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  1. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  2. Hemoglobin

    1993-03-08

    affinity, which is less at low levels of hemoglobin saturation, increases markedly as fractional saturation increases. Thus, high affinity for 02 at... diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), and carbon dioxide (Co 2). Since they are linked to 02 binding, they are called oxygen-linked effectors. The oxygen...hemoglobin molecule because of the negative charge of the ions. 2,3- Diphosphoglycerate is a molecule formed during the breakdown of sugar in normal human

  3. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  4. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  5. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  6. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  7. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  8. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (<150 g/L baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (<138 g/L baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations.

  9. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Mahmood, Faiza; Aandahl, Astrid; Knutsen, Teresa Risopatron; Llohn, Abid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF) elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females) who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations. PMID:26380265

  10. The Relationship Between Hemoglobin Level and Intellectual Function.

    Munro, Nancy

    In a study to learn whether or not poor nutrition, as indicated by low hemoglobin levels, affects intelligence and behavior, 113 Head Start children in Missoula, Montana took part. Group testing with the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and individual testing with the Wechsler and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  11. Anemia and hemoglobin levels among Indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil.

    Ferreira, Aline Alves; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Souza, July Anne Mendonça de; Welch, James R; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of anemia, mean hemoglobin levels, and the main nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors among Xavante children in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A survey was conducted with children under 10 years of age in two indigenous Xavante communities within the Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve. Hemoglobin concentration levels, anthropometric measurements, and socioeconomic/demographic data were collected by means of clinical measurements and structured interviews. The cut-off points recommended by the World Health Organization were used for anemia classification. Linear regression analyses with hemoglobin as the outcome and Poisson regression with robust variance and with the presence or absence of anemia as outcomes were performed (95%CI). Lower mean hemoglobin values were observed in children under 2 years of age, without a significant difference between sexes. Anemia was observed among 50.8% of children overall, with the highest prevalence among children under 2 years of age (77.8%). Age of the child was inversely associated with the occurrence of anemia (adjusted PR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.38-0.95) and mean hemoglobin values increased significantly with age. Greater height-for-age z-score values reduced the probability of having anemia by 1.8 times (adjusted PR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.34-1.00). Presence of another child with anemia within the household increased the probability of the occurrence of anemia by 52.9% (adjusted PR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.16-3.09). Elevated levels of anemia among Xavante children reveal a disparity between this Indigenous population and the national Brazilian population. Results suggest that anemia is determined by complex and variable relationships between socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and biological factors.

  12. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive

  13. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  14. Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Jeffrey Nadelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study is to determine if HbA1c levels are a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. 200 unique patients referred for liver transplantation at University of Tennessee/Methodist University Transplant Institute with a HbA1c result were included. Three glucose levels prior to the “measured” A1c (MA1c were input into an HbA1c calculator from the American Diabetes Association website to determine the “calculated” A1c (CA1c. The differences between MA1c and CA1c levels were computed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, difference of 1.5. Results. 97 (49% patients had hemoglobin A1c of less than 5%. Discordance between calculated and measured HbA1c of >0.5% was seen in 47% (n=94. Higher level of discordance of greater than >1.5 was in 12% of patients (n=24. Hemoglobin was an independent predictor for higher discordance (odds ratio 0.77 95%, CI 0.60–0.99, and p value 0.04. HbA1c was an independent predictor of occurrence of HCC (OR 2.69 955, CI 1.38–5.43, and p value 0.008. Conclusion. HbA1c is not a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, especially in those with severe anemia.

  15. Hemoglobin A1c Levels Predicts Acute Kidney Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Non-Diabetic Patients

    Cevdet Ugur Kocogulları

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elevated hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes mellitus have been known as a risk factor for acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels in non-diabetics and acute kidney injury is under debate. We aimed to investigate the association of preoperative hemoglobin A1c levels with acute kidney injury in non-diabetic patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: 202 non-diabetic patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine <1.4 mg/dl who underwent isolated coronary bypass were analyzed. Hemoglobin A1c level was measured at the baseline examination. Patients were separated into two groups according to preoperative Hemoglobin A1c level. Group 1 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of < 5.6% and Group 2 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of ≥ 5.6%. Acute kidney injury diagnosis was made by comparing baseline and postoperative serum creatinine to determine the presence of predefined significant change based on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO definition. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 19 (10.5% patients after surgery. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 3.6% in Group 1 and 16.7% in Group 2. Elevated baