strict adherence to guidelines, improvement could be achieved by clarifying the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HDFN. Several pharmacotherapeutic agents should be further researched as alternative treatment options in hyperbilirubinemia, including immunoglobulins, albumin, phenobarbital, metalloporphyrins, zinc, clofibrate and prebiotics. Larger trials are warranted to evaluate EPO, folate and vitamin E in neonates. Long-term follow-up studies are needed in HDFN, especially on thrombocytopenia, iron overload and cholestasis.

  8. Management of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in children

    Grisaru S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Silviu GrisaruUniversity of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Acute renal failure associated with a fulminant, life-threatening systemic disease is rare in previously healthy young children; however, when it occurs, the most common cause is hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. In most cases (90%, this abrupt and devastating illness is a result of ingestion of food or drink contaminated with pathogens that produce very potent toxins. Currently, there are no proven treatment options that can directly inactivate the toxin or effectively interfere with the cascade of destructive events triggered by the toxin once it gains access to the bloodstream and binds its receptor. However, HUS is self-limited, and effective supportive management during the acute phase is proven to be a life saver for children affected by HUS. A minority of childhood HUS cases, approximately 5%, are caused by various genetic mutations causing uncontrolled activation of the complement system. These children, who used to have a poor prognosis leading to end-stage renal disease, now have access to exciting new treatment options that can preserve kidney function and avoid disease recurrences. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of childhood HUS, focusing on a practical approach to best management measures.Keywords: hemolytic, uremic, E.coli O157:H7, thrombotic, microangiopathy, complement system

  9. [Microalbuminuria in pediatric patients diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome].

    Cubillos C, María Paz; Del Salas, Paulina; Zambrano, Pedro O

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by the presence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney failure. It is the leading cause of acute kidney failure in children under 3 years of age. A variable number of patients develop proteinuria, hypertension, and chronic renal failure. To evaluate the renal involvement in pediatric patients diagnosed with HUS using the microalbumin/creatinine ratio. Descriptive concurrent cohort study that analyzed the presence of microalbuminuria in patients diagnosed with HUS between January 2001 and March 2012, who evolved without hypertension and normal renal function (clearance greater than 90ml/min using Schwartz formula). Demographic factors (age, sex), clinical presentation at time of diagnosis, use of antibiotics prior to admission, and need for renal replacement therapy were evaluated. Of the 24 patients studied, 54% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was two years. Peritoneal dialysis was required in 45%, and 33% developed persistent microalbuminuria. Antiproteinuric treatment was introduce in 4 patients, with good response. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range 6 months to 11 years). The serum creatinine returned to normal in all patients during follow up. The percentage of persistent microalbuminuria found in patients with a previous diagnosis of HUS was similar in our group to that described in the literature. Antiproteinuric treatment could delay kidney damage, but further multicenter prospective studies are necessary. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Advanced Prostate Cancer Presenting as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    R. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, consumption thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute renal failure. HUS generally has a dismal prognosis, except when associated with gastroenteritis caused by verotoxin-producing bacteria. Cancer associated HUS is uncommon, and there are only scarce reports on prostate cancer presenting with HUS. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old man presented to the emergency department with oliguria, hematuria, and hematemesis. Clinical evaluation revealed acute renal failure, hemolysis, normal blood-clotting studies, and prostate-specific antigen value of 1000 ng/mL. The patient was started on hemodialysis, ultrafiltration with plasma exchange, and androgen blockade with bicalutamide and completely recovered from HUS. The authors review the 14 published cases on this association. Conclusion. The association of HUS and prostate cancer occurs more frequently in patients with high-grade, clinically advanced prostate cancer. When readily recognized and appropriately treated, HUS does not seem to worsen prognosis in prostate cancer patients.

  11. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: New Developments in Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Olivia Boyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome is defined by the characteristic triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. In children, most cases of HUS are caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, especially Escherichia coli O157:H7. Common vehicles of transmission include ground beef, unpasteurized milk, and municipal or swimming water. Shiga-toxin-associated HUS is a main cause of acute renal failure in young children. Management remains supportive as there is at present no specific therapy to ameliorate the prognosis. Immediate outcome is most often favourable but long-term renal sequelae are frequent due to nephron loss. Atypical HUS represents 5% of cases. In the past 15 years, mutations in complement regulators of the alternative pathway have been identified in almost 60% of cases, leading to excessive complement activation. The disease has a relapsing course and more than half of the patients either die or progress to end-stage renal failure. Recurrence after renal transplantation is frequent.

  12. Hemolytic porcine intestinal Escherichia coli without virulence-associated genes typical of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  13. Positive predictive value of diagnosis coding for hemolytic anemias in the Danish National Patient Register

    Hansen, Dennis Lund; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe; Pedersen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    . Patients with mechanical reason for hemolysis such as an artificial heart valve, and patients with vitamin-B12 or folic acid deficiency were excluded. RESULTS: We identified 412 eligible patients: 249 with a congenital hemolytic anemia diagnosis and 163 with acquired hemolytic anemia diagnosis. In all...

  14. Inhibitory role of acyl homoserine lactones in hemolytic activity and viability of Streptococcus pyogenes M6 S165.

    Saroj, Sunil D; Holmer, Linda; Berengueras, Júlia M; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2017-03-17

    Streptococcus pyogenes an adapted human pathogen asymptomatically colonizes the nasopharynx, among other polymicrobial communities. However, information on the events leading to the colonization and expression of virulence markers subject to interspecies and host-bacteria interactions are limited. The interference of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) with the hemolytic activity and viability of S. pyogenes M6 S165 was examined. AHLs, with fatty acid side chains ≥12 carbon atoms, inhibited hemolytic activity by downregulating the expression of the sag operon involved in the production of streptolysin S. Inhibitory AHLs upregulated the expression of transcriptional regulator LuxR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the interaction of LuxR with the region upstream of sagA. AHL-mediated bactericidal activity observed at higher concentrations (mM range) was an energy-dependent process, constrained by the requirement of glucose and iron. Ferrichrome transporter FtsABCD facilitated transport of AHLs across the streptococcal membrane. The study demonstrates a previously unreported role for AHLs in S. pyogenes virulence.

  15. Matrix vesicles in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque: possible contribution to plaque rupture.

    Bobryshev, Y V; Killingsworth, M C; Lord, R S A; Grabs, A J

    2008-10-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication and leads to acute ischaemic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Calcification has been suggested as a possible indicator of plaque instability. Although the role of matrix vesicles in the initial stages of arterial calcification has been recognized, no studies have yet been carried out to examine a possible role of matrix vesicles in plaque destabilization. Tissue specimens selected for the present study represented carotid specimens obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Serial frozen cross-sections of the tissue specimens were cut and mounted on glass slides. The thickness of the fibrous cap (FCT) in each advanced atherosclerotic lesion, containing a well developed lipid/necrotic core, was measured at its narrowest sites in sets of serial sections. According to established criteria, atherosclerotic plaque specimens were histologically subdivided into two groups: vulnerable plaques with thin fibrous caps (FCT <100 microm) and presumably stable plaques, in which fibrous caps were thicker than 100 microm. Twenty-four carotid plaques (12 vulnerable and 12 presumably stable plaques) were collected for the present analysis of matrix vesicles in fibrous caps. In order to provide a sufficient number of representative areas from each plaque, laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out. The quantification of matrix vesicles in ultrathin sections of vulnerable and stable plaques revealed that the numbers of matrix vesicles were significantly higher in fibrous caps of vulnerable plaques than those in stable plaques (8.908+0.544 versus 6.208+0.467 matrix vesicles per 1.92 microm2 standard area; P= 0.0002). Electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental microanalysis showed that some matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic plaques were undergoing calcification and were characterized by a high content of calcium and phosphorus. The percentage of calcified matrix vesicles

  16. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    Komatsu, Sei; Imai, Atsuko; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  17. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measles antibody: a comparison with haemagglutination inhibition, immunofluorescence and plaque neutralization tests Reação imunoenzimática (ELISA para detecção de anticorpos para o vírus do sarampo: comparação com reações de inibição da hema-glutinação, imunofluorescência indireta e neutralização de placas

    Vanda Akico Ueda Fick de Souza

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measles antibodies was compared with Plaque Neutralization (PRN, Haemagglutination inhibition (HI and Fluorescent antibody (IFA tests in 181 sera from vaccinated children and umbilical cord. Of 179 positive samples by the sensitive PRN, only two, with titers of 8, were negative by ELISA (copositivity of 98.9%. IFA and HI presented, respectively, copo-sitivities of 93.3% and 82.7%. The ELISA presented a high sensitivity as well as a good reproducibility and represents an alternative for the time consuming PRN for detection of low measles antibodies.A reação imunoenzimática (ELISA para determinação de anticorpos para o vírus do sarampo foi comparada com a reação de neutralização de placas (RNP, inibição da hemaglutinação (RIH e imunofluorescência indireta (RIF. Das 179 amostras positivas pela RNP, somente 2, com títulos iguais a 8, se apresentaram negativas por ELISA (copositividade de 98.9%. A RIF e RIH apresentaram, respectivamente, copositividade de 93.3 e 82.7%. ELISA apresentou sensibilidade equivalente à complexa RNP, boa reprodutibilidade e representa uma alternativa para a detecção de baixos títulos de anticorpos contra o sarampo.

  19. Immunologic basis and immunoprophylaxis of RhD induced hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

    Payam Khaja Pasha, Roya; Shokri, Fazel

    2008-12-01

    RhD antigen is the most immunogenic and clinically significant antigen of red blood cells after ABO system. It has historically been associated with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) which is now routinely prevented by the administration of polyclonal anti-D immunoglobulin. This management of HDN has proven to be one of the most successful cases of prophylactic treatment based on antibody mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Despite the increasing efficiency of treatment, the mechanism of action of anti-D is not completely defined. There is a widespread interest in obtaining a reliable therapeutic monoclonal anti-D, due to difficulty of maintaining a pool of high titer volunteer donors for plasma collection and also increasing demand for antenatal prophylaxis and safety issues with plasma derived products. Candidate monoclonal anti-D preparations should demonstrate appropriate functionality in both in vitro and in vivo assays comparable to polyclonal anti-D immunoglobulin. These criteria are reviewed in addition to the factors regulating development of D specific immune response in D negative individuals and its suppression in HDN prophylaxis.

  20. Susceptibility to β-lactams in β-hemolytic streptococci.

    Bonofiglio, Laura; Gagetti, Paula; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Kaufman, Sara; Mollerach, Marta; Toresani, Inés; Vigliarolo, Laura; von Specht, Martha; Lopardo, Horacio A

    2018-03-13

    Group A (GAS), B (GBS), C (GCS) and G (GGS) β-hemolytic streptococci are important human pathogens. They cause infections of different severity and frequency. Nowadays, after 70 years of use, penicillin is still universally active against GAS, GCS and GGS. However, therapeutic failures have been recorded in 2-28% of pharyngitis cases (median: 12%) attributable to different causes. By contrast, some GBS with reduced susceptibility to penicillin have been described, especially in Japan. In this group of bacteria, it is important to highlight that confirmation by reference methods is mandatory when decreased susceptibility to penicillin is suspected as well as checked for the detection of the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-associated Encephalopathy Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

    Hosaka, Takashi; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The encephalopathy that occurs in association with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), has a high mortality rate and patients sometimes present sequelae. We herein describe the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed encephalopathy during the convalescent stage of HUS caused by E.coli O26. Hyperintense lesions were detected in the pons, basal ganglia, and cortex on diffusion-weighted brain MRI. From the onset of HUS encephalopathy, we treated the patient with methylprednisolone (mPSL) pulse therapy alone. Her condition improved, and she did not present sequelae. Our study shows that corticosteroids appear to be effective for the treatment of some patients with HUS encephalopathy.

  2. Anti-M Antibody Induced Prolonged Anemia Following Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Due to Erythropoietic Suppression in 2 Siblings.

    Ishida, Atsushi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Negishi, Yutaka; Tsuiki, Hideki; Arakawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Uchimura, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Toru; Ohashi, Wataru; Takamoto, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) arising from MNSs incompatibility is rare, with few reports of prolonged anemia and reticulocytopenia following HDN. We report the younger of 2 male siblings, both of whom had anti-M-induced HDN and anemia persisting for over a month. Peripheral reticulocytes remained inappropriately low for the degree of anemia, and they needed multiple red cell transfusions. Viral infections were ruled out. Corticosteroids were given for suspected pure red cell aplasia. Anemia and reticulocytopenia subsequently improved. Colony-forming unit erythroid assay revealed erythropoietic suppression of M antigen-positive erythroid precursor cells cultured with maternal or infant sera containing anti-M. In conclusion, maternal anti-M caused HDN and prolonged anemia by erythropoietic suppression in 2 siblings.

  3. Plaque echodensity and textural features are associated with histologic carotid plaque instability.

    Doonan, Robert J; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, Jean P; Lai, Chi; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Corriveau, Marc M; Steinmetz, Oren K; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2016-09-01

    Carotid plaque echodensity and texture features predict cerebrovascular symptomatology. Our purpose was to determine the association of echodensity and textural features obtained from a digital image analysis (DIA) program with histologic features of plaque instability as well as to identify the specific morphologic characteristics of unstable plaques. Patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were recruited and underwent carotid ultrasound imaging. DIA was performed to extract echodensity and textural features using Plaque Texture Analysis software (LifeQ Medical Ltd, Nicosia, Cyprus). Carotid plaque surgical specimens were obtained and analyzed histologically. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce imaging variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine if PCA variables and individual imaging variables predicted histologic features of plaque instability. Image analysis data from 160 patients were analyzed. Individual imaging features of plaque echolucency and homogeneity were associated with a more unstable plaque phenotype on histology. These results were independent of age, sex, and degree of carotid stenosis. PCA reduced 39 individual imaging variables to five PCA variables. PCA1 and PCA2 were significantly associated with overall plaque instability on histology (both P = .02), whereas PCA3 did not achieve statistical significance (P = .07). DIA features of carotid plaques are associated with histologic plaque instability as assessed by multiple histologic features. Importantly, unstable plaques on histology appear more echolucent and homogeneous on ultrasound imaging. These results are independent of stenosis, suggesting that image analysis may have a role in refining the selection of patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PET/CT for atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    Ben-Haim, S.; Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa; Israel, O.; Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi formation are the primary mechanisms of myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Angiography is considered to represent the gold standard technique for imaging of the arterial lumen. However, in recent years it has been realized that the primary determinant of the atherosclerotic plaque stability is the composition of the plaque and other imaging modalities have been suggested. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the knowledge accumulated to present date regarding the potential role of fluo deoxyglucose imaging in the assessment of atherosclerosis and to compare this modality to additional available imaging approaches for the detection of vulnerable plaques

  5. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  6. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs

  7. Rasburicase-induced Hemolytic Anemia in an Adolescent With Unknown Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Akande, Manzilat; Audino, Anthony N; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Rasburicase, used in the prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), may cause hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Although routine screening for G6PD deficiency has been recommended, given the turnaround time for test results and the urgency to treat TLS, such screening may not be feasible. We report a case of rasburicase-induced hemolytic anemia without methemoglobinemia in an adolescent with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, TLS, and previously unrecognized G6PD deficiency. Previous reports of hemolytic anemia with rasburicase are reviewed, mechanisms discussed, and preventative strategies presented.

  8. An improved plating assay for determination of phage titer | Yang ...

    In this study, an improved plating assay was developed for detection of the number of recombinant phage Cap-T7 present in a test solution at a certain dilution point by counting the plaque forming units. The data demonstrated that the improved plating assay is fast, useful, and convenient for the determination of the phage ...

  9. Fatal hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn associated with anti-Jr.

    Peyrard, Thierry; Pham, Bach-Nga; Arnaud, Lionel; Fleutiaux, Sophie; Brossard, Yves; Guerin, Bénédicte; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Rouger, Philippe; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves

    2008-09-01

    Jr(a) is a high-prevalence red cell (RBC) antigen. The clinical significance of anti-Jr(a) is controversial. When hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) occurred, most reported cases were clinically mild. We report the first case of fatal HDFN due to anti-Jr(a). A 28-year-old Caucasian woman with transfusion history was monitored at the 29th week of pregnancy (G4P1). An ultrasound scan showed fetal cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly. An antibody directed against a high-prevalence antigen was detected, but without conclusive identification. An emergency cesarean section was performed at the 36th week. The newborn was hydropic and showed severe anemia. Death occurred 30 hours after birth. Serologic methods were performed to investigate the mother's RBCs and serum. An in vitro functional cellular assay and semiquantitative measurement of anti-Jr(a) were used to determine the clinical significance of the antibody. Anti-Jr(a) was identified in the serum and Jr(a-) phenotype was confirmed. The anti-Jr(a) titer was 1024, with predominant immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and minor IgG4 subclasses. The functional cellular assay was consistent with an antibody unlikely to cause HDFN. Semiquantitative measurement of anti-Jr(a) showed a reactivity equivalent to a 25 IU per mL (5 microg/mL) concentration of anti-D, a value associated with a significant risk of HDFN. This is the first documented case of fatal HDFN due to anti-Jr(a). Therefore, we recommend close monitoring of pregnant women with a high-titer anti-Jr(a), especially those with an incompatible transfusion history and/or multiple pregnancies. This case report provides new arguments about the clinical significance of anti-Jr(a) in the transfusion setting.

  10. PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in dental plaque samples from Haitian adolescents.

    Psoter, Walter J; Ge, Yao; Russell, Stefanie L; Chen, Zhou; Katz, Ralph V; Jean-Charles, Germain; Li, Yihong

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are oral pathogens associated with dental caries and periodontitis, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the colonization of these two microorganisms in the dental plaque of a group of Haitian adolescents using two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, standard PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Fifty-four pooled supra-gingival plaque samples and 98 pooled sub-gingival plaque samples were obtained from 104 12- to19-year-old rural-dwelling Haitians. The total genomic DNA of bacteria was isolated from these samples, and all participants also received caries and periodontal examinations. Caries prevalence was 42.2%, and the mean decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) was 2.67 ± 5.3. More than half of the adolescents (53.3%) experienced periodontal pockets (Community Periodontal Index score ≥3). S. mutans was detected in 67.3% by qPCR and 38.8% by PCR of the supra-gingival plaque samples (p plaque samples. Neither age nor gender was significantly correlated to the bacterial colonization. The results demonstrated a moderate-to-high prevalence of S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitans in the Haitian adolescent population, and qPCR is more sensitive than standard PCR in field conditions. These findings suggest that qPCR should be considered for field oral epidemiologic studies and may be necessary in investigations having major logistic challenges.

  11. Lung papillary adenocarcinoma complicated with paraneoplastic autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A case report

    Xing, Limin; Wang, Huaquan; Qu, Wen; Fang, Fang; Dong, Qi-e; Shao, Zonghong

    2014-01-01

    A middle-aged woman presented at our facility and was diagnosed after surgery with lung papillary adenocarcinoma. Seven years earlier, she had suffered from autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), which was refractory. Following lung surgery, the AIHA was cured.

  12. Proteolytic activity and cooperative hemolytic effect of dermatophytes with different species of bacteria

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This study indicated that hemolysin and proteolytic enzymes potentially play a role in dermatophyte pathogenesis and S. aureus could be considered as a main bacterium for creation of co-hemolytic effect in association with dermatophyte species.

  13. Study of the optimal reaction conditions for assay of the mouse alternative complement pathway

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Klerx, J.P.A.M.; Willers, J.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The optimal reaction conditions for hemolytic assay of alternative complement pathway activity in mouse serum were investigated. A microtiter system was used, in which a number of 7.5×106 rabbit erythrocytes per test well appeared to be optimal. Rabbit erythrocytes were superior as target cells over

  14. A Rare Case; Hemolytic Disease of Newborn Associated with Anti-jkb

    İlknur Tolunay; Meral Oruç; Orkun Tolunay

    2015-01-01

    Jka and Jkb antibodies (Kidd blood group system) can cause acute and delayed type transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of newborn. Jka and Jkb antibodies are seen after events like blood transfusions, pregnancy, abortion and curettage. Hemolytic disease of newborn related to Kidd-Jkb incompatibility is rare and mostly has a good prognosis. The patient was consulted to our department because of 20 hours of jaundice after birth. He was treated with intensive phot...

  15. Immunoglobulin transfusion in hemolytic disease of the newborn: place in therapy

    Mundy CA; Bhatia J

    2015-01-01

    Cynthia A Mundy, Jatinder Bhatia Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Georgia Regents University, Children's Hospital of Georgia, GA, USA Abstract: Hemolytic disease of the newborn continues to be a common neonatal disorder that requires a comprehensive understanding on the part of those caring for infants. Common treatments include hydration and phototherapy. Exchange transfusion is used in severe hemolytic disease, but infants undergoing this treatment are exposed to ...

  16. [Contribution of blue-green pigments to hemolytic activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultural fluid].

    Pyzh, A É; Nikandrov, V N

    2011-01-01

    To assess the contribution of blue-green pigments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to hemolytic activity of its cultural fluid. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eight hospital strains and reference strain ATCC 15442 were used. Growth dynamics of strains as well as features of accumulation of hemolytic and phospholipase activity were studied. Purified samples of pyoverdin and pyocyanin were extracted by gel-chromatography and chloroform extraction methods. Hemolytic and lecitinase activities of the samples as well as effect of active oxygen scavengers and chelating agents on these activities were studied. Dynamics of accumulation of hemolytic activity significantly differed from that of phospholipase activity when strains were grown in liquid medium. Chromatographic separation of the pigments from cultural fluid supernatants sharply reduced its hemolytic activity. Purified samples of pyoverdin and pyocyanin were capable to lyse erythrocytes and chicken egg lecitin. These characteristics of the pigments were inhibited by nitroblue tetrazolium and sensitive to chelating agents. Conclusion. Pyoverdin and pyocyanin of pathogenic strains of P. aeruginosa are capable to lyse erythrocytes and suspension of purified chicken egg lecitin, they contribute to total hemolytic activity of pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas, which is not determined only by phospholipase C produced by microorganism. Lytic activity of the pigments is blocked by nitroblue tetrazolium and susceptible to some chelating agents. Apparently, this activity is mediated by superoxide radical and determined by presence of metals with transient valence in pigments' molecules.

  17. Intravenous Immunoglobulin G Treatment in ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, is it Myth or Real?

    Beken, Serdar; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Altuntas, Nilgun; Unal, Sezin; Turan, Ozden; Onal, Esra; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koc, Esin; Atalay, Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Intravenous Immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy has been used as a component of the treatment of hemolytic disease of the newborn. There is still no consensus on its use in ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn routinely. The aim of this study is to determine whether administration of IVIG to newborns with ABO incompatibility is necessary. One hundred and seventeen patients with ABO hemolytic disease and positive Coombs test were enrolled into the study. The subjects were healthy except jaundice. Infants were divided into two groups: Group I (n = 71) received one dose of IVIG (1 g/kg) and LED phototherapy whereas Group II (n = 46) received only LED phototherapy. One patient received erythrocyte transfusion in Group I, no exchange transfusion was performed in both groups. Mean duration of phototherapy was 3.1 ± 1.3 days in Group I and 2.27 ± 0.7 days in Group II (p hemolytic disease. Meticulus follow-up of infants with ABO hemolytic disease and LED phototherapy decreases morbidity. IVIG failed to show preventing hemolysis in ABO hemolytic disease.

  18. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya [Department of Cardiac-Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Yadav, Rakesh [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Vani, V. C. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik, E-mail: drpratikkumar@gmail.com [Department of Cardiac-Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Mandal, Susama R. [Department of Medical Physics Unit IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  19. Approach To Unstable Plaque In Carotid Disease

    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk of cerebral infarction due to thrombo emboli originating  from carotid artery disease estimated to be near 15%, and this risk  is closely associated with the severity of luminal stenosis. But at the same time characteristics  of the plaque should be taken into account for therapeutic planning when the patient is asymptomatic and the diameter of the stenosis does not reach the threshold of 70%. Search for markers of plaque vulnerability, instability, or thromboembolic potential as complementary to the degree of the luminal stenosis in stroke risk prediction should be considered .These morphologic features of carotid plaques are increasingly believed to be one of those markers that could carry further prognostic information, and early recognition of these plaques features may identify a high-risk subgroup of patients who might particularly benefit from aggressive interventions with aggressive medical treatment. Color and duplex Doppler sonography  evaluates both  morphologic and hemodynamic   abnormalitie of carotid. Echogensity, degree of stenosis and plaque surface features are essential parameters of morphological abnormality.

  20. Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation.

    Baldewsing, Radj A; Schaar, Johannes A; Mastik, Frits; Oomens, Cees W J; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2005-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially suited for thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs), i.e., plaques with a media region containing a lipid pool covered by a cap. Reconstruction is done by a minimization algorithm that matches the strain image output, calculated with a parametric finite element model (PFEM) representation of a TCFA, to an elastogram by iteratively updating the PFEM geometry and material parameters. These geometry parameters delineate the TCFA media, lipid pool and cap regions by circles. The material parameter for each region is a Young's modulus, EM, EL, and EC, respectively. The method was successfully tested on computer-simulated TCFAs (n = 2), one defined by circles, the other by tracing TCFA histology, and additionally on a physical phantom (n = 1) having a stiff wall (measured EM = 16.8 kPa) with an eccentric soft region (measured EL = 4.2 kPa). Finally, it was applied on human coronary plaques in vitro (n = 1) and in vivo (n = 1). The corresponding simulated and measured elastograms of these plaques showed radial strain values from 0% up to 2% at a pressure differential of 20, 20, 1, 20, and 1 mmHg respectively. The used/reconstructed Young's moduli [kPa] were for the circular plaque EL = 50/66, EM = 1500/1484, EC = 2000/2047, for the traced plaque EL = 25/1, EM = 1000/1148, EC = 1500/1491, for the phantom EL = 4.2/4 kPa, EM = 16.8/16, for the in vitro plaque EL = n.a./29, EM = n.a./647, EC = n.a./1784 kPa and for the in vivo plaque EL = n.a./2, EM = n.a./188, Ec = n.a./188 kPa.

  1. Alloimmunization in autoimmune hemolytic anemia patient: The differential adsorption approach

    Ravi C Dara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients of β-thalassemia major are dependent on regular blood transfusions for their entire lifetime. Development of antibodies against red blood cell (RBC antigen which may be alloantibody or autoantibody, several times as a result of frequent red cell component transfusions, further complicates the subsequent transfusion therapy. Among the autoantibodies, warm-reactive autoantibodies are commoner and interfere in the pretransfusion testing. These RBC autoantibodies present in patient's serum potentially react with all the cells of antibody identification panel giving “pan-reactive” picture and making alloantibody identification complex. In this report, we present our approach in a thalassemia patient who presented with warm-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia, low hemoglobin of 5.8 g/dl, and three significant alloantibodies (anti-D, anti-S, and anti-Jk b which were masked by pan-reactive warm autoantibody(s. Differential adsorption was used to unmask underlying alloantibodies. We suggest that differential adsorption procedure is an effective and efficient method for autoantibody adsorption, detection, and identification of masked alloantibody(s, especially in patients with low hemoglobin and history of recent blood transfusion.

  2. [Wavelength Selection in Hemolytic Evaluation Systems with Spectrophotometry Detection].

    Zhang, Hong; Su, Baochang; Ye, Xunda; Luo, Man

    2016-04-01

    Spectrophotometry is a simple hemolytic evaluation method commonly used in new drugs,biomedical materials and blood products.It is for the quantitative analysis of the characteristic absorption peaks of hemoglobin.Therefore,it is essential to select the correct detection wavelength when the evaluation system has influences on the conformation of hemoglobin.Based on the study of changes in the characteristic peaks over time of the hemolysis supernatant in four systems,namely,cell culture medium,phosphate buffered saline(PBS),physiological saline and banked blood preservation solution,using continuous wavelength scanning,the selections of detection wavelength were proposed as follows.In the cell culture medium system,the wavelength of 415 nm should be selected within 4h;,near 408 nm should be selected within 4~72h.In PBS system,within 4h,541 nm,577nm or 415 nm should be selected;4~72h,541 nm,577nm or near 406 nm should be selected.In physiological saline system,within 4h,414 nm should be selected;4~72h,near 405 nm should be selected;within 12 h,541nm or 577 nm could also be selected.In banked blood preservation solution system,within 72 h,415nm,540 nm or 576 nm should be selected.

  3. A Rare Association of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia with Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Kavita Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old male presented with dyspnea on exertion for at least two months. He also complained of progressive dysphagia and weight loss of 35 pounds over the last eight months. Initial blood tests showed hemoglobin of 6.1 g/dl, reticulocytes count of 19.7%, total bilirubin of 3.2 mg/dl, lactate dehydrogenase of 600 U/L, and haptoglobin of less than 8 mg/dl, and direct Coombs test was positive for warm immunoglobulin G. The impression was autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA. The evaluation of dysphagia with esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a single irregular 4 cm malignant appearing ulcerated mass at the incisura angularis of the stomach. The mass was confirmed as adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Diagnostic laparoscopy was positive for malignant cells and he was diagnosed with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Other extensive workup to determine the etiology of AIHA was negative (described in detail below. Surgery was deferred primarily due to metastasis of cancer. Initially, hemoglobin was stabilized by intravenous methylprednisolone, high dose immunoglobulins, and packed red blood cell transfusions. After a few weeks, hemoglobin started trending down again. The patient was weaned off steroids and paradoxically IgG-mediated autohemolysis was controlled with the initiation of palliative chemotherapy. Our case highlights a rare occurrence of AIHA in association with gastric adenocarcinoma.

  4. [Detection and analysis of ABO Hemolytic disease in newborn].

    Lin, Zhao-Xia; Dong, Qing-Song

    2014-10-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the incidence and the model of ABO hemolytic disease in newborn (ABO-HDN) and the results of the three hemolysis test, so as to provide the evidences for clinical diagnosis and therapy. A total of 227 cases of maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility from January 2013 to October 2013 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University were enrolled in the study. The ABO blood group of newborn and mother was detemined and three hemolysis tests (direct antiglobulin test, free antibody test, RBC antibody release test) were performed. The results indicated that in 227 cases of ABO incompatible pregnancies,186 cases were ABO-HDN (81.94%). There was no significant difference in the incidence between O-A and O-B incompatible pregnancies (P > 0.05). The positive ratio of direct antiglobulin test, free antibody test and RBC antibody release test were 59.14% (110/186), 84.78% (156/186) and 94.62% (176/186) respectively. It is concluded that the incidence of ABO-HDN is high. The main models of ABO-HDN were O-A and O-B. There was no significant difference in the incidence between O-A and O-B incompatible pregnancies. Three hemolysis tests are high sensitivity and are helpful in early diagnosis and early treatment of HDN.

  5. Management of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in children.

    Grisaru, Silviu

    2014-01-01

    Acute renal failure associated with a fulminant, life-threatening systemic disease is rare in previously healthy young children; however, when it occurs, the most common cause is hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In most cases (90%), this abrupt and devastating illness is a result of ingestion of food or drink contaminated with pathogens that produce very potent toxins. Currently, there are no proven treatment options that can directly inactivate the toxin or effectively interfere with the cascade of destructive events triggered by the toxin once it gains access to the bloodstream and binds its receptor. However, HUS is self-limited, and effective supportive management during the acute phase is proven to be a life saver for children affected by HUS. A minority of childhood HUS cases, approximately 5%, are caused by various genetic mutations causing uncontrolled activation of the complement system. These children, who used to have a poor prognosis leading to end-stage renal disease, now have access to exciting new treatment options that can preserve kidney function and avoid disease recurrences. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of childhood HUS, focusing on a practical approach to best management measures.

  6. Complement Mutations in Diacylglycerol Kinase-ε–Associated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Sánchez Chinchilla, Daniel; Pinto, Sheila; Hoppe, Bernd; Adragna, Marta; Lopez, Laura; Justa Roldan, Maria Luisa; Peña, Antonia; Lopez Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by vascular endothelial damage caused by complement dysregulation. Consistently, complement inhibition therapies are highly effective in most patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Recently, it was shown that a significant percentage of patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome carry mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, an intracellular protein with no obvious role in complement. These data support an alternative, complement-independent mechanism leading to thrombotic microangiopathy that has implications for treatment of early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. To get additional insights into this new form of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, the diacylglycerol kinase-ε gene in a cohort with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was analyzed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Eighty-three patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (<2 years) enrolled in the Spanish atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome registry between 1999 and 2013 were screened for mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε. These patients were also fully characterized for mutations in the genes encoding factor H, membrane cofactor protein, factor I, C3, factor B, and thrombomodulin CFHRs copy number variations and rearrangements, and antifactor H antibodies. Results Four patients carried mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, one p.H536Qfs*16 homozygote and three compound heterozygotes (p.W322*/p.P498R, two patients; p.Q248H/p.G484Gfs*10, one patient). Three patients also carried heterozygous mutations in thrombomodulin or C3. Extensive plasma infusions controlled atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrences and prevented renal failure in the two patients with diacylglycerol kinase-ε and thrombomodulin mutations. A positive response to plasma infusions and complement inhibition treatment was also observed in the patient with concurrent diacylglycerol

  7. Complement mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε-associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Sánchez Chinchilla, Daniel; Pinto, Sheila; Hoppe, Bernd; Adragna, Marta; Lopez, Laura; Justa Roldan, Maria Luisa; Peña, Antonia; Lopez Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2014-09-05

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by vascular endothelial damage caused by complement dysregulation. Consistently, complement inhibition therapies are highly effective in most patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Recently, it was shown that a significant percentage of patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome carry mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, an intracellular protein with no obvious role in complement. These data support an alternative, complement-independent mechanism leading to thrombotic microangiopathy that has implications for treatment of early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. To get additional insights into this new form of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, the diacylglycerol kinase-ε gene in a cohort with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was analyzed. Eighty-three patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (<2 years) enrolled in the Spanish atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome registry between 1999 and 2013 were screened for mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε. These patients were also fully characterized for mutations in the genes encoding factor H, membrane cofactor protein, factor I, C3, factor B, and thrombomodulin CFHRs copy number variations and rearrangements, and antifactor H antibodies. Four patients carried mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, one p.H536Qfs*16 homozygote and three compound heterozygotes (p.W322*/p.P498R, two patients; p.Q248H/p.G484Gfs*10, one patient). Three patients also carried heterozygous mutations in thrombomodulin or C3. Extensive plasma infusions controlled atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrences and prevented renal failure in the two patients with diacylglycerol kinase-ε and thrombomodulin mutations. A positive response to plasma infusions and complement inhibition treatment was also observed in the patient with concurrent diacylglycerol kinase-ε and C3 mutations. Data suggest that complement dysregulation influences

  8. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  9. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R.

    1991-01-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 x 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications

  10. Antimicrobial, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities of some new N ...

    Triton X-100 and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were employed as references. Thrombolytic activity assay. Thrombolytic activity was assayed according to. Mannan et al [16] using a bovine blood sample. PBS and streptokinase were employed as references. Activity was determined by the following equation, where X ...

  11. Impact of bacteriophage Saint3 carriage on the immune evasion capacity and hemolytic potential of Staphylococcus aureus CC398.

    Jung, Philipp; Abdelbary, Mohamed M H; Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra; Geisel, Jürgen; Herrmann, Mathias; Witte, Wolfgang; Cuny, Christiane; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of clonal complex 398 (CC398) are frequently found in Europe, and recent studies highlighted the importance of mobile genetic element (MGE) exchange for host adaptation of this lineage. Of note, one of the MGEs commonly found in human S. aureus isolates, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) harboring bacteriophage Saint3, is very rarely found in LA-MRSA CC398 isolates obtained from farm animals, but more frequently found in LA-MRSA CC398 that were retransmitted to humans. Here, we analyzed with a set of S. aureus CC398 isolates harboring/lacking φSaint3 how this MGE affects (i) phagocytosis of CC398 isolates by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), and (ii) hemolysis of human and livestock-derived erythrocytes. Isolates lacking φSaint3 were more efficiently phagocytosed by human PMNs in whole blood phagocytosis assays than isolates harboring this bacteriophage, irrespective of their origin. Notably, a similar effect was observed when equine blood was utilized, but not detected with porcine blood. Integration of φSaint3 into LA-MRSA CC398 strains lacking this MGE confirmed these findings, as φSaint3-harboring recipients were again less efficiently ingested by PMNs in equine and human blood than their parental strains. Integration of φSaint3 strongly reduced the hemolytic potential of the culture supernatants against human-derived erythrocytes, and to a smaller extent also against porcine-derived erythrocytes, while φSaint3 integration only slightly affected the hemolytic capacities against equine-derived red blood cells. The significant protective effect of φSaint3 against phagocytosis by equine PMNs suggests that the host specificity of the IEC components might be broader than currently assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  13. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.

    Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

    1990-09-01

    Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and

  14. Anti-hemolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Solenostemon Monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq. leaves in 2-butoxyethanol-hemolytic induced rats

    Osikoya, Iyanuoluwa Olubukola; Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo; Okafor, Adaobi Mary-Joy

    2018-04-01

    Traditional medicine is largely used to sustain global health requirements. Determining the biological activities of Solenostemon monostachyus is essential to provide a platform for treating hemolytic diseases. The methanolic extract of the leaves was orally administered for 5 days at 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of body weight doses to determine concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the activities of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) of plasma in the kidney, spleen and liver of 2-butoxyethanol hemolytic-induced rats. A dose of 150 mg of extract/kg of body weight significantly increased (p<0.05) HO-1 in the kidney. COX-2 activity was significantly reduced (p<0.05) mainly in the kidney untreated hemolytic induced rats. All treatments significantly increased (p<0.05) TNF-α concentrations in the kidney and spleen. HO-1 gene expression was downregulated, indicating stress reduction in the liver, by an extract dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight and caffeic acid and was upregulated, indicating stress in the spleen, by an extract dose of 150-200 mg/kg of body weight. A dose of 200-250 mg of extract/kg of body weight resulted in relatively good anti-inflammatory properties, and may possess healing properties in patients with hemolytic related diseases.

  15. Specific features of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for fetal hemolytic disease

    A. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the characteristics of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine blood transfusion for Rh-induced fetal hemolytic disease. It is shown that the early diagnosis and detection of the signs of fetal hemolytic disease, and intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion may prolong pregnancy, ensure the birth of a baby with normal anthropometric indicators, optimize his/her neonatal period and prognosis of severe hemolytic disease in the fetus and newborn.

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy for significant hyperbilirubinemia in ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Miqdad, A M; Abdelbasit, O B; Shaheed, M M; Seidahmed, M Z; Abomelha, A M; Arcala, O P

    2004-09-01

    Although intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy has been reported in hyperbilirubinemia of Rh hemolytic disease, its use in ABO hemolytic disease has been reported in only a few studies. In our institute we have observed that almost 30% of babies with hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO hemolytic disease required exchange transfusion. To determine whether administration of IVIG to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO hemolytic disease would reduce the need for exchange transfusion as a primary goal in these babies. This was a prospective study involving all newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to direct Coombs-positive ABO hemolytic disease. All healthy term babies with ABO hemolytic disease with positive direct Coombs test in the period between 2000 and 2002 were identified. Significant hyperbilirubinemia was defined as hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy and/or rising by 8.5 micromol/l per h (0.5 mg/dl per h) or more to require exchange transfusion. Babies were randomly assigned into two groups: group 1 (study group) received phototherapy plus IVIG (500 mg/kg); and group 2 (control group) received phototherapy alone. Exchange transfusion was carried out in any group if at any time the bilirubin level reached 340 micromol/l (20 mg/dl) or more, or rose by 8.5 micromol/l per h (0.5 mg/dl per h) in group 2. A total of 112 babies were enrolled over 2 years, 56 in each group. Exchange transfusion was carried out in four babies in the study group, while 16 babies in the control group required exchange. Late anemia was not of concern in either group. No adverse effects related to IVIG administration were recorded. Administration of IVIG to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO hemolytic disease with positive direct Coomb's test reduces the need for exchange transfusion without producing immediate adverse effects.

  17. N-terminal amphipathic helix as a trigger of hemolytic activity in antimicrobial peptides: a case study in latarcins.

    Polyansky, Anton A; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Volynsky, Pavel E; Vorontsova, Olga V; Samsonova, Olga V; Egorova, Natalya S; Krylov, Nicolay A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

    2009-07-21

    In silico structural analyses of sets of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are performed. Differences between hemolytic and non-hemolytic AMPs are revealed in organization of their N-terminal region. A parameter related to hydrophobicity of the N-terminal part is proposed as a measure of the peptide propensity to exhibit hemolytic and other unwanted cytotoxic activities. Based on the information acquired, a rational approach for selective removal of these properties in AMPs is suggested. A proof of concept is gained through engineering specific mutations that resulted in elimination of the hemolytic activity of AMPs (latarcins) while leaving the beneficial antimicrobial effect intact.

  18. Radiation resistance of a hemolytic micrococcus isolated from chicken meat

    Tan, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on a highly radiation-resistant hemolytic micrococcus isolated from chicken meat were studied. NaCl tolerance and gamma radiation resistance of the cells were growth phase-related. The cells were resistant to injury from drying or freezing/thawing. Under certain conditions, cells in the frozen state required approximately 5 Mrad to inactivate 90% of the population; 0.2 Mrad injured an equivalent proportion. Survival curve of the cells heated at 60 0 C showed a unique pattern which was in three distinct phases. Heat-stressed cells were much more sensitive to radiation inactivation than unheated cells. When suspended in fresh m-Plate Count Broth (PCB), the injured cells repaired without multiplication during incubation at 32 0 C. The repair process in this bacterium, however, was slower compared to thermally injured organisms studied by other workers. An improved replica-plating technique, was devised for isolation of radiation-sensitive mutants of pigmented bacteria. A simple method to demonstrate radiation-inducible radiation resistance in microbial cells was developed. The new method required neither washing/centrifugation nor procedures for cell enumeration. Mutagenesis treatment of radiation-resistant micrococcal bacterium with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) followed by FPR and screening steps resulted in isolation of two radiation-sensitive mutants. The more sensitive mutant strain, designated as 702, was seven times as sensitive to gamma or UC radiation as the wild type. No apparent difference was observed between 702 and the wild type in (1) cell morphology, colonial morphology, and pigment production or (2) tolerance to NaCl, drying/storage, freezing/thawing, and heating. Sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment (for curing) of wild type did not result in isolation of a radiation-sensitive mutant

  19. Phenotype commitment in vascular smooth muscle cells derived from coronary atherosclerotic plaques: differential gene expression of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    ML Rossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Unstable angina and myocardial infarction are the clinical manifestations of the abrupt thrombotic occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery as a result of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque rupture or fissuring, and the exposure of highly thrombogenic material to blood. It has been demonstrated that the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and impaired bioavailabilty of nitric oxide (NO are among the most important mechanisms involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. It has also been suggested that a NO imbalance in coronary arteries may be involved in myocardial ischemia as a result of vasomotor dysfunction triggering plaque rupture and the thrombotic response. We used 5’ nuclease assays (TaqMan™ PCRs to study gene expression in coronary plaques collected by means of therapeutic directional coronary atherectomy from 15 patients with stable angina (SA and 15 with acute coronary syndromes (ACS without ST elevation. Total RNA was extracted from the 30 plaques and the cDNA was amplified in order to determine endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression. Analysis of the results showed that the expression of eNOS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in the plaques from the ACS patients. Furthermore, isolated VSMCs from ACS and SA plaques confirmed the above pattern even after 25 plating passages. In situ RT-PCR was also carried out to co-localize the eNOS messengers and the VSMC phenotype.

  20. [A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Wu, Wei; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    To develop an assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) based on double antibody sandwich ELISA. A double antibody sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of SFTSV based on SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein specific poly- and monoclonal antibodies, procedures were optimized and evaluated. This ELISA based titration assay was compared with fluorescence assasy and plaque assay based titration method. The results suggested that the titers obtained by ELISA based method are consistent with those obtained by IFA based method (R = 0.999) and the plaque assay titration method (R = 0.949). The novel ELISA based titration method with high sensitivity and specificity is easy to manage and perform, and can overcome the subjectivity associated with result determination of the fluorescence assay and plaque assay based methods. The novel ELISA based titration method can also be applied to high throughput detection.

  1. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease.

  2. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

    Zhonghua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques.

  3. Vascular Plaque Determination for Stroke Risk Assessment

    2017-10-01

    accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive, carotid plaque 16. SECURITY...stroke, cerebrovascular accident, carotid endarterectomy, ultrasound, spectral analysis, tissue characterization, machine learning , noninvasive...Introduction 4 2. Keywords 4 3. Accomplishments 4 4. Impact 9 5. Changes/Problems 10 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating

  4. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms such...

  5. Molecular determination of RHD zygosity: predicting risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn related to anti-D.

    Pirelli, Kevin J; Pietz, Bradley C; Johnson, Susan T; Pinder, Holly L; Bellissimo, Daniel B

    2010-12-01

    Development of an accurate molecular method for paternal RHD zygosity to predict risk to a fetus for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) related to anti-D. Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) was used to detect RHD exons 5 and 7, using RHCE exon 7 as an internal control. The genotype and zygosity were determined from the peak area ratios of RHD exon 5 or 7 to RHCE exon 7. We tested 25 Caucasian and 25 African American (AA) samples whose zygosity was predicted from the Rh phenotype and an alternate molecular method. In addition, we tested 71 paternal samples from prenatal cases where fetal testing was performed. RHD/RHCE ratios clearly distinguished the RHD/D and RHD/d genotypes. RHD variants were recognized when RHD exon 5 copy number was discordant with exon 7. The molecular assay identified eight cases where the phenotype incorrectly assigned zygosity and we observed three false-negatives in the hybrid Rhesus box assay. The prenatal results were consistent with the zygosity determined for the paternal samples in our study. This QF-PCR method accurately determines RHD zygosity in Caucasians and AAs and will help predict the risk that a fetus will inherit RHD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni effect on the hemolytic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Sansano, S; Rivas, A; Pina-Pérez, M C; Martinez, A; Rodrigo, D

    2017-06-05

    The effect of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the hemolytic potential of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by means of the assessment of the Listeriolysin O (LLO) production. The three factors under study, stevia concentration in the range [0-2.5] % (w/v), incubation temperature (10 and 37°C), and exposure time (0-65h) significantly affected (p≤0.05) the hemolytic activity of L. monocytogenes. Results showed that at the lower incubation temperature the hemolytic potential of the bacterium was significantly reduced, from 100% at 37°C to 8% at 10°C (after 65h of incubation) in unsupplemented substrate (0% stevia). Irrespective of the temperature, 10 or 37°C, supplementation of the medium with stevia at 2.5 % (w/v) reduced the bacterium's hemolytic activity by a maximum of 100%. Furthermore, the time of exposure to 2.5 % (w/v) stevia concentration was also a significant factor reducing the hemolytic capability of L. monocytogenes. The possibility of reducing the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes (hemolysis) by exposure to stevia should be confirmed in real food matrices, opening a research niche with a valuable future impact on food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to multiple maternal antibodies.

    Markham, Kara Beth; Rossi, Karen Q; Nagaraja, Haikady N; O'Shaughnessy, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether women with combinations of red blood cell antibodies are more likely to develop significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn than those with single antibodies. A retrospective exposure cohort study was conducted of pregnant women with red blood cell antibodies. The development of significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was then compared between patients with single antibodies and those with multiple antibodies. Data analysis was limited to pregnancies delivering since the year 2000. Thirteen percent of the patients referred to our program had multiple red blood cell antibodies. Odds of developing significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn for patients with anti-Rh(D) combined with at least 1 additional red blood cell antibody were 3.65 times the odds for women with anti-Rh(D) antibodies in isolation (95% confidence interval, 1.84-7.33). In the setting of multiple antibodies including anti-Rh(D), Rh-positive fetuses/neonates have an increased odds of developing significant hemolytic disease even if the fetus is negative for the other corresponding red blood cell antigen. Women with multiple red blood cell antibodies are more likely to develop significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn than those with a single antibody especially in the presence of anti-(Rh)D. This pathophysiology may suggest a more aggressive immune response in women who develop more than 1 red blood cell antibody. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescence immunoassay for detecting periodontal bacterial pathogens in plaque.

    Wolff, L F; Anderson, L; Sandberg, G P; Aeppli, D M; Shelburne, C E

    1991-01-01

    A particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay has been modified into a bacterial concentration fluorescence immunoassay (BCFIA) to rapidly detect periodontopathic bacteria in human plaque samples. The BCFIA utilizes fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the lipopolysaccharide of selected gram-negative plaque bacteria. Microorganisms closely associated with periodontal disease that can be identified in plaque with the BCFIA include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bac...

  9. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].

    Huang, Z; Luan, Q X

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the plaque staining image by using image analysis software, to verify the maneuverability, practicability and repeatability of this technique, and to evaluate the influence of different plaque stains. In the study, 30 volunteers were enrolled from the new dental students of Peking University Health Science Center in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The digital images of the anterior teeth were acquired after plaque stained according to filming standardization.The image analysis was performed using Image Pro Plus 7.0, and the Quigley-Hein plaque indexes of the anterior teeth were evaluated. The plaque stain area percentage and the corresponding dental plaque index were highly correlated,and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.776 (Pchart showed only a few spots outside the 95% consistency boundaries. The different plaque stains image analysis results showed that the difference of the tooth area measurements was not significant, while the difference of the plaque area measurements significant (P<0.01). This method is easy in operation and control,highly related to the calculated percentage of plaque area and traditional plaque index, and has good reproducibility.The different plaque staining method has little effect on image segmentation results.The sensitive plaque stain for image analysis is suggested.

  10. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid ultrasound atherosclerosis measurements, including those of the arterial wall and plaque, provide a way to monitor patients at risk of vascular events. Our objective was to examine carotid ultrasound plaque texture measurements and the change in carotid plaque text...

  11. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  12. Plaque reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.

    Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M

    2004-10-01

    This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time.

  13. Initial stress in biomechanical models of atherosclerotic plaques

    Speelman, L.; Akyildiz, A.C.; Adel, den B.; Wentzel, J.J.; Steen, van der A.F.W.; Virmani, R.; Weerd, van der L.; Jukema, J.W.; Poelmann, R.E.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Gijsen, F.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the underlying cause for the majority of acute strokes and myocardial infarctions. Rupture of the plaque occurs when the stress in the plaque exceeds the strength of the material locally. Biomechanical stress analyses are commonly based on pressurized

  14. 3D Fiber Orientation in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques

    A.C. Akyildiz (Ali); C.-K. Chai (Chen-Ket); C.W.J. Oomens (Cees); A. van der Lugt (Aad); F.P.T. Baaijens (Frank); G.J. Strijkers (Gustav); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary trigger of fatal cardiovascular events. Fibrillar collagen in atherosclerotic plaques and their directionality are anticipated to play a crucial role in plaque rupture. This study aimed assessing 3D fiber orientations and architecture in

  15. Comparative study of the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of nematocyst venoms from the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye and Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye

    Pang, Min; Xu, Jintao; Liu, Yunlong; Zhang, Xuelei

    2017-10-01

    Two species of jellyfish, Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye and Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye, have occurred off coastal areas of the northeastern China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea in recent years. They influence marine ecosystem safety and fishery production, and also pose a risk to human health. The current study examined the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of crude venoms extracted from the nematocysts of C. nozakii and N. nomurai. The results showed that there were more nematocysts on tentacles from C. nozakii than on tentacles of the same length from N. nomurai. The protein concentration per nematocyst extracted from N. nomurai was higher than that from C. nozakii. Both nematocyst venoms showed dose- and time-dependent hemolytic activity on erythrocytes from chicken, pigeon, and sheep, with sheep erythrocytes being the most sensitive, with EC50 values of 69.69 and 63.62 μg/mL over a 30-min exposure with N. nomurai and C. nozakii nematocyst venoms, respectively. A cytotoxic assay of both jellyfish venoms on A431 human epidermal carcinoma cells resulted in IC50 values of 68.6 and 40.9 μg/mL after 24-h incubation, respectively, with venom from C. nozakii showing stronger cytotoxic activity than that from N. nomurai. The results of current study indicate that nematocyst venom from C. nozakii had stronger hemolytic and cytotoxic activities than that from N. nomurai and, thus, C. nozakii might be more harmful to the health of humans and other species than are N. nomurai when they appear in coastal waters.

  16. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity of extract and various fractions of Maytenus royleanus leaves.

    Shabbir, Maria; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Saeed, Naima

    2013-06-22

    Maytenus royleanus is traditionally used in gastro-intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol extract of leaves and its derived fractions for various antioxidant assays and for its potential against lipid peroxidation and hemolytic activity. Various parameters including scavenging of free-radicals (DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical), hydrogen peroxide scavenging, Fe3+ to Fe2+ reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity were investigated. Methanol extract and its derived fractions were also subjected for chemical constituents. LC-MS was also performed on the methanol extract. Qualitative analysis of methanol extract exhibited the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. LC-MS chromatogram indicated the composition of diverse compounds including flavonoids, phenolics and phytoestrogens. Methanol extract, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions constituted the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and showed a strong correlation coefficient with the IC50 values for the scavenging of DPPH, hydrogen peroxide radicals, superoxide radicals, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic efficacy. Moreover, n-butanol fraction showed the highest scavenging activity for ABTS radicals and for reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. Present results suggested the therapeutic potential of Maytenus royleanus leaves, in particular, methanol extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction as therapeutic agent against free-radical associated damages. The protective potential of the extract and or fraction may be attributed due to the high concentration of phenolic, flavonoid, tannins and terpenoids.

  17. Comparative Study of Esterase and Hemolytic Activities in Clinically Important Candida Species, Isolated From Oral Cavity of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Individuals.

    Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Poormohamadi, Farzad; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus as a chronic metabolic disease occurs in patients with partial or complete deficiency of insulin secretion or disorder in action of insulin on tissue. The disease is known to provide conditions for overgrowth of Candida species. Candida spp. cause candidiasis by many virulence factors such as esterase, hemolysin and phospholipase. This study aimed to compare esterase and hemolytic activity in various Candida species isolated from oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Swab samples were taken from 95 patients with diabetes (35 men and 60 women) and 95 normal persons (42 men and 53 women) and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Identification of isolated yeasts was performed by germ tube test, morphology on CHROMagar Candida medium, corn meal agar and ability to grow at 45°C. Hemolysin activity was evaluated using blood plate assay and esterase activity was determined using the Tween 80 opacity test. Different Candida species were isolated from 57 (60%) diabetic and 24 (25%) non-diabetic individuals. Esterase activity was detected in all Candida isolates. Only 21.6% of C. albicans from patients with diabetes had esterase activity as + 3, while it ranged from + 1 to + 2 in others. Hemolytic activity was determined in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. krusei as 0.79, 0.58, 0.66 and 0.74, respectively. Hemolytic activity was significantly different in the two groups of diabetics and non-diabetics. Oral carriage of C. albicans in the diabetic group (n = 42; 66.7%) was significantly greater than the control group (n = 16; 57.1%). Esterase activity of C. albicans in diabetic group was higher than non-diabetic group. Although C. albicans remains the most frequently pathogenic yeast for human, but other species are increasing.

  18. Topographic association of angioscopic yellow plaques with coronary atherosclerotic plaque: assessment with quantitative colorimetry in human coronary artery autopsy specimens.

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Lisauskas, Jennifer B; Kawamura, Akio; Waxman, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Yellow plaques seen during coronary angioscopy are thought to be the surrogates for superficial intimal lipids in coronary plaque. Given diffuse and heterogeneous nature of atherosclerosis, yellow plaques in coronaries may be seen as several yellow spots on diffuse coronary plaque. We examined the topographic association of yellow plaques with coronary plaque. In 40 non-severely stenotic ex-vivo coronary segments (average length: 52.2 +/- 3.1 mm), yellow plaques were examined by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry. The segments were cut perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel at 2 mm intervals, and 1045 slides with 5 microm thick tissue for whole segments were prepared. To construct the plaque surface, each tissue slice was considered to be representative of the adjacent 2 mm. The circumference of the lumen and the lumen border of plaque were measured in each slide, and the plaque surface region was constructed. Coronary plaque was in 37 (93%) of 40 segments, and consisted of a single mass [39.9 +/- 3.9 (0-100) mm, 311.3 +/- 47.4 (0.0-1336.2) mm2]. In 30 (75%) segments, multiple (2-9) yellow plaques were detected on a mass of coronary plaque. The number of yellow plaques correlated positively with coronary plaque surface area (r = 0.77, P colorimetry, some of them are associated with lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps, may be used to assess the extent of coronary plaque. Further research using angioscopy could be of value to study the association of high-risk coronaries with acute coronary syndromes.

  19. Cytomegalovirus localization in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with acute coronary syndromes: report of 105 patients.

    Izadi, Morteza; Fazel, Mozhgan; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Nasseri, Mohammad Hassan; Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Dabiri, Hossein; Aryan, Reza Safi; Esfahani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Ali; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Kalantar-Motamed, Mohammad Hassan; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that cytomegalovirus (CMV) is present in coronary atherosclerotic plaques, but the clinical relevance of this presence remains to be elucidated. In this study we sought to examine CMV infection in atherosclerosis patients defined by different methods and to identify the clinical significance of CMV replication in the atherosclerotic plaques. The study included 105 consecutive patients who were admitted to our department and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgical interventions. Coronary atherosclerotic specimens as well as 53 specimens from the mamillary artery of these same patients were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used for evaluations. The CMV PCR test result was positive for 28 (26.7%) of patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis. After adjusting for other risk factors, coronary artery disease patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome were more likely to be positive for CMV PCR test (P=0.027; odds ratio: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.18-15.0). They were also more likely to have a positive family history for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study confirms previous evidence about the replication of CMV virus in the atherosclerotic plaques of coronary arteries and brings clinical significance to this observation by showing a higher prevalence of acute coronary syndromes in those patients with CMV-infected plaques. Our study also suggests a familial vulnerability to CMV replication in the coronary artery walls.

  20. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  1. Quantitative coronary plaque analysis predicts high-risk plaque morphology on coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the ROMICAT II trial.

    Liu, Ting; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan B; Lu, Michael T; Ghemigian, Khristine; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Pursnani, Amit; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2018-02-01

    Semi-automated software can provide quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaques on coronary CT angiography (CTA). The relationship between established qualitative high-risk plaque features and quantitative plaque measurements has not been studied. We analyzed the association between quantitative plaque measurements and qualitative high-risk plaque features on coronary CTA. We included 260 patients with plaque who underwent coronary CTA in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial. Quantitative plaque assessment and qualitative plaque characterization were performed on a per coronary segment basis. Quantitative coronary plaque measurements included plaque volume, plaque burden, remodeling index, and diameter stenosis. In qualitative analysis, high-risk plaque was present if positive remodeling, low CT attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign or spotty calcium were detected. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between quantitative and qualitative high-risk plaque assessment. Among 888 segments with coronary plaque, high-risk plaque was present in 391 (44.0%) segments by qualitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, segments with high-risk plaque had higher total plaque volume, low CT attenuation plaque volume, plaque burden and remodeling index. Quantitatively assessed low CT attenuation plaque volume (odds ratio 1.12 per 1 mm 3 , 95% CI 1.04-1.21), positive remodeling (odds ratio 1.25 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.10-1.41) and plaque burden (odds ratio 1.53 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.08-2.16) were associated with high-risk plaque. Quantitative coronary plaque characteristics (low CT attenuation plaque volume, positive remodeling and plaque burden) measured by semi-automated software correlated with qualitative assessment of high-risk plaque features.

  2. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with Malaria

    Rajesh Sonani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA, a very infrequent condition which represents a group of disorders in which presence of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens leads to shortened red cell survival. Till date, a very few cases of AIHA in Malaria patients are reported worldwide but still AIHA should be considered a relatively rare cause of anemia in malaria. A 20 year male presented with intermittent fever since seven days and yellowish discoloration of urine and sclera since 5 days. He was transfused three units of blood at a private clinic before one month. On examination, pallor, icterus and spelnomegaly were present. Hemoglobin (Hb was 3.2 gm% and peripheral smear revealed ring forms of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Serum LDH and Serum billirubin (Indirect and Direct were high. This patient′s blood group was B +ve with positive autocontrol. Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT, antibody screening and antibody identification were pan-positive with reaction strength of +4 against each cell. Direct Antiglobulin Test was +4 positive anti IgG and negative with anti C3. He was treated with Artesunate and methylprednisone. Least incompatible, saline washed O Neg and B neg red cells were transfused on the 2 nd day of starting treatment. Hb was raised to 6.1 gm% on 4 th day. Patient was discharged on 9th day with Hb 7.0 gm% with oral tapering dose of steroids. In the above case, patient was suffering from high grade malarial parasitemia with co-existing autoimmune RBC destruction by IgG auto-antibodies which led to sudden drop in Hb and rise in serum LDH and indirect billirubin. Least incompatible packed red cells along with antimalarials and steroids led to clinical improvement. So far, one case report each from India, Korea, Canada and Germany and one case series report of three cases from India have been reported. Under-reporting or rarity of this phenomenon may be accountable for this.

  3. Anti-Mur as the most likely cause of mild hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Bakhtary, Sara; Gikas, Anastasia; Glader, Bertil; Andrews, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Although rare in the United States, anti-Mur is relatively common in Southeast Asia and has been reported to have clinical significance in Chinese and Taiwanese populations. The infant was full term and the second child of a Chinese mother and Vietnamese father, presenting with jaundice. He was clinically diagnosed with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. The direct antiglobulin test indicated that the infant's red blood cells were coated only with anti-IgG. Anti-Mur was identified in the maternal serum and the neonate's plasma. The father was found to be positive for the Mur antigen. The cause of the infant's hemolytic anemia was determined to be most likely anti-Mur. Since anti-Mur is implicated in causing hemolytic disease of the newborn, it is important to recognize this antibody more commonly found in Asian patients in the United States as the Mur+ phenotype has a higher prevalence in this population. © 2016 AABB.

  4. Origins of the E. coli strain causing an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Germany

    Rasko, David A; Webster, Dale R; Sahl, Jason W

    2011-01-01

    A large outbreak of diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by an unusual serotype of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (O104:H4) began in Germany in May 2011. As of July 22, a large number of cases of diarrhea caused by Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli have been reported--3167 without...... the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (16 deaths) and 908 with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (34 deaths)--indicating that this strain is notably more virulent than most of the Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli strains. Preliminary genetic characterization of the outbreak strain suggested that, unlike most of these strains......, it should be classified within the enteroaggregative pathotype of E. coli....

  5. Value of the lateral view in diagnosing pleural plaques

    Hillerdal, G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the value of the lateral view in the diagnosis of pleural plaques, 2018 chest roentgenograms from the general population were scrutinized for such plaques. The lateral and posterior-anterior (PA) views were read separately and without knowledge of the occupational history or other clinical data. Of the males, 4.8% had pleural plaques in the PA view and 2% had dorsal pleural plaques in the lateral view. A total of 54% of the positive cases in the PA view also showed typical plaques in the PA view. Thus, there remained a number of cases which were diagnosed only in the lateral view; in all, these constituted 18.8%

  6. Carotid artery plaque imaging. Present status and new perspectives

    Hishikawa, Tomohito; Date, Isao; Iihara, Koji; Yamada, Naoaki; Ueda, Hatsue; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    At present, the management of carotid artery (CA) stenosis depends largely on the degree of stenosis. CA plaque imaging is a modality, which assesses the nature of CA plaques objectively and less invasively, that has developed remarkably in recent years. The use of CA plaque imaging in the management of CA stenosis not only reveals the degree of stenosis but it can make the selection of treatment more appropriate by taking the plaque character into consideration. In this manuscript, we introduce ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) and describe the present situation and new perspectives of CA plaque imaging. (author)

  7. Contribution of hly homologs to the hemolytic activity of Prevotella intermedia.

    Suzuki, Naoko; Fukamachi, Haruka; Arimoto, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Igarashi, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a periodontal pathogen that requires iron for its growth. Although this organism has hemolytic activity, the precise nature of its hemolytic substances and their associated hemolytic actions are yet to be fully determined. In the present study, we identified and characterized several putative hly genes in P. intermedia ATCC25611 which appear to encode hemolysins. Six hly genes (hlyA, B, C, D, E, and hlyI) of P. intermedia were identified by comparing their nucleotide sequences to those of known hly genes of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343. The hlyA-E, and hlyI genes were overexpressed individually in the non-hemolytic Escherichia coli strain JW5181 and examined its contribution to the hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates. E. coli cells expressing the hlyA and hlyI genes exhibited hemolytic activity under anaerobic conditions. On the other hand, only E. coli cells stably expressing the hlyA gene were able to lyse the red blood cells when cultured under aerobic conditions. In addition, expression of the hlyA and hlyI genes was significantly upregulated in the presence of red blood cells. Furthermore, we found that the growth of P. intermedia was similar in an iron-limited medium supplemented with either red blood cells or heme. Taken together, our results indicate that the hlyA and hlyI genes of P. intermedia encode putative hemolysins that appear to be involved in the lysis of red blood cells, and suggest that these hemolysins might play important roles in the iron-dependent growth of this organism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha-Methyldopa-Induced Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Charalampos Grigoriadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-methyldopa has been demonstrated to be safe for use during pregnancy and is now used to treat gestational hypertension. In pregnancy, alpha-methyldopa-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia does not have typical features and the severity of symptoms ranges from mild fatigue to dyspnea, respiratory failure, and death if left untreated. A case of alpha-methyldopa-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a 36-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman at 37+6 weeks of gestation is reported herein along with the differential diagnostic procedure and the potential risks to the mother and the fetus.

  9. Renoscintigraphy in assessment of renal lesions in children after hemolytic-uremic syndrome

    Lass, P.; Marczak, E.; Romanowicz, G.; and others.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of renoscintigraphic examination in monitoring of patients after the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. 27 children mean 9 years the hemolytic-uremic syndrome underwent the complex of biochemical, ultrasound and renoscintigraphic examinations. The abnormal renoscintigraphic was seen in 85.1% of children, while the alternative test described the renal lesion in 29-66%. Renoscintigraphic examination seems to be the most sensitive in monitoring of remote sequel in patients after HUS. Those patients should undergone long-lasting observation, for the sake of possibility of development of renal insufficiency. (author). 14 refs

  10. Immunoglobulin transfusion in hemolytic disease of the newborn: place in therapy

    Mundy CA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia A Mundy, Jatinder Bhatia Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Georgia Regents University, Children's Hospital of Georgia, GA, USA Abstract: Hemolytic disease of the newborn continues to be a common neonatal disorder that requires a comprehensive understanding on the part of those caring for infants. Common treatments include hydration and phototherapy. Exchange transfusion is used in severe hemolytic disease, but infants undergoing this treatment are exposed to many adverse effects. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a newer strategy that is showing promise in the treatment of the disease. This review discusses the current use and future expectations of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in newborns. Keywords: hyperbilirubinemia, ABO incompatibility, neonatal jaundice 

  11. Hemolytic and urease activities in vibrios isolated from fresh and frozen oysters

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to survey the Vibrio microbiota of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae obtained from restaurants in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, and to identify virulence factors. METHODS: The isolated vibrios were submitted to biochemical identification and were tested for hemolytic and urease activities. RESULTS: The isolated strains belonged to 13 species, with predominance of Vibrio mimicus. Of the strain isolates only from fresh samples, 20.5% and 2.8% showed hemolytic and urease activities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the little-publicized claim that Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus can represent a health risk to public health.

  12. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E

    Usman, Adiyyatu Sa?idu; Mustaffa, Rapiaah; Ramli, Noraida; Diggi, Sirajo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Maternal allo-antibody production is stimulated when fetal red blood cells are positive for an antigen absent on the mother′s red cells. The maternal IgG antibodies produced will pass through the placenta and attack fetal red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. Allo-immune hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E rarely occurs. Case summary: We report two cases of anti-E hemolytic diseases in neonates. One of the neonates had severe hemolysis presenting wit...

  13. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Due to Anti-c Isoimmunization: A Case Report.

    Sheeladevi, C S; Suchitha, S; Manjunath, G V; Murthy, Srinivas

    2013-09-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) blood group is one of the most complex blood groups known in humans. It has remained of primary importance in obstetrics, being the main cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Anti-D causes the most severe form of HDN. Other Rh allo antibodies that are capable of causing severe HDN include anti-c, which clinically is the most important Rh antigen after the D antigen. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Rh anti-c in an infant of an Rh positive mother.

  14. Hemolytic Porcine Intestinal Escherichia coli without Virulence-Associated Genes Typical of Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli ▿ †

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. PMID:21965399

  15. Leukemoid reaction, a rare manifestation of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a case of small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Salagre, Kaustubh D; Sahay, Ravindra Nath; Patil, Anuja; Pati, Anuja; Joshi, Amita; Shukla, Akash

    2013-10-01

    A 48 year old lady presented with jaundice and exertional breathlesness. Her laboratory reports showed anaemia, reticulocytosis, leucocytosis, elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase levels, hyperbillirubinemia and positive direct Coomb's test. After ruling out all the other causes of autoimmunity and hemolytic anemia, she was diagnosed as leukemoid reaction due to autoimmune hemolytic anemia with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Patient showed immediate improvement after corticosteroids.

  16. Assessment of carotid plaque vulnerability using structural and geometrical determinants

    Li, Z.Y.; Tang, T.; U-King-Im, J.; Graves, M.; Gillard, J.H.; Sutcliffe, M.

    2008-01-01

    Because many acute cerebral ischemic events are caused by rupture of vulnerable carotid atheroma and subsequent thrombosis, the present study used both idealized and patient-specific carotid atheromatous plaque models to evaluate the effect of structural determinants on stress distributions within plaque. Using a finite element method, structural analysis was performed using models derived from in vivo high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of carotid atheroma in 40 non-consecutive patients (20 symptomatic, 20 asymptomatic). Plaque components were modeled as hyper-elastic materials. The effects of varying fibrous cap thickness, lipid core size and lumen curvature on plaque stress distributions were examined. Lumen curvature and fibrous cap thickness were found to be major determinants of plaque stress. The size of the lipid core did not alter plaque stress significantly when the fibrous cap was relatively thick. The correlation between plaque stress and lumen curvature was significant for both symptomatic (p=0.01; correlation coefficient: 0.689) and asymptomatic patients (p=0.01; correlation coefficient: 0.862). Lumen curvature in plaques of symptomatic patients was significantly larger than those of asymptomatic patients (1.50±1.0 mm -1 vs 1.25±0.75 mm -1 ; p=0.01). Specific plaque morphology (large lumen curvature and thin fibrous cap) is closely related to plaque vulnerability. Structural analysis using high-resolution MRI of carotid atheroma may help in detecting vulnerable atheromatous plaque and aid the risk stratification of patients with carotid disease. (author)

  17. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  18. New dimensions in mechanical plaque control: An overview

    Arnab Mandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque control is the daily removal of dental plaque, oral biofilm and also prevention of their accumulation on the teeth and other parts of oral cavity. Dental plaque is the major etiology of maximum gingival and periodontal diseases. It is also related with various dental problems. Mechanical plaque control is a very effective method to get rid of plaque accumulation in oral cavity. In 3000 BC there was the first toothbrush invented by human beings. With time several modifications came in toothbrushes to make mechanical plaque control more effective in day to day oral hygiene practice. This article emphasizes on the advanced and emerging tools in mechanical plaque control methods in attaining an optimal level of oral hygiene standards and maintenance of oral health.

  19. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  20. Oculocutaneous albinism complicated with an ulcerated plaque

    Lokanatha Keshavalu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male with a history of albinism and farmer by occupation presented with an ulcerated plaque on the right wrist. The patient had light eyes, hair, and skin. Physical examination showed extensive photodamage. A skin biopsy specimen from the plaque revealed a well-differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma. Wide surgical excision was done. The most common types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA, OCA 1 and OCA 2, are autosomal recessive disorders of pigmentation that commonly affect the skin, hair and eyes. Photodamage and skin cancers plague patients with albinism. Albinos face a myriad of social and medical issues. Importance of photoprotection, skin cancer surveillance and treatment has been stressed upon in this report.

  1. Epithelial cell pro-inflammatory cytokine response differs across dental plaque bacterial species.

    Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Benakanakere, Manjunatha R; Galicia, Johnah C; Kinane, Denis F

    2010-01-01

    The dental plaque is comprised of numerous bacterial species, which may or may not be pathogenic. Human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) respond to perturbation by various bacteria of the dental plaque by production of different levels of inflammatory cytokines, which is a putative reflection of their virulence. The aim of the current study was to determine responses in terms of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 secretion induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus gordonii in order to gauge their virulence potential. HGECs were challenged with the four bacterial species, live or heat killed, at various multiplicity of infections and the elicited IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 responses were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary HGECs challenged with live P. gingivalis produced high levels of IL-1beta, while challenge with live A. actinomycetemcomitans gave high levels of IL-8. The opportunistic pathogen F. nucleatum induces the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the commensal S. gordonii is the least stimulatory. We conclude that various dental plaque biofilm bacteria induce different cytokine response profiles in primary HGECs that may reflect their individual virulence or commensal status.

  2. Regressing Atherosclerosis by Resolving Plaque Inflammation

    2017-07-01

    regression requires the alteration of macrophages in the plaques to a tissue repair “alternatively” activated state. This switch in activation state... tissue repair “alternatively” activated state. This switch in activation state requires the action of TH2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13. To...regulation of tissue macrophage and dendritic cell population dynamics by CSF-1. J Exp Med. 2011;208(9):1901–1916. 35. Xu H, Exner BG, Chilton PM

  3. Mechanisms of anti-D action in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: what can we learn from rodent models?

    Brinc, Davor; Denomme, Gregory A; Lazarus, Alan H

    2009-11-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn can be effectively prevented by administration of anti-D to the mother. In this setting, the IgG purified from the plasma of D-alloimmunized donors prevents the maternal immune response to D-positive red blood cells (RBC). Several monoclonal anti-D antibodies have recently been developed for potential use in the setting of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; the functional assays used to assess the potential success of these antibodies have often assumed antigen clearance as the predominant mechanism of anti-D. Unfortunately, the in-vivo success of these monoclonal antibodies has thus far been limited. A similar inhibitory effect of IgG has been observed in animal models with a vast array of different antigens, referred to as antibody-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Here, studies of AMIS are reviewed and the relevance of these findings for anti-D-mediated immunoprophylaxis is discussed. In animal models of AMIS, IgG-mediated antigen clearance was not sufficient for prevention of the antibody response to RBC. Furthermore, anti-RBC IgG inhibited B-cell priming to foreign RBC, but failed to prevent a T-cell response and immunological memory. The applicability of AMIS models for determining the true mechanism of anti-D, though uncertain, may nevertheless provide knowledge as to potential mechanisms of action of anti-RBC antibodies.

  4. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  5. Mechanisms of erosion of atherosclerotic plaques.

    Quillard, Thibaut; Franck, Grégory; Mawson, Thomas; Folco, Eduardo; Libby, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The present review explores the mechanisms of superficial intimal erosion, a common cause of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Human coronary artery atheroma that give rise to thrombosis because of erosion differ diametrically from those associated with fibrous cap rupture. Eroded lesions characteristically contain few inflammatory cells, abundant extracellular matrix, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Innate immune mechanisms such as engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on cultured endothelial cells can impair their viability, attachment, and ability to recover a wound. Hyaluronan fragments may serve as endogenous TLR2 ligands. Mouse experiments demonstrate that flow disturbance in arteries with neointimas tailored to resemble features of human eroded plaques disturbs endothelial cell barrier function, impairs endothelial cell viability, recruits neutrophils, and provokes endothelial cells desquamation, NET formation, and thrombosis in a TLR2-dependent manner. Mechanisms of erosion have received much less attention than those that provoke plaque rupture. Intensive statin treatment changes the characteristic of plaques that render them less susceptible to rupture. Thus, erosion may contribute importantly to the current residual burden of risk. Understanding the mechanisms of erosion may inform the development and deployment of novel therapies to combat the remaining atherothrombotic risk in the statin era.

  6. Optimization of 125I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Episcleral plaques containing 125 I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged

  7. Hormone assay

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  8. Assay system

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  9. Multicolor fluorescence technique to detect apoptotic cells in advanced coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    C Soldani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis occurring in atherosclerotic lesions has been suggested to be involved in the evolution and the structural stability of the plaques. It is still a matter of debate whether apoptosis mainly involves vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in the fibrous tissue or inflammatory (namely foam cells, thus preferentially affecting the cell-poor lipid core of the atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of the present investigation was to detect the presence of apoptotic cells and to estimate their percentage in a series of atherosclerotic plaques obtained either by autopsy or during surgical atherectomy. Apoptotic cells were identified on paraffinembedded sections on the basis of cell nuclear morphology after DNA staining and/or by cytochemical reactions (TUNEL assay, immunodetection of the proteolytic poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 [PARP-1] fragment; biochemical procedures (identifying DNA fragmentation or PARP-1 proteolysis were also used. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques were performed to label specific antigens for either vSMCs or macrophages (i.e., the cells which are most likely prone to apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions: the proper selection of fluorochrome labeling allowed the simultaneous detection of the cell phenotype and the apoptotic characteristics, by multicolor fluorescence techniques. Apoptotic cells proved to be less than 5% of the whole cell population, in atherosclerotic plaque sections: this is, in fact, a too low cell fraction to be detected by widely used biochemical methods, such as agarose gel electrophoresis of low-molecular-weight DNA or Western-blot analysis of PARP-1 degradation. Most apoptotic cells were of macrophage origin, and clustered in the tunica media, near or within the lipid-rich core; only a few TUNEL-positive cells were labeled for antigens specific for vSMCs. These results confirm that, among the cell populations in atherosclerotic plaques, macrophage foam-cells are preferentially involved in apoptosis

  10. Diarrhea, Urosepsis and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Caused by the Same Heteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain

    Ang, C. Wim; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Rossen, John W. A.; van der Kuip, Martijn; van Heerde, Marc; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2016-01-01

    We describe an 8-month-old girl with diarrhea, urosepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Escherichia coli. Typing of cultured E. coli strains from urine and blood revealed the presence of virulence factors from multiple pathotypes of E. coli. This case exemplifies the genome plasticity of E.

  11. Severe Hemolytic Jaundice in a Neonate with a Novel COL4A1 Mutation.

    Tomotaki, Seiichi; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Hamabata, Takayuki; Kumakura, Akira; Shiota, Mitsutaka; Arai, Hiroshi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Hata, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    We report our experience with a preterm infant with severe hemolytic jaundice who required exchange transfusion just after birth. The patient was negative for alloimmune hemolysis as a result of maternal-fetal blood type incompatibility, and tests for inherited defects in erythrocyte metabolism, membrane function, and hemoglobin synthesis were normal. We also performed a bone marrow examination, but could not identify the cause of hemolysis. The patient had several other complications, including porencephaly, epilepsy, elevated serum levels of creatine kinase, and persistent microscopic hematuria. Later, we detected a genetic mutation in COL4A1, which was recently found to be associated with hemolytic anemia. We therefore believe that all of the patient's clinical features, including hemolytic anemia, were due to the mutation in COL4A1. Genetic testing for COL4A1 mutations is recommended in neonates who exhibit hemolytic disease of unknown etiology, especially when other complications compatible with COL4A1-related disorders are present. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. An international consensus approach to the management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

    Loirat, C.; Fakhouri, F.; Ariceta, G.; Besbas, N.; Bitzan, M.; Bjerre, A.; Coppo, R.; Emma, F.; Johnson, S.; Karpman, D.; Landau, D.; Langman, C.B.; Lapeyraque, A.L.; Licht, C.; Nester, C.; Pecoraro, C.; Riedl, M.; Kar, N.C.A.J. van de; Walle, J. Vande; Vivarelli, M.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) emerged during the last decade as a disease largely of complement dysregulation. This advance facilitated the development of novel, rational treatment options targeting terminal complement activation, e.g., using an anti-C5 antibody (eculizumab). We review

  13. [Neonatal ABO incompatibility underlies a potentially severe hemolytic disease of the newborn and requires adequate care].

    Senterre, T; Minon, J-M; Rigo, J

    2011-03-01

    ABO allo-immunization is the most frequent hemolytic disease of the newborn and ABO incompatibility is present in 15-25 % of pregnancies. True ABO alloimmunization occurs in approximately one out of 150 births. Intensity is generally lower than in RhD allo-immunization. We report on three cases showing that ABO allo-immunization can lead to severe hemolytic disease of the newborn with potentially threatening hyperbilirubinemia and complications. Early diagnosis and adequate care are necessary to prevent complications in ABO incompatibility. A direct antiglobulin test is the cornerstone of diagnosis and should be performed at birth on cord blood sampling in all group infants born to O mothers, especially if of African origin. Risk factor analysis and attentive clinical monitoring during the first days of life are essential. Vigilance is even more important for infants discharged before the age of 72 h. Every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia and should be examined by a qualified healthcare professional in the first days of life. Treatment depends on the total serum bilirubin level, which may increase very rapidly in the first 48 h of life in cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Phototherapy and, in severe cases, exchange transfusion are used to prevent hyperbilirubinemia encephalopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulins are used to reduce exchange transfusion. Treatments of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn should be provided and performed by trained personnel in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension associated with hemolytic anemia

    Sarfraz Saleemi

    2014-01-01

    Because of a unique pathophysiology, pulmonary hypertension associated with hemolytic disorders was moved from WHO group I to group V PH diseases. Treatment strategies are also unique and include blood transfusion, iron chelation, hydroxyurea, and oxygen therapy. The role of PH-specific agents has not been established.

  15. Guideline for the investigation and initial therapy of diarrhea-negative hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Ariceta, G.; Besbas, N.; Johnson, S.; Karpman, D.; Landau, D.; Licht, C.; Loirat, C.; Pecoraro, C.; Taylor, C.M.; Kar, N.C.A.J. van de; Vandewalle, J.; Zimmerhackl, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    This guideline for the investigation and initial treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is intended to offer an approach based on opinion, as evidence is lacking. It builds on the current ability to identify the etiology of specific diagnostic sub-groups of HUS. HUS in children is

  16. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, as part of Evans' syndrome, caused by cold reactive IgG autoantibodies

    Jaarsma, AS; Muis, N; DeGraaf, SSN

    1996-01-01

    We describe a boy with Evans' syndrome, consisting of immune thrombocytopenic purpura at age 2 and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) at age 4. AIHA was caused by cold Ige autoantibodies. This is unusual because AIHA is generally associated with either warm IgG antibodies or cold IgM antibodies.

  17. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support

    van der Lelie, H.; Baars, J. W.; Rodenhuis, S.; Van Dijk, M. A.; de Glas-Vos, C. W.; Thomas, B. L.; van Oers, R. H.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy intensification may lead to new forms of toxicity such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. METHODS: Three patients are described who developed this complication 4 to 6 months after high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell support. The literature on this subject is

  18. Hemolytic anemia following high dose intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with chronic neurological disorders

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Christiansen, I; Harbo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    High dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established treatment for various neuromuscular disorders. Recently, cases of hemolytic anemia following IVIG have been observed. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of anemia and hemolysis after IVIG and its relationship...

  19. Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs.

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Souza, Marina Campos de Castro; Vermelho, Ligia Lobato Ramos; Vermelho, Marina Lobato Ramos; Perciano, Pedro Griffo; Vargas, Fabiano Souza; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent illness that affects many dogs, reaching up to 85 % prevalence in individuals over the age of 4 years. Currently the drug of choice for combating the formation of dental plaque in these animals, the etiologic agent of the disease, is chlorhexidine, which has several side effects reported. Thus, surveys are conducted throughout the world in order to identify potential substitutes for antimicrobial therapy and prevention of periodontal disease. The objective of the work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of β-caryophyllene against bacteria from dog's dental plaque in vitro and in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated by agar microdilution assay, the induction or inhibition of bacterial adherence by sub-inhibitory concentrations in 96-well plates, and reduction of dental plaque formation in mongrel dogs subjected to topical solution with β-caryophyllene for 15 days. Results showed minimum inhibitory concentrations above 100 mg/mL for 25 % of the isolates, 100 mg/mL for 3 %, 50 mg/mL for 25 %, 25 mg/mL for 12 %, 12.5 mg/mL for 19 % and 6.25 mg/mL for 16 %. Bacterial adherences of three Enterococcus sp., one Streptococcus sp., one Haemophilus sp., one Aerococcus sp., one Bacillus sp. and one Lactococcus sp. isolates were inhibited by subinhibitory concentration. One Lactococcus sp., one Bacillus sp. and one Streptococcus sp. were stimulated to adhere by concentrations of 0.19, 1.56 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. In vivo assay showed reduction in dental plaque formation by β-caryophyllene, with final plaque coverage of 23.3 ± 2.6 % of the total area of the teeth, with significant difference compared with chlorhexidine group (37.5 ± 3.7 % - p dog's dental plaque-forming bacteria representing a suitable alternative to the use of chlorhexidine in prophylaxis and treatment of periodontal disease of dogs.

  20. The effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure of adjacent cells on plaque formation with Herpes simplex virus type 1

    Conner, R.E.; Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    African green monkey kidney cells (CV-1P) were exposed to low fluences of 254 nm germicidal radiation and then infected with Herpes simplex virus, type I. The result of this treatment was an increase in viral plaque development rate, the large plaque effect (LPE). A measurement of the kinetics of plaque development suggested that a large portion of the effect could be due to events occurring in those cells that are adjacent to the initially infected cell. An infectious center assay was employed in order to isolate the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on the initially infected cells from those effects on the adjacent cells that became infected as the plaque spread radially outward. Plaque development began earlier in UV irradiated cells and progressed at a uniformly accelerated rate compared to untreated cells. Results indicate that although the initially infected cell contributes to the LPE, the major effect is due to events that occur in the adjacent cells. Each round of viral replication appears to contribute equally to the LPE. The virally induced rate of fusion of the initially infected cell with its immediate neighbors is not affected by UV. (author)

  1. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold increase in sensitivity to ribavirin. AX4 cells (MDCK cells with increased surface concentration of α2–6 sialic acid, the influenza virus receptor) have reduced the comet size variability relative to MDCK cells, making them a better host cell for use in this assay. Because of enhanced antiviral sensitivity in flow-based assays, less drug is required, which could lead to lower reagent costs, reduced cytotoxicity, and fewer false-negative drug screen results. The comet assay also serves as a readout of flow conditions in the well. Observations from comets formed at varying humidity levels indicate a role for evaporation in the mechanism of spontaneous fluid flow in wells. PMID:22155578

  2. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended

  3. Sigma E regulators control hemolytic activity and virulence in a shrimp pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Pimonsri Rattanama

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. vulnificus. We have used transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in the hemolytic activity of shrimp-pathogenic V. harveyi strain PSU3316. Out of 1,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited virulence attenuation in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Mutants were identified by comparing transposon junction sequences to a draft of assembly of the PSU3316 genome. Surprisingly none of the disrupted open reading frames or gene neighborhoods contained genes annotated as hemolysins. The gene encoding RseB, a negative regulator of the sigma factor (σ(E, was interrupted in 2 out of 5 transposon mutants, in addition, the transcription factor CytR, a threonine synthetase, and an efflux-associated cytoplasmic protein were also identified. Knockout mutations introduced into the rpoE operon at the rseB gene exhibited low hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison of whole cell extracted proteins in the rseB mutant (PSU4030 to the wild-type by 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed 6 differentially expressed proteins, including two down-regulated porins (OmpC-like and OmpN and an upregulated protease (DegQ which have been associated with σ(E in other organisms. Our study is the first report linking hemolytic activity to the σ(E regulators in pathogenic Vibrio species and suggests expression of this virulence-linked phenotype is governed by multiple regulatory pathways within the V. harveyi.

  4. Analysis of multidrug resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small, less hemolytic colonies.

    Hirotsugu Banno

    Full Text Available Group B streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae are the leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases and are also important pathogens for elderly adults. Until now, nearly all GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS have shown β-hemolytic activity and grow on sheep blood agar. However, we have previously reported three PRGBS clinical isolates harboring a CylK deletion that form small less hemolytic colonies. In this study, we examined the causes of small, less hemolytic colony formation in these clinical isolates. Isogenic strains were sequenced to identify the mutation related to a small colony size. We identified a 276_277insG nucleic acid insertion in the thiamin pyrophosphokinase (tpk gene, resulting in premature termination at amino acid 103 in TPK, as a candidate mutation responsible for small colony formation. The recombinant strain Δtpk, which harbored the 276_277insG insertion in the tpk gene, showed small colony formation. The recombinant strain ΔcylK, which harbored the G379T substitution in cylK, showed a reduction in hemolytic activity. The phenotypes of both recombinant strains were complemented by the expression of intact TPK or CylK, respectively. Moreover, the use of Rapid ID 32 API and VITEK MS to identify strains as GBS was evaluated clinical isolates and recombinant strains. VITEK MS, but not Rapid ID 32 API, was able to accurately identify the strains as GBS. In conclusion, we determined that mutations in tpk and cylK caused small colonies and reduced hemolytic activity, respectively, and characterized the clinical isolates in detail.

  5. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  6. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    Marwaha, Gaurav; Wilkinson, Allan; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], −2.8 to −1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, −20.16 to −15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  7. Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: antibiotic sensitivity of dental plaque.

    MacFarlane, T W; McGowan, D A; Hunter, K; MacKenzie, D

    1983-01-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from bacteraemia after dental extraction was compared with that of bacteria isolated from dental plaque samples from the same patient. The results supported the current practice of using penicillin and erythromycin empirically for prophylaxis. The prediction of the most appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis using dental plaque samples was most accurate when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plaque isolates were used. It appe...

  8. Congenital milia En plaque on scalp

    Sangita Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milia en plaque is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation.

  9. The high-risk plaque initiative

    Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies...... have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested in a typical health plan population. Asymptomatic at-risk individuals were enrolled, including a survey-only group (n = 865), a group undergoing traditional risk factor scoring (n = 718), and a group in which all...

  10. Automated image-based assay for evaluation of HIV neutralization and cell-to-cell fusion inhibition.

    Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Özkaya Şahin, Gülsen; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Carpenter, Anne E; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2014-08-30

    Standardized techniques to detect HIV-neutralizing antibody responses are of great importance in the search for an HIV vaccine. Here, we present a high-throughput, high-content automated plaque reduction (APR) assay based on automated microscopy and image analysis that allows evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay. Neutralization of virus particles is measured as a reduction in the number of fluorescent plaques, and inhibition of cell-cell fusion as a reduction in plaque area. We found neutralization strength to be a significant factor in the ability of virus to form syncytia. Further, we introduce the inhibitory concentration of plaque area reduction (ICpar) as an additional measure of antiviral activity, i.e. fusion inhibition. We present an automated image based high-throughput, high-content HIV plaque reduction assay. This allows, for the first time, simultaneous evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay, by quantifying the reduction in number of plaques and mean plaque area, respectively. Inhibition of cell-to-cell fusion requires higher quantities of inhibitory reagent than inhibition of virus neutralization.

  11. Association of Streptococcus with Plaque Type of Psoriasis

    Mohammad Akram Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guttate psoriasis has a well-known association with streptococcal throat infections, but the effects of these infections in patients with chronic plaque type of psoriasis remains to be evaluated. In Bangladesh several studies were done on psoriasis but no data about association between streptococcal throat infection and plaque type psoriasis are available so far. Considering the co-morbidities of psoriasis patients, it might be justifiable to find out the events that provoke the initiation or exacerbation of psoriatic disease process. Objective: To observe the association of streptococcus with plaque type of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. Forty seven patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as having plaque psoriasis were selected as cases and patients with skin diseases other than psoriasis were selected as controls. Results: In this study majority of subjects (55% were diagnosed as chronic plaque psoriasis. Among the subjects with guttate flare of chronic plaque psoriasis 64.2% gave a positive history of sore throat. ASO titer was raised (>200 IU/mL in 28 (59.5% patients of chronic plaque psoriasis and 7 (17.9% patients of non-psoriatic respondents. The difference between two groups was significant (p0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that streptococcal throat infections are associated with plaque psoriasis and early treatment of throat infections may be beneficial for plaque type of psoriasis patients.

  12. Progranulin expression in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Kojima, Yoji; Ono, Koh; Inoue, Katsumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Masaki; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Matsumae, Hironobu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a unique growth factor that plays an important role in cutaneous wound healing. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes cell proliferation. However, when it is degraded to granulin peptides (GRNs) by neutrophil proteases, a pro-inflammatory reaction occurs. Since injury, inflammation and repair are common features in the progression of atherosclerosis, it is conceivable that PGRN plays a role in atherogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the intima expressed PGRN. Some macrophages in the plaque also expressed PGRN. We assessed the effect of PGRN on a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). PGRN alone had no effect on HASMC or THP-1 proliferation or migration. However, when THP-1 cells were stimulated with MCP-1, the number of migrated cells decreased in a PGRN-dose-dependent manner. TNF-alpha-induced HASMC migration was enhanced only at 10nM of PGRN. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HASMCs was reduced by forced expression of PGRN and increased by RNAi-mediated knockdown of PGRN. While exogenous treatment with recombinant PGRN decreased IL-8 secretion, degraded recombinant GRNs increased IL-8 secretion from HASMCs. The expression of PGRN mainly reduces inflammation and its degradation into GRNs enhances inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque and may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  13. Release of mineral ions in dental plaque following acid production.

    Tanaka, M; Margolis, H C

    1999-03-01

    The release of appreciable amounts of calcium, phosphate and fluoride found in whole plaque into the plaque-fluid phase, following bacterial acid production, can potentially reduce the driving force for tooth demineralization. However, limited information is available on this topic, particularly on the release of fluoride. This study sought to determine the change in calcium, phosphate and fluoride concentrations in plaque fluid after sucrose exposure. 48 h overnight-fasted supragingival plaque samples were collected from all tooth surfaces (with the exception of the lower lingual anterior teeth) of one half of an individual mouth, following a 1 min water rinse. Plaque samples were then collected from the other half of the same mouth, following a 292 mM sucrose rinse. Plaque fluid was isolated by centrifugation and analysed for total calcium and phosphate (ion chromatography) and for free fluoride (ion-specific electrode). Samples were collected from seven individuals. Following sucrose exposure, plaque-fluid pH decreased significantly from 6.5+/- 0.3 to 5.4+/-0.2; calcium concentrations (mmol/l) also increased significantly (p Fluoride and phosphate concentrations in plaque fluid, however, did not increase significantly after sucrose exposure: mean concentrations (mmol/l) of fluoride after the water and sucrose rinses were 0.006+/-0.003 and 0.005+/-0.002, respectively, and mean phosphate concentrations (mmol/l) were 11.0+/-2.0 and 12.0+/-3.0, respectively. When results were expressed per wet plaque weight, phosphate concentrations were also found to increase significantly. The same trends were observed when additional plaque samples were treated in vitro with sucrose: fluoride-ion activity did not increase in plaque under in vivo-like conditions.

  14. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    Nageshwar Iyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970 participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7 th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  15. Functional assay of the alternative complement pathway of rat serum

    Coonrod, J.D.; Jenkins, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two functional assays of the alternative pathway of complement activation in rat serum were developed. In the first assay, conditions were established for titration of alternative pathway activity by use of the 50% hemolytic end-point of rabbit red blood cells (RaRBC) in serum treated with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). The second assay of alternative pathway activity was based on the opsonization of heat-killed radiolabeled pneumococci of serotype 25 (Pn25). Opsonization of Pn25 was shown to proceed entirely via the alternative pathway in rat serum. There was excellent correlation between the results obtained with the RaRBC lysis test and those obtained with the opsonization test. Because of its technical simplicity, the RaRBC lysis test appeared to be the single most useful test of alternative pathway activity in rat serum. (Auth.)

  16. Isolation, characterization, and investigation of surface and hemolytic activities of a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

    Dehghan-Noude, Gholamreza; Housaindokht, Mohammadreza; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigeh Fazly

    2005-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 was grown in BHIB medium supplemented with Mn2+ for 96 h at 37 degrees C in a shaker incubator. After removing the microbial biomass, a lipopeptide biosurfactant was extracted from the supernatant. Its structure was established by chemical and spectroscopy methods. The structure was confirmed by physical properties, such as Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB), surface activity and erythrocyte hemolytic capacity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and erythrocyte hemolytic capacity of the biosurfactant were compared to those of surfactants such as SDS, BC (benzalkonium chloride), TTAB (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and HTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The maximum hemolytic effect for all surfactants mentioned was observed at concentrations above cmc. The maximum hemolytic effect of synthetic surfactants was more than that of the biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis ATCC 6633. Therefore, biosurfactant would be considered a suitable surface-active agent due to low toxicity to the membrane.

  17. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  18. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques. Is it relevant?

    Eva Marcus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization was investigated retrospectively in patients with plaque psoriasis (n=98 inpatient treatments, n=73 patients. At least one pathogen was found in 46% of all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterium. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques could be relevant in individual cases.

  19. Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging : A New Tool for Vulnerable Plaque Identification

    Jansen, K.; Van Soest, G.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to

  20. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  1. Vulnerable plaque detection: The role of 18-fluorine ...

    Positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) is a combined functional and structural multi modality imaging tool that can be utilized to detect vulnerable and atherosclerotic plaques. In this study we observe the prevalence of active and calcified plaques in selected arteries during whole-body 18F-FDG ...

  2. Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology

    Zainon, R.; Doesburg, R.M. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ronaldson, J.P.; Gieseg, S.P. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Janmale, T. [University of Canterbury, Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Buckenham, T.M. [University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P.H. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roake, J.A. [Christchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular, Endovascular and Transplant Surgery, Christchurch (New Zealand); Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Christchurch, Department of Radiology, PO Box 4345, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    To distinguish components of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque by imaging their energy response using spectral CT and comparing images with histology. After spectroscopic calibration using phantoms of plaque surrogates, excised human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were imaged using MARS CT using a photon-processing detector with a silicon sensor layer and microfocus X-ray tube (50 kVp, 0.5 mA) at 38-{mu}m voxel size. The plaques were imaged, sectioned and re-imaged using four threshold energies: 10, 16, 22 and 28 keV; then sequentially stained with modified Von Kossa, Perl's Prussian blue and Oil-Red O, and photographed. Relative Hounsfield units across the energies were entered into a linear algebraic material decomposition model to identify the unknown plaque components. Lipid, calcium, iron and water-like components of plaque have distinguishable energy responses to X-ray, visible on spectral CT images. CT images of the plaque surface correlated very well with histological photographs. Calcium deposits (>1,000 {mu}m) in plaque are larger than iron deposits (<100 {mu}m), but could not be distinguished from each other within the same voxel using the energy range available. Spectral CT displays energy information in image form at high spatial resolution, enhancing the intrinsic contrast of lipid, calcium and iron within atheroma. (orig.)

  3. Chronic plaque psoriasis | Luba | South African Family Practice

    Chronic plaque psoriasis, the most common form of psoriasis, is a papulosquamous disease defined by erythematous plaques with a silvery scale. The diagnosis usually is clinical, but occasionally a biopsy is necessary. Psoriasis affects 0.6 to 4.8 percent of the U.S. population, and about 30 percent of affected patients have ...

  4. Parvovirus B19-triggered acute hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia in a child with Evans syndrome

    ELPIS MANTADAKIS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Case report. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thromocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Conclusion: Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present with reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.

  5. A thermolabile aldolase A mutant causes fever-induced recurrent rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia.

    Asmaa Mamoune

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aldolase A deficiency has been reported as a rare cause of hemolytic anemia occasionally associated with myopathy. We identified a deleterious homozygous mutation in the ALDOA gene in 3 siblings with episodic rhabdomyolysis without hemolytic anemia. Myoglobinuria was always triggered by febrile illnesses. We show that the underlying mechanism involves an exacerbation of aldolase A deficiency at high temperatures that affected myoblasts but not erythrocytes. The aldolase A deficiency was rescued by arginine supplementation in vitro but not by glycerol, betaine or benzylhydantoin, three other known chaperones, suggesting that arginine-mediated rescue operated by a mechanism other than protein chaperoning. Lipid droplets accumulated in patient myoblasts relative to control and this was increased by cytokines, and reduced by dexamethasone. Our results expand the clinical spectrum of aldolase A deficiency to isolated temperature-dependent rhabdomyolysis, and suggest that thermolability may be tissue specific. We also propose a treatment for this severe disease.

  6. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome as an early manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Dong Kyun Han

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children younger than 4 years and is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, and thrombocytopenia. HUS associated with diarrheal prodrome is usually caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 or by Shigella dysenteriae, which generally has a better outcome. However, atypical cases show a tendency to relapse with a poorer prognosis. HUS has been reported to be associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in children. The characteristics and the mechanisms underlying this condition are largely unknown. In this study, we describe the case of an 11-year-old boy in whom the diagnosis of ALL was preceded by the diagnosis of atypical HUS. Thus, patients with atypical HUS should be diagnosed for the possibility of developing ALL.

  7. Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn due to Intravenous Drug Use.

    Markham, Kara B; Scrape, Scott R; Prasad, Mona; Rossi, Karen Q; O'Shaughnessy, Richard W

    2016-03-01

    Objectives The objective is to present a pregnancy complication associated with intravenous drug use, namely, that of red blood cell alloimmunization and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Methods An observational case series is presented including women with red blood cell alloimmunization most likely secondary to intravenous drug abuse Results Five pregnancies were identified that were complicated by red blood cell alloimmunization and significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, necessitating intrauterine transfusion, an indicated preterm birth, or neonatal therapy. Conclusions As opioid abuse continues to increase in the United States, clinicians should be aware of the potential for alloimmunization to red blood cell antibodies as yet another negative outcome from intravenous drug abuse.

  8. Successful Management of a Rare Cause of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome With Eculizumab in a Child.

    Alparslan, Caner; Yavaşcan, Önder; Kasap Demir, Belde; Atmiş, Bahriye; Karabay Bayazit, Aysun; Leblebisatan, Göksel; Öncel, Elif P; Alaygut, Demet; Mutlubaş, Fatma; Aksu, Nejat

    2018-03-23

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, and thrombocytopenia. It very rarely coexists with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) emerging before, simultaneously, or after the diagnosis has been made, and management of the patient may be difficult. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy who was diagnosed with HUS and initially managed by hemodialysis (HD). Thereafter, HUS progressed, and neurological findings developed. The patient was treated with eculizumab, agressive blood pressure control, and antiepileptic drugs. At the fifth month of follow-up, the patient was diagnosed with acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia with fever, bone pain, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. After initiation of ALL treatment, he had no episodes of HUS, despite cessation of eculizumab. In conclusion, eculizumab may be a treatment of choice to prevent further systemic damage in recurrent HUS episodes of patients with borderline changes in the bone marrow until ALL is constantly diagnosed.

  9. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and hypertensive crisis post dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case report

    Mervin Tri Hadianto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS clinically manifests as acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Acute renal failure with oliguria, hypertension, and proteinuria usually develops in affected patients.1,2 In children under 15 years of age, typical HUS occurs at a rate of 0.91 cases per 100,000 population.3 The initial onset of this disease usually happens in children below 3 years of age. Incidence is similar in boys and girls. Seasonal variation occurs, with HUS peaking in the summer and fall. In young children, spontaneous recovery is common. In adults, the probability of recovery is low when HUS is associated with severe hypertension.2

  10. Recurrent atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome after renal transplantation: treatment with eculizumab

    Ana B. Latzke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is a rare entity. It is characterized by a thrombotic microangiopathy (nonimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure, with a typical histopathology of thickening of capillary and arteriolar walls and an obstructive thrombosis of the vascular lumen. The syndrome is produced by a genetic or acquired deregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, with high rates of end stage renal disease, post-transplant recurrence, and high mortality. Mutations associated with factor H, factor B and complement C3 show the worst prognosis. Even though plasma therapy is occasionally useful, eculizumab is effective both for treatment and prevention of post-transplant recurrence. We describe here an adult case of congenital aHUS (C3 mutation under preventive treatment with eculizumab after renal transplantation, with neither disease recurrence nor drug-related adverse events after a 36-months follow-up.

  11. Severe pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome in an 8-month-old girl

    Tahar Gargah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure, represents one of the major causes of acute renal failure in infancy and childhood. The typical form occurring after an episode of diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli is the most frequent in children. Other microorganisms also may be responsible for HUS, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, which causes more severe forms of the disease. We report an 8-month-old girl who presented with pneumonia and subsequently developed HUS. Renal biopsy showed characteristic lesion of thrombotic microangiopathy and extensive cortical necrosis. She was managed with peritoneal dialysis but did not improve and developed severe sepsis due to staphylococcal peritonitis, resulting in the death of the patient. Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced HUS is uncommon, but results in severe disease in the young. There is a high risk of these patients developing end-stage kidney disease in the long term.

  12. Parvovirus B19-triggered Acute Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia in a Child with Evans Syndrome.

    Zikidou, Panagiota; Grapsa, Anastassia; Bezirgiannidou, Zoe; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Mantadakis, Elpis

    2018-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with the presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.

  13. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    Bot, M.; , van, Berkel T.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by

  14. Report of a case with Hodgkin's lymphoma, tuberculosis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    TUĞCU, Deniz; KEBUDİ, Rejin; ZÜLFİKAR, Bülent; AYAN, İnci; GÖRGÜN, Ömer; AĞAN, Mehmet; SOMER, Alper; AKINCI, Ferhan

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis has been described in association with malignancies including Hodgkin's disease (HD). In this article, a patient with diagnoses of H D, tuberculosis and hemolytic anemia is reported. Both tuberculosis and HD may present with similar symptoms and signs, and one of the diagnoses may be overlooked. The physicians should be aware of the simultaneous occurrence of both of these diseases when they are faced with initial therapeutic failure, during care of H D and tuberculosis patients.

  15. Emerging Technology Update Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Wu, Min; Fw van der Steen, Antonius; Regar, Evelyn; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-10-01

    The identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries is emerging as an important tool for guiding atherosclerosis diagnosis and interventions. Assessment of plaque vulnerability requires knowledge of both the structure and composition of the plaque. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is able to show the morphology and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. With imminent improvements in IVPA imaging, it is becoming possible to assess human coronary artery disease in vivo . Although some challenges remain, IVPA imaging is on its way to being a powerful tool for visualising coronary atherosclerotic features that have been specifically associated with plaque vulnerability and clinical syndromes, and thus such imaging might become valuable for clinical risk assessment in the catheterisation laboratory.

  16. Plaque biology: interesting science or pharmacological treasure trove?

    Loftus, I; Thompson, M

    2008-11-01

    Our understanding of the events that occur within atherosclerotic plaques has improved dramatically over the last 2 decades, particularly with regard to the role of plaque destabilisation and the onset of clinical ischaemic syndromes. Many potential targets have been identified for therapeutic intervention aimed at disease prevention, plaque stabilisation and regression. Furthermore, many potential biomarkers of vascular disease have generated interest in terms of monitoring disease activity and the effect of therapeutic agents. However, despite much scientific promise with in vitro cell and animal models, there has been much less success in modulation of these processes in clinical practice. This review will highlight the local and systemic factors associated with disease progression and acute plaque destabilisation, the current role of therapeutic agents and the potential for targeted plaque modification.

  17. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: Current trends and perspectives

    Basu Sabita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of hemolytic disease of the newborn has changed over the last few decades. With the implementation of Rhesus D immunoprophylaxis, hemolytic disease due to ABO incompatibility and other alloantibodies has now emerged as major causes of this condition. Though in developing countries, anti D is still a common antibody in pregnant women, many Asian countries have identified alloantibodies other than anti D as a cause of moderate-severe hemolytic disease. The most concerned fact is that, some of these have been described in Rh D positive women. It appears that universal antenatal screening in all pregnant women needs to be initiated, since Rh D positive women are just as likely as D negative women to form alloantibodies. Many developed nations have national screening programs for pregnant women. This is necessary to ensure timely availability of antigen negative blood and reduce effects on the newborn. Although universal screening seems justified, the cost and infrastructure required would be immense. Developing countries and under resourced nations need to consider universal antenatal screening and frame guidelines accordingly.

  18. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: Current trends and perspectives

    Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of hemolytic disease of the newborn has changed over the last few decades. With the implementation of Rhesus D immunoprophylaxis, hemolytic disease due to ABO incompatibility and other alloantibodies has now emerged as major causes of this condition. Though in developing countries, anti D is still a common antibody in pregnant women, many Asian countries have identified alloantibodies other than anti D as a cause of moderate-severe hemolytic disease. The most concerned fact is that, some of these have been described in Rh D positive women. It appears that universal antenatal screening in all pregnant women needs to be initiated, since Rh D positive women are just as likely as D negative women to form alloantibodies. Many developed nations have national screening programs for pregnant women. This is necessary to ensure timely availability of antigen negative blood and reduce effects on the newborn. Although universal screening seems justified, the cost and infrastructure required would be immense. Developing countries and under resourced nations need to consider universal antenatal screening and frame guidelines accordingly. PMID:21572705

  19. [A case of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Dia antibody].

    Lee, Sun Min; Im, Sun Ju; Park, Su Eun; Lee, Eun Yup; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2007-10-01

    Here we report a severe case of hemolytic anemia of the newborn with kernicterus caused by anti-Di(a) antibody. A full term male infant was transferred due to hyperbilirubinemia on the third day of life. Despite single phototherapy, the baby's total bilirubin had elevated to 30.1 mg/dL. After exchange transfusion, total bilirubin decreased to 11.45 mg/dL. The direct antiglobulin test on the infant's red cells was positive. The maternal and infant's sera showed a negative reaction in routine antibody detection tests, but were positive in Di(a) panel cells. The frequency of the Di(a) antigen among the Korean population is estimated to be 6.4-14.5%. Anti-Di(a) antibody could cause a hemolytic reaction against transfusion or hemolytic disease of the newborn. We suggest the need for reagent red blood cell panels to include Di(a) antigen positive cells in antibody identification test for Korean.

  20. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E

    Adiyyatu Sa′idu Usman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal allo-antibody production is stimulated when fetal red blood cells are positive for an antigen absent on the mother′s red cells. The maternal IgG antibodies produced will pass through the placenta and attack fetal red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. Allo-immune hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E rarely occurs. Case summary: We report two cases of anti-E hemolytic diseases in neonates. One of the neonates had severe hemolysis presenting with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, while the other had moderate anemia and unconjugated hyperbilrubinemia. Although both the neonates were treated by phototherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin, one of them received double volume exchange transfusion. Conclusion: There appeared to be an increase in the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by Rh antibodies other than anti-D. In this case report, both patients presented with anemia and hyperbilirubinemia but were successfully treated, with a favorable outcome.

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in idiopathic hypereosinophilia with warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Sweidan AJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander J Sweidan,1,2 Adam K Brys,3 David D Sohn,1,2 Milan R Sheth4 1University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, St Mary Medical Center, Long Beach, CA, USA; 3School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Long Beach Memorial Hospital, Long Beach, CA, USA Abstract: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES encompasses numerous diverse conditions resulting in peripheral hypereosinophilia that cannot be explained by hypersensitivity, infection, or atopy and that is not associated with known systemic diseases with specific organ involvement. HES is often attributed to neoplastic or reactive causes, such as chronic eosinophilic leukemia, although a majority of cases remains unexplained and are considered idiopathic. Here, we review the current diagnosis and management of HES and present a unique case of profound hypereosinophilia associated with warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia requiring intensive management. This case clearly illustrates the limitations of current knowledge with respect to hypereosinophilia syndrome as well as the challenges associated with its classification and management. Keywords: hypereosinophilia, eosinophils, myeloproliferative disorder, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia, leukemia

  2. Dangerous drug interactions leading to hemolytic uremic syndrome following lung transplantation

    Parissis Haralabos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report our experience of a rather uncommon drug interaction, resulting in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Methods Two consecutive cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome were diagnosed in our service. In both patients the use of macrolides in patients taking Tacrolimus, resulted in high levels of Tacrolimus. Results The first patient was a 48 years old female with Bilateral emphysema. She underwent Single Sequential Lung Transplantation. She developed reperfusion injury requiring prolonged stay. Tacrolimus introduced (Day 51. The patient remained well up till 5 months later; Erythromycin commenced for chest infection. High Tacrolimus levels and a clinical diagnosis of HUS were made. She was treated with plasmapheresis successfully. The second case was a 57 years old female with Emphysema & A1 Antithrypsin deficiency. She underwent Right Single Lung Transplantation. A2 rejection with mild Obliterative Bronchiolitis diagnosed 1 year later and she switched to Tacrolimus. She was admitted to her local Hospital two and a half years later with right middle lobe consolidation. The patient commenced on amoxicillin and clarithromycin. Worsening renal indices, high Tacrolimus levels, hemolytic anemia & low Platelets were detected. HUS diagnosed & treated with plasmapheresis. Conclusions There are 21 cases of HUS following lung transplantation in the literature that may have been induced by high tacrolimus levels. Macrolides in patients taking Cyclosporin or Tacrolimus lead to high levels. Mechanism of action could be glomeruloconstrictor effect with reduced GFR increased production of Endothelin-1 and increased Platelet aggregation.

  3. Dental plaque removal with a novel battery-powered toothbrush.

    Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia; Bartizek, Robert D; Ruhlman, Douglas; Donly, Kevin J

    2002-04-01

    To compare the plaque removal efficacy of a positive control power toothbrush (Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover) to an experimental power toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) following a single use. This study was a randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, 2-period crossover design which examined plaque removal with the two toothbrushes following a single use in 38 completed subjects. Plaque was scored before and after brushing using the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Index. Baseline plaque scores were 1.89 and 1.91 for the experimental toothbrush and control toothbrush treatment groups, respectively. With respect to all surfaces examined, the experimental toothbrush delivered an adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean difference between baseline and post-brushing plaque scores of 0.46 while the control toothbrush delivered an adjusted mean difference of 0.45. These results were not statistically significant (P=0.645). A 95% one-sided upper confidence limit on the Ultra Plaque Remover minus SpinBrush difference in amount of plaque removed was calculated as 9.4% of the Ultra Plaque Remover adjusted mean. A common criterion for what is known as an "at least as good as" test is that the 95% one-sided confidence limit on the product difference is below 10% of the control product mean. Using this criterion, the SpinBrush is at least as good as the Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover. With respect to buccal and lingual surfaces, the experimental toothbrush delivered very similar results relative to the control toothbrush. These results were also not statistically significant (P> 0.564).

  4. Monte Carlo generation of dosimetric parameters for eye plaque dosimetry

    Cutajar, D.L.; Green, J.A.; Guatelli, S.; Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics have undertaken the dcvelopment of a quality assurance tool, using silicon pixelated detectors, for the calibration of eye plaques prior to insertion. Dosimetric software to correlate the measured and predicted dose rates has been constructed. The dosimetric parameters within the software, for both 1-125 and Ru-I 06 based eye plaques, were optimised using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Methods For 1-125 based plaques, an novel application was developed to generate TG-43 parameters for any seed input. TG-43 parameters were generated for an Oncura model 6711 seed, with data points every millimetre up to 25 mm in the radial direction, and every 5 degrees in polar angle, and correlated to published data. For the Ru106 based plaques, an application was developed to generate dose rates about a Bebig model CCD plaque. Toroids were used to score the deposited dose, taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry of the plaque, with radii in millimetre increments up to 25 mm, and depth from the plaque surface in millimetre increments up to 25 mm. Results TheTG43 parameters generated for the 6711 seed correlate well with published TG43 data at the given intervals, with radial dose function within 3%, and anisotropy function within 5% for angles greater than 30 degrees. The Ru-l 06 plaque data correlated well with the Bebig protocol of measurement. Conclusion Geant4 is a useful Monte Carlo tool for the generation of dosimetric data for eye plaque dosimetry. which may improve the quality assurance of eye plaque treatment. (author)

  5. Prediction of periodontopathic bacteria in dental plaque of periodontal healthy subjects by measurement of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air.

    Kishi, Mitsuo; Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kishi, Kayo; Kimura, Shigenobu; Aizawa, Fumie; Yonemitsu, Masami

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether measurements of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are useful to predict colonization of periodontopathic bacteria. For this purpose, we assessed the relationships among distributions of 4 species of periodontopathic bacteria in tongue coating and dental plaque, oral conditions including VSC concentration in mouth air, and smoking habit of periodontal healthy young subjects. The subjects were 108 young adults (mean age, 23.5±2.56 years) without clinical periodontal pockets. Information regarding smoking habit was obtained by interview. After VSC concentration in mouth, air was measured with a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter(®)), non-stimulated saliva flow and dental caries status were assessed, and tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected from the subjects. The tongue coating samples were weighed to determine the amount. The colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Treponema denticola in both tongue coating and plaque samples was investigated using species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Significant relationships were observed between the colonization of periodontopathic bacteria in tongue coating and plaque samples, especially that of P. gingivalis. VSC concentration showed the most significant association with colonization of P. gingivalis in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the adjusted partial correlation coefficient [Exp(B)] values for VSC concentration with the colonization of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. denticola in dental plaque were 135, 35.4 and 10.4, respectively. In addition, smoking habit was also shown to be a significant variable in regression models [Exp(B)=6.19, 8.92 and 2.53, respectively]. Therefore, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to predict the colonization of periodontal bacteria in dental plaque in the subjects divided by smoking

  6. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm.

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Sculean, Anton

    2012-04-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections. However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and chlorhexidine (CHX), 18 subjects had to refrain from all mechanical and chemical hygiene measures for 24 h. A voluminous supragingival plaque sample was taken from the buccal surfaces of the lower molars and wiped on an objective slide. The sample was then divided into three equal parts and mounted with one of the three test or control preparations (a) NaCl, (b) taurolidine 2% and (c) CHX 0.2%. After a reaction time of 2 min, the test solutions were sucked of. Subsequently, the plaque biofilm was stained with fluorescence dye and vitality of the plaque flora was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean VF of 82.42 ± 6.04%. Taurolidine affected mean VF with 47.57 ± 16.60% significantly (p plaque biofilm which was, however, not as pronounced as that of CHX.

  7. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging: a new tool for vulnerable plaque identification.

    Jansen, Krista; van Soest, Gijs; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2014-06-01

    The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to be the most prominent type of vulnerable plaque. No clinically available imaging technique can characterize atherosclerotic lesions to the extent needed to determine plaque vulnerability prognostically. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging (IVPA) has the potential to take a significant step in that direction by imaging both plaque structure and composition. IVPA is a natural extension of intravascular ultrasound that adds tissue type specificity to the images. IVPA utilizes the optical contrast provided by the differences in the absorption spectra of plaque components to image composition. Its capability to image lipids in human coronary atherosclerosis has been shown extensively ex vivo and has recently been translated to an in vivo animal model. Other disease markers that have been successfully targeted are calcium and inflammatory markers, such as macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase; the latter two through application of exogenous contrast agents. By simultaneously displaying plaque morphology and composition, IVPA can provide a powerful prognostic marker for disease progression, and as such has the potential to transform the current practice in percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Collagen and related extracellular matrix proteins in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Shami, Annelie; Gonçalves, Isabel; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The structure, composition and turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as cell-matrix interactions are crucial in the developing atherosclerotic plaque. There is a need for further insight into specific proteins in the ECM and their functions in the developing plaque, and during the last few years a number of publications have highlighted this very important field of research. These novel findings will be addressed in the present review. This review covers literature focused on collagen and ECM proteins interacting with collagen, and what their roles may be in plaque development. Acute myocardial infarction and stroke are common diseases that cause disability and mortality, and the underlying mechanism is often the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The vascular ECM and the tissue repair in the atherosclerotic lesion are important players in plaque progression. Understanding how specific proteins in the ECM interact with cells in the plaque and affect the fate of the plaque can lead to new treatments for cardiovascular disease.

  9. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque resolution

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Persistently elevated circulating low-density lipoprotein, or hypercholesterolemia, and deposition of low-density lipoprotein in the vascular wall are the main inducers of atherosclerosis, which manifests itself as arterial lesions or plaques. Some plaques become thrombosis-prone and rupture, causing acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Lowering plasma cholesterol through the use of statins is the primary intervention against atherosclerosis. Treatment with statins slows progression of atherosclerosis but can only support limited plaque regression. Partially regressed plaques continue to pose a serious threat due to their remaining potential to rupture. Thus, new interventions inducing complete reversal of atherosclerosis are being sought. Implementation of new therapies will require clear understanding of the mechanisms driving plaque resolution. In this Commentary, we highlight the role of bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque regression and discuss how regenerative cell-based interventions could be used in combination with plasma lipid-lowering to induce plaque reversal in order to prevent and/or reduce adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:23538778

  10. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  11. Plaque Characteristics of Patients with Symptomatic Mild Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Takai, Hiroki; Uemura, Juniti; Yagita, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Hirai, Satoshi; Ishihara, Manabu; Hara, Keijirou; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Shunji; Nishimura, Hirotake; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-03-20

    Carotid revascularization may be considered for severe stenosis, but its use for symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) with vulnerable plaque or ulcer remains uncertain. The characteristics of patients with symptomatic mild stenosis who underwent revascularization are reviewed. The subjects of this study were 18 patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography from among 175 patients who underwent revascularization in our department. The plaques were evaluated by black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) and ultrasonography (US) and classified into 2 types: type 1 (n = 15), a lesion with an ulcer or mobile plaque or thrombosis on angiography or US; and type 2 (n = 3), a lesion without any of the above. Fourteen patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent carotid artery stenting. The stenosis on angiography was 27.2% ± 10.7 (5%-41%), and the area carotid artery stenosis rate on US was 69.8 ± 14.5% (44.5%-97%). The stenosis rate of these 2 methods was not at all correlated. In type 1 plaque that underwent CEA, 10 of 11 patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology, and 1 patient had thrombus on the plaque by operative findings. In type 2 plaque that underwent CEA, all patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology. During the follow-up period, none of the patients had restenosis or stroke. The findings of US and BB-MRI in patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography are important for determining treatment. If BB-MRI or US shows the findings of vulnerable plaque in mild stenosis, surgical treatment may be considered for these patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  13. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D Isotropic MR Culprit Plaque Visualization of Carotid Plaque Edema and Hemorrhage with Motion Sensitized Blood Suppression

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Bloch, Lars Ø.

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage and plaque edema may represent advanced stages of atherosclerosis[1, 2]. In this study, we present a novel multi-contrast 3D motion sensitized black-blood CMR imaging sequence, which detects both plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast. Subjects and Methods The 3D imaging sequence...... to lumen was 39.74±6.75. Discussion/Conclusion In conclusion, the proposed 3D isotropic multi-contrast CMR technique detects plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast and excellent black-blood contrast, which may facilitate evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies will include CMR...

  15. Argonne National Laboratory research offers clues to Alzheimer's plaques

    2003-01-01

    Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago have developed methods to directly observe the structure and growth of microscopic filaments that form the characteristic plaques found in the brains of those with Alzheimer's Disease (1 page).

  16. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  17. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization Mechanisms, Models, and Therapeutic Strategies

    Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; de Winther, Menno P.; Weber, Christian; Daemen, Mat J.; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of atherogenesis and the progression of atherosclerosis have been major goals of cardiovascular research during the previous decades. However, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain largely obscure. Here, we review how

  18. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Waaler, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au)

  19. [High-throughput genotyping multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for assisting diagnosis in a case of anti-Di(a)-induced severe hemolytic disease of the newborn].

    Ji, Yanli; Mo, Chunyan; Wei, Ling; Zhou, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Runqing; Zhao, Yang; Luo, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Guangping

    2012-02-01

    To report a rare case of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) with kernicterus caused by anti-Di(a) diagnosed using high-throughput genotyping multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Conventional serological methods were used to detect the antibodies related with HDN. The genotypes of more than 40 red blood cell antigens for the newborn and her parents were obtained using the high-throughput MLPA assay. The antibody titers were tested using a standard serological method. The unknown antibody against the low-frequency antigens was predicted based on the primary serological tests. The genotyping results for more than 40 red blood cell antigens of the newborn and her parents showed incompatible antigens of MNS and Diego blood group system, indicating the existence of anti-N or anti-Di(a). Further serological tests confirmed anti-Di(a) existence in the plasma of the newborn and her mother. The titer of anti-Di(a) in the mother's plasma was 1:32. Severe HDN including kernicterus can result from anti-Di(a). High-throughput genotyping MLPA assay can help type some rare antigens in complicated cases. The reagent red cell panels including Di(a)-positive cells are necessary in routine antibody screening test in Chinese population.

  20. Use of recombinant erythropoietin for the management of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn of a K0 phenotype mother.

    Manoura, Antonia; Korakaki, Eftychia; Hatzidaki, Eleftheria; Saitakis, Emmanuel; Maraka, Sofia; Papamastoraki, Isabella; Matalliotakis, Emmanuel; Foundouli, Kaliopi; Giannakopoulou, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Very few people do not express any Kell antigens on their red blood cells (K0 phenotype). They can be immunized by transfusion or pregnancy and develop antibodies against Kell system antigens. These maternal antibodies can cause severe hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn, as a result of the suppression of erythropoiesis and hemolysis. Multiple intrauterine transfusions in the management of severe hemolytic disease have been shown to cause erythropoietic suppression as well. Recombinant erythropoietin has been successfully used in the management of late anemia of infants with Rh hemolytic disease and in 1 case of KEL1 (Kell)-associated hemolytic disease. The authors present the case of severe hemolytic disease of a newborn due to KEL5 (Ku) isoimmunization of his K0 phenotype mother. Regular intrauterine transfusions were performed to manage the severe fetal anemia (Hb 3 g/dL). A male infant was born at the 36th week of gestation having normal hemoglobin (15.8 g/dL) and developed only mild hyperbilirubinemia. On the 15th day of life, the infant's hematocrit had fallen to 27.3%, with low reticulocyte count and low erythropoietin level. The infant was managed successfully with recombinant erythropoietin.

  1. Contemporary carotid imaging: from degree of stenosis to plaque vulnerability.

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Huston, John; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Lerman, Amir; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a well-established risk factor of ischemic stroke, contributing to up to 10%-20% of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Many clinical trials over the last 20 years have used measurements of carotid artery stenosis as a means to risk stratify patients. However, with improvements in vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography, ultrasonography, and PET/CT, it is now possible to risk stratify patients, not just on the degree of carotid artery stenosis but also on how vulnerable the plaque is to rupture, resulting in ischemic stroke. These imaging techniques are ushering in an emerging paradigm shift that allows for risk stratifications based on the presence of imaging features such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), plaque ulceration, plaque neovascularity, fibrous cap thickness, and presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC). It is important for the neurosurgeon to be aware of these new imaging techniques that allow for improved patient risk stratification and outcomes. For example, a patient with a low-grade stenosis but an ulcerated plaque may benefit more from a revascularization procedure than a patient with a stable 70% asymptomatic stenosis with a thick fibrous cap. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art advances in carotid plaque imaging. Currently, MRI is the gold standard in carotid plaque imaging, with its high resolution and high sensitivity for identifying IPH, ulceration, LRNC, and inflammation. However, MRI is limited due to time constraints. CT also allows for high-resolution imaging and can accurately detect ulceration and calcification, but cannot reliably differentiate LRNC from IPH. PET/CT is an effective technique to identify active inflammation within the plaque, but it does not allow for assessment of anatomy, ulceration, IPH, or LRNC. Ultrasonography, with the aid of contrast enhancement, is a cost-effective technique to assess plaque morphology and characteristics, but it is

  2. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm 3 , 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm 3 , 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  3. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm{sup 3}, 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm{sup 3}, 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  4. Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is Associated with Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Zangari, Rosalia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. By using a novel histology-based method to quantify plaque instability here, we assess whether lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation, a major inflammation arm, could represent an index of plaque instability. Plaques...

  5. Cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease: incidence, risk factors and outcome.

    Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; Rath, Mirjam E A; Lindenburg, Irene T M; Oepkes, Dick; van Zwet, Erik W; Walther, Frans J; Lopriore, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Etiology of cholestatic liver disease in neonates with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) has been associated with iron overload due to intrauterine red cell transfusions (IUTs). Data on the incidence and severity of cholestasis in neonates with HDN are scarce, and little is known about pathogenesis, risk factors, neonatal management and outcome. To evaluate incidence, risk factors, management and outcome of cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease. All (near-) term neonates with HDN due to red cell alloimmunization admitted to our center between January 2000 and July 2010 were included in this observational study. Liver function tests (including conjugated bilirubin) were routinely performed in the neonatal period. We recorded the presence of cholestasis, investigated several potential risk factors and evaluated the management and outcome in affected neonates. A total of 313 infants with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease treated with or without IUTs were included. The incidence of cholestasis was 13% (41/313). Two risk factors were independently associated with cholestasis: treatment with at least one IUT (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.70-19.80, p = 0.005) and rhesus D type of alloimmunization (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.05-20.57, p = 0.042). Additional diagnostic tests to investigate possible causes of cholestasis were all negative. In 5 infants (12%), supportive medical and nutritional therapy was started, and one neonate required iron chelation therapy. Cholestasis occurs in 13% of neonates with HDN due to red cell alloimmunization, and it is independently associated with IUT treatment and rhesus D type of alloimmunization. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Hemolytic anemia in two patients with glioblastoma multiforme: A possible interaction between vorinostat and dapsone.

    Lewis, Jennifer A; Petty, William J; Harmon, Michele; Peacock, James E; Valente, Kari; Owen, John; Pirmohamed, Munir; Lesser, Glenn J

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing treatment for glioblastoma multiforme are routinely placed on prophylactic treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia because of significant therapy-induced lymphopenia. In patients with sulfa allergies, dapsone prophylaxis is often used due to its efficacy, long half-life, cost effectiveness, and general safety at low doses. However, dapsone may uncommonly induce a hemolytic anemia, particularly in patients deficient of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This hemolysis is thought to be a result of oxidative stress on red blood cells induced by dapsone metabolites which produce reactive oxygen species that disrupt the red blood cell membrane and promote splenic sequestration. A single case report of dapsone-induced hemolytic anemia in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme has been reported. We present two patients with glioblastoma multiforme who developed severe hemolytic anemia shortly after initiating therapy with vorinostat, a pan-active histone deacetylase inhibitor, while on prophylactic dapsone. There are several potential mechanisms by which histone deacetylase inhibition may alter dapsone metabolism including changes in hepatic acetylation or N-glucuronidation leading to an increase in the bioavailability of dapsone's hematotoxic metabolites. In addition, vorinostat may lead to increased hemolysis through inhibition of heat shock protein-90, a chaperone protein that maintains the integrity of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton. The potential interaction between dapsone and vorinostat may have important clinical implications as more than 10 clinical trials evaluating drug combinations with vorinostat in patients with malignant glioma are either ongoing or planned in North America. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia caused by ingestion of pennies by a pup

    Latimer, K.S.; Jain, A.V.; Inglesby, H.B.; Clarkson, W.D.; Johnson, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    A 4-month-old Pomeranian pup was examined because of anorexia, salivation, and persistent vomiting. Initial laboratory testing revealed marked hemolytic anemia with spherocytosis. Survey abdominal radiography revealed 4 metal objects which, when removed by gastrotomy, were identified as pennies. Of 4 pennies, 3 were minted since 1983 and were heavily pitted over the surface and rim. Partially digested pennies were composed of a copper-plated high zinc concentration alloy. Further laboratory testing indicated a marked increase in serum zinc concentration in the pup (28.8 mg/L), confirming metal toxicosis. Serum zinc concentrations decreased during recovery

  8. [Historical stages of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Argentina (1964-2009)].

    Belardo, Marcela

    2012-10-01

    The aim is to present an historical time frame of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) in Argentina. From a public policy approach, the history of the disease is analyzed as an object of health policy and seeks to contribute in understanding the multiple dimensions of illness. As a medical and scientific issue, as a social problem and a matter of health policy, the article describes three phases ranging from its discovery up to the national program of HUS adopted in 2009. This article aims to provide an overview of developments in biomedical knowledge and the emergence of the issue in both social and political problem.

  9. Molecular characterization and multidisciplinary management of Gerbich hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Levitt, Rebecca N; Gourri, Elise; Gassner, Christoph; Banez-Sese, Grace; Salam, Abdus; Denomme, Gregory A; Yang, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    Gerbich (Ge) antigens are high frequency red cell antigens expressed on glycophorin C (GYPC) and glycophorin D. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to Gerbich antibody is rare and presents a clinical challenge, as Gerbich negative blood is scarce. We report a case of HDFN due to maternal Ge3 negative phenotype and anti-Ge3 alloimmunization, successfully managed by transfusion of maternal blood. Molecular testing revealed that the mother has homozygous deletion of exon 3 of GYPC, the father is homozygous wildtype for GYPC, and the infant is obligate heterozygote expressing Ge3. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Shigella sonnei and hemolytic uremic syndrome: A case report and literature review

    Casey Adams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is a well-described process that is known to cause severe renal dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. HUS is typically associated with toxins (shiga-like and shigella toxin found in strains of E. coli and Shigella spp [1–3]. We present a case of a 27 year-old man with jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction who was found to have HUS in the setting of Shigella sonnei infection. Outside of developing countries, cases of HUS related to S. sonnei are largely unreported.

  11. Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria successfully treated with plasma exchange

    V S Keskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS in an adult patient with Plasmodium vivax malaria. The patient presented with worsening anemia, persistent thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. HUS was diagnosed based on the high serum lactate dehydrogenase, elevated reticulocyte count and presence of schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. Kidney biopsy showed features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Complete hematological remission was achieved after five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange. Renal function partially recovered and stabilized at discharge. Vivax malaria, generally considered benign, may be rarely associated with HUS.

  12. MR chemical shift imaging and spectroscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    Vinitski, S.; Consigny, P.M.; Shapiro, M.J.; Janes, N.; Smullens, S.N.; Rifkin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for in vivo imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic plaque. The authors used a spin-echo technique with a short echo time (TE) of 11 msec. Lipid/water suppression was achieved by means of hybrid chemical shift imaging. Lesions were induced in three rabbits by a combination of balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and a high-cholesterol diet. Following in vivo imaging of these rabbit aortas and human carotid arteries (1.5 T), the animals were killed or carotid endarterectomy was performed so that the plaques could be excised. The plaques were then analyzed in vitro both histologically and with high-resolution spectroscopy (8.5 T). Use of the short TE improved lesion visualization. The fat/water suppression showed only a small amount of mobile lipids in plaque. Both MR spectroscopic and histologic analysis corroborated these images. The composition of atherosclerotic plaques in both humans and rabbits was demonstrated to be heterogeneous, with predominantly nonmobile lipids. These results suggest that the combination of short TE MR imaging and fat/water suppression can identify plaque and delineate areas containing mobile lipids

  13. Protective levels of canine distemper virus antibody in an urban dog population using plaque reduction neutralization test

    O.I. Oyedele

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 50 dogs were collected at three veterinary clinics in Ibadan and Abuja, Nigeria and the serum from each sample was evaluated serologically for neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV by the highly sensitive plaque reduction (PRN neutralization assay. Thirteen dogs had plaque reduction neutralization titres of 0-100, seven had titres of 100-1 000 while 30 had titres ranging from 1 000-6 000. The PRN titres of vaccinated dogs were found to be significantly higher than unvaccinated dogs. The widespread use of the highly reproducible PRN test for the evaluation of antibody response to CDV may be very important in the generation of international CDV positive serum standards that should help to improve pre-and post-vaccination testing of dogs worldwide.

  14. Proteomic Profile of Unstable Atheroma Plaque: Increased Neutrophil Defensin 1, Clusterin, and Apolipoprotein E Levels in Carotid Secretome.

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Curriu, Marta; Martinez, Salomé; Alibalic, Ajla; Aguilar, Carmen; Hernández, Esteban; Camara, María-Luisa; Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Ruyra, Xavier; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-03-04

    Because of the clinical significance of carotid atherosclerosis, the search for novel biomarkers has become a priority. The aim of the present study was to compare the protein secretion profile of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP, n = 12) and nonatherosclerotic mammary artery (MA, n = 10) secretomes. We used a nontargeted proteomic approach that incorporated tandem immunoaffinity depletion, iTRAQ labeling, and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, 162 proteins were quantified, of which 25 showed statistically significant differences in secretome levels between carotid atherosclerotic plaque and nondiseased mammary artery. We found increased levels of neutrophil defensin 1, apolipoprotein E, clusterin, and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein in CAP secretomes. Results were validated by ELISA assays. Also, differentially secreted proteins are involved in pathways such as focal adhesion and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In conclusion, this study provides a subset of identified proteins that are differently expressed in secretomes of clinical significance.

  15. Validation of the Filovirus Plaque Assay for Use in Preclinical Studies

    2016-09-02

    Journal 2015, volume, page–page 4 according to the experimental design. The culture medium in the 6-well plate was removed by swift decanting. Virus...authors would also like to thank Dennis Taylor for project management and coordination support of this research, and Donna Hering, Han Seung, Susan

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels unaltered in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque patients from North India

    Dheeraj eKhurana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein(MCP-1 as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis(p<0.05. Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountaineer region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at plain region. We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress independent of these inflammatory molecules. In parallel, risk factor analysis indicates hypertension, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle as the most

  17. The effect of pH, temperature and plaque thickness on the hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate in experimental dental plaque.

    Pearce, E I F; Dibdin, G H

    2003-01-01

    Monofluorophosphate (MFP), an anti-caries agent commonly used in toothpaste, is known to be degraded to fluoride and orthophosphate by bacterial phosphatases in dental plaque. We have examined the effect of pH, temperature, plaque thickness and some ions on this process. Both natural plaque and artificial microcosm plaque incubated with purified MFP at pH 4-10 showed an optimum pH of approximately 8 for hydrolysis. Diffusion and concomitant hydrolysis were examined in an apparatus in which artificial plaque was held between rigid membranes separating two chambers. When MFP diffused through a plaque of 0.51-mm thickness over 4 h it was almost completely hydrolysed at pH 8, but hydrolysis on diffusion decreased as the pH deviated from 8. MFP in toothpaste extract showed a similar pH susceptibility to hydrolysis, according to the inherent pH of the toothpaste. Hydrolysis of MFP in the toothpaste was reduced by no more than 10% when compared with a matched-pH control, suggesting that other toothpaste ingredients had no major influence on hydrolysis. Transport was slower and hydrolysis at pH 6 more complete the thicker the plaque, but hydrolysis was not significantly slower at 23 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The addition of various potential activating or inhibiting ions at 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/l had small and non-significant effects on hydrolysis. The results suggest that MFP toothpaste should be formulated and used to maximise enzymic hydrolysis of this complex anion, and that plaque pH control is probably the most important factor. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Factors Influencing Virulence and Plaque Properties of Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Populations

    Hearn, Henry J.; Seliokas, Zenonas V.; Andersen, Arthur A.

    1969-01-01

    A minority of stable large-plaque virus increased proportionally in stored unstable attenuated (9t) Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus populations. L-cell-grown progeny (9t2) of stored 9t showed large amounts of large-plaque virus and increased virulence. Small-plaque virus inhibited large-plaque virus but not the reverse. Serial passage of small-plaque virus from 9t2 yielded a strain (20t) that was more attenuated than 9t. PMID:5823235

  19. [Analysis of Correlation between IgG Titer of Pregnant Women and Neonatal Hemolytic Complications of Different Blood Groups].

    Ye, Hai-Hui; Huang, Hong-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Pi, You-Jun

    2017-10-01

    To study the relationship between IgG titer of pregnant women and hemolytic disease of newborn(HDN) with different blood groups. Four hundred pregnant women, including pregnant women with type O blood, were selected from May 2014 to January 2015 in our hospital for inspection and a couple of different blood groups, the IgG titer of pregnant women were detected in the inspection process. According to neonatal HDN, newborns were divided into 2 groups: HDN group(85 cases) and non-HDN group(315 cases). The incidence of postpartum neonatal hemolytic disease was tracked and the correlation of IgG titers with HDN were systematically analyzed. In the production and inspection process, the IgG titer in pregnant women was divided into groups. the comparison of HDN incidence rate in 4 groups of IgG titer >64 and IgG titer group showed that the prevalence of ABO hemolytic disease of newborn were 96.9%, 79.6%, 63, 7% and 28.8%, there was a certain correlation of pregnant women IgG titers with ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn, that is, with the increase of IgG titer, the incidence of hemolytic disease of newborns increased in certain degree (r=0.8832), the risk in 4 groups of neonatal HDN was higher than that in IgG titer 64 HDN group. There is a certain corelation between prevalence of ABO-HDN and IgG titer of pregnant women. For these pregnant women, the control of the pregnant women IgG titer has a positive clinical significance to reduce the incidence of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  20. Antimicrobial action of minocycline microspheres versus 810-nm diode laser on human dental plaque microcosm biofilms.

    Song, Xiaoqing; Yaskell, Tina; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lynch, Michael C; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial effects of minocycline hydrochloride microspheres versus infrared light at 810 nm from a diode laser on multispecies oral biofilms in vitro. These biofilms were grown from dental plaque inoculum (oral microcosms) and were obtained from six systemically healthy individuals with generalized chronic periodontitis. Multispecies biofilms were derived using supra- and subgingival plaque samples from mesio-buccal aspects of premolars and molars exhibiting probing depths in the 4- to 5-mm range and 1- to 2-mm attachment loss. Biofilms were developed anaerobically on blood agar surfaces in 96-well plates using a growth medium of prereduced, anaerobically sterilized brain-heart infusion with 2% horse serum. Minocycline HCl 1 mg microspheres were applied on biofilms on days 2 and 5 of their development. Biofilms were also exposed on days 2 and 5 of their growth to 810-nm light for 30 seconds using a power of 0.8 W in a continuous-wave mode. The susceptibility of microorganisms to minocycline or infrared light was evaluated by a colony-forming assay and DNA probe analysis at different time points. At all time points of survival assessment, minocycline was more effective (>2 log10 colony-forming unit reduction) than light treatment (P plaque pathogens to light, and it was not possible after treatment with minocycline due to lack of bacterial growth. The cumulative action of minocycline microspheres on multispecies oral biofilms in vitro led to enhanced killing of microorganisms, whereas a single exposure of light at 810 nm exhibited minimal and non-selective antimicrobial effects.

  1. [Establishment and validation of a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice].

    Li, Yong-Fu; Ma, Yue-Lan; Nie, Ling; Chen, Shuan; Jin, Mei-Fang; Wang, San-Lan

    2016-05-01

    To establish a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice. Twelve seven-day-old purebred Yorkshire pigs were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=6 each). Immunization of New Zealand white rabbits was used to prepare rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell antibodies, and rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum was separated. The neonatal pigs in the experimental group were given an intravenous injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (5 mL), and those in the control group were given an intravenous injection of normal saline (5 mL). Venous blood samples were collected every 6 hours for routine blood test and liver function evaluation. The experimental group had a significantly higher serum bilirubin level than the control group at 18 hours after the injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (64±30 μmol/L vs 20±4 μmol/L; Pjaundice simulates the pathological process of human hemolytic jaundice well and provides good biological and material bases for further investigation of neonatal hemolysis.

  2. Post Blood Transfusion Hypertensive Encephalopathy in a Child with Congenital Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report

    Dhiman Arshpreet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children having hemolytic anemias who have received multiple blood transfusions exhibit a rare complication of development of hypertension and seizures following transfusion, which may or may not be associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Case description: A 9-year-old boy presented with history of progressive paleness of body and weakness for the 30 days. There was a history of blood transfusion one week ago and multiple transfusions for one year of age. Examination revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, severe pallor and splenohepatomegaly. Blood work revealed a hemoglobin level of 4.0 grams with peripheral smear findings suggestive of hemolytic anemia. After blood transfusion, child complained of difficulty in breathing, vomiting and visual loss, followed by convulsions. Blood pressure was 180/110 mmHg. Seizure was controlled with intravenous midazolam and hypertension with furosemide and labetalol. CT brain was normal. As hypertension got under control, child gradually gained consciousness. Conclusion: A less intensive transfusion regimen among such patients along with prompt management of hypertension can prevent this potentially fatal syndrome.

  3. Hemolytic disease in the newborn - history and prevention in the world and the Czech Republic.

    Santavy, Jiri

    2010-06-01

    Hemolytic disease in the newborn with its typical signs and poor prognosis has been known for centuries. Historically it can be divided into three pathological states which are fetal hydrops (hydrops fetus universalis), neonatal jaundice (icterus neonati gravis familiaris) and fetal anemia (anemia neonati). Almost 70 reports with quite accurate descriptions were found up to the end of 19th century. The patho physiological basis of the condition began to be studied at the beginning of the last century and the development of our knowledge is an example of the cooperation between pathologists, pediatricians, hematologists and later, obstetricians, immunologists and geneticists. Despite all the advances in this field it remains a serious disease up to this time. It is not managed successfully in all cases and despite successful immunological prophylaxis there are cases when we need to administer intrauterine transfusion based on the information received by dopplerometric measurement of arteria cerebri perfusion and fetal blood sampling. Review of lover cited literature. The history of the hemolytic disease in the newborn, its condition and approaches to it has not been recently compiled in the Czech Republic.

  4. Ext The effect of littoralis leaf extract on Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice

    Zhi-jiang WANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Umbelliferae littoralis leaf extract on the Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice, and to provide the basis for the development and utilization medicinal resources and edible resources. Methods: Prepare littoralis leaf water extract and alcohol extract, and set different dose treatment groups and blank control group, and continuously deliver American ginseng capsule for 15 days. Inject sRBC according to the weight on the tenth day. Take the blood serum from eyeball blood after 5 days. Put supernatant of 1ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 3ml in the test tube, and mix the 10% sRBC of 0.25ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 4ml together in another test tube, and measure absorbance at 540nm fine control (SA liquid tubing as blank, HC50 value were calculated. Results: Different extracts of stems and littoralis leaf were given to the mice for 15 days, and hemolytic value of the mice in water extract 4.68g/kg dose group, alcohol extract 4.68g/kg dose group and American ginseng capsule group significantly increased while comparing with the blank control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Littoralis Leaf plays an important role in regulating human immunity.

  5. A Fatal Case of Severe Hemolytic Disease of Newborn Associated with Anti-Jkb

    Kim, Won Duck

    2006-01-01

    The Kidd blood group is clinically significant since the Jk antibodies can cause acute and delayed transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN). In general, HDN due to anti-Jkb incompatibility is rare and it usually displays mild clinical symptoms with a favorable prognosis. Yet, we apparently experienced the second case of HDN due to anti-Jkb with severe clinical symptoms and a fatal outcome. A female patient having the AB, Rh(D)-positive boodtype was admitted for jaundice on the fourth day after birth. At the time of admission, the patient was lethargic and exhibited high pitched crying. The laboratory data indicated a hemoglobin value of 11.4 mg/dL, a reticulocyte count of 14.9% and a total bilirubin of 46.1 mg/dL, a direct bilirubin of 1.1 mg/dL and a strong positive result (+++) on the direct Coomb's test. As a result of the identification of irregular antibody from the maternal serum, anti-Jkb was detected, which was also found in the eluate made from infant's blood. Despite the aggressive treatment with exchange transfusion and intensive phototherapy, the patient died of intractable seizure and acute renal failure on the fourth day of admission. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of the clinical courses of hemolytic jaundice due to anti-Jkb, and they should be ready to treat this disease with active therapeutic interventions. PMID:16479082

  6. A Case of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn due to Dia Antibody

    Jethava, Ashif; Olivares, Esperanza; Shariatmadar, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Dia is a clinically significant red cell antibody known to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. Here, we report on a case of mild hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by Dia antibody. The mother had three prior pregnancies with no history of blood transfusion. She delivered a preterm 35-week-old female newborn by cesarean section. The neonate developed anemia and mild icterus on postnatal day five with hemoglobin of 9500 mg/dL and total bilirubin of 10 mg/dL. The direct antiglobulin test on the neonate's red blood cells was positive. The maternal serum and an eluate from the infant RBCs were negative in routine antibody detection tests but were positive using commercially prepared Di(a+) red cells. The neonate was discharged home in stable condition following treatment with erythropoietin and phototherapy. When a newborn has a positive DAT in the absence of major blood group incompatibility or commonly detected RBC antibodies, an antibody to a low frequency antigen such as Dia must be considered. Further immunohematology tests are required to determine presence of the antibody and the clinician must be alerted to closely monitor the infant for signs of anemia and hemolysis. PMID:26682081

  7. A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta

    Whidbey, Christopher; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Burnside, Kellie; Ngo, Lisa; Becraft, Alexis K.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infection of the amniotic fluid is a significant cause of fetal injury, preterm birth, and newborn infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important human bacterial pathogen associated with preterm birth, fetal injury, and neonatal mortality. Although GBS has been isolated from amniotic fluid of women in preterm labor, mechanisms of in utero infection remain unknown. Previous studies indicated that GBS are unable to invade human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), which represent the last barrier to the amniotic cavity and fetus. We show that GBS invades hAECs and strains lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S accelerate amniotic barrier failure and penetrate chorioamniotic membranes in a hemolysin-dependent manner. Clinical GBS isolates obtained from women in preterm labor are hyperhemolytic and some are associated with covR/S mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that hemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment and not due to a pore-forming protein toxin. Our studies emphasize the importance of the hemolytic GBS pigment in ascending infection and fetal injury. PMID:23712433

  8. A Case of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn due to Di (a) Antibody.

    Jethava, Ashif; Olivares, Esperanza; Shariatmadar, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Di(a) is a clinically significant red cell antibody known to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. Here, we report on a case of mild hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by Di(a) antibody. The mother had three prior pregnancies with no history of blood transfusion. She delivered a preterm 35-week-old female newborn by cesarean section. The neonate developed anemia and mild icterus on postnatal day five with hemoglobin of 9500 mg/dL and total bilirubin of 10 mg/dL. The direct antiglobulin test on the neonate's red blood cells was positive. The maternal serum and an eluate from the infant RBCs were negative in routine antibody detection tests but were positive using commercially prepared Di(a+) red cells. The neonate was discharged home in stable condition following treatment with erythropoietin and phototherapy. When a newborn has a positive DAT in the absence of major blood group incompatibility or commonly detected RBC antibodies, an antibody to a low frequency antigen such as Di(a) must be considered. Further immunohematology tests are required to determine presence of the antibody and the clinician must be alerted to closely monitor the infant for signs of anemia and hemolysis.

  9. Estimating the Risk of ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn in Lagos

    Akanmu, Alani Sulaimon; Oyedeji, Olufemi Abiola; Adeyemo, Titilope Adenike; Ogbenna, Ann Abiola

    2015-01-01

    Background. ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn is the most common hemolytic consequence of maternofetal blood group incompatibility restricted mostly to non-group-O babies of group O mothers with immune anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Aim. We estimated the risk of ABO HDN with view to determining need for routine screening for ABO incompatibility between mother and fetus. Materials and Methods. Prevalence of ABO blood group phenotypes in blood donors at the donor clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and arithmetic methods were used to determine population prevalence of ABO genes. We then estimated proportion of pregnancies of group O mothers carrying a non-group-O baby and the risk that maternofetal ABO incompatibility will cause clinical ABO HDN. Results. Blood from 9138 donors was ABO typed. 54.3%, 23%, 19.4%, and 3.3% were blood groups O, A, B, and AB, respectively. Calculated gene frequencies were 0.1416, 0.1209, and 0.7375 for A, B, and O genes, respectively. It was estimated that 14.3% of deliveries will result in a blood group O woman giving birth to a child who is non-group-O. Approximately 4.3% of deliveries are likely to suffer ABO HDN with 2.7% prone to suffer from moderately severe to severe hemolysis. PMID:26491605

  10. Perinatal care in British Columbia: Diagnosis and management of hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Hardyment, A. F.; Manning, R. Elizabeth; Kinnis, Claire

    1974-01-01

    We undertook to measure standards of perinatal care in British Columbia by studying the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn as the sample situation. Our data show that many isoimmunized pregnant women are delivered in hospitals that have infrequent experience with this problem, and by physicians who have little experience with this disease. The physician referral pattern, in regard to maternal isoimmunization, indicated that the more severely affected patients were managed by specialists, particularly those attached to teaching hospitals. However, 25% of the infants treated by exchange transfusion were managed by nonspecialists in nonteaching hospitals. Hospital record search, used as a method of medical audit and as a source of data for comparison with physician reports, did not result in dependable or complete information. Rates of disagreement between items from two data sources, physician report and hospital record, were frequently very high. Our experience suggests that comparison of these two data sources is not an ideal method of assessment of quality of care. A smaller caseload of isoimmunized pregnant women will result from the present prevention program. Nevertheless, cases will continue to occur. Our work supports the conclusion that a program of continuing education covering the diagnosis and management of hemolytic disease of the newborn is still necessary. PMID:4213290

  11. A Case of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn due to Dia Antibody

    Ashif Jethava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Dia is a clinically significant red cell antibody known to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. Here, we report on a case of mild hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by Dia antibody. The mother had three prior pregnancies with no history of blood transfusion. She delivered a preterm 35-week-old female newborn by cesarean section. The neonate developed anemia and mild icterus on postnatal day five with hemoglobin of 9500 mg/dL and total bilirubin of 10 mg/dL. The direct antiglobulin test on the neonate’s red blood cells was positive. The maternal serum and an eluate from the infant RBCs were negative in routine antibody detection tests but were positive using commercially prepared Di(a+ red cells. The neonate was discharged home in stable condition following treatment with erythropoietin and phototherapy. When a newborn has a positive DAT in the absence of major blood group incompatibility or commonly detected RBC antibodies, an antibody to a low frequency antigen such as Dia must be considered. Further immunohematology tests are required to determine presence of the antibody and the clinician must be alerted to closely monitor the infant for signs of anemia and hemolysis.

  12. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: Laboratory characteristics, complement-amplifying conditions, renal biopsy, and genetic mutations

    Mohammad A Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, consumptive thrombocytopenia, and widespread damage to multiple organs including the kidney. The syndrome has a high mortality necessitating the need for an early diagnosis to limit target organ damage. Because thrombotic microangiopathies present with similar clinical picture, accurate diagnosis of aHUS continues to pose a diagnostic challenge. This article focuses on the role of four distinct aspects of aHUS that assist clinicians in making an accurate diagnosis of aHUS. First, because of the lack of a single specific laboratory test for aHUS, other forms of thrombotic microangiopathies such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and Shiga toxin-associated HUS must be excluded to successfully establish the diagnosis of aHUS. Second, application of the knowledge of complement-amplifying conditions is critically important in making an accurate diagnosis. Third, when available, a renal biopsy can reveal changes consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy. Fourth, genetic mutations are increasingly clarifying the underlying complement dysfunction and gaining importance in the diagnosis and management of patients with aHUS. This review concentrates on the four aspects of aHUS and calls for heightened awareness in making an accurate diagnosis of aHUS.

  13. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung with initial presentation of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia

    Yuan-Chun Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a rare entity of lung malignancy that is subclassified into high-grade or low-grade types according to its histological features. High-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a more aggressive form of malignancy, with a tendency towards lymph node involvement and distant metastasis. Cancer-related microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as a less common situation of paraneoplastic syndrome may be encountered with metastatic malignancy, but has not been reported previously in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung. Herein, we report a 78-year-old male patient who presented with hemoptysis for one day. Laboratory tests showed microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. A chest X-ray demonstrated consolidation in the left lung field. Chest computed tomography revealed a mass in the left upper lobe, and a subsequent bronchoscopic biopsy was performed. The histopathological results indicated a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. The patient refused systemic chemotherapy, and palliative radiation therapy only was conducted for local disease control. The patient has performed well for 12 months to date since diagnosis of the tumor.

  14. Familial Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Review of Its Genetic and Clinical Aspects

    Fengxiao Bu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is a rare renal disease (two per one million in the USA characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Both sporadic (80% of cases and familial (20% of cases forms are recognized. The study of familial aHUS has implicated genetic variation in multiple genes in the complement system in disease pathogenesis, helping to define the mechanism whereby complement dysregulation at the cell surface level leads to both sporadic and familial disease. This understanding has culminated in the use of Eculizumab as first-line therapy in disease treatment, significantly changing the care and prognosis of affected patients. However, even with this bright outlook, major challenges remain to understand the complexity of aHUS at the genetic level. It is possible that a more detailed picture of aHUS can be translated to an improved understanding of disease penetrance, which is highly variable, and response to therapy, both in the short and long terms.

  15. Acute Systolic Heart Failure Associated with Complement-Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    John L. Vaughn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (otherwise known as atypical HUS is a rare disorder of uncontrolled complement activation that may be associated with heart failure. We report the case of a 49-year-old female with no history of heart disease who presented with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Given her normal ADAMSTS13 activity, evidence of increased complement activation, and renal biopsy showing evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy, she was diagnosed with complement-mediated HUS. She subsequently developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary edema requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed evidence of a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with an estimated left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%, though ischemic cardiomyopathy could not be ruled out. Treatment was initiated with eculizumab. After several failed attempts at extubation, she eventually underwent tracheotomy. She also required hemodialysis to improve her uremia and hypervolemia. After seven weeks of hospitalization and five doses of eculizumab, her renal function and respiratory status improved, and she was discharged in stable condition on room air and independent of hemodialysis. Our case illustrates a rare association between acute systolic heart failure and complement-mediated HUS and highlights the potential of eculizumab in stabilizing even the most critically-ill patients with complement-mediated disease.

  16. Hemolytic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum culture supernatants due to presence of phospholipase A and lysophospholipase.

    Abe, P M; Kendall, C J; Stauffer, L R; Holland, J W

    1979-01-01

    Culture supernatants of Fusobacterium necrophorum demonstrated hemolytic activity. The hemolysin(s), which was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, was temperature-dependent and heat labile. The spectrum of hemolytic activity against various erythrocytes included rabbit, human, and dog erythrocytes. Goats, sheep, and bovine erythrocytes showed only trace hemolysis. According to results of thin-layer chromatography, the hemolysin hydrolyzed rabbit erythrocyte phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidyl choline, and bovine phosphatidyl choline. Hydrolysis of egg yolk phosphatidyl choline, bovine phosphatidyl ethanolamine, cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitin, 1,3-dipalmitin, sphingomyelin, or triolein was not detected by thin layer chromatography. A more sensitive procedure utilizing gas-liquid chromatography revealed that, of the substrates tested, the following were bein hydrolyzed: bovine and egg yolk phosphatidyl choline, lysophosphatidyl choline, alpha-palmito-beta-eleoyl-L-alpha lecithin and alpha-oleoyl-betal-palmitoyl-L-alpha lecithin. Substrates which were weakly hydrolyzed were bovine phosphatidyl ethanolamine, DL-alpha-hosphatidyl ethanolamine dipalmitoyl, 1,2-dipalmitin, 1,3-dipalmitin, and triolein.

  17. Lactobacilli interfere with Streptococcus pyogenes hemolytic activity and adherence to host epithelial cells

    Sunil D Saroj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus (GAS, a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract mucosal surface, causes a variety of human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis to the life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. Lactobacilli have been demonstrated to colonize the respiratory tract. In this study, we investigated the interference of lactobacilli with the virulence phenotypes of GAS. The Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus Kx151A1 and L. reuteri PTA-5289, but not L. salivarius LMG9477, inhibited the hemolytic activity of GAS. The inhibition of hemolytic activity was attributed to a decrease in the production of streptolysin S (SLS. Conditioned medium (CM from the growth of L. rhamnosus Kx151A1 and L. reuteri PTA-5289 was sufficient to down-regulate the expression of the sag operon, encoding SLS. The Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus Kx151A1, L. reuteri PTA-5289 and L. salivarius LMG9477 inhibited the initial adherence of GAS to host epithelial cells. Intriguingly, competition with a combination of Lactobacillus species reduced GAS adherence to host cells most efficiently. The data suggest that an effector molecule released from certain Lactobacillus strains attenuates the production of SLS at the transcriptional level and that combinations of Lactobacillus strains may protect the pharyngeal mucosa more efficiently from the initial colonization of GAS. The effector molecules released from Lactobacillus strains affecting the virulence phenotypes of pathogens hold potential in the development of a new generation of therapeutics.

  18. Hypophosphatemia and hemolytic anemia associated with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Adams, L G; Hardy, R M; Weiss, D J; Bartges, J W

    1993-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia associated with hemolytic anemia was diagnosed in five cats with diabetes mellitus and in one cat with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis. The hematocrit began decreasing within 24 to 48 hours after documented hypophosphatemia in each case. The anemia resolved in all five surviving cats. Because of the temporal relationship and lack of other detectable causes, hemolytic anemia was presumed to be caused by hypophosphatemia. There were increased Heinz bodies in three of six hypophosphatemic cats during episodes of hemolysis. Intravenous potassium phosphate administration corrected the hypophosphatemia in four of five cats. The effective dosages of intravenous phosphate ranged from 0.011 to 0.017 mmol of phosphate/kg/h for 6 to 12 hours. Hypocalcemia (5.4 to 8.7 mg/dL) occurred in four of five cats treated with intravenous phosphate; however, only one cat developed clinical signs attributable to hypocalcemia. Based on this retrospective study, we recommend monitoring serum phosphorus concentration every 6 to 12 hours in cats likely to become hypophosphatemic. Treatment of hypophosphatemia in cats is warranted because of the apparent increased susceptibility of cats to hypophosphatemia-induced hemolysis. Cats with severe hypophosphatemia (< or = 1.5 mg/dL) should be given oral or parenteral phosphate if contraindications do not exist.

  19. Eculizumab Therapy Leads to Rapid Resolution of Thrombocytopenia in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Han-Mou Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eculizumab is highly effective in controlling complement activation in patients with the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS. However, the course of responses to the treatment is not well understood. We reviewed the responses to eculizumab therapy for aHUS. The results show that, in patients with aHUS, eculizumab therapy, when not accompanied with concurrent plasma exchange therapy, led to steady increase in the platelet count and improvement in extra-renal complications within 3 days. By day 7, the platelet count was normal in 15 of 17 cases. The resolution of hemolytic anemia and improvement in renal function were less predictable and were not apparent for weeks to months in two patients. The swift response in the platelet counts was only observed in one of five cases who received concurrent plasma exchange therapy and was not observed in a case of TMA due to gemcitabine/carboplatin. In summary, eculizumab leads to rapid increase in the platelet counts and resolution of extrarenal symptoms in patients with aHUS. Concurrent plasma exchange greatly impedes the response of aHUS to eculizumab therapy. Eculizumab is ineffective for gemcitabine/carboplatin associated TMA.

  20. Clinical Outcomes of Splenectomy in Children: Report of the Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia (SICHA) Registry

    Rice, Henry E; Englum, Brian R; Rothman, Jennifer; Leonard, Sarah; Reiter, Audra; Thornburg, Courtney; Brindle, Mary; Wright, Nicola; Heeney, Matthew M; Smithers, Charles; Brown, Rebeccah L; Kalfa, Theodosia; Langer, Jacob C; Cada, Michaela; Oldham, Keith T; Scott, J Paul; St. Peter, Shawn; Sharma, Mukta; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Nottage, Kerri; Bernabe, Kathryn; Wilson, David B; Dutta, Sanjeev; Glader, Bertil; Crary, Shelley E; Dassinger, Melvin S; Dunbar, Levette; Islam, Saleem; Kumar, Manjusha; Rescorla, Fred; Bruch, Steve; Campbell, Andrew; Austin, Mary; Sidonio, Robert; Blakely, Martin L

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of children with congenital hemolytic anemia (CHA) undergoing total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) remain unclear. In this study, we collected data from 100 children with CHA who underwent TS or PS from 2005–2013 at 16 sites in the Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia (SICHA) consortium using a patient registry. We analyzed demographics and baseline clinical status, operative details, and outcomes at 4, 24, and 52 weeks after surgery. Results were summarized as hematologic outcomes, short-term adverse events (AEs) (≤ 30 days after surgery), and long-term AEs (31–365 days after surgery). For children with hereditary spherocytosis, after surgery there was an increase in hemoglobin (baseline 10.1 ± 1.8 gm/dl, 52 week 12.8 ± 1.6 gm/dl; mean ± SD), decrease in reticulocyte and bilirubin as well as control of symptoms. Children with sickle cell disease had control of clinical symptoms after surgery, but had no change in hematologic parameters. There was an 11% rate of short-term AEs and 11% rate of long-term AEs. As we accumulate more subjects and longer follow-up, use of a patient registry should enhance our capacity for clinical trials and engage all stakeholders in the decision-making process. PMID:25382665

  1. Hemolytic anemia after ingestion of the natural hair dye Lawsonia inermis (henna) in a dog.

    Jardes, Daniel J; Ross, Linda A; Markovich, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and case management of a dog that developed hemolytic anemia and evidence of renal tubular dysfunction after ingestion of a natural hair dye containing Lawsonia inermis (henna). To review cases of henna toxicity reported in the human literature. An 8-year-old female spayed Border Collie was presented 5 days after ingestion of a box of natural hair dye. The dog was showing signs of lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. A serum biochemistry profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis demonstrated evidence of renal tubular dysfunction and a regenerative anemia without spherocytosis. The dog was treated with a transfusion of packed RBCs and IV fluids, resulting in significant clinical improvement. Repeat diagnostics showed resolution of the anemia and no lasting evidence of tubular dysfunction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the veterinary literature of toxicity following ingestion of Lawsonia inermis (henna). Henna ingestion was associated with the development of hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  2. The formation of atherosclerotic plaque, its destabilisation and diagnostics

    Piotr Kaźmierski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the established medical knowledge, the atheromatous lesions occur in the arteries of large and medium diameter. Their presence in the aorta, arteries of extremities as well as extracerebral and coronal arteries is clinically relevant. The evolution of atherosclerotic plaques probably starts in the prenatal development, what may be proved by the presence of the fatty streaks in endothelium of coronal arteries in some newborns. Then it evolves through lipid accumulation, media inflammatory response, vasa vasorum proliferation, fibrination and calcification of plaques. Researches proved that the matter of atherosclerosis is exaggerated inflammatory proliferative reaction to the arterial wall damage. The oxidative stress phenomenon and infections with common pathogens play an undoubtful role in this process. Ultimately the direct damage is an effect of immune response cells infiltration and secretion of cytokines and proinflammatory factors. Among the cells of immune system responsible for formation and development of atheromatous plaque are considered: macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, monocytes. Attention was also paid to the inflammatory mediators and growth factors. Scientist are interested in unstable atherosclerotic plaque and accompanying inflammatory process within the artery wall for a long time. Meanwhile, there are conducted researches on inflammation markers underlying the destabilisation of plaques. Revealing the role of these cells in evolution of atherosclerosis would enable more complex understanding of the mechanism of lesions development. Then it would facilitate an introduction of the new and upgraded methods of treatment and prevention. Also the progress of imaging examinations is meaningful for diagnostics and treatment. It is contributory to the choice of therapeutic strategy and assessment of surgical intervention urgency. In the clinical practice there are recognized standards of imaging the

  3. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria

    Keller Mette K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA production in vitro and in vivo. Methods In the first part (A, suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25. LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B, subjects (n=18 were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Results Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p Conclusion Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112. Trial registration NCT01700712

  4. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Kevin J Woollard

    Full Text Available Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin, a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  5. A simple and novel modification of comet assay for determination of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

    Khairnar, Krishna; Sanmukh, Swapnil; Chandekar, Rajshree; Paunikar, Waman

    2014-07-01

    The comet assay is the widely used method for in vitro toxicity testing which is also an alternative to the use of animal models for in vivo testing. Since, its inception in 1984 by Ostling and Johansson, it is being modified frequently for a wide range of application. In spite of its wide applicability, unfortunately there is no report of its application in bacteriophages research. In this study, a novel application of comet assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis was described. The conventional methods in bacteriophage research for studying bacterial lysis by bacteriophages are plaque assay method. It is time consuming, laborious and costly. The lytic activity of bacteriophage devours the bacterial cell which results in the release of bacterial genomic material that gets detected by ethidium bromide staining method by the comet assay protocol. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of comet assay with different assay used to study phage mediated bacterial lysis. The assay was performed on culture isolates (N=80 studies), modified comet assay appear to have relatively higher sensitivity and specificity than other assay. The results of the study showed that the application of comet assay can be an economical, time saving and less laborious alternative to conventional plaque assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  7. Inhaled diesel emissions alter atherosclerotic plaque composition in ApoE-/- mice

    Campen, Matthew J.; Lund, Amie K.; Knuckles, Travis L.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Bishop, Barbara; Young, David; Seilkop, Steven; Seagrave, JeanClare; Reed, Matthew D.; McDonald, Jacob D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest that traffic-related air pollution may have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Previous studies reveal that gasoline emissions can induce several enzyme pathways involved in the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. As a direct comparison, the present study examined the impact of diesel engine emissions on these pathways, and further examined the effects on vascular lesion pathology. Apolipoprotein E-null mice were simultaneously placed on a high-fat chow diet and exposed to four concentrations, plus a high concentration exposure with particulates (PM) removed by filtration, of diesel emissions for 6 h/day for 50 days. Aortas were subsequently assayed for alterations in matrix metalloproteinase-9, endothelin-1, and several other biomarkers. Diesel induced dose-related alterations in gene markers of vascular remodeling and aortic lipid peroxidation; filtration of PM did not significantly alter these vascular responses, indicating that the gaseous portion of the exhaust was a principal driver. Immunohistochemical analysis of aortic leaflet sections revealed no net increase in lesion area, but a significant decrease in lipid-rich regions and increasing trends in macrophage accumulation and collagen content, suggesting that plaques were advanced to a more fragile, potentially more vulnerable state by diesel exhaust exposure. Combined with previous studies, these results indicate that whole emissions from mobile sources may have a significant role in promoting chronic vascular disease.

  8. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  10. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Taggart, M.A.; Mateo, R.; Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F.; Green, A.J.; Meharg, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg -1 , and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores

  11. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F. (Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA)

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

  12. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  13. Current techniques for the investigation of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    Riou, L.; Broisat, A.; Fagret, D.; Ghezzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the single most important contributor to cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Atherosclerosis complications such as vulnerable coronary plaque rupture or erosion result in acute coronary events, i.e. myocardial infarction and sudden death. Vulnerable plaques initially develop eccentrically without impeding on the vessel lumen and are therefore not detectable using angiography. New techniques for the investigation of vulnerable plaques are needed to identify and treat vulnerable patients. Invasive techniques require the use of intracoronary probes and are thereby not applicable to large populations of patients. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are the most promising invasive modalities. They provide morphological data that could potentially be associated with a more functional approach such as thermography, elasto-graphy, or spectroscopy, Non-invasive techniques are better suited for studying larger populations of patients. Computed tomography is currently used for calcium scoring, but the biological meaning and the prognostic value of this index remain to be fully determined. Non-invasive coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) faces numerous technical challenges, and it essentially provides morphological data. Molecular nuclear imaging offers a great sensitivity and the ability to provide metabolic data about atherosclerotic lesions. New potential tracers of vulnerable plaques are currently being evaluated. Nuclear Medicine should therefore play a major role in the future as a non invasive imaging modality for the assessment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. (author)

  14. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth. (author)

  15. Protein components in saliva and plaque fluid from irradiated primates

    Edgar, W M; Bowen, W H; Cole, M F [Caries Prevention and Research Branch, National Caries Program, NIDR, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of the major salivary glands of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed cariogenic diets leads to caries clinically indistinguishable from radiation caries in man. This study compares the organic compostion of individual samples of plaque fluid and saliva from irradiated and control monkeys receiving the same cariogenic diet. Plaque and saliva were collected from fasting, tranquillised animals. Four irradiated animals were sampled repeatedly as were non-irradiated controls. Total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins A, G, and M, and the third component of complement (C'3) were quantitated in plaque fluid and whole saliva. Salivary amylase and peroxidase activities were also determined. Plaque fluid and saliva samples were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The total viable anaerobic count and numbers of Streptococcus mutans were determined in samples of plaque. The results suggest that the major effect of irradiation leading to increased numbers of S. mutans and caries susceptibility is in the amount, and not the composition, of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue. The scanty flow of saliva may reduce the effectiveness of cleansing, buffering and lubrication mechanisms as well as resulting in a marked reduction in the total amount of specific and non-specific immune factors entering the mouth.

  16. Influence of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction on coronary plaque analysis in coronary computed tomography angiography

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements. Lumen and vessel volumes and plaque burden measurements were based on automatic detected contours in each...... reconstruction. Lumen and plaque intensity measurements and HU based plaque characterization were based on corrected contours copied to each reconstruction. RESULTS: No significant changes between FBP and 30% ASIR were found except for lumen- (-2.53 HU) and plaque intensities (-1.28 HU). Between FBP and 60% ASIR...... the change in total volume showed an increase of 0.94%, 4.36% and 2.01% for lumen, plaque and vessel, respectively. The change in total plaque burden between FBP and 60% ASIR was 0.76%. Lumen and plaque intensities decreased between FBP and 60% ASIR with -9.90 HU and -1.97 HU, respectively. The total plaque...

  17. T1-weighted MRI for the detection of coronary artery plaque haemorrhage

    Oei, May Lin; Ozgun, Murat; Seifarth, Harald; Bunck, Alexander; Fischbach, Roman; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David; Orwat, Stefan; Botnar, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Hyperintense areas in atherosclerotic plaques on pre-contrast T1-weighted MRI have been shown to correlate with intraplaque haemorrhage. We evaluated the presence of T1 hyperintensity in coronary artery plaques in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and correlated results with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) findings. Fifteen patients with CAD were included. Plaques detected by MDCT were categorised based on their Hounsfield number. T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) MRI prepared coronary MRI for the detection of plaque and steady-state free-precession coronary MR-angiography for anatomical correlation was performed. After registration of MDCT and MRI, regions of interest were defined on MDCT-visible plaques and in corresponding vessel segments acquired with MRI. MDCT density and MR signal measurement were performed in each plaque. Forty-three plaques were identified with MDCT. With IR-MRI 5/43 (12%) plaques were hyperintense, 2 of which were non-calcified and 3 mixed. Average signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of hyperintense plaques were 15.7 and 9.1, compared with 5.6 and 1.2 for hypointense plaques. Hyperintense plaques exhibited a significantly lower CT density than hypointense plaques (63.6 vs. 140.8). There was no correlation of plaque signal intensity with degree of stenosis. T1-weighted IR-MRI may be useful for non-invasive detection and characterisation of intraplaque haemorrhage in coronary artery plaques. (orig.)

  18. [Etiologies of non-hemolytic jaundice in infants: a retrospective analysis of 3113 cases].

    Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Hongmei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the causes of non-hemolytic jaundice among infants in Chongqing, China from the period of 1982 to 2011 and to determine whether the etiologies have changed over the past 30 years. The medical records of 3 113 infants,aged 1 month to 1 year,admitted to our hospital with non-hemolytic jaundice were collected and stratified according to decade-long time periods: group A (1982-1991), n=537; group B (1992-2001), n=786; group C (2002-2011), n=1 790. Data on sex, age, etiology and bilirubin level were retrospectively assessed using the chi-square test. In the three groups, boys consistently accounted for the majority of cases (group A:74.3%, group B:66.7%, group C:62.6%). In group A, 52% of the patients were 1-2 months of age; the peak age of patients in both group B and C was 2-3 months (group B:67.8%, group C:61.0%). Group A showed the highest level of patients with mildly elevated total bilirubin level (80.3%); however, moderately elevated total bilirubin level was most frequent in group B (53.4%) and group C (49.7%). The main etiologic diagnoses of the patients in group A were cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (31.7%), sepsis (18.2%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1.3%), and biliary tract anomalies (1.3%); 46.6% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group B were CMV infection (36.0%), sepsis (21.5%), breast milk jaundice (2.0%), and HBV (1.9%); 37.9% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group C were CMV infection (42.6%), sepsis (7.5%), breast milk jaundice (17.7%), and biliary tract anomalies (2.46%); 29.1% of the cases had unclear cause. In Chongqing, infective factors, especially CMV, remain the main cause of nonhemolytic jaundice in infants, but bacterial etiologies have declined over the past 30 years.Non-infective factors, such as biliary tract anomalies and inherited metabolic diseases, have trended upwards. Although there has been great progress in the clinical management of

  19. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy)

  20. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  1. Enteroaggregative, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111:H2 Associated with an Outbreak of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Morabito, Stefano; Karch, Helge; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patrizia; Schmidt, Herbert; Minelli, Fabio; Bingen, Edouard; Caprioli, Alfredo

    1998-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111:H2 strains from an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome showed aggregative adhesion to HEp-2 cells and harbored large plasmids which hybridized with the enteroaggregative E. coli probe PCVD432. These strains present a novel combination of virulence factors and might be as pathogenic to humans as the classic enterohemorrhagic E. coli. PMID:9508328

  2. Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    Grande, Laura; Michelacci, Valeria; Bondì, Roslen; Gigliucci, Federica; Franz, Eelco; Badouei, Mahdi Askari; Schlager, Sabine; Minelli, Fabio; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in humans cause disease ranging from uncomplicated intestinal illnesses to bloody diarrhea and systemic sequelae, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous research indicated that pigeons may be a reservoir for a population of verotoxigenic E. coli

  3. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after intrauterine transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn: the LOTUS study

    Lindenburg, Irene T.; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E.; van Klink, Jeanine M.; Verduin, Esther; van Kamp, Inge L.; Walther, Frans J.; Schonewille, Henk; Doxiadis, Ilias I.; Kanhai, Humphrey H.; van Lith, Jan M.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Oepkes, Dick; Brand, Anneke; Lopriore, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in children with hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn treated with intrauterine transfusion (IUT). Neurodevelopmental outcome in children at least 2 years of age was assessed using standardized tests, including the

  4. A Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Acrylic Dental Resin Surface Bound with a Photoreactive Polymer Inhibits Accumulation of Bacterial Plaque.

    Fukunishi, Miya; Inoue, Yuuki; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    The aim of this study was to examine the ability of a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloyloxyethyloxy-p-azidobenzoate) (PMBPAz) coating on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin to inhibit bacterial plaque formation, as well as the polymer's durability against water soaking and chemical exposure. Successful application of PMBPAz on PMMA surfaces was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and measuring the static air contact angle in water. The anti-adhesive effects to bacterial plaque were evaluated using Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation assay. The mechanical and chemical durabilities of the PMBPAz coating on the PMMA surfaces were examined using soaking and immersion tests, respectively. XPS signals for phosphorus and nitrogen atoms and hydrophilic status on PMMA surfaces treated with PMBPAz were observed, indicating the presence of the polymer on the substrates. The treated PMMA surfaces showed significant inhibition of S mutans biofilm formation compared to untreated surfaces. The PMBPAz coating was preserved after water soaking and chemical exposure. In addition, water soaking did not decrease the ability of treated PMMA to inhibit biofilm formation compared to treated PMMA specimens not subjected to water soaking. This study suggests that PMBPAz coating may represent a useful modification to PMMA surfaces for inhibiting denture plaque accumulation.

  5. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125 I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained

  6. A novel reporter system for neutralizing and enhancing antibody assay against dengue virus.

    Song, Ke-Yu; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Zhen-You; Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Tao; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-02-18

    Dengue virus (DENV) still poses a global public health threat, and no vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. Antibody plays distinct roles in controlling DENV infections. Neutralizing antibody is protective against DENV infection, whereas sub-neutralizing concentration of antibody can increase DENV infection, termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Plaque-based assay represents the most widely accepted method measuring neutralizing or enhancing antibodies. In this study, a novel reporter virus-based system was developed for measuring neutralization and ADE activity. A stable Renilla luciferase reporter DENV (Luc-DENV) that can produce robust luciferase signals in BHK-21 and K562 cells were used to establish the assay and validated against traditional plaque-based assay. Luciferase value analysis using various known DENV-specific monoclonal antibodies showed good repeatability and a well linear correlation with conventional plaque-based assays. The newly developed assay was finally validated with clinical samples from infected animals and individuals. This reporter virus-based assay for neutralizing and enhancing antibody evaluation is rapid, lower cost, and high throughput, and will be helpful for laboratory detection and epidemiological investigation for DENV antibodies.

  7. Targeting renin-angiotensin system in malignant hypertension in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    V Raghunathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is common in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and often difficult to control. Local renin-angiotensin activation is believed to be an important part of thrombotic microangiopathy, leading to a vicious cycle of progressive renal injury and intractable hypertension. This has been demonstrated in vitro via enhanced tissue factor expression on glomerular endothelial cells which is enhanced by angiotensin II. We report two pediatric cases of atypical HUS with severe refractory malignant hypertension, in which we targeted the renin-angiotensin system by using intravenous (IV enalaprilat, oral aliskiren, and oral enalapril with quick and dramatic response of blood pressure. Both drugs, aliskiren and IV enalaprilat, were effective in controlling hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensive medications. These appear to be promising alternatives in the treatment of severe atypical HUS-induced hypertension and hypertensive emergency.

  8. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) secondary to cobalamin C (cblC) disorder.

    Sharma, Ajay P; Greenberg, Cheryl R; Prasad, Asuri N; Prasad, Chitra

    2007-12-01

    Diarrhea-positive hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a common cause of acute renal failure in children. Diarrhea-negative (D-), or atypical HUS, is etiologically distinct. A Medline search identified seven previously reported D- cases of HUS secondary to cobalamin C (cblC) disease presenting in infancy. An infantile presentation is reported to be associated with a high mortality rate (6/7 cases). We describe the results of a 5-year longitudinal follow-up in a child diagnosed with D- HUS secondary to cblC disease in infancy. Mutation analysis in this patient identified homozygosity for the 271 dupA mutation (c.271 dupA) in the cblC MMACHC gene. We briefly review the published experience in cblC-associated HUS to highlight the clinical characteristics of this uncommon, but potentially treatable, condition.

  9. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: managing the mother, fetus, and newborn.

    Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  11. Abordagem ambulatorial do nutricionista em anemia hemolítica Nutritional ambulatory approach in hemolytic anemia

    Maria Aparecida Vieira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve a atuação do nutricionista em ambulatório de Hematologia Pediátrica em um hospital escola e relata as condutas dietéticas necessárias na abordagem de crianças com anemia hemolítica com e sem sobrecarga de ferro, e também as atitudes mais freqüentes dos familiares em relação à alimentação desses pacientes.The Authors describe the performance of the Dietitian in a Pediatric Hematology Ambulatory. They emphasize the necessary dietetic procedures for adequate management of children with hemolytic anemia, with and without iron overload. Furthermore, they approach the family's attitude towards the patient's nutrition.

  12. Kell hemolytic disease of the fetus. Combination treatment with plasmapheresis and intrauterine blood transfusion.

    Lakhwani, S; Machado, P; Pecos, P; Coloma, M; Rebollo, S; Raya, J M

    2011-08-01

    We report the case of a 36-year old pregnant woman with a Kell alloimmunization (anti-K1), probably secondary to a previous blood transfusion, and a severe hemolytic disease of the fetus. Once the first fetal blood transfusion by cordocentesis was performed, we started treatment with repeated plasmapheresis to maintain anti-K1 titer below 1:32. With this scheme we did not need to perform a second intrauterine fetal blood transfusion and only mild anemia was found in the newborn. Taking into account that the rate of serious complications with plasmapheresis is lower than that related with intrauterine blood transfusion, this could be an alternative approach to repeated transfusions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Moen, Johannes K.

    1936-01-01

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552

  14. Rhesus-D zygosity and hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn

    Mostafa Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloimmunization against the Rhesus-D (RhD antigen still remains as a major cause of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. Determination of paternal RhDzygosity is performed by molecular testing and is valuable for the management of alloimmunized pregnant women. A 30-year-old pregnant woman with AB negative blood group presented with two consecutive abortions and no history of blood transfusion. By application of the antibody screening, identification panel, and selected cells, she was found to be highly alloimmunized. RhDzygosity was performed on her partner and was shown to be homozygous for RhD. The sequence- specific priming-polymerase chain reaction used in this report is essential to establish whether the mother requires an appropriate immunoprophylaxis or the fetus is at risk of HDFN.

  15. Adrenal failure followed by status epilepticus and hemolytic anemia in primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Bures Vladimir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 14 year old boy who presented with the symptoms abdominal pain, fever and proteinuria. A hematoma in the region of the right pararenal space was diagnosed. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive and serum cortisol was normal. Ten days after admission the boy suddenly suffered generalized seizures due to low serum sodium. As well, the patient developed hemolytic anemia, acute elevated liver enzymes, hematuria and increased proteinuria. At this time a second hemorrhage of the left adrenal gland was documented. Adrenal function tests revealed adrenal insufficiency. We suspected microthromboses in the adrenals and secondary bleeding and treated the boy with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and phenprocoumon. Conclusion Adrenal failure is a rare complication of APS in children with only five cases reported to date. As shown in our patient, this syndrome can manifest in a diverse set of simultaneously occurring symptoms.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro anti-proliferative and hemolytic activity of hydroxyapatite

    Palanivelu, R.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) nanoparticles are widely used in several biomedical applications due to its compositional similarities to bone mineral, excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, osteoconductivity. In this present investigation, HAP nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation technique using calcium nitrate and di-ammonium phosphate. The crystalline nature and the functional group analysis are confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) respectively. The morphological observations are ascertained from field emission electron scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro anti-proliferative and hemolytic activities are carried out on the synthesized HAP samples and the studies reveals that HAP have mild activity against erythrocytes.

  17. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  18. Characterization of plaque in the internal carotid artery. Comparison neuroradiological findings with pathological findings

    Nishikawa, Misao; Nishio, Akimasa; Takami, Toshihiro; Goto, Takeo; Ueda, Makiko; Hara, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the morphology of the carotid plaque using echogram, CT scan and MRI and compare those neuroradiological findings with histological findings of the plaque. We evaluated 14 cases operated with carotid endoarterectomy for carotid stenosis. We estimated the findings of the echogram, enhanced CT scan and black blood MRI (BB MRI), in comparison with the histological findings of the carotid plaque. Echogram, enhanced CT scan and MRI clearly demonstrated the plaque in cervical carotid stenosis. In most cases, echograms could show the plaque, but in some cases could not due to the back shadow caused by plaque calcification. Enhanced CT scan clearly demonstrated the calcification and the neovasculization in plaque. BB MRI clearly showed the carotid plaque. Low-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed hard and fibrous plaque. High-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed soft plaque with lipoprotein and/or hemorrhage. This study demonstrates the potential of a systemic approach to atherosclerotic plaque with enhanced CT scan and BB MRI compared with histological findings of the carotid plaque. These estimations elucidate the growth mechanism of carotid plaque. (author)

  19. Clinical characteristics of hemolytic uremic syndrome secondary to cobalamin C disorder in Chinese children.

    Li, Qi-Liang; Song, Wen-Qi; Peng, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Rong; He, Le-Jian; Fu, Li-Bing

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical characteristics of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) secondary to cobalamin C disorder (cbl-C disorder). We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 3 children with HUS secondary to cbl-C disorder who had been treated between April 1, 2009 and October 31, 2013. The 3 patients with HUS secondary to cbl-C disorder presented with progressive hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, poor feeding, and failure to thrive. Two of the 3 patients once had high blood pressure. The mutations of c.609G>A (p.W203X), c.217C>T (p.R73X) and c.365A>T (p.H122L) in the methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cbl-C type, with homocystinuria gene were detected in the 3 patients. In these patients the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and homocysteine in serum were elevated and the level of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in urine was also elevated. After treatment with hydroxocobalamin, 2 patients were discharged with no obvious abnormal growth and neurological development and 1 patient died of multiple organ failure. The results of this study demonstrated that cbl-C disorder should be investigated in any child presenting with HUS. The high concentrations of homocysteine and MMA could be used for timely recognization of the disease. Once the high levels of plasma homocystein and/or plasma or urine MMA are detected, the treatment with parenteral hydroxocobalamin should be prescribed immediately. The early diagnosis and treatment would contribute to the good prognosis of the disease.

  20. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity

    D. V. A. Khoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS, Duroc (DU, Berlin miniature pig (BMP, German Landrace (LR, Pietrain (PIE, and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig. Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK. Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9 as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future.

  1. Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn: Modern Practice and Future Investigations.

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Delaney, Meghan

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) sensitization occurs in some women in response to exposure to paternally derived RBC antigens during pregnancy or to nonself antigens on transfused RBCs during their lifetime. Once sensitized, future pregnancies may be at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Although great strides have been made over the past few decades in terms of identifying blood group antigens and in predicting fetal anemia through the use of noninvasive monitoring, many questions remain in terms of understanding RBC alloimmunization risk factors, preventative therapies, and treatment strategies. At the present time, there is room for improvement in these areas in both developed and developing countries. Evidence-based, universal guidelines describing recommended RBC antigen matching transfusion strategies for girls or women, before pregnancy or during intrauterine transfusions, would be welcomed. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) of action of Rh immunoglobulin, first introduced more than half of a century ago and one of the most successful immunoprophylaxis therapies in existence today, would also be a large step forward. For example, answers to questions of the role(s) that fetal RBC clearance, antigen masking, antigen modulation, and immune suppression play in the effectiveness of Rh immunoglobulin may help to guide the development of novel preventative therapies during pregnancy for immunization to RhD and non-RhD antigens. Furthermore, a better understanding of the importance of anti-RhD or other alloantibody glycosylation patterns may be beneficial not only in developing such novel immunoprophylaxis therapies but also in predicting the clinical significance of existing maternal alloantibodies. One other area of need includes the development of therapies beyond intrauterine transfusions to mitigate the dangers of maternal alloantibodies to developing fetuses. We challenge physicians, scientists, and funding agencies to prioritize studies of

  2. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins.

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Maria, Arti; Kotwal, Urvershi; Goyal, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG) component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2) had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia) due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  3. [Tonsillopharyngitis outbreak caused by foodborne group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus].

    Nieto Vera, Juan; Figueroa Murillo, Estrella; Cruz Calderón, María Victoria; Pérez Alonso, Aránzazu

    2011-08-01

    Although infrequent, some authors have reported outbreaks of foodborne tonsillopharyngitis. On May 11, 2010 a series of cases of tonsillopharyngitis among those attending a fellowship meeting on 8 March was notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance Network in Andalusia (SVEA). The aim of this study is to epidemiologically characterise the outbreak. Descriptive analysis of reported cases and case - control exposure to the implicated food. The variables taken into account were age, sex, symptoms and start date. Sources of information used were the records of the SVEA and individual digital report (DIRAYA). Frequencies and attack rates were calculated, and a Bayesian analysis for the comparison of difference in proportions of disease was carried out for a 95% probability or credibility range (IP). Among the 130 attendees at a communion 41 cases of tonsillopharyngitis (attack rate 31.5%) were detected, and in smears Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus was isolated. The most affected age group was the 25-44 year-olds, 16 (39,0%); 68.6% (24) female. The egg salad showed a probability greater than 80% P(Δ>0.10 and Δ>0.15) for a 95% IP of risk of disease after intake and a probability of having a lower risk of no disease. It was a Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal outbreak, the epidemiological evidence indicates exposure to common single source, hence the hypothesis of dietary origin, the implicated food was egg salad. Contributing factors could be cross-contamination after preparation favoured by the bad practice and the conditions of the place.

  4. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins

    Satyam Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2 had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  5. An assessment of the vulnerability of carotid plaques: a comparative study between intraplaque neovascularization and plaque echogenicity

    Zhou, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Bai, Yang; Chen, Ying; Sun, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yingqiao; Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Carotid plaque echolucency as detected by Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) has been used as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been shown to be a valuable method to evaluate the vulnerability and neovascularization within carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to compare CEUS and CDUS in the assessment of plaque vulnerability using transcranial color Doppler (TCD) monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) as a reference technique. A total of 46 subjects with arterial stenosis (≥ 50%) underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound, TCD monitoring of MES and CEUS (SonoVue doses of 2.0 mL) within a span of 3 days. The agreement between the CEUS, CDUS, and MES findings was assessed with a chi-square test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Neovascularization was observed in 30 lesions (44.4%). The vascular risk factors for stroke were similar and there were no age or gender differences between the 2 groups. Using CEUS, MES were identified in 2 patients (12.5%) within class 1 (non-neovascularization) as opposed to 15 patients (50.0%) within class 2 (neovascularization) (p = 0.023). CDUS revealed no significant differences in the appearance of the MES between the 2 groups (hyperechoic and hypoechoic) (p = 0.237). This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that intraplaque neovascularization detected by CEUS is associated with the presence of MESs, where as plaque echogenicity on traditional CDUS does not. These findings argue that CEUS may better identify high-risk plaques

  6. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed 3 H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of 3 H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility

  7. SU-E-T-443: Geometric Uncertainties in Eye Plaque Dosimetry for a Fully Loaded 16 Mm COMS Plaque

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Jans, H; Larocque, M; Sloboda, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of geometric uncertainties in the seed positions in a COMS eye plaque on the central axis (CAX) dose. Methods: A Silastic insert was placed into a photopolymer 3D printed 16 mm COMS plaque, which was then positioned onto a custom-designed PMMA eye phantom. High resolution 3D images were acquired of the setup using a Siemens Inveon microPET/CT scanner. Images were acquired with the plaque unloaded and loaded with IsoAid I-125 seed shells (lack of silver core to minimize metal artifacts). Seed positions and Silastic thickness beneath each slot were measured. The measured seed coordinates were used to alter the seed positions within a standard 16 mm COMS plaque in Plaque Simulator v5.7.3 software. Doses along the plaque CAX were compared for the original and modified plaque coordinates using 3.5 mCi seeds with treatment times set to deliver 70 Gy to tumour apexes of 3.5, 5, and 10 mm height. Results: The majority of seeds showed length-wise displacement, and all seeds showed displacement radially outward from the eye center. The average radial displacement was 0.15 mm larger than the expected 1.4 mm offset, approximately half of which was due to increased Silastic thickness beneath each slot. The CAX doses for the modified seed positions were consistently lower for all tumour heights due to geometric displacement of the seeds; dose differences were found to increase to a maximum of 2.6% at a depth of ∼10 mm, after which they decreased due to the inverse square dose fall-off minimizing this effect. Conclusion: This work presents initial results of a broader dosimetric uncertainty evaluation for fully loaded COMS eye plaques and demonstrates the effects of seed positioning uncertainties. The small shifts in seed depths had noticeable effects on the CAX doses indicating the importance of careful Silastic loading. Funding provided by Alberta Cancer Foundation Grant #26655, Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, and Alberta Innovates Health

  8. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  9. The inter-observer agreement in the assessment of carotid plaque neovascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: The impact of plaque thickness.

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Song, Ze-Zhou; Fu, Yan-Fei; Geng, Yu

    2018-04-10

    The interobserver agreement in the assessment of the grade of carotid plaque neovascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is poorly established. We examined 140 carotid plaques in 66 patients (all patients had bilateral plaques, and 8 patients had 2 plaques on one side). We performed conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to analyze the presence of carotid plaque neovascularization, which was graded by two independent observers whose interobserver agreement (κ) was evaluated according to the thickness of carotid plaque. For all carotid plaques, the mean κ was 0.689 (95% confidence interval 0.604-0.774). It was 0.689 (0.569-0.808), 0.637 (0.487-0.787), and 0.740 (0.585-0.896), respectively for carotid plaques with maximal thickness 3 mm. The interobserver agreement for assessing carotid plaque neovascularization by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is substantial and acceptable for research purposes, regardless of the maximal thickness of the plaque. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A comparison between plaque-based and vessel-based measurement for plaque component using volumetric intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis.

    Shin, Eun-Seok; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Garg, Scot; Serruys, Patrick W

    2011-04-01

    Although percent plaque components on plaque-based measurement have been used traditionally in previous studies, the impact of vessel-based measurement for percent plaque components have yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was therefore to correlate percent plaque components derived by plaque- and vessel-based measurement using intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH). The patient cohort comprised of 206 patients with de novo coronary artery lesions who were imaged with IVUS-VH. Age ranged from 35 to 88 years old, and 124 patients were male. Whole pullback analysis was used to calculate plaque volume, vessel volume, and absolute and percent volumes of fibrous, fibrofatty, necrotic core, and dense calcium. The plaque and vessel volumes were well correlated (r = 0.893, P measurement was also highly correlated with vessel-based measurement. Therefore, the percent plaque component volume calculated by vessel volume could be used instead of the conventional percent plaque component volume calculated by plaque volume.

  11. Gene expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases in human atherosclerotic plaques and evaluation of radiolabeled inhibitors as imaging agents for plaque vulnerability

    Müller, Adrienne; Krämer, Stefanie D.; Meletta, Romana; Beck, Katharina; Selivanova, Svetlana V.; Rancic, Zoran; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Vos, Bernhard; Meding, Jörg; Stellfeld, Timo; Heinrich, Tobias K.; Bauser, Marcus; Hütter, Joachim; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary cause for myocardial infarction and stroke. During plaque progression macrophages and mast cells secrete matrix-degrading proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We studied levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in relation to the characteristics of carotid plaques. We evaluated in vitro two radiolabeled probes targeting active MMPs towards non-invasive imaging of rupture-prone plaques. Methods: Human carotid plaques obtained from endarterectomy were classified into stable and vulnerable by visual and histological analysis. MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-14, TIMP-3, and CD68 levels were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 with respect to CD68-expressing macrophages. Western blotting was applied to detect their active forms. A fluorine-18-labeled MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor and a tritiated selective MMP-9 inhibitor were evaluated by in vitro autoradiography as potential lead structures for non-invasive imaging. Results: Gene expression levels of all MMPs and CD68 were elevated in plaques. MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were significantly higher in vulnerable than stable plaques. TIMP-3 expression was highest in stable and low in vulnerable plaques. Immunohistochemistry revealed intensive staining of MMP-9 in vulnerable plaques. Western blotting confirmed presence of the active form in plaque lysates. In vitro autoradiography showed binding of both inhibitors to stable and vulnerable plaques. Conclusions: MMPs differed in their expression patterns among plaque phenotypes, providing possible imaging targets. The two tested MMP-2/MMP-9 and MMP-9 inhibitors may be useful to detect atherosclerotic plaques, but not the vulnerable lesions selectively

  12. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    AS in a prospective population-based study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A random sample of participants (age, 45-68 years) in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study underwent B-mode ultrasound with measurements of IMT and the presence of plaque in the common carotid artery (n=5079). Potential risk factors...

  13. Symptomatic Plaque Form Gastric Candidiasis in a Patient with ...

    We report the occurrence of diffuse plaque deposits of candida in the gastric antrum of a 36 year old female patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on maintenance haemodialysis who presented with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and passage of black stools for two weeks. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed ...

  14. Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients.

    Sands, Kirsty M; Twigg, Joshua A; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97% gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant 'microbial shift' occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection.

  15. Paraclinical Effects of Miswak Extract on Dental Plaque

    Hamid Reza Poureslami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Persian toothbrush tree or Miswak (Salvadora Persica L. has been used as a brushing stick for more than 1,300 years. Pharmacological studies indicated antibacterial and antiinflammatory activities of Miswak extract. The present study was performed to determine antibacterial effects of Miswak extract.Material and Methods: The present experimental research involved three in vitro studies including: 1 in vitro testing of the effect of Miswak extract on selected bacteria; 2 comparing the paraclinical effects of Iranian toothpaste containing Miswak extract and placebo toothpaste on dental plaque; and 3 comparing the antibacterial effect of Iranian toothpaste with Swiss toothpaste(Quail Miswak on dental plaque. The disc diffusion method was used to test bacterial sensitivity of toothpastes. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA.Results: In the first study, Miswak extract inhibited the growth of some dental plaque bacteria. In the second study, antibacterial effect of the herbal toothpaste was significantly greater than that of the placebo (P =0.002. In the third study, four samples of dental plaque bacteria were used and there was no difference between the antibacterial effects of Swiss and Iranian herbal toothpastes (P =0.66.Conclusion: Due to antimicrobial effects of Miswak extract, its use in mouth rinses and toothpastes is highly recommended.

  16. Can chemical mouthwash agents achieve plaque/gingivitis control?

    van der Weijden, F.A.; Van der Sluijs, E.; Ciancio, S.G.; Slot, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Key points • Oral health is important since the mouth is the gateway to the human body. Bacteria are always present in the oral cavity and when not frequently removed the dental plaque biofilm leads to the development of oral disease. • Over the past decades, the use of mouthwashes has become

  17. Development of sarcoidosis during adalimumab therapy for chronic plaque psoriasis.

    Marcella, Stefanie; Welsh, Belinda; Foley, Peter

    2011-08-01

    A 38-year-old woman developed clinical, biochemical, radiological and histopathological evidence of cutaneous and pulmonary sarcoidosis 5 months after commencing adalimumab for chronic plaque psoriasis. Signs and symptoms resolved within 3 months of cessation of adalimumab. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. Study of isodose curves of an eye brachytherapy plaque

    Costa, Marcos R.O.; Mourao, Arnaldo P., E-mail: marcos.robertto@hotmail.com, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Grynberg, Suely E., E-mail: aprata@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Engenharia Hospitalar

    2015-07-01

    The use eye plaque brachytherapy for intraocular tumors treatment is a process designed to protect healthy eye structures, as well as visual functions. It replaces enucleation when possible. The knowledge of the dose spatial distribution inside the eyeball and adjacent structures is very important to obtain the therapeutic dose, minimize the side effects and ensure efficiency in the process. Small variations in positioning the plaque on the ocular surface may generate a less effective treatment. Thus, in this work an eyeball phantom and a seed accommodation system similar to a commercially eye plaque model ROPES with diameter of 15 mm, were developed both in solid water Gammex 457 to conduct the study of the possible variation in the dose deposition inside the eye phantom. Radiochromic films were used to record isodose curves of two orthogonal plans within the simulator. The results showed that there is a difference in the dose deposition for the two orthogonal plans studied. This difference is 8.33% higher for the maximum dose value. Thus, a difference in dose that occurs due to the asymmetrical distribution of seeds on the eye plaque may interfere with the treatment, making it less effective. (author)

  19. Study of isodose curves of an eye brachytherapy plaque

    Costa, Marcos R.O.; Mourao, Arnaldo P.; Grynberg, Suely E.

    2015-01-01

    The use eye plaque brachytherapy for intraocular tumors treatment is a process designed to protect healthy eye structures, as well as visual functions. It replaces enucleation when possible. The knowledge of the dose spatial distribution inside the eyeball and adjacent structures is very important to obtain the therapeutic dose, minimize the side effects and ensure efficiency in the process. Small variations in positioning the plaque on the ocular surface may generate a less effective treatment. Thus, in this work an eyeball phantom and a seed accommodation system similar to a commercially eye plaque model ROPES with diameter of 15 mm, were developed both in solid water Gammex 457 to conduct the study of the possible variation in the dose deposition inside the eye phantom. Radiochromic films were used to record isodose curves of two orthogonal plans within the simulator. The results showed that there is a difference in the dose deposition for the two orthogonal plans studied. This difference is 8.33% higher for the maximum dose value. Thus, a difference in dose that occurs due to the asymmetrical distribution of seeds on the eye plaque may interfere with the treatment, making it less effective. (author)

  20. Ichthyosiform large plaque parapsoriasis: report of a rare entity.

    Nag, Falguni; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Projna; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Biswas, Saugato

    2013-09-01

    Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  1. Complications of cobalt plaque therapy of choroidal malanomas

    Char, D.H.; Lonn, L.I.; Margolis, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    We treated a small series of patients with choroidal melanomas with radioactive cobalt plaques. To assess the effectiveness of radiation, we performed radioactive phosphorus ( 32 P) uptake determinations before and after treatment. The 32 P results did not tumor destruction. In five of seven patients with posterior pole melanomas, radiation retinopathy developed after treatment with resultant decrease in vision

  2. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  3. Cryotherapy increases features of plaque stability in atherosclerotic rabbits.

    Verheye, Stefan; Roth, Lynn; De Meyer, Inge; Van Hove, Cor E; Nahon, Daniel; Santoianni, Domenic; Yianni, John; Martinet, Wim; Buchbinder, Maurice; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2016-08-20

    In the last 10 years, cryotherapy has been investigated as a new technology to treat vascular disease. The efficiency of cryotherapy in stabilising atherosclerotic plaques has never been described. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of catheter-based cryotherapy on atherosclerotic plaque composition in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 0.3% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 24 weeks. At two predefined sites of the atherosclerotic thoracic aorta, catheter-based cryotherapy, applying either single-dose, double-dose cryotherapy or control inflation, was performed after randomisation. Rabbits were continued on a cholesterol-supplemented diet for one day (acute) or four weeks (chronic). One day after cryotherapy, apoptotic cell death of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) was observed, whereas macrophages were unaffected. Four weeks later, the amount of SMCs was restored, the EC layer was regenerated, and a subendothelial macrophage-free layer was formed, indicative of a more stable plaque. In addition, both the thickness and the type I collagen content of the fibrous cap were increased. The present study demonstrated that cryotherapy is feasible and appears to stabilise atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model.

  4. Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization in Mice: A comparative study

    H. Hartwig (Helene); C. Silvestre-Roig (Carlos); J. Hendrikse (Jeffrey); L. Beckers (Linda); N. Paulin (Nicole); K. van der Heiden (Kim); Q. Braster (Quinte); M. Drechsler (Maik); M.J. Daemen (Mat); E. Lutgens; O. Soehnlein (Oliver)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerosis-Associated diseases are the main cause ofmortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions thatmay become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the

  5. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study

    Hartwig, Helene; Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Beckers, Linda; Paulin, Nicole; van der Heiden, Kim; Braster, Quinte; Drechsler, Maik; Daemen, Mat J.; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical

  6. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    Wengenack, Thomas M.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Jack, Clifford R.; Garwood, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  7. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E.; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, Yongtae; van der Staay, Susanne E. M.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A.; Moore, Kathryn J.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and

  8. Three-dimensional dosimetry imaging of I-125 plaque for eye cancer treatment

    Weaver, M.; Green, J.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M.L.F.; Cutajar, D.; Franklin, D. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics-University of Wollongong, Northfileds Avenue, Wollongong 2500 NSW (Australia); Jakubek, J. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Carolan, M.G. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics-University of Wollongong, Northfileds Avenue, Wollongong 2500 NSW (Australia); Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong 2500 NSW (Australia); Conway, M. [Sydney Eye Hospital-Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 NSW (Australia); Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kron, T. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne Vic 8006 (Australia); Metcalfe, P. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics-University of Wollongong, Northfileds Avenue, Wollongong 2500 NSW (Australia); Zaider, M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Rosenfeld, A.B., E-mail: anatoly@uow.edu.au [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics-University of Wollongong, Northfileds Avenue, Wollongong 2500 NSW (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    Treatment of ocular cancers using eye plaque brachytherapy is now an established medical procedure. However, current QA for these eye plaques is quite rudimentary, limiting the opportunities for precise pre-tumour plaque customisation. This paper proposes and experimentally validates a new technique for imaging of eye plaque dose distributions using a high-resolution pixelated silicon detector. Results are presented demonstrating the 2D and 3D isodose surfaces produced using experimental data collected using this method.

  9. Three-dimensional dosimetry imaging of I-125 plaque for eye cancer treatment

    Weaver, M.; Green, J.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M.L.F.; Cutajar, D.; Franklin, D.; Jakubek, J.; Carolan, M.G.; Conway, M.; Pospisil, S.; Kron, T.; Metcalfe, P.; Zaider, M.; Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of ocular cancers using eye plaque brachytherapy is now an established medical procedure. However, current QA for these eye plaques is quite rudimentary, limiting the opportunities for precise pre-tumour plaque customisation. This paper proposes and experimentally validates a new technique for imaging of eye plaque dose distributions using a high-resolution pixelated silicon detector. Results are presented demonstrating the 2D and 3D isodose surfaces produced using experimental data collected using this method.

  10. A framework for the co-registration of hemodynamic forces and atherosclerotic plaque components

    Canton, Gador; Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Huijun; Chen, Yimin; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kerwin, William S.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Local hemodynamic forces, such as wall shear stress, are thought to trigger cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology, and to identify plaque features shown to be key determinants of plaque vulnerability. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has allowed researchers to obtain time-resolv...

  11. Antibody Response to Shiga Toxins in Argentinean Children with Enteropathic Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome at Acute and Long-Term Follow-Up Periods

    Fernández-Brando, Romina J.; Bentancor, Leticia V.; Mejías, María Pilar; Ramos, María Victoria; Exeni, Andrea; Exeni, Claudia; Laso, María del Carmen; Exeni, Ramón; Isturiz, Martín A.; Palermo, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Systemic Stx toxemia is considered to be central to the genesis of HUS. Distinct methods have been used to evaluate anti-Stx response for immunodiagnostic or epidemiological analysis of HUS cases. The development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) assay to detect the presence of specific antibodies to Stx has introduced important advantages for serodiagnosis of HUS. However, application of these methods for seroepidemiological studies in Argentina has been limited. The aim of this work was to develop an ELISA to detect antibodies against the B subunit of Stx2, and a WB to evaluate antibodies against both subunits of Stx2 and Stx1, in order to analyze the pertinence and effectiveness of these techniques in the Argentinean population. We studied 72 normal healthy children (NHC) and 105 HUS patients of the urban pediatric population from the surrounding area of Buenos Aires city. Using the WB method we detected 67% of plasma from NHC reactive for Stx2, but only 8% for Stx1. These results are in agreement with the broad circulation of Stx2-expressing STEC in Argentina and the endemic behavior of HUS in this country. Moreover, the simultaneous evaluation by the two methods allowed us to differentiate acute HUS patients from NHC with a great specificity and accuracy, in order to confirm the HUS etiology when pathogenic bacteria were not isolated from stools. PMID:21559455

  12. Efficacy of Methotrexate in patients with plaque type psoriasis

    Haider, Sabiqa; Wahid, Zarnaz; Najam-us-Saher; Riaz, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of Methotrexate in patients with plaque type psoriasis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the department of Dermatology, Civil Hospital Karachi from September 2009 to March 2010. Seventy three patients between 18 to 50 years of age suffering from plaque type psoriasis with PASI score of >10 were included in the study after taking the informed consent. Oral methotrexate in a dose of 7.5 mg/week was given for 8 weeks. The data collected included demographic profile (age and gender), duration of disease, site of involvement, size of plaque, severity of plaque measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score before starting the treatment and at the end of treatment. Efficacy was labeled with a PASI score of ≤5 at the end of 8 weeks. Results: Out of 73 patients there were 45 (61.6%) males and 28 (38.4%) females. The mean ±SD age was 40.0±12.6 years. The mean baseline PASI score showed clear and comparable improvement from a mean ± SD PASI score of 14.8±4.2 to 4.9±4.3.Twenty nine (40%) patients had an almost complete remission during the 8 weeks of treatment. Partial remission was achieved in 44 (60%) patients. The clearance time for psoriasis ranged from 5-7 weeks (mean 6±0.89 weeks). Conclusion: Treatment with methotrexate for chronic plaque psoriasis brings satisfactory disease control and improved quality of life. PMID:25225524

  13. Finite element modeling and intravascular ultrasound elastography of vulnerable plaques: parameter variation.

    Baldewsing, R.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Schaar, J.A.; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND GOAL: More than 60% of all myocardial infarction is caused by rupture of a vulnerable plaque. A vulnerable plaque can be described as a large, soft lipid pool covered by a thin fibrous cap. Plaque material composition, geometry, and inflammation caused by infiltration of macrophages

  14. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque

    Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára

    2011-01-01

    . reuteri SD2112 and PTA 5289 for 2 weeks. At baseline and at the end of each tablet period, all available supragingival plaque was collected. Lactic acid production was determined from a fixed volume (8 µl) of fresh plaque and the rest of the plaque was used for culturing MS and lactobacilli. The retention...

  15. How radiation influences atherosclerotic plaque development. A biophysical approach in ApoE{sup -/-} mice

    Kloosterman, Astrid; Dillen, Teun van; Dekkers, Fieke [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Bijwaard, Harmen [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Medical Technology Research Group, Haarlem (Netherlands); Heeneman, Sylvia [Maastricht University Medical Center, Experimental Vascular Pathology group, Department of Pathology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Hoving, Saske; Stewart, Fiona A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Division of Biological Stress Response (H3), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    Atherosclerosis is the development of lipid-laden plaques in arteries and is nowadays considered as an inflammatory disease. It has been shown that high doses of ionizing radiation, as used in radiotherapy, can increase the risk of development or progression of atherosclerosis. To elucidate the effects of radiation on atherosclerosis, we propose a mathematical model to describe radiation-promoted plaque development. This model distinguishes itself from other models by combining plaque initiation and plaque growth, and by incorporating information from biological experiments. It is based on two consecutive processes: a probabilistic dose-dependent plaque initiation process, followed by deterministic plaque growth. As a proof of principle, experimental plaque size data from carotid arteries from irradiated ApoE{sup -/-} mice was used to illustrate how this model can provide insight into the underlying biological processes. This analysis supports the promoting role for radiation in plaque initiation, but the model can easily be extended to include dose-related effects on plaque growth if available experimental data would point in that direction. Moreover, the model could assist in designing future biological experiments on this research topic. Additional biological data such as plaque size data from chronically-irradiated mice or experimental data sets with a larger variety in biological parameters can help to further unravel the influence of radiation on plaque development. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first biophysical model that combines probabilistic and mechanistic modeling which uses experimental data to investigate the influence of radiation on plaque development. (orig.)

  16. 76 FR 66307 - Scientific Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    2011-10-26

    ... Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare... manufacturers of Phototherapy medical devices for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information... Systemic Agents and Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  18. CT virtual intravascular endoscopy assessment of coronary artery plaques: A preliminary study

    Sun Zhonghua; Dimpudus, Franky Jacobus; Nugroho, Johanes; Adipranoto, Jeffrey Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) in the visualization and assessment of coronary plaques in patients suspected of coronary artery disease. Materials and methods: 20 (13 men, 7 women, mean age 54 years) consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing 64-slice CT angiography were included in the study. Four main coronary artery branches were assessed with regard to the presence of coronary plaques based on 2D axial, multiplanar reformation, 3D volume rendering and VIE visualizations. The coronary plaques were characterized into calcified, noncalcified and mixed plaques. The intraluminal appearances of these coronary plaques were demonstrated with VIE images and correlated with 2D and 3D images to determine the diagnostic value of VIE for the assessment of the plaques. Results: VIE was able to identify and demonstrate the intraluminal appearances of coronary plaques in 18 patients involving 32 coronary artery branches which were shown as an irregularly intraluminal protruding sign in extensively calcified plaques and smooth protruding appearance in noncalcified or focally calcified plaques. An irregular intraluminal appearance was also noticed in the presence of mixed plaques due to variable components with different CT attenuations contained within the plaques. VIE accurately confirmed the degree of coronary stenosis or occlusion despite the presence of heavy calcification. Conclusion: VIE could be used as a complementary tool to conventional CT visualizations for the analysis of luminal changes and assessment of disease extent caused by the coronary plaques.

  19. Microglia in diffuse plaques in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch). An immunohistochemical study

    Maat-Schieman, M. L.; Rozemuller, A. J.; van Duinen, S. G.; Haan, J.; Eikelenboom, P.; Roos, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    In hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch) (HCHWA-D) beta/A4 amyloid deposition is found in meningocortical blood vessels and in diffuse plaques in the cerebral cortex. Diffuse plaques putatively represent early stages in the formation of senile plaques. Microglia are intimately

  20. Stable Size Distribution of Amyloid Plaques Over the Course of Alzheimer Disease

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L.; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β plaques are a key pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavine-S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of AD and plaque-bearing age-matched non-demented subjects to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid-β (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups whereas dense-core plaques from the AD group were slightly larger than those in the non-demented group (~25%–30%, p = 0.01). Within the AD group, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOEε4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease. PMID:22805771

  1. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  2. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients.

    Otten, Marieke P T; Busscher, Henk J; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C; van Hoogmoed, Chris G

    2012-10-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h after brushing and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were measured. The contributions of plaque and saliva towards substantivity were determined by combining control plaques with experimental plaque or saliva samples and subsequently assessing their viabilities. Bacterial compositions in the various plaque and saliva samples were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The viabilities of plaques after brushing with Colgate-Total® and Crest-Pro-Health® were smaller than of control plaques and up to 12 h after brushing with Crest-Pro-Health® plaques still contained effective, residual antibacterial activity against control plaques. No effective, residual antibacterial activity could be measured in saliva samples after brushing. There was no significant difference in bacterial composition of plaque or saliva after brushing with the different toothpastes. Plaque-left-behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the substantive action of an antibacterial toothpaste containing stannous fluoride (Crest-Pro-Health®). The absorptive capacity of plaque-left-behind after brushing is of utmost clinical importance, since plaque is predominantly left behind in places where its removal and effective killing matter most. Therewith this study demonstrates a clear and new beneficial effect of the use of antibacterial toothpastes.

  3. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.

    1998-01-01

    carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  4. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.

    1998-01-01

    carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  5. Quantification of arterial plaque and lumen density with MDCT

    Paul, Narinder S.; Blobel, Joerg; Kashani, Hany; Rice, Murray; Ursani, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to derive a mathematical correction function in order to normalize the CT number measurements for small volume arterial plaque and small vessel mimicking objects, imaged with multidetector CT (MDCT). Methods: A commercially available calcium plaque phantom (QRM GmbH, Moehrendorf, Germany) and a custom built cardiovascular phantom were scanned with 320 and 64 MDCT scanners. The calcium hydroxyapatite plaque phantom contained objects 0.5-5.0 mm in diameter with known CT attenuation nominal values ranging 50-800 HU. The cardiovascular phantom contained vessel mimicking objects 1.0-5.0 mm in diameter with different contrast media. Both phantoms were scanned using clinical protocols for CT angiography and images were reconstructed with different filter kernels. The measured CT number (HU) and diameter of each object were analyzed on three clinical postprocessing workstations. From the resultant data, a mathematical formula was derived based on absorption function exp(-μ * d) to demonstrate the relation between measured CT numbers and object diameters. Results: The percentage reduction in measured CT number (HU) for the group of selected filter kernels, apparent during CT angiography, is dependent only on the object size (plaque or vessel diameter). The derived formula of the form 1-c * exp(-a * d b ) showed reduction in CT number for objects between 0.5 and 5 mm in diameter, with asymptote reaching background noise for small objects with diameters nearing the CT in-plane resolution (0.35 mm). No reduction was observed for the objects with diameters equal or larger than 5 mm. Conclusions: A clear mathematical relationship exists between object diameter and reduction in measured CT number in HU. This function is independent of exposure parameters and inherent attenuation properties of the objects studied. Future developments include the incorporation of this mathematical model function into quantification software in order to automatically

  6. 125I eye plaque dose distribution including penumbra characteristics.

    de la Zerda, A; Chiu-Tsao, S T; Lin, J; Boulay, L L; Kanna, I; Kim, J H; Tsao, H S

    1996-03-01

    The two main purposes of this work are (1) to determine the penumbra characteristics for 125I eye plaque and the relative influence of the plaque and eye-air interface on the dose distribution, and (2) to initiate development of a treatment planning algorithm for clinical dose calculations. Dose was measured in a newly designed solid water eye phantom for an 125I (6711) seed at the center of a 20 mm COMS eye plaque using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) "cubes" and "minichips" inside and outside the eye, in the longitudinal and transverse central planes. TLD cubes were used in most locations, except for short distances from the seed and in the penumbra region. In the presence of both the plaque and the eye-air interface, the dose along the central axis was found to be reduced by 10% at 1 cm and up to 20% at 2.5 cm, relative to the bulk homogeneous phantom case. In addition, the overall dose reduction was greater for larger off-axis coordinates at a given depth. The penumbra characteristics due to the lip collimation were quantified, particularly the dependence of penumbra center and width on depth. Only small differences were observed between the profiles in the transverse and longitudinal planes. In the bulk geometry (without the eye-air interface), the dose reduction due to the presence of the plaque alone was found to be 7% at a depth of 2.5 cm. The additional reduction of 13% observed, with the presence of eye-air interface (20% combined), can be attributed to the lack of backscattering from the air in front of the eye. The dose-reduction effect due to the anterior air interface alone became unnoticeable at a depth of 1.1 cm (1.5 cm from the eye-air interface). An analytic fit to measured data was developed for clinical dose calculations for a centrally loaded seed. The central axis values of the dose rates multiplied by distance squared, Dr2, were fitted with a double exponential function of depth. The off-axis profile of Dr2, at a given depth, was

  7. Ways to develop the prophylaxis of post-transfusion hemolytic complications

    B. B. Bahovadinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-transfusion hemolytic complications (РНС remain аn urgent рrоblem in medical practice despite the improvement of selecting methods of compatible blood transfusion for patients. The numbеr of РНС remains still high (1 in 6 000 - 29 000 transfusions. Aim: to analyze cases of РНС registered in health care facilities (HCF in the Republic of Tajikistan. Method of investigation. Retrospective analysis of materials of national аnd regional committees оп investigation of РНС cases, histories fro hospital archives. During the period 1989-2014 in health facilities were registered 86 cases of РНС approximately 850 000 doses of red bооd cell transfusions containing blооd components, or 1 in 9418 doses of red blood cell-containing blood components. РНС reasons were: incompatibility of АВО blооd group system - 32 (37,3 %, antigen D of blооd group Rhesus factor system - 34 (39,53 %, according to minor blood group antigens of Rhesus factor and Kell blood group system (С, с, Е, е, К - 16 (18,6 %. In 4 cases (4,6 % the cases of РНС were hemolytic transfusions of erythrocyte-containing bags as а result of improper storage in domestic refrigeration without control of temperature storage. Causes of development 78 out of 86 РНС (90,69 % were HCF doctors' mistakes, 8 (9,31 % - mistakes of health personnel of health facilities departments of blood transfusion аnd regional blооd centers. Reducing the frequency of PHC is impossible without training physicians оn transfusion medicine, introduction of modern methods of phenotyping erythrocyte antigens of recipients and donors оn major transfusion significant blood group antigens the АВО system by direct and cross-over methods, Rhesus (С, с, Е, е, Kell (К of patients requiring multiple transfusions, as well as to girls and women of childbearing age.

  8. Grafting synthetic transmembrane units to the engineered low-toxicity α-hemolysin to restore its hemolytic activity.

    Ui, Mihoko; Harima, Kousuke; Takei, Toshiaki; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Endo, Sumire; Akiyama, Kimio; Muraoka, Takahiro; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-12-01

    The chemical modification of proteins to provide desirable functions and/or structures broadens their possibilities for use in various applications. Usually, proteins can acquire new functions and characteristics, in addition to their original ones, via the introduction of synthetic functional moieties. Here, we adopted a more radical approach to protein modification, i.e., the replacement of a functional domain of proteins with alternative chemical compounds to build "cyborg proteins." As a proof of concept model, we chose staphylococcal α-hemolysin (Hla), which is a well-studied, pore-forming toxin. The hemolytic activity of Hla mutants was dramatically decreased by truncation of the stem domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the membrane. However, the impaired hemolytic activity was significantly restored by attaching a pyrenyl-maleimide unit to the cysteine residue that was introduced in the remaining stem domain. In contrast, negatively charged fluorescein-maleimide completely abolished the remaining activity of the mutants.

  9. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Di b treated with phototherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Oh, Eun-Jee; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Jang, Hyun-Sik; Park, Hae-Il; Park, Yeon-Joon; Choi, Hyun Ah; Chun, Chung-Sik; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2008-01-01

    The Di(b) antigen usually occurs with high incidence, except in certain Asian and South American Indian populations. In general, hemolysis caused by anti-Di(b) is not severe and its clinical course is benign. We report a Korean neonate with severe hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by anti-Di(b). The phenotype and genotype of the Diego blood group system of the patient and his mother were Di(a+b+) and Di(a+b-), respectively. The mother's serum and eluate from the neonate's erythrocytes contained anti-Di(b). This case was successfully managed with phototherapy and high dose iv immunoglobulin. Since most commercial antibody detection panels do not contain Di(b-) red cells, it is important to consider anti-Di(b) in cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by an antibody against a high frequency antigen.

  10. Megadose Methylprednisolone (MDMP Treatment in a Patient with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA Resistant to Conventional Corticosteroid Administration: A Case Report

    Şinasi Özsoylu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A female in the Netherlands with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA was treated with conventional corticosteroid (2 mg/kg/d in divided doses and blood transfusions for 18 months without improvement. The presented patient responded to megadose methylprednisolone (MDMP 30 mg/kg/d for 3 d, followed by 20 mg/kg for 4 d, and subsequently 10, 5, 2, and 1 mg/kg/d each for 1 week.

  11. Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a new deletion of the entire beta-globin cluster.

    Pirastu, M; Kan, Y W; Lin, C C; Baine, R M; Holbrook, C T

    1983-01-01

    We describe a new type of gamma delta beta-thalassemia in four generations of a family of Scotch-Irish descent. The proposita presented with hemolytic disease of the newborn, which was characterized by a microcytic anemia. Initial restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA showed no grossly abnormal patterns, but studies of polymorphic restriction sites and gene dosage revealed an extensive deletion that removed all the beta- and beta-like globin genes from the affected chromosome. In situ ...

  12. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP-HUS): a 24-year clinical experience with 178 patients

    Lara Primo; Harvey Danielle; Levandovsky Mark; Wun Ted

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP-HUS) are related and uncommon disorders with a high fatality and complication rate if untreated. Plasma exchange therapy has been shown to produce high response rates and improve survival in patients with many forms of TTP-HUS. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 178 consecutively treated patients with TTP-HUS and analyzed whether clinical or laboratory characteristics could predict for imp...

  13. The value of transcutaneous method of bilirubin measurement in newborn population with the risk of ABO hemolytic disease.

    Stoniene, Dalia; Buinauskiene, Jūrate; Markūniene, Egle

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the correlation between total serum bilirubin (TSB) and transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) levels in newborn infants at risk of ABO hemolytic disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS. During a prospective study, 130 full-term (>or=37 weeks of gestation) newborn infants with diagnosed ABO blood group incompatibility were examined. TSB level was measured at the age of 6 hours; further measurements were performed at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the first measurement. Blood samples were collected from the peripheral veins. In clinical laboratory, total serum bilirubin level was measured using Jendrassik-Grof method. TcB level in the forehead was measured using a noninvasive bilirubinometer BiliCheck (SpectRX Inc, Norcross, GA) according to the manufacturer's instructions within +/-30 min after getting a blood sample. RESULTS. During the study, 387 double tests were performed to measure TSB and TcB levels. TSB level (114.83 [62.85] micromol/L) closely correlated with TcB level (111.51 [61.31] micromol/L) (r=0.92, Por=98 micromol/L, ABO hemolytic disease in newborns may be diagnosed with 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity; positive predictive value was 62% and negative predictive value was 100%. While a newborn's age increases, TcB sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing ABO hemolytic disease decrease. CONCLUSION. While evaluating bilirubin level transcutaneously according to nomograms of serum bilirubin level, the results should be considered with caution, especially for newborns with a risk of ABO hemolytic disease. The hour-specific nomograms of transcutaneous bilirubin level should be used to evaluate hyperbilirubinemia using only a noninvasive method.

  14. Monte Carlo Estimation of Absorbed Dose Distributions Obtained from Heterogeneous 106Ru Eye Plaques.

    Zaragoza, Francisco J; Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of the emitter substance in 106 Ru eye plaques is usually assumed to be homogeneous for treatment planning purposes. However, this distribution is never homogeneous, and it widely differs from plaque to plaque due to manufacturing factors. By Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, we study the absorbed dose distribution obtained from the specific CCA1364 and CCB1256 106 Ru plaques, whose actual emitter distributions were measured. The idealized, homogeneous CCA and CCB plaques are also simulated. The largest discrepancy in depth dose distribution observed between the heterogeneous and the homogeneous plaques was 7.9 and 23.7% for the CCA and CCB plaques, respectively. In terms of isodose lines, the line referring to 100% of the reference dose penetrates 0.2 and 1.8 mm deeper in the case of heterogeneous CCA and CCB plaques, respectively, with respect to the homogeneous counterpart. The observed differences in absorbed dose distributions obtained from heterogeneous and homogeneous plaques are clinically irrelevant if the plaques are used with a lateral safety margin of at least 2 mm. However, these differences may be relevant if the plaques are used in eccentric positioning.

  15. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  16. Tc-99m red blood cells for the study of rapid hemolytic processes associated with heterologous blood transfusions

    Benedetto, A.R.; Harrison, C.R.; Blumhardt, R.; Trow, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Chromium-51 labeled erythrocytes (Cr-51 RBC) are suitable for the study of hematologic disorders which involve relatively slow destruction of circulating erythrocytes, taking several days to several weeks. However, Cr-51 RBC are not suitable for investigating rapid hemolytic processes which occur within a matter of a few hours due to the variable and unpredictable elution of Cr-51 from the erythrocytes during the first 24 hours or so. Imaging, which could be useful in identifying organ systems involved in the hemolytic process, cannot be performed with Cr-51 RBC because of the high dose commitment caused by the low yield of gamma rays from Cr-51 (2). A method of labeling RBC with Tc-99m, which results in a radiopharmaceutical that combines the excellent dosimetric and imaging qualities of Tc-99m with an extremely stable bond between the Tc-99m and the RBC, is reported. The successful application of this technique in providing red cell support for a cancer patient with an unusual history of intravascular hemolytic transfusion reactions is also reported

  17. Contribution to the food products' analysis: A research and evaluation on the hemolytic effect of some pesticides used in Lebanon.

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Millet, Maurice; Chbani, Asma; Fajloun, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are a real concern for the society as their use has become critical, leading sometimes to their accumulation as residues in fruits and vegetables. After examining the pesticides sold in Northern Lebanon, this study is focused on the analysis and identification of pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables that are harvested in this region and treated with the locally sold pesticides. Results show: first, (i) a use of Zineb by the name of another pesticide Micronized Sulfur to avoid prosecution; (ii) a significant presence of Metalaxyl in lemons and oranges; (iii) a significant presence of Trifluralin in strawberries; and (iv) a significant presence of Zineb in lemons and tomatoes. Second, with the use of hemolytic tests on human blood results show: (i) a critical concentration and a significant hemolytic effect of some pesticides used in Lebanon; and (ii) an absence of hemolytic effect in the collected fractions of the different analyzed fruit extracts containing pesticides. Finally, this work is the first step for pesticides' analysis in vegetables and fruits in Lebanon, initiating a wider analytical study in order to control and examine the use of pesticides which, according to our results, could have an adverse effect on human health over a long term.

  18. Vegetable Peel Waste for the Production of ZnO Nanoparticles and its Toxicological Efficiency, Antifungal, Hemolytic, and Antibacterial Activities

    Surendra, T. V.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Sarkar, Gargi; Suthindhiran, K.

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are important materials when making different products like sun screens, textiles, and paints. In the current study, the photocatalytic effect of prepared ZnO NPs from Moringa oleifera ( M. oleifera) was evaluated on degradation of crystal violet (CV) dye, which is largely released from textile industries and is harmful to the environment. Preliminarily, ZnO NP formation was confirmed using a double beam ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer; further, the NP size was estimated using XRD analysis and the functional group analysis was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized NPs was found to be a hexagonal shape using SEM and TEM analysis and elemental screening was analyzed using EDX. ZnO NPs were shown sized 40-45 nm and spherical in shape. The degradation percentage of ZnO NPs was calculated as 94% at 70 min and the rate of the reaction -k = 0.0282. The synthesized ZnO NPs were determined for effectiveness on biological activities such as antifungal, hemolytic, and antibacterial activity. ZnO NPs showed good antifungal activity against Alternaria saloni and Sclerrotium rolfii strains. Further, we have determined the hemolytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs and we got successive results in antibacterial and hemolytic activities.

  19. Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on calcium phosphate nanocomposite with quaternary ammonium.

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Eric J; Xu, Sarah M; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2012-08-01

    Half of dental restorations fail in 10 years, with secondary caries as the main reason. Calcium phosphate composites could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) impart antibacterial activity to a composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); and (2) investigate the effect of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) on mechanical and dental plaque microcosm biofilm properties for the first time. The NACP and glass particles were filled into a dental resin that contained bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, the QADM. NACP nanocomposites containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 17.5% of QADM by mass, respectively, were photo-cured. A commercial composite with no antibacterial activity was used as control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Live/dead assay, metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production of biofilms on the composites were measured. Increasing QADM mass fraction monotonically reduced the biofilm viability, CFU and lactic acid. Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite with 17.5% QADM had metabolic activity that was 30% that on a commercial composite control (pbacterial cells with normal short-rod shapes, while some cells on NACP-QADM nanocomposites disintegrated into pieces. Adding QADM to NACP did not decrease the composite strength and elastic modulus, which matched (p>0.1) those of a commercial composite without Ca-PO(4) or antibacterial activity. A dental plaque microcosm model was used to evaluate the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite. The nanocomposite greatly reduced the biofilm viability, metabolic activity and lactic acid, while its mechanical properties matched those of a commercial composite. NACP-QADM nanocomposite with calcium phosphate fillers, good mechanical properties and a strong antibacterial activity may have potential for anti-biofilm and anti

  20. Inhibition of dental plaque formation by toothpaste containing propolis

    Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plaque is the main cause of caries and periodontal disease. Caries and periodontal disease can be prevented by inhibiting dental plaque formation. To inhibit the formation of plaque, teeth must be brushed with toothpaste. According to previous studies, propolis contains apigenin and tt-farnesol classified as flavonoid that can inhibit the formation of dental plaque by inhibiting glucosyltransferase enzym and membrane integrity of Streptococcus mutans. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of toothpaste containing propolis on the formation of dental plaque. Methods: Post test with only control group design was used. The subjects of this study were 30 boarding school students of Hidayatullah, Yayasan Al-Burhan, Gedawang, Semarang, divided into two groups, randomized control group and treatment group. Control group was not treated with toothpaste contanining propolis. Meanwhile, treatment group was treated with toothpaste containing propolis. Plaque then was measured by using plaque index of Sillness and Loe method after using toothpaste containing propolis for four hours. Afterwards, the data was analyzed by a computer program, Mann-Whitney test, with its significance p < 0.05. Results: The result of Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference, 0.002 (p < 0.05, between the control group and the treatment group. The median of the control group was about 3.41, while that of the treatment group was about 0.58. Conclusion: The use of toothpaste contaning propolis can prevent dental plaque formation.Latar belakang: Plak merupakan penyebab utama terjadinya karies dan penyakit periodontal. Karies dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan menghambat pembentukan plak gigi. Untuk mencegah terbentuknya plak, gigi harus digosok menggunakan pasta gigi. Penelitian terdahulu menyebutkan bahwa propolis mengandung flavonoid apigenin dan tt-farnesol yang mampu menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase dan menghambat

  1. Gene expression and 18FDG uptake in atherosclerotic carotid plaques

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Graebe, Martin; Fisker Hag, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    ) and an additional ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis of greater than 60% were recruited. FDG uptake in the carotids was determined by PET/computed tomography and expressed as mean and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax). The atherosclerotic plaques were subsequently recovered...... by carotid endarterectomy. The gene expression of markers of vulnerability - CD68, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, GLUT-1, and hexokinase type II (HK2) - were measured in plaques by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, GLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene...... expression remained in the final model as predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated as SUVmean (R=0.26, PK, and HK2 gene expression as independent predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated...

  2. Microbiologic aspects of dental plaque and dental caries.

    Marsh, P D

    1999-10-01

    Dental plaque is an example of a microbial biofilm with a diverse microbial composition; it is found naturally on teeth and confers advantages to the host, for example, by preventing colonization by exogenous, and often pathogenic, micro-organisms. In individuals with a high frequency sugar diet, or with a severely compromised saliva flow, the levels of potentially cariogenic bacteria (acid-producing and acid-tolerating species) can increase beyond those compatible with enamel health. This article discusses antimicrobial strategies to control dental caries, including; reducing plaque levels, in general or specific cariogenic bacteria in particular, by antiplaque or antimicrobial agents; reducing bacterial acid production by replacing fermentable carbohydrates in the diet with sugar substitutes, or by interfering with bacterial metabolism with fluoride or antimicrobial agents.

  3. Choroidal sclerosis in localized scleroderma (morphea en plaque).

    Milenkovic, S; Petrovic, L; Risimic, D; Kosanovic-Jakovic, N; Jaksic, V; Djakovic, Z; Stojkovic, M; Risovic, D; Ivankovic, Lj; Ivancevic-Milenkovic, M

    2008-01-01

    Plaque morphea is a superficial type of morphea (localized scleroderma) which is characterized by various fibrotic areas of the dermis without systemic features. We present a 63-year-old man with morphea en plaque. The skin on his forearms and feet was taut, thickened and hidebound with scattered telangiectatic changes. Autoantibody profile was obtained and only ANA were positive (1:80). The patient had a decreased vision in the only functional, left eye. Our case is specific because the patient negated any kind of health problem, meaning the morphea and visual deterioration were of outstanding importance for him. Choroidal sclerosis and fundus appearance was extremely impressive and, to our knowledge, this is the first report of such unique case of ocular involvement in the literature. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  5. Microbead agglutination based assays

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  6. Morphological classification of mobile plaques and their association with early recurrence of stroke.

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the frequency and morphological characteristics of carotid mobile plaques and examined the relationship between carotid mobile plaques and recurrent strokes. The study included 94 consecutive acute stroke patients with large-artery atherosclerosis associated with extracranial carotid stenosis. We investigated the presence of mobile plaques by carotid ultrasonography and classified patients into two groups (mobile group and non-mobile group). We compared backgrounds, MRI and ultrasonographic findings, neurological severity on admission and at discharge, and the rate of early recurrent stroke between both groups. Mobile plaques were detected in 12 patients (12.8%). There were four types of mobile plaques: (1) the jellyfish-type plaque, in which the fibrous cap fluctuated like a jellyfish; (2) the streaming-band-type plaque, in which the string attached to the plaque was swaying; (3) the mobile-thrombus-type plaque, in which a mobile mass was attached to the plaque surface, and (4) the fluctuating-ulcer-type plaque, which contained a mobile substance in the plaque ulcer. Although National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on admission were less severe in the mobile group than in the non-mobile group (median 1 vs. 4, respectively; p = 0.004), the rate of early recurrent stroke was significantly higher in the mobile group than in the non-mobile group (33.3 vs. 7.3%, respectively; p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in NIHSS scores at discharge between groups. Morphologically, several types of mobile plaques were detected in consecutive patients with acute stroke associated with carotid stenosis. Mobile plaques are strongly associated with an early recurrence of stroke. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Dynamics of red fluorescent dental plaque during experimental gingivitis--A cohort study.

    van der Veen, Monique H; Volgenant, Catherine M C; Keijser, Bart; Ten Cate, Jacob Bob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of red fluorescent plaque (RFP) in comparison to clinical plaque and bleeding scores were studied during an experimental gingivitis protocol in a cohort of healthy participants. Forty-one participants were monitored for RFP before (24h plaque), during 14 days plaque accumulation (days 2, 5, 9, 14) and after 7 days recovery (24h plaque). RFP was assessed on fluorescence photographs of the vestibular aspect of the anterior teeth (cuspid to cuspid) in the upper and lower jaw. Clinical plaque and bleeding were assessed at days -14, 0, 14 and 21. RFP of 24h plaque was reproducible (days -14, 0), then increased during 14 days plaque accumulation and returned to baseline after 7 days recovery. Groups of low, moderate and high RFP formers were statistically significantly different at all times even already at baseline. The individual RFP response during 14 days plaque accumulation correlated well with RFP of 24h plaque (days -14, 0). RFP correlated moderate to well with clinical plaque at days -14, 0, 14 and 21. From day 2 of the gingivitis challenge RFP correlated with bleeding at day 14. RFP provided an objective measure of oral hygiene status. Given the correlation with clinical parameters found, the amount of RFP after 24h plaque accumulation was indicatory for the inflammatory response during a prolonged period of no oral hygiene. This trial was registered at the public trial register ​of the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) under number NL51111.029.14 CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper shows the association between RFP after 24h plaque accumulation and inflammatory response after a prolonged period of no oral hygiene. Red plaque fluorescence can be used to identify subjects at risk for developing gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Li Tao [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Xihai [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Liu Xin [Paul C. Lauterbur Biomedical Imaging Center, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Gao Jianhua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Shaohong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Li Xin; Zhou Weihua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Cai Zulong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhang Weiguo [Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting Institute, 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039 (United States); Yang Li, E-mail: Yangli301@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and investigate the association between unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and early enhancement of the plaque. Methods: Forty-one patients presenting with angina pectoris and demonstrating single-vessel disease with non-calcified plaque and significant coronary stenosis ({>=}50%) on CTA were consecutively recruited for coronary CE-MRA. Contrast-to-noise ratio of the culprit plaque guided by CTA was measured on a cross-sectional multi-planar reconstruction image of the plaque on both pre- and post-CE-MRA. A 50% increasing of CNR was defined as plaque enhancement. The association between early enhancement of the plaques and UAP was analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven non-calcified plaques with significant coronary stenosis were detected in the 37 patients on MRA. 4 subjects were excluded because coronary atherosclerotic plaques were inadequate for identification on MRA. Of the 37 patients, 18 patients had UAP and other 19 patients presented stable angina pectoris (SAP). Of the 37 plaques on CE-MRA, 13 and 24 plaques presented early enhancement and no enhancement, respectively. Of the 13 early-enhanced plaques, 11 (85%) and 2 (15%) were found in the patients with UAP and SAP, respectively (p < 0.01). Of the 37 patients, 11 (61%) with UAP and 2 (11%) with SAP had early-enhanced plaques, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: CE-MRA allows detection of early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The early enhancement is common in unstable angina and could be a sign of vulnerability.

  9. Influence of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction on coronary plaque analysis in coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke; Gerke, Oke; Thygesen, Jesper; Egstrup, Kenneth; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements. Lumen and vessel volumes and plaque burden measurements were based on automatic detected contours in each reconstruction. Lumen and plaque intensity measurements and HU based plaque characterization were based on corrected contours copied to each reconstruction. No significant changes between FBP and 30% ASIR were found except for lumen- (-2.53 HU) and plaque intensities (-1.28 HU). Between FBP and 60% ASIR the change in total volume showed an increase of 0.94%, 4.36% and 2.01% for lumen, plaque and vessel, respectively. The change in total plaque burden between FBP and 60% ASIR was 0.76%. Lumen and plaque intensities decreased between FBP and 60% ASIR with -9.90 HU and -1.97 HU, respectively. The total plaque component volume changes were all small with a maximum change of -1.13% of necrotic core between FBP and 60% ASIR. Quantitative plaque measurements only showed modest differences between FBP and the 60% ASIR level. Differences were increased lumen-, vessel- and plaque volumes, decreased lumen- and plaque intensities and a small percentage change in the individual plaque component volumes. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

    Gabriel, Sthefano Atique; Antonangelo, Leila; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Beteli, Camila Baumann; de Camargo Júnior, Otacílio; de Aquino, José Luis Braga; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone. Methods The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic) who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy) and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured. Results Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045) and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014) at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003). There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042) and MMP-9 (P=0.019) between symptomatic patients in the control group. Conclusion Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:26313719

  11. Ichthyosiform large plaque parapsoriasis: Report of a rare entity

    Falguni Nag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP is an idiopathic, chronic scaly dermatosis classified within parapsoriasis group of diseases, occurring commonly in middle aged patients of all races and geographic regions. LPP and its variants are closely related to the patch stage of mycosis fungoides. The two types of LPP mostly described are the poikilodermatous and retiform parapsoriasis. We are reporting an ichthyosiform LPP for its rarity.

  12. Life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: successful seletive splenic artery embolization

    matteo molica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective splenic artery embolization (SSAE is a nonsurgical intervention characterized by the transcatheter occlusion of the splenic artery and/or its branch vessels using metallic coils or other embolic devices. It has been applied for the management of splenic trauma, hypersplenism with portal hypertension, hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia and splenic hemangioma. We hereby describe a case of a patient affected by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and warm auto-immune hemolytic anemia (AIHA both resistant to immunosuppressive and biological therapies, not eligible for a surgical intervention because of her critical conditions. She underwent SSAE and achieved a hematologic complete response within a few days without complications. SSAE is a minimally invasive procedure to date not considered a standard option in the management of AIHA and ITP. However, following the progressive improvement of the techniques, its indications have been extended, with a reduction in morbidity and mortality compared to splenectomy in patients with critical clinical conditions. SSAE was a lifesaving therapeutic approach for our patient and it may represent a real alternative for the treatment of resistant AIHA and ITP patients not eligible for splenectomy.

  13. Sulfaguanidine cocrystals: Synthesis, structural characterization and their antibacterial and hemolytic analysis.

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Asghar; Azim, Yasser; Khan, Shahper Nazeer; Khan, Asad U

    2018-02-05

    Sulfaguanidine (SG), belongs to the class of sulfonamide drug used as an effective antibiotic. In the present work, using crystal engineering approach two novel cocrystals of SG were synthesized (SG-TBA and SG-PT) with thiobarbutaric acid (TBA) and 1,10-phenanthroline (PT), characterized by solid state techniques viz., powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. A comparative antibacterial activity and hemolytic potential was done on SG drug, coformers and their cocrystals. The tested cocrystals formulations showed almost two fold higher antibacterial activity against the tested strains of bacteria Gram-positive bacteria (S. mutans and E. faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, K. pneumonia and E. clocae) over SG alone and their coformers. Cocrystal SG-TBA showed better antibacterial activity and reduced hemolysis, thereby, reduced cytotoxicity than SG-PT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis-Related Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Three Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Yu Tian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The association between primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is uncommon; only fourteen such case reports have been described. In this report, three patients who developed AIHA on the basis of PBC underwent successful therapy with corticosteroids and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. Patient 3 was more complicated, suffering from PBC, Evans syndrome, Sjögren syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome simultaneously. This has not previously been reported in the world literature. Review of all fifteen cases showed that there is a prominent occurrence sequence that AIHA might take place on the basis of PBC. With sufficient doses of corticosteroids or immunosuppressant therapy, besides hemolysis under effective control, liver function also improved. According to the criteria of secondary AIHA, we may call them PBC-related AIHA. Thus, patients with PBC with serum bilirubin levels rising suddenly should undergo screening for associated hemolysis. Recommended treatment for PBC-related AIHA includes sufficient doses of corticosteroids to control the hemolysis in the acute phase, and immunosuppressant or adequate dose of UDCA to maintain therapy. These case reports have been increasing in recent years, so further reserch is needed to illustrate the incidence and natural courses of these two organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

  15. Characterization of autoantibodies in autoimmune hemolytic anemia following treatment with interferon alfa

    Bencomo Hernandez, Antonio; Gutierrez Diaz, Adys; Avila Cabrera, Onel; Rodriguez, Luis Ramon

    2012-01-01

    We studied 13 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by interferon alfa. They underwent tests for immune protein detection and characterization of IgG subclasses in RBCs by direct antiglobulin test (PAD) and the microplate technique. Also they were applied ELISA test for quantifying immunoglobulins in the red blood cells. It was detected the presence of IgG and C3 in 53.84 % of cases, IgG alone in 23.07 % and in 15.38 % were identified IgG and IgA autoantibodies. In 11 patients the presence of IgG1 was showed and also in one case the subclass IgG3 autoantibodies was identified. The ELISA detected antibodies at concentrations of 183 IgG molecules per erythrocyte in a patient with negative PAD. In high-grade hemolysis patients, it was found a concentration of autoantibodies between 1 500 and 3 180 molecules of IgG per erythrocyte, while in low-grade hemolysis patients it behaved between 183 and 1 000 molecules. There was a negative correlation between Hb and plasma haptoglobin values with the number of IgG molecules per erythrocyte and a positive correlation between the latter with the reticulocyte count

  16. Late Onset Cobalamin Disorder and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome

    Gianluigi Ardissino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is an unrare and severe thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA caused by several pathogenetic mechanisms among which Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections and complement dysregulation are the most common. However, very rarely and particularly in neonates and infants, disorders of cobalamin metabolism (CblC can present with or be complicated by TMA. Herein we describe a case of atypical HUS (aHUS related to CblC disease which first presented in a previously healthy boy at age of 13.6 years. The clinical picture was initially dominated by nephrotic range proteinuria and severe hypertension followed by renal failure. The specific treatment with high dose of hydroxycobalamin rapidly obtained the remission of TMA and the complete recovery of renal function. We conclude that plasma homocysteine and methionine determinations together with urine organic acid analysis should be included in the diagnostic work-up of any patient with TMA and/or nephrotic syndrome regardless of age.

  17. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in the molecular era.

    Fasano, Ross M

    2016-02-01

    Maternal-fetal red cell antigen incompatibility can lead to alloimmunization, maternal immunoglobulin transplacental transfer, and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). The use of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP) has sharply decreased the incidence of and mortality from HDFN due to RhD allosensitization. The ability to identify pregnancies/fetuses at risk of HDFN has significantly improved due to paternal molecular RHD zygosity testing, and non-invasive fetal molecular diagnostics for detecting putative antigen(s) (notably RhD) in fetuses utilizing cff-DNA in maternal plasma. Fetal RHD genotyping using cff-DNA has become increasingly accurate for fetal RHD detection, prompting some countries to implement targeted RAADP through mass screening programs of RhD-negative pregnant women. Along with middle cerebral artery Doppler ultrasonography for predicting fetal anemia, non-invasive fetal molecular diagnostics have greatly decreased the need for invasive diagnostic procedures in pregnancies at risk for severe HDFN. This review highlights these molecular advancements in HDFN-related prenatal diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Case report: Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-C+G.

    Jernman, Riina; Stefanovic, Vedran; Korhonen, Anu; Haimila, Katri; Sareneva, Inna; Sulin, Kati; Kuosmanen, Malla; Sainio, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G is commonly present with anti-D and/or anti-C and can confuse serological investigations. in general, anti-G is not considered a likely cause of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but it is important to differentiate it from anti-D in women who should be administered anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis. We report one woman with three pregnancies severely affected by anti-C+G requiring intrauterine treatment and a review of the literature. In our case, the identification of the correct antibody was delayed because the differentiation of anti-C+G and anti-D+C was not considered important during pregnancy since the father was D-. In addition, anti-C+G and anti-G titer levels were not found to be reliable as is generally considered in Rh immunization. Severe HDFN occurred at a maternal anti-C+G antibody titer of S and anti-G titer of 1 in comparison with the critical titer level of 16 or more in our laboratory. close collaboration between the immunohematology laboratory and the obstetric unit is essential. In previously affected families, early assessment for fetal anemia is required even when titers are low.

  19. Prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: what have we learned from animal models?

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Marjoram, Danielle; Lazarus, Alan H

    2017-11-01

    This review aims to highlight recent advances in our understanding of how anti-red blood cell (RBC) antibodies prevent erythrocyte immunization with an emphasis on new murine models. New murine models with clinically relevant human erythrocyte antigens have been used to understand the alloimmunization process and its inhibition. The search to elucidate the mechanism of action of IgG-mediated inhibition of erythrocyte alloimmunization has provided new evidence in support of a potential role for epitope masking, immune deviation and/or antigen modulation in this process. In addition, recent evidence suggests that blends of monoclonal antibodies targeting nonoverlapping epitopes on the RBC surface can improve the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies approaching that of polyclonal IgG. Animal models with defined alloantigens have helped to identify important mechanistic components that lead to alloimmunization and its inhibition by IgG. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is required to develop the most effective prevention strategies for future patients.

  20. [Recombinant erythropoietin as treatment for hyporegenerative anemia following hemolytic disease of the newborn].

    Donato, Hugo; Bacciedoni, Viviana; García, Cecilia; Schvartzman, Gabriel; Vain, Néstor

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study is to report results of erythropoietin treatment for late hyporegenerative anemia in the hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Reports previously published concern only a few cases, with controversial results. Case series report concerning 50 neonates with HDN due to Rh, ABO or KpA antigens, aged more than 7 days. Erythropoietin treatment started when hematocrit dropped to levels requiring transfusion, with an inappropriate reticulocyte response (Reticulocyte Production Index <1). At start of treatment mean age was 24.3 +/- 12.0 days (range 8-65 days), hematocrit 24.1 +/- 2.8% (range 18-30%), and Reticulocyte Production Index 0.34 +/- 0.25 (range 0.05-0.98). Hematocrit and Reticulocyte Production Index showed significant increases after 7 and 14 days of treatment (p <0.001). No difference was observed either between infants with Rh-HDN and ABO-HDN or between Rh-HDN patients with or without intrauterine transfusions. Seven infants (14%) required one packed RBC transfusion during erythropoietin therapy, 2 of them within 72 hours from starting treatment. The percentage of transfused infants showed no difference either between ABO-HDN and Rh-HDN or between Rh-HDN with and without intrauterine transfusions. Moderate, short-lasting neutropenia, not associated to infections, was observed in 11 patients. No other adverse effect was observed. The administration of erythropoietin appears to be a safe and useful therapy. Its efficacy should be confirmed by randomized studies.

  1. Study of 25 cases of exchange transfusion by reconstituted blood in hemolytic disease of newborn

    Sharma, D. C.; Rai, Sunita; Mehra, Aakash; Kaur, M. M.; Sao, Satya; Gaur, Ajay; Sapra, Rahul

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to review and establish the practice of exchange transfusion (ET) with reconstituted blood in neonates and to observe fall of bilirubin and its comparison with related studies. Twenty-five neonates diagnosed as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) were selected for this study, in which exchange transfusion was carried out as one of the treatments for hyperbilirubinemia. Out of the 25 cases, 15 were of Rhesus (Rh) HDN, while ABO and other blood groups constituted 6 and 4 HDN cases respectively. First, the neonates's and mother's blood samples were subjected to relevant investigations. After that, for neonates having Rh HDN, O Rh negative cells suspended in AB plasma were given, O Rh positive cells suspended in AB plasma were given to ABO HDN; and O positive cells, which were indirect Coomb's cross-matched compatible with neonates’ and mother's serum / plasma, suspended in AB plasma were given to the neonates having HDN because of other blood group antibodies. The exchange transfusion (ET) was carried out taking all aseptic precautions by Push-Pull technique with double-volume exchange transfusion method. The average post-exchange fall in serum indirect bilirubin was (52.01%) in all 25 cases, which was found to be more significant than the previous studies. Looking into the superiority of the exchange transfusion in HDN by reconstituted blood, the reconstituted blood can be modified and supplied as per the requirement and conditions. PMID:21938234

  2. Prenatal testing for hemolytic disease of the newborn and fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia - current status.

    Avent, Neil D

    2014-12-01

    Incompatibility of red cell and platelet antigens can lead to maternal alloimmunization causing hemolytic disease of the fetus & newborn and fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia respectively. As the molecular background of these polymorphisms emerged, prenatal testing using initially fetal DNA obtained from invasively obtained amniotic fluid or chorionic villus was implemented. This evolved into testing using maternal plasma as source of fetal DNA, and this is in routine use as a safe non-invasive diagnostic that has no risk to the fetus of alloimmunization or spontaneous miscarriage. These tests were initially applied to high risk pregnancies, but has been applied on a mass scale, to screen fetuses in D-negative pregnant populations as national screening programs. Fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia management has had comparatively small take up in non-invasive testing for causative fetal platelet alleles (e.g., HPA-1A), but mass scale genotyping of mothers to identify at risk HPA-1b1b pregnancies and their treatment with prophylactic anti-HPA-1A is being considered in at least one country (Norway).

  3. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-Lan.

    Brooks, Sarah; Squires, Jerry E

    2014-05-01

    Antibodies to the high-incidence red blood cell (RBC) antigen Lan (Langereis) are typically immunoglobulin G and have been shown to fix complement and cause hemolysis of Lan antigen-positive RBCs. Only three cases of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) have been reported involving anti-Lan and all have been characterized as "mild." A 26-year-old Hispanic female presented in her fifth pregnancy for routine obstetric care. Due to progressively rising anti-Lan titers, middle cerebral artery (MCA) Dopplers were performed. At 32 weeks of gestation, the antibody titer had reached 128; the MCA Doppler indicated that fetal anemia was severe. An intrauterine transfusion with Lan antigen-negative RBCs was performed and a viable infant was delivered 25 days later. Three cases of HDFN associated with anti-Lan have been previously reported. While these cases have been associated with somewhat variable serologic findings, none have resulted in fetal demise or severe symptomatology requiring pre- or postnatal intervention other than routine phototherapy. The current report, however, suggests that in some instances anti-Lan can result in a more severe form of HDFN requiring more aggressive prenatal therapy. In spite of previous case reports suggesting that anti-Lan is associated with relatively mild HDFN, this case suggests that in some instances, this antibody can cause severe HDFN requiring prenatal intervention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Study of 25 cases of exchange transfusion by reconstituted blood in hemolytic disease of newborn

    Sharma D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to review and establish the practice of exchange transfusion (ET with reconstituted blood in neonates and to observe fall of bilirubin and its comparison with related studies. Twenty-five neonates diagnosed as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN were selected for this study, in which exchange transfusion was carried out as one of the treatments for hyperbilirubinemia. Out of the 25 cases, 15 were of Rhesus (Rh HDN, while ABO and other blood groups constituted 6 and 4 HDN cases respectively. First, the neonates′ and mother′s blood samples were subjected to relevant investigations. After that, for neonates having Rh HDN, O Rh negative cells suspended in AB plasma were given, O Rh positive cells suspended in AB plasma were given to ABO HDN; and O positive cells, which were indirect Coomb′s cross-matched compatible with neonates′ and mother′s serum / plasma, suspended in AB plasma were given to the neonates having HDN because of other blood group antibodies. The exchange transfusion (ET was carried out taking all aseptic precautions by Push-Pull technique with double-volume exchange transfusion method. The average post-exchange fall in serum indirect bilirubin was (52.01% in all 25 cases, which was found to be more significant than the previous studies. Looking into the superiority of the exchange transfusion in HDN by reconstituted blood, the reconstituted blood can be modified and supplied as per the requirement and conditions.

  5. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  6. Incompatible blood transfusion: Challenging yet lifesaving in the management of acute severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Sudipta Sekhar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is characterized by the production of autoantibodies directed against red cell antigens. Most patients of AIHA arrive in the emergency or out-patient department (OPD with severe anemia requiring urgent blood transfusion. Here we share our experience of managing these patients with incompatible blood transfusions and suggest the minimal test required to assure patient safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients admitted with severe anemia, diagnosed with AIHA and requiring blood transfusion urgently were included in the study. A series of immunohematological investigations were performed to confirm the diagnosis and issue "best match" packed red blood cells (PRBC to these patients. Results: A total of 167 PRBC units were crossmatched for 14 patients of which 46 units (28% were found to be best match ones and 26 (56.5% of these units were transfused. A mean turn around time of 222 min was observed in issuing the ′best match′ blood. Severe hemolysis was observed in all patients with a median hemoglobin increment of 0.88 g/dl after each unit PRBC transfusion. Conclusion: Decision to transfuse in AIHA should be based on the clinical condition of the patient. No critical patient should be denied blood transfusion due to serological incompatibility. Minimum investigations such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antibody screening and autocontrol should be performed to ensure transfusion safety in patients. All transfusion services should be capable of issuing "best match" PRBCs in AIHA.

  7. Incompatible blood transfusion: Challenging yet lifesaving in the management of acute severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, Rafiq Uz; Safi, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by the production of autoantibodies directed against red cell antigens. Most patients of AIHA arrive in the emergency or out-patient department (OPD) with severe anemia requiring urgent blood transfusion. Here we share our experience of managing these patients with incompatible blood transfusions and suggest the minimal test required to assure patient safety. A total of 14 patients admitted with severe anemia, diagnosed with AIHA and requiring blood transfusion urgently were included in the study. A series of immunohematological investigations were performed to confirm the diagnosis and issue best match packed red blood cells (PRBC) to these patients. A total of 167 PRBC units were crossmatched for 14 patients of which 46 units (28%) were found to be best match ones and 26 (56.5%) of these units were transfused. A mean turn around time of 222 min was observed in issuing the "best match" blood. Severe hemolysis was observed in all patients with a median hemoglobin increment of 0.88 g/dl after each unit PRBC transfusion. Decision to transfuse in AIHA should be based on the clinical condition of the patient. No critical patient should be denied blood transfusion due to serological incompatibility. Minimum investigations such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antibody screening and autocontrol should be performed to ensure transfusion safety in patients. All transfusion services should be capable of issuing "best match" PRBCs in AIHA.

  8. Clostridium sordellii as a Cause of Fatal Septic Shock in a Child with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Rebekah Beyers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium sordellii is a toxin producing ubiquitous gram-positive anaerobe, mainly associated with trauma, soft tissue skin infections, and gynecologic infection. We report a unique case of a new strain of Clostridium sordellii (not present in the Center for Disease Control (CDC database infection induced toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy two-year-old male with colitis-related hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. The patient presented with dehydration, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. He was transferred to the pediatric critical care unit (PICU for initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Due to increased edema and intolerance of PD, he was transitioned to hemodialysis through a femoral vascular catheter. He subsequently developed severe septic shock with persistent leukocytosis and hypotension, resulting in subsequent death. Stool culture confirmed Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7. A blood culture was positively identified for Clostridium sordellii. Clostridium sordelli is rarely reported in children; to our knowledge this is the first case described in a pediatric patient with HUS.

  9. Dehydration at admission increased the need for dialysis in hemolytic uremic syndrome children.

    Balestracci, Alejandro; Martin, Sandra Mariel; Toledo, Ismael; Alvarado, Caupolican; Wainsztein, Raquel Eva

    2012-08-01

    Oligoanuric forms of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) usually have more severe acute stage and higher risk of chronic sequelae than nonoligoanuric forms. During the diarrheal phase, gastrointestinal losses could lead to dehydration with pre-renal injury enhancing the risk of oligoanuric D+ HUS. Furthermore, it had been shown that intravenous volume expansion during the prodromal phase could decrease the frequency of oligoanuric renal failure. Thus, we performed this retrospective study to determine whether dehydration on admission is associated with increased need for dialysis in D+ HUS patients. Data from 137 children was reviewed, which were divided into two groups according to their hydration status at admission: normohydrated (n = 86) and dehydrated (n = 51). Laboratory parameters of the dehydrated patients reflected expected deteriorations (higher urea, higher hematocrit and lower sodium, bicarbonate, and pH) than normohydrated ones. Likewise, the dehydrated group had a higher rate of vomiting and need for dialysis (70.6 versus 40.7 %, p = 0.0007). Our data suggests that dehydration at hospital admission might represent a concomitant factor aggravating the intrinsic renal disease in D+ HUS patients increasing the need for dialysis. Therefore, the early recognition of patients at risk of D+ HUS is encouraged to guarantee a well-hydrated status.

  10. C3 Glomerulopathy and Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Two Important Manifestations of Complement System Dysfunction

    Ravneet Bajwa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The advances in our understanding of the alternative pathway have emphasized that uncontrolled hyperactivity of this pathway causes 2 distinct disorders that adversely impact the kidney. In the so-called atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, renal dysfunction occurs along with thrombocytopenia, anemia, and target organ injury to multiple organs, most commonly the kidney. On the other hand, in the so-termed C3 glomerulopathy, kidney involvement is not associated with thrombocytopenia, anemia, or other system involvement. In this report, we present 2 cases of alternative pathway dysfunction. The 60-year-old female patient had biopsy-proven C3 glomerulopathy, while the 32-year-old female patient was diagnosed with aHUS based on renal dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and normal ADAMTS-13 level. The aHUS patient was successfully treated with the monoclonal antibody (eculizumab for complement blockade. The patient with C3 glomerulopathy did not receive the monoclonal antibody. In this patient, management focused on blood pressure and proteinuria control with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This article focuses on the clinical differences, pathophysiology, and treatment of aHUS and C3 glomerulopathy.

  11. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Late Renal Injury and Changing Incidence—A Single Centre Experience in Canada

    Pierre Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess trends in the incidence of pediatric diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS and document long-term renal sequelae. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with D+ HUS admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Montreal, Canada, from 1976 to 2010. In 2010, we recontacted patients admitted before 2000. Results. Of 337 cases, median age at presentation was 3.01 years (range 0.4–14. Yearly incidence peaked in 1988 and 1994-95, returning to near-1977 levels since 2003. Twelve patients (3.6% died and 19 (5.6% experienced long-term renal failure. Almost half (47% The patients required dialysis. Need for dialysis was the best predictor of renal sequelae, accounting for 100% of severe complications. Of children followed ≥1 year (, mean follow-up years, 19 had severe and 18 mild-to-moderate kidney injury, a total sequelae rate, of 18.6%. Ten years or more after-HUS (, mean follow-up years, 8 (9.4% patients demonstrated serious complications and 22 (25.9% mild-to-moderate, including 14 (16% microalbuminuria: total sequelae, 35.3%. Conclusions. Patients with D+ HUS should be monitored at least 5 years, including microalbuminuria testing, especially if dialysis was required. The cause of the declining incidence of D+HUS is elusive. However, conceivably, improved public health education may have played an important role in the prevention of food-borne disease.

  12. A novel strategy for hemolytic uremic syndrome: successful treatment with thrombomodulin α.

    Honda, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Mineo, Eri; Nagamori, Yukako; Nakamura, Shinya; Bando, Yuki; Ishii, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a life-threatening infectious disease in childhood for which there is no confirmed therapeutic strategy. Endothelial inflammation leading to microthrombosis formation via complement activation is the main pathology of HUS. Thrombomodulin is an endothelial membrane protein that has anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory effects, including the suppression of complement activity. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is a novel therapeutic medicine for disseminated intravascular coagulation. We administered rTM to 3 patients with HUS for 7 days and investigated the outcomes in view of the patients' prognoses, changes in biochemical markers, complications, and adverse effects of rTM. Symptoms and laboratory data improved after initiation of rTM in all 3 patients. Abnormal activation of complements was also dramatically suppressed in 1 patient. The patients recovered without any complications or adverse effects of rTM. They were discharged having normal neurologic status and with no renal dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of rTM being used to treat HUS. These case reports show the positive effect of rTM in patients with HUS. Randomized controlled studies should be performed to assess the efficacy and safety of rTM for children with HUS.

  13. ADAMTS-13 level in children with severe diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: Unmasking new association

    Naglaa A Khalifa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 leads to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Few studies have reported reduced activity of ADAMTS-13 in patients with atypical and typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. We hypothesized that ADAMTS-13 deficiency might play a role in the pathogenesis of severe HUS. This study aimed to evaluate the ADAMTS-13 level in severe typical HUS. This prospective case–control study was carried out in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit and Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University from February 2013 to February 2014. The study included 15 consecutive children with typical HUS as well as 15 healthy children as a control group. Routine laboratory investigations were performed. Assessment of serum ADAMTS-13 level was performed using the Quantikine human ADAMTS-13 ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Nonparametric values were expressed as median and range, and the median of two groups was tested by Mann–Whitney test. The serum ADAMTS-13 level was significantly lower in HUS patients when compared to the control group (P < 0.05. There were significant negative correlations between ADAMTS-13 level and duration on dialysis, as well as serum urea and creatinine. Furthermore, there were significant positive correlations between serum ADAMTS-13 level and both hemoglobin level and platelet count. Our study suggests that the ADAMTS-13 level was decreased in children with severe typical HUS and its deficiency correlated with disease severity.

  14. Hematologic outcomes after total splenectomy and partial splenectomy for congenital hemolytic anemia.

    Englum, Brian R; Rothman, Jennifer; Leonard, Sarah; Reiter, Audra; Thornburg, Courtney; Brindle, Mary; Wright, Nicola; Heeney, Matthew M; Jason Smithers, C; Brown, Rebeccah L; Kalfa, Theodosia; Langer, Jacob C; Cada, Michaela; Oldham, Keith T; Scott, J Paul; St Peter, Shawn D; Sharma, Mukta; Davidoff, Andrew M; Nottage, Kerri; Bernabe, Kathryn; Wilson, David B; Dutta, Sanjeev; Glader, Bertil; Crary, Shelley E; Dassinger, Melvin S; Dunbar, Levette; Islam, Saleem; Kumar, Manjusha; Rescorla, Fred; Bruch, Steve; Campbell, Andrew; Austin, Mary; Sidonio, Robert; Blakely, Martin L; Rice, Henry E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the hematologic response to total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) in children with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) or sickle cell disease (SCD). The Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia (SICHA) consortium registry collected hematologic outcomes of children with CHA undergoing TS or PS to 1 year after surgery. Using random effects mixed modeling, we evaluated the association of operative type with change in hemoglobin, reticulocyte counts, and bilirubin. We also compared laparoscopic to open splenectomy. The analysis included 130 children, with 62.3% (n=81) undergoing TS. For children with HS, all hematologic measures improved after TS, including a 4.1g/dl increase in hemoglobin. Hematologic parameters also improved after PS, although the response was less robust (hemoglobin increase 2.4 g/dl, p<0.001). For children with SCD, there was no change in hemoglobin. Laparoscopy was not associated with differences in hematologic outcomes compared to open. TS and laparoscopy were associated with shorter length of stay. Children with HS have an excellent hematologic response after TS or PS, although the hematologic response is more robust following TS. Children with SCD have smaller changes in their hematologic parameters. These data offer guidance to families and clinicians considering TS or PS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hematologic outcomes after total splenectomy and partial splenectomy for congenital hemolytic anemia☆☆☆

    Englum, Brian R.; Rothman, Jennifer; Leonard, Sarah; Reiter, Audra; Thornburg, Courtney; Brindle, Mary; Wright, Nicola; Heeney, Matthew M.; Smithers, C. Jason; Brown, Rebeccah L.; Kalfa, Theodosia; Langer, Jacob C.; Cada, Michaela; Oldham, Keith T.; Scott, J. Paul; St Peter, Shawn D; Sharma, Mukta; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Nottage, Kerri; Bernabe, Kathryn; Wilson, David B.; Dutta, Sanjeev; Glader, Bertil; Crary, Shelley E.; Dassinger, Melvin S.; Dunbar, Levette; Islam, Saleem; Kumar, Manjusha; Rescorla, Fred; Bruch, Steve; Campbell, Andrew; Austin, Mary; Sidonio, Robert; Blakely, Martin L.; Rice, Henry E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to define the hematologic response to total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) in children with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) or sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods The Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia (SICHA) consortium registry collected hematologic outcomes of children with CHA undergoing TS or PS to 1 year after surgery. Using random effects mixed modeling, we evaluated the association of operative type with change in hemoglobin, reticulocyte counts, and bilirubin. We also compared laparoscopic to open splenectomy. Results The analysis included 130 children, with 62.3% (n = 81) undergoing TS. For children with HS, all hematologic measures improved after TS, including a 4.1 g/dl increase in hemoglobin. Hematologic parameters also improved after PS, although the response was less robust (hemoglobin increase 2.4 g/dl, p < 0.001). For children with SCD, there was no change in hemoglobin. Laparoscopy was not associated with differences in hematologic outcomes compared to open. TS and laparoscopy were associated with shorter length of stay. Conclusion Children with HS have an excellent hematologic response after TS or PS, although the hematologic response is more robust following TS. Children with SCD have smaller changes in their hematologic parameters. These data offer guidance to families and clinicians considering TS or PS. PMID:26613837

  16. Investigation of an outbreak of bloody diarrhea complicated with hemolytic uremic syndrome

    Otar Chokoshvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July–August 2009, eight patients with bloody diarrhea complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS were admitted to hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. We started active surveillance in two regions for bloody diarrhea and post-diarrheal HUS. Of 25 case-patients who developed HUS, including the initial 8 cases, half were ⩾15 years old, 67% were female and seven (28% died. No common exposures were identified. Among 20 HUS case-patients tested, Shiga toxin was detected in the stools of 2 patients (one with elevated serum IgG titers to several Escherichia coli serogroups, including O111 and O104. Among 56 persons with only bloody diarrhea, we isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O104:H4 from 2 and Shigella from 10; 2 had serologic evidence of E. coli O26 infection. These cases may indicate a previously unrecognized burden of HUS in Georgia. We recommend national reporting of HUS and improving STEC detection capacity.

  17. Sortilin Fragments Deposit at Senile Plaques in Human Cerebrum

    Xia Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variations in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p family have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p member sortilin at senile plaques (SPs in aged and AD human cerebrum. Sortilin changes were characterized in postmortem brains with antibodies against the extracellular and intracellular C-terminal domains. The two antibodies exhibited identical labeling in normal human cerebrum, occurring in the somata and dendrites of cortical and hippocampal neurons. The C-terminal antibody also marked extracellular lesions in some aged and all AD cases, appearing as isolated fibrils, mini-plaques, dense-packing or circular mature-looking plaques. Sortilin and β-amyloid (Aβ deposition were correlated overtly in a region/lamina- and case-dependent manner as analyzed in the temporal lobe structures, with co-localized immunofluorescence seen at individual SPs. However, sortilin deposition rarely occurred around the pia, at vascular wall or in areas with typical diffuse Aβ deposition, with the labeling not enhanced by section pretreatment with heating or formic acid. Levels of a major sortilin fragment ~15 kDa, predicted to derive from the C-terminal region, were dramatically elevated in AD relative to control cortical lysates. Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum.

  18. Highlighting Interleukin-36 Signalling in Plaque Psoriasis and Pustular Psoriasis.

    Furue, Kazuhisa; Yamamura, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Gaku; Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Kadono, Takafumi; Furue, Masutaka

    2018-01-12

    Plaque psoriasis and pustular psoriasis are overlapping, but distinct, disorders. The therapeutic response to biologics supports the pivotal role of the tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-?)/ interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Recently, functional activation of the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) was discovered to be another driving force in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This was first highlighted by the discovery that a loss-of-function mutation of the IL-36R antagonist (IL-36Ra) causes pustular psoriasis. Although the TNF-?/IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis and the functional activation of IL-36R are fundamentally involved in plaque psoriasis and pustular psoriasis, respectively, the 2 pathways are closely related and mutually reinforced, resulting in full-blown clinical manifestations. This review summarizes current topics on how IL-36 agonists (IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?) signal IL-36R, the pathological expression of IL-36 agonists and IL-36Ra in plaque and pustular psoriatic lesions, and the cross-talk between the TNF-?/IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis and the functional activation of IL-36R in the epidermal milieu.

  19. Identification and analysis of senile plaques using nuclear microscopy

    Landsberg, J P; Roberts, J M; Grime, G W; Watt, F [Nuclear Physics Lab., Oxford (UK); McDonald, B [Dept. of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (UK) Nuffield Dept. of Pathology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (UK) MRC Neuroanatomical Unit, Dept. of Pharmacology, Oxford (UK)

    1991-03-01

    The senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles which form part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease have come under increasing scrutiny over the last decade. In particular, much work has been done investigating their elemental composition. The suggestion that 75-100% of tensile plaques with mature cores contain aluminium and silicon, probably in the form of alumino-silicates, has led to increasing speculation about the role of these elements in the disease. SPM preliminary studies suggest that aluminium and silicon are not present in as great a proportion of senile plaques as presented in the literature. The situation is complicated by the fact that airborn and solubilised salts of aluminium and silicon may be encountered as contamination. They have been found, for example, in granular or crystalline form in the Aristar grade organic laboratory reagents used for staining the tissue, and in the pure pioloform used to back the samples. The latest results from scans of stained and unstained Alzheimer tissue are presented. (orig.).

  20. Identification and analysis of senile plaques using nuclear microscopy

    Landsberg, J.P.; Roberts, J.M.; Grime, G.W.; Watt, F.; McDonald, B.

    1991-01-01

    The senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles which form part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease have come under increasing scrutiny over the last decade. In particular, much work has been done investigating their elemental composition. The suggestion that 75-100% of tensile plaques with mature cores contain aluminium and silicon, probably in the form of alumino-silicates, has led to increasing speculation about the role of these elements in the disease. SPM preliminary studies suggest that aluminium and silicon are not present in as great a proportion of senile plaques as presented in the literature. The situation is complicated by the fact that airborn and solubilised salts of aluminium and silicon may be encountered as contamination. They have been found, for example, in granular or crystalline form in the Aristar grade organic laboratory reagents used for staining the tissue, and in the pure pioloform used to back the samples. The latest results from scans of stained and unstained Alzheimer tissue are presented. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of sup 125 I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Episcleral plaques containing {sup 125}I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged.

  2. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers.

  3. SU-E-T-15: A Comparison of COMS and EP917 Eye Plaque Applicators Using Different Radionuclides

    Aryal, P; Molloy, JA [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of plaque design and radionuclides on eye plaque dosimetry. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-particle Code version 6 (MCNP6) was used for radiation transport simulations. The 14 mm and 16 mm diameter COMS plaques and the model EP917 plaque were simulated using brachytherapy seeds containing I-125, Pd-103, and Cs-131 radionuclides. The origin was placed at the scleral inner surface. The central axis (CAX) doses of both COMS plaques at −1 mm, 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, and 22.6 mm were compared to the model EP917 plaque. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were also created for both COMS plaques for the tumor and outer sclera then compared to results for the model EP917 plaque. Results: For all radionuclides, the EP917 plaque delivered higher dose (max 343%) compared to the COMS plaques, except for the 14 mm COMS plaque with Cs-131 at 1 mm and 2 mm depths from outer sclera surface. This could be due to source design. For all radionuclides, the 14 mm COMS plaque delivered higher doses compared to the 16 mm COMS plaque for the depths up to 5 mm. Dose differences were not significant beyond depths of 10 mm due to ocular lateral scatter for the different plaque designs. Tumor DVHs for the 16 mm COMS plaque with Cs-131 provided better dose homogeneity and conformity compared to other COMS plaques with I-125 and Pd-103. Using Pd-103, DVHs for the 16 mm COMS plaque delivered less dose to outer sclera compared to other plaques. Conclusion: This study identified improved tumor homogeneity upon considering radionuclides and plaque designs, and found that scleral dose with the model EP917 plaque was higher than for the 16 mm COMS plaque for all the radionuclides studied.

  4. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in equine serum after natural infection or vaccination

    Joó, K.; Bakonyi, T.; Szenci, O.; Ferenczi, E.; Barna, M.; Malik, P.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Fehér, O.; Kutasi, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0165-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Haemagglutination-inhibition test * Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay * Plaque reduction neutralization test * Vaccination * Natural infection Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2016

  5. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  6. Association between diabetes and different components of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as measured by coronary multidetector computed tomography.

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Schlett, Christopher L; Rogers, Ian S; Truong, Quynh A; Toepker, Michael; Donnelly, Patrick; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in the presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as detected by coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. We compared coronary atherosclerotic plaques (any plaque, calcified [CAP], non-calcified [NCAP, and mixed plaque [MCAP

  7. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-U Doença hemolítica do recém-nascido devido a anti-U

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-U is a rare red blood cell alloantibody that has been found exclusively in blacks. It can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn and hemolytic transfusion reactions. We describe the case of a female newborn presenting a strongly positive direct antiglobulin test due to an IgG antibody in cord blood. Anti-U was recovered from cord blood using acid eluate technique. Her mother presented positive screening of antibodies with anti-U identified at delivery. It was of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and showed a titer of 32. Monocyte monolayer assay showed moderate interaction of Fc receptors with maternal serum with a positive result (3.1%. The newborn was treated only with 48 hours of phototherapy for mild hemolytic disease. She recovered well and was discharged on the 4th day of life. We conclude that whenever an antibody against a high frequency erythrocyte antigen is identified in brown and black pregnant women, anti-U must be investigated.Anti-U é um aloanticorpo eritrocitário raro detectado exclusivamente em negros, que pode causar doença hemolítica do recém-nascido e reações transfusionais hemolíticas. Relatamos o caso de um recém-nascido, de sexo feminino, que apresentou teste de antiglobulina direto fortemente positivo, dirigido a um anticorpo IgG em sangue de cordão umbilical. Anti-U foi identificado por técnica de eluição ácida. A mãe apresentava pesquisa de anticorpos irregulares positiva com anticorpo anti-U, de subclasses IgG1 e IgG3, título 32, identificado ao nascimento. O ensaio de monocamada de monócitos apresentou resultado positivo (3.1%, mostrando uma interação moderada de receptores Fc com soro materno. O recém-nascido foi tratado somente por fototerapia durante 48 horas para uma doença hemolítica leve. A criança recuperou-se bem e teve alta médica no quarto dia de vida. Concluímos que quando um anticorpo contra um antígeno eritrocitário de alta freqüência for identificado em gestantes negras e pardas

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. HDL mimetic CER-001 targets atherosclerotic plaques in patients.

    Zheng, Kang He; van der Valk, Fleur M; Smits, Loek P; Sandberg, Mara; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Baron, Rudi; Barbaras, Ronald; Keyserling, Constance; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Nell, Thijs E; Vugts, Danielle J; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-01

    Infusion of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics aimed at reducing atherosclerotic burden has led to equivocal results, which may relate in part to the inability of HDL mimetics to adequately reach atherosclerotic lesions in humans. This study evaluated delivery of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) containing HDL mimetic CER-001 in carotid plaques in patients. CER-001 was radiolabeled with the long-lived positron emitter zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) to enable positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. Eight patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease (>50% stenosis) received a single infusion of unlabeled CER-001 (3 mg/kg), co-administered with 10 mg of (89)Zr-labeled CER-001 (18 MBq). Serial PET/CT imaging and contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) were performed to evaluate targeted delivery of CER-001. One hour after infusion, mean plasma apoA-I levels increased by 9.9 mg/dL (p = 0.026), with a concomitant relative increase in the plasma cholesterol efflux capacity of 13.8% (p CER-001 expressed as target-to-background ratio (TBRmax) increased significantly 24 h after infusion, and remained increased up to 48 h (TBRmax t = 10 min: 0.98; t = 24 h: 1.14 (p = 0.001); t = 48 h: 1.12 (p = 0.007)). TBRmax was higher in plaque compared with non-plaque segments (1.18 vs. 1.05; p CER-001 increases plasma apoA-I concentration and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. Our data support the concept that CER-001 targets plaque regions in patients, which correlates with plaque contrast enhancement. These clinical findings may also guide future nanomedicine development using HDL particles for drug delivery in atherosclerosis. Netherlands Trial Registry - NTR5178. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5178. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers

    Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm 2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 ke

  11. Atherosclerosis and the vulnerable plaque - imaging. Part II

    Worthley, S.G.; Helft, G.; Zaman, A.G.; Fuster, V.; Badimon, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease and its thrombotic complications remain the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Western society. In Australia, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for one in every 2.4 (41%) deaths and is the leading single cause of mortality. The crucial final common process for the conversion of a non-occlusive, often clinically silent, atherosclerotic lesion to a potentially fatal condition is plaque disruption. The mortality associated with atherosclerotic disease relates to the acute coronary syndromes, including acute myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina pectoris and sudden cardiac death. There is substantial clinical, experimental and post-mortem evidence demonstrating the role played by acute thrombosis upon a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque in the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerotic plaque composition, rather than the stenotic severity, appears to be central in determining risk of both plaque rupture and subsequent thrombogenicity. In particular, a large lipid core and a thin fibrous cap render an atherosclerotic lesion susceptible or vulnerable to these complications. We are currently limited in our ability to identify accurately patients at risk for an acute coronary event. The armamentarium of diagnostic investigations, both non-invasive and invasive, currently clinically available is only able to provide us with data related to the stenotic severity of a coronary artery. The non-invasive testing includes stress-induced (exercise or pharmacologic) ischaemic changes in electrical repolarisation, wall motion or myocardial radioactive-tracer uptake. The invasive test of coronary angiography, although the current gold standard for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease, provides us with no data about the composition of the atherosclerotic lesion. However, the vast majority of acute coronary events involve a non-critically stenosed atherosclerotic lesion, and thus with currently available means of

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Attenuated Plaques Detected by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS studies have demonstrated that hypoechoic plaque with deep ultrasound attenuation despite absence of bright calcium is common in acute coronary syndrome. Such “attenuated plaque” may be an IVUS characteristic of unstable lesion. Methods. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT in 104 patients with unstable angina to compare lesion characteristics between IVUS-detected attenuated plaque and nonattenuated plaque. Results. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque was observed in 41 (39% patients. OCT-detected lipidic plaque (88% versus 49%, <0.001, thin-cap fibroatheroma (48% versus 16%, <0.001, plaque rupture (44% versus 11%, <0.001, and intracoronary thrombus (54% versus 17%, <0.001 were more often seen in IVUS-detected attenuated plaques compared with nonattenuated plaques. Conclusions. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque has many characteristics of unstable coronary lesion. The presence of attended plaque might be an important marker of lesion instability.

  13. Natural history of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults: a descriptive correlational study.

    Jones, Deborah J; Munro, Cindy L; Grap, Mary Jo

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults. Accumulation of dental plaque and bacterial colonisation of the oropharynx is associated with a number of systemic diseases including ventilator associated pneumonia. Data were collected from mechanically ventilated critically ill adults (n=137), enrolled within 24 hours of intubation. Dental plaque, counts of decayed, missing and filled teeth and systemic antibiotic use was assessed on study days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Dental plaque averages per study day, tooth type and tooth location were analysed. Medical respiratory, surgical trauma and neuroscience ICU's of a large tertiary care centre in the southeast United States. Plaque: all surfaces >60% plaque coverage from day 1 to day 7; molars and premolars contained greatest plaque average >70%. Systemic antibiotic use on day 1 had no significant effect on plaque accumulation on day 3 (p=0.73). Patients arrive in critical care units with preexisting oral hygiene issues. Dental plaque tends to accumulate in the posterior teeth (molars and premolars) that may be hard for nurses to visualise and reach; this problem may be exacerbated by endotracheal tubes and other equipment. Knowing accumulation trends of plaque will guide the development of effective oral care protocols. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Multiple yellow plaques assessed by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Inami, Shigenobu; Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Waxman, Sergio; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Seimiya, Koji; Takano, Masamichi; Uemura, Ryota; Sano, Junko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2008-03-01

    Multiple angioscopic yellow plaques are associated with diffuse atherosclerotic plaque, and may be prevalent in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), so in the present study the yellow plaques in the coronary arteries of patients with MI was evaluated using quantitative colorimetry, and compared with those of patients with stable angina (SA). In the recorded angioscopic images of 3 coronary vessels in 29 patients (15 patients with MI, 14 with SA), yellow plaques were determined as visually yellow regions with b* value >0 (yellow color intensity) measured by the quantitative colorimetric method. A total of 90 yellow plaques were identified (b* =19.35+/-8.3, 3.05-45.35). Yellow plaques were significantly more prevalent in 14 (93%) of 15 culprit lesions of MI as compared with 8 (57%) of 14 of SA (p=0.03). In non-culprit segments, yellow plaques were similarly prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI and 11 (79%) with SA (p=0.65). Overall, multiple (> or =2) yellow plaques were prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI, similar to the 10 (71%) with SA (p=0.38). The number of yellow plaques was significantly higher in patients with MI (3.8+/-1.9) than in those with SA (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.03). The present study suggests that patients with MI tend to have diffuse atherosclerotic plaque in their coronary arteries.

  15. Efficacy of D- red blood cell transfusion and rituximab therapy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia with anti-D and panreactive autoantibodies arising after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Minakawa, Keiji; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Saito, Shunichi; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Ogawa, Kazuei; Nollet, Kenneth E; Ikeda, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-17

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is caused by autoantibodies to red blood cells (RBCs), which can be panreactive and/or specific to Rh/other blood group antigens. We report a severe case of AIHA after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) due to autoanti-D triggered by reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A combined strategy of D- RBC transfusion and administration of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) resolved the hemolysis. A 33-year-old male underwent allogeneic BMT from an ABO-identical and HLA-matched unrelated male donor. Five months later, while having mild chronic graft-versus-host disease, he manifested AIHA, with a hemoglobin (Hb) level of 5.1 g/dL on AIHA Day 2 (Posttransplant Day 156) and was refractory to D+ RBCs, with a Hb level of 2.4 g/dL on AIHA Day 6. Anti-D-like autoantibodies (titer 1280, subclass immunoglobulin G 1 , monocyte monolayer assay 28.7%) and panreactive (titer 40) were identified. Changing the RBC transfusion strategy to D- increased his Hb level to 6.7 g/dL on Day 10. Administration of anti-CD20 MoAb mitigated EBV-related B-cell proliferation and reduced anti-D autoantibody titer to 320 by Day 16 with normalized Hb concentration after 6 months. In severe AIHA, when standard treatment and regular RBC transfusions are ineffective, transfusion of RBCs lacking the target antigen(s) of autoantibodies and administration of anti-CD20 MoAb should be considered. © 2018 AABB.

  16. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities.

    Barrett, Hilary E; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (μX-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, μX-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study

  17. No calcium-fluoride-like deposits detected in plaque shortly after a sodium fluoride mouthrinse.

    Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

    2010-01-01

    Plaque 'calcium-fluoride-like' (CaF(2)-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 microg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2), centrifuged, and the recovered plaque fluid combined and analyzed using microelectrodes. The plaque mass from aliquot 1 was retained. The plaque mass from aliquot 2 was extracted several times with a solution having the same fluoride, calcium and pH as the plaque fluid in order to extract the plaque CaF(2)-like deposits. The total fluoride in both aliquots was then determined. In a second experiment, the extraction completeness was examined by applying the above procedure to in vitro precipitates containing known amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits. Nearly identical fluoride concentrations were found in both plaque aliquots. The extraction of the CaF(2)-like precipitates formed in vitro removed more than 80% of these deposits. The results suggest that either CaF(2)-like deposits were not formed in plaque or, if these deposits had been formed, they were rapidly lost. The inability to form persistent amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits in plaque may account for the relatively rapid loss of plaque fluid fluoride after the use of conventional fluoride dentifrices or rinses. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Can high frequency ultrasound and MRI diagnose malignant atheromatous plaque in vitro?

    Yoshida, Shigeo; Nieminen, M.S.; Paananen, T.; Kahri, A.

    1995-01-01

    It remains a vital clinical issue how to diagnose malignant atheromatous plaques consisting of ulcerative plaque and hemorrhagic plaque, which are potential risks for thrombosis and the arterial spasm. This study proposes further investigations to develop methods in order to detect this type of lesions by echocardiography. In this study, we tested high frequency (7.5 MHz) US and 1.0 T MRI (Tl weighted SE, STIR; short time inversion recovery sequence, and Tl weighted fat suppression technique) for their precision in the diagnosis of atheromatous plaque as malignant or benign in postmortem human aorta. Ten hemorrhagic plaques were imaged as heterogeneous echo-pattern in the shoulder of plaques covered with high-echo capsule with US; however, these findings were also obtained from 2 of 16 non-hemorrhagic plaques. With TlSE, hemorrhagic plaques were revealed as mixed areas of reduced intensity and high intensity which were differentiated from fatty deposition with Tl weighted fat suppression technique. Ulcerative plaques were revealed as concave shaped plaques and diagnosed correctly with both methods. US was superior to MRI from the viewpoints of examination time and measuring wall thickness. US indicated intimal plus medial thickness of hemorrhagic plaque and non-hemorrhagic plaque at 4.3+1.1 mm and 3.0+1.0 mm (p<0.05) respectively. MRI was vulnerable to artifacts and its image was poorer in quality due to its lower resolution: however, probably because of its superior ability to distinguish fatty deposition from hemorrhage, MRI ultimately enabled more accurate diagnosis than US, as long as its image was fairly clear. The overall accuracies were 80% with US and 85.7% with MRI as confirmed by histological tests. From these results, the careful analysis of the two images obtained from US and MRI enables clinical diagnosis of malignant atheromatous plaques. (author)

  19. Quantitative assessment of changes in carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional ultrasonography and non-gated magnetic resonance plaque imaging

    Yamaguchi, Mao; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Katsura, Noriyuki; Ohura, Kazumasa; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent, is reported to induce the regression of atherosclerotic changes. However, its effects on carotid plaques are unknown. Hence, we quantitatively investigated the changes that occur within carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) and non-gated magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging. We prospectively examined 16 consecutive patients with carotid stenosis. 3D-US and T1-weighted MR plaque imaging were performed at baseline and 6 months after initiating cilostazol therapy (200 mg/day). We measured the volume and grayscale median (GSM) of the plaques from 3D-US data. We also calculated the contrast ratio (CR) of the carotid plaque against the adjacent muscle and areas of the intraplaque components: fibrous tissue, lipid, and hemorrhage components. The plaque volume on US decreased significantly (median at baseline and 6 months, 0.23 and 0.21 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = 0.03). In the group exhibiting a plaque volume reduction of more than 10%, GSM on US increased significantly (24.8 and 71.5, respectively; p = 0.04) and CR on MRI decreased significantly (1.13 and 1.04, respectively; p = 0.02). In this group, in addition, the percent area of the fibrous component on MRI increased significantly (68.6% and 79.4%, respectively; p = 0.02), while those of the lipid and hemorrhagic components decreased (24.9% and 20.5%, respectively; p = 0.12) (1.0% and 0.0%, respectively; p = 0.04). There were no substantial changes in intraplaque characteristics in either US or MRI in the other group. 3D-US and MR plaque imaging can quantitatively detect changes in the size and composition of carotid plaques during cilostazol therapy. (orig.)

  20. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  1. Management of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children and adolescents: A single center experience

    Nazan Sarper

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present and discuss the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA. Materials and Methods: The medical records of all patients (n=19 diagnosed in a tertiary hematology center between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.Results: Median age at diagnosis of AIHA was 5 years (range: 4 months-17 years. In all, 13 patients had primary (idiopathic AIHA, whereas 2 had primary Evans Syndrome (ES, 2 had autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS+ES, and 1 had Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS+AIHA. Among the 13 primary idiopathic AIHA patients, 9 recovered following a 4-8-week course of prednisolone treatment without relapses, whereas 3 patients required a longer course of prednisolone. One AIHA patient that was very resistant to prednisolone recovered after cyclosporine A was added to the treatment. All patients with primary idiopathic AIHA were in remission for a median of 3 years (range: 4 months-10 years at the time this manuscript was written. Among the patients with primary ES, 2 had relapses similar to the ALPS patients. Splenectomy was performed in 1 primary ES patient, who at the time this report was written was also in remission. One ALPS patient required the addition of mycophenolate mofetil due to prednisolone resistance. The WAS patient was treatment resistant and died due to septicemia.Conclusions: Primary AIHA in pediatric patients generally has an acute onset and good response to corticosteroids. Primary or secondary ES has a chronic or relapsing course, and treatment may require other immunosuppressive agents in addition to corticosteroids. Complications of splenectomy must not be underestimated in patients with underlying immunodeficiency. AIHA often causes considerable morbidity and mortality in WAS.

  2. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

    Fabron, A; Moreira, G; Bordin, J O

    1999-01-07

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are frequently transfused with red blood cells (RBC). Recently we reported that the calculated risk of RBC alloimmunization per transfussed unit in Brazilian patients with SCA is 1.15%. We describe a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with SCA. A 35-year-old Brazilian female with homozygous SCA was admitted for a program of partial exchange transfusion prior to cholecystectomy. Her blood group was O RhD positive and no atypical RBC alloantibody was detected using the indirect antiglobulin technique. Pre-transfusional hemoglobin (Hb) was 8.7 g/dL and isovolumic partial exchange transfusion was performed using 4 units of ABO compatible packed RBC. Five days after the last transfusion she developed generalized joint pain and fever of 39 degrees C. Her Hb level dropped from 12.0 g/dL to 9.3 g/dL and the unconjugated bilirrubin level rose to 27 mmol/L. She was jaundiced and had hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 48.7% HbS, 46.6% HbA1, 2.7% HbA2, and 2.0% HbF. The patient's extended RBC phenotype was CDe, K-k+, Kp(a-b+), Fy(a-b-), M+N+s+, Le(a+b-), Di(a-). An RBC alloantibody with specificity to the Rh system (anti-c, titer 1:16.384) was identified by the indirect antiglobulin test. The Rh phenotype of the RBC used in the last packed RBC transfusion was CcDEe. The patient was discharged, asymptomatic, 7 days after admission.

  3. Priming dose of phenylhydrazine protects against hemolytic and lethal effects of 2-butoxyethanol

    Palkar, Prajakta S.; Philip, Binu K.; Reddy, Ramesh N.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    Protection against a high dose of a toxicant by prior exposure to another toxicant is called heteroprotection. Our objective was to establish a heteroprotection model in RBCs. Female Sprague Dawley rats treated with an LD90 dose of 2-butoxyethanol (BE, 1500 mg/kg in water, 5 ml/kg po) 14 days after priming with 0.9% NaCl suffered 90% mortality by 15 days, whereas all rats receiving the LD90 dose of BE 14 days after priming with phenylhydrazine (PHZ, 125 mg/kg in 0.9% NaCl, 3 ml/kg po) survived. Hematocrit decreased from normal 45% to 24% by day 3 after PHZ priming and improved thereafter. Increasing the time interval between the priming and LD90 dose to 21 days abolished the heteroprotection. RBCs obtained on days 7 and 14 after PHZ priming unlike those on day 21 were resilient to the hemotoxic metabolite of BE, butoxyacetic acid (BAA). Unaltered hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities upon PHZ priming suggested that bioactivation of BE to BAA was unaffected. Lower renal (6 and 12 h) and hepatic (12 h) BAA levels and 3 fold higher excretion of BAA in PHZ-primed rat urine suggested a protective role of toxicokinetics. Higher erythropoietin, reticulocytes, and resiliency of PHZ-primed rat RBCs indicated that newly formed RBCs are resilient to hemolytic BAA. The antioxidant levels in the PHZ-primed rat RBCs did not indicate a protective role in heteroprotection. In conclusion, the resistance of PHZ-primed rats against BE-induced hemotoxicity and lethality is mediated by a combination of altered toxicokinetics, robust erythropoiesis, and resiliency of new RBCs

  4. [The importance of antenatal immunoprophylaxis for prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn].

    Starcević, Mirta; Mataija, Marina; Sović, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Matijević, Ratko; Kukuruzović, Monika

    2011-03-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a consequence of maternal alloimmunization against fetal red blood cell antigens. Alloimmunization against D antigen from Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is particularly important because of its strong immunogenicity. During the last few decades, the introduction of RhD prophylaxis by postpartum administration of anti-D immunoglobulin to RhD negative women, now improved with antenatal prophylaxis, has led to a dramatic decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity from HDFN. However, severe cases have not disappeared, mostly due to prophylaxis failure. In our case, inappropriate prenatal care during the first pregnancy in an RhD negative mother resulted in primary immunization. In the next pregnancy with an RhD positive child, the mother's secondary immune response was extremely strong and led to early development of severe fetal anemia. The fetus survived thanks to the treatment with intrauterine transfusions (IUT), but they caused suppression of erythropoiesis, which lasted for months after birth. The long lasting, late anemia was treated with repeated postnatal red cell transfusions and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Despite the severity of HDFN in our case, the short-term outcome is good. The boy has normal growth until now, but due to the possibility of an adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, this case requires continuous follow up. It also reminds of the fact that RhD alloimmunization remains an actual problem in daily routine. Antenatal prophylaxis is a crucial step in quality care of those who are at a risk of HDFN.

  5. Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome post Kidney Transplantation: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Sami eAlasfar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is a rare disorder characterized by over-activation and dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Its estimated prevalence is 1-2 per million. The disease is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy, which causes anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. aHUS has more severe course compared to typical (Infection-induced HUS and is frequently characterized by relapses that leads to end stage renal disease (ESRD. For a long time, kidney transplantation for these patients was contraindicated because of high rate of recurrence and subsequent renal graft loss. The post-kidney transplantation recurrence rate largely depends on the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. However, over the past several years, advancements in the understanding and therapeutics of aHUS have allowed successful kidney transplantation in these patients. Eculizumab, which is a complement C5 antibody that inhibits complement factor 5a (C5a and subsequent formation of the membrane attack complex, has been used in prevention and treatment of post-transplant aHUS recurrence. In this paper, we present two new cases of aHUS patients who underwent successful kidney transplantation in our center with the use of prophylactic and maintenance eculizumab therapy that have not been published before. The purpose of reporting these two cases is to emphasize the importance of using eculizumab as a prophylactic therapy to prevent aHUS recurrence post transplant in high-risk patients. We will also review the current understanding of the genetics of aHUS, the pathogenesis of its recurrence after kidney transplantation, and strategies for prevention and treatment of post-transplant aHUS recurrence.

  6. End-stage renal disease from hemolytic uremic syndrome in the United States, 1995-2010.

    Sexton, Donal J; Reule, Scott; Solid, Craig A; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Collins, Allan J; Foley, Robert N

    2015-10-01

    Management of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has evolved rapidly, and optimal treatment strategies are controversial. However, it is unknown whether the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from HUS has changed, and outcomes on dialysis in the United States are not well described. We retrospectively examined data for patients initiating maintenance renal replacement therapy (RRT) (n = 1,557,117), 1995-2010, to define standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and outcomes of ESRD from HUS) (n = 2241). Overall ESRD rates from HUS in 2001-2002 were 0.5 cases/million per year and were higher for patients characterized by age 40-64 years (0.6), ≥65 years (0.7), female sex (0.6), and non-Hispanic African American race (0.7). Standardized incidence ratios remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.05) between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 in the overall population. Compared with patients with ESRD from other causes, patients with HUS were more likely to be younger, female, white, and non-Hispanic. Over 5.4 years of follow-up, HUS patients differed from matched controls with ESRD from other causes by lower rates of death (8.3 per 100 person-years in cases vs. 10.4 in controls, P < 0.001), listing for renal transplant (7.6 vs. 8.6 per 100 person-years, P = 0.04), and undergoing transplant (6.9 vs. 9 per 100 person-years, P < 0.001). The incidence of ESRD from HUS appears not to have risen substantially in the last decade. However, given that HUS subtypes could not be determined in this study, these findings should be interpreted with caution. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Acute dialysis-associated peritonitis in children with D+ hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Adragna, Marta; Balestracci, Alejandro; García Chervo, Laura; Steinbrun, Silvina; Delgado, Norma; Briones, Liliana

    2012-04-01

    Acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred therapy for renal replacement in children with post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS), but peritonitis remains a frequent complication of this procedure. We reviewed data from 149 patients with D+ HUS who had undergone acute PD with the aim of determining the prevalence and risk factors for the development of peritonitis. A total of 36 patients (24.2%) presented peritonitis. The median onset of peritonitis manifestations was 6 (range 2-18) days after the initiation of dialysis treatment, and Gram-positive microorganisms were the predominant bacterial type isolated (15/36 patients). The patients were divided into two groups: with or without peritonitis, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that a longer duration of the oligoanuric period, more days of dialysis, catheter replacement, stay in the intensive care unit, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated to the development of peritonitis. The multivariate analysis, controlled by duration of PD, identified the following independent risk factors for peritonitis: catheter replacement [p = 0.037, odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.73], stay in intensive care unit (p = 0.0001, OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.65-4.19), and hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.0076, OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.91). Based on these findings, we conclude that the optimization of the aseptic technique during catheter manipulation and early nutritional support are targets for the prevention of peritonitis, especially in critically ill patients.

  8. Reconfiguration of NKT Cell Subset Compartment Is Associated with Plaque Development in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Cai, Lun; Yu, Lei; Liu, Sa; Li, Tongxun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Cui, Wei; Du, Jie; Zhang, Qinyi

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that immune cells play an important role in carotid atherosclerotic plaque development. In this study, we assessed the association of 6 different natural killer T (NKT) cell subsets, based on CD57 and CD8 expression, with risk for development of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Molecular expression by peripheral NKT cells was evaluated in 13 patients with high-risk CAP and control without carotid stenosis (n = 18). High-risk CAP patients, compared with healthy subjects, had less percentage of CD57+CD8- NKT cell subsets (8.64 ± 10.15 versus 19.62 ± 10.8 %; P = 0.01) and CD57+CD8int NKT cell subsets (4.32 ± 3.04 versus 11.87 ± 8.56 %; P = 0.002), with a corresponding increase in the CD57-CD8high NKT cell subsets (33.22 ± 11.87 versus 18.66 ± 13.68 %; P = 0.007). Intracellular cytokine staining showed that CD8+ NKT cell subset was the main cytokine-producing NKT cell. Cytokine production in plasma was measured with Bio-Plex assay. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, IL-17, IP-10) were significantly higher in CAP patients as compared to that from controls. These data provide evidence that NKT cell subset compartment reconfiguration in patients with carotid stenosis seems to be associated with the occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and suggest that both pathogenic and protective NKT cell subsets exist.

  9. Connexin 30 expression and frequency of connexin heterogeneity in astrocyte gap junction plaques increase with age in the rat retina.

    Hussein Mansour

    Full Text Available We investigated age-associated changes in retinal astrocyte connexins (Cx by assaying Cx numbers, plaque sizes, protein expression levels and heterogeneity of gap junctions utilizing six-marker immunohistochemistry (IHC. We compared Wistar rat retinal wholemounts in animals aged 3 (young adult, 9 (middle-aged and 22 months (aged. We determined that retinal astrocytes have gap junctions composed of Cx26, -30, -43 and -45. Cx30 was consistently elevated at 22 months compared to younger ages both when associated with parenchymal astrocytes and vascular-associated astrocytes. Not only was the absolute number of Cx30 plaques significantly higher (P<0.05 but the size of the plaques was significantly larger at 22 months compared to younger ages (p<0.05. With age, Cx26 increased significantly initially, but returned to basal levels; whereas Cx43 expression remained low and stable with age. Evidence that astrocytes alter connexin compositions of gap junctions was demonstrated by the significant increase in the number of Cx26/Cx45 gap junctions with age. We also found gap junctions comprised of 1, 2, 3 or 4 Cx proteins suggesting that retinal astrocytes use various connexin protein combinations in their gap junctions during development and aging. These data provides new insight into the dynamic and extensive Cx network utilized by retinal astrocytes for communication within both the parenchyma and vasculature for the maintenance of normal retinal physiology with age. This characterisation of the changes in astrocytic gap junctional communication with age in the CNS is crucial to the understanding of physiological aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Serum zinc, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles: findings from the Nun Study.

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A; Markesbery, W R

    1995-11-13

    Zinc appears to have a role in binding amyloid precursor protein in vitro, but it is not known whether zinc plays a role in senile plaque formation in vivo in humans. Serum zinc concentrations were available from 12 sisters who died in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Fasting serum zinc concentrations, determined approximately 1 year before death, showed moderate to strong negative correlations with senile plaque counts in seven brain regions. In all brain regions combined, the age-adjusted negative correlations with serum zinc were statistically significant for total senile plaques and diffuse plaques, and suggestive for neuritic plaques. Thus serum zinc in the normal range may be associated with low senile plaque counts in the elderly.

  11. Optical measurement of acidification of human dental plaque in vitro

    Graham, Jasmine Y.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    A pH measurement of oral biofilms is helpful for monitoring the impact of acidogenic bacteria in the caries process. Demineralization of dental enamel is closely related to the time dependent pH of human plaque. Therefore, providing a means to easily measure the local pH of biofilms is a useful clinical diagnostic in the arsenal of caries prevention tools. Optical measurement methods of plaque metabolism can use intrinsic fluorescence or extrinsic fluorescence from added dyes. Autofluorescence spectral features of human oral biofilms at green (500 nm) and red (634 nm) fluorescence wavelengths using 405 nm excitation did not demonstrate a spectral or intensity shift between neutral and acidic conditions. Chlorin e6, an ingredient in chlorophyllin food supplement, exhibited a spectral and intensity shift of fluorescence emission in buffered solutions, but this quantitative pH-dependence was not transferable to a human plaque environment. Finally, a ratiometric quantitative pH measure was achieved by exciting (405 nm laser) a mixture of two dyes, fluorescein and rhodamine B. This two-dye mixture produced two strong fluorescent bands centered at 515 nm (fluorescein) and 580 nm (rhodamine B), where the 515 nm band was pH sensitive and the 580 nm band served as a pH insensitive reference. This dual-dye fluorescence ratio exhibited a linear response over pH 7 to 5 in human oral biofilms during a sugar challenge. We have explored methods to use non-contact, optical measures of local acidity levels in difficult to access dental locations such as occlusal fissures using various pH sensitive fluorescent dye systems.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques promotes platelet activation. Correlation with ischaemic events.

    Lenti, Massimo; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Pompili, Marcella; de Rango, Paola; Conti, Valentina; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Momi, Stefania; Corazzi, Teresa; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gresele, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Purified active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is able to promote platelet aggregation. We aimed to assess the role of MMP-2 expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in the platelet-activating potential of human carotid plaques and its correlation with ischaemic events. Carotid plaques from 81 patients undergoing endarterectomy were tested for pro-MMP-2 and TIMP-2 content by zymography and ELISA. Plaque extracts were incubated with gel-filtered platelets from healthy volunteers for 2 minutes before the addition of a subthreshold concentration of thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) and aggregation was assessed. Moreover, platelet deposition on plaque extracts immobilised on plastic coverslips under high shear-rate flow conditions was measured. Forty-three plaque extracts (53%) potentiated platelet aggregation (+233 ± 26.8%), an effect prevented by three different specific MMP-2 inhibitors (inhibitor II, TIMP-2, moAb anti-MMP-2). The pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio of plaques potentiating platelet aggregation was significantly higher than that of plaques not potentiating it (3.67 ± 1.21 vs 1.01 ± 0.43, p<0.05). Moreover, the platelet aggregation-potentiating effect, the active-MMP-2 content and the active MMP-2/pro-MMP-2 ratio of plaque extracts were significantly higher in plaques from patients who developed a subsequent major cardiovascular event. In conclusion, atherosclerotic plaques exert a prothrombotic effect by potentiating platelet activation due to their content of MMP-2; an elevated MMP-2 activity in plaques is associated with a higher rate of subsequent ischaemic cerebrovascular events.

  13. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    A Kumar; R Hedge; U Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on saliv...

  14. View of Commemorative plaque left on moon at Hadley-Apennine landing site

    1971-01-01

    A close-up view of a commemorative plaque left on the Moon at the Hadley-Apennine landing site in memory of 14 NASA astronauts and USSR cosmonauts, now deceased. Their names are inscribed in alphabetical order on the plaque. The plaque was stuck in the lunar soil by Astronauts David R. Scott and James B. Irwin during their Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. The tin, man-like object represents the figure of a fallen astronaut/cosmonaut.

  15. Molecular pathology in vulnerable carotid plaques: correlation with [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)

    Graebe, M; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Borgwardt, L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is recognised as an inflammatory disease, and new diagnostic tools are warranted to evaluate plaque inflammatory activity and risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated [18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in vulnerable carotid plaques visualised by positron emission...... tomography (PET). Uptake was correlated to quantitative gene expression of known markers of inflammation and plaque vulnerability. METHODS: Ten patients with recent transient ischaemic attack and carotid artery stenosis (>50%) underwent combined FDG-PET and computed tomography angiography (CTA) the day...

  16. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. Materials and methods First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h af...

  17. Solid phase assays

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  18. Radiation related complications after ruthenium plaque radiotherapy of uveal melanoma

    Summanen, P.; Immonen, I.; Kivela, T.; Tommila, P.; Tarkkanen, A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Meilahti Clinic; Heikkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    1996-08-01

    The aims were to analyse radiation related complications and secondary enucleation after irradiation of malignant uveal melanoma with ruthenium-106 plaques. A series of 100 consecutive eyes irradiated in 1981-91 was analysed using the life table method and the Cox proportional hazards model. The 3 and 5 year probabilities of being without radiation cataract were 73% and 63%, without neovascular glaucoma 91% and 81%, without vitreous haemorrhage 83% and 74%, without radiation maculopathy 85% and 70%, and without radiation optic neuropathy 90% and 88%, respectively. (Author).

  19. Radiation related complications after ruthenium plaque radiotherapy of uveal melanoma

    Summanen, P.; Immonen, I.; Kivela, T.; Tommila, P.; Tarkkanen, A.; Heikkonen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aims were to analyse radiation related complications and secondary enucleation after irradiation of malignant uveal melanoma with ruthenium-106 plaques. A series of 100 consecutive eyes irradiated in 1981-91 was analysed using the life table method and the Cox proportional hazards model. The 3 and 5 year probabilities of being without radiation cataract were 73% and 63%, without neovascular glaucoma 91% and 81%, without vitreous haemorrhage 83% and 74%, without radiation maculopathy 85% and 70%, and without radiation optic neuropathy 90% and 88%, respectively. (Author)

  20. Visual Loss Induced by Adalimumab Used for Plaque Psoriasis

    Norman Saffra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old Caucasian male with severe plaque psoriasis without joint involvement was initiated on adalimumab therapy. Shortly thereafter he presented to the emergency room with acute loss of vision in the right eye. A comprehensive systemic workup was instituted which included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with and without gadolinium of the brain and orbits. MRI revealed findings that were consistent with CNS demyelination and retrobulbar optic neuritis. Immediate cessation of adalimumab was instituted without any other systemic therapy. Complete return of vision occurred within 6 weeks. No additional psoriatic or neurologic treatment was instituted, and the patient has remained stable now for 14 months.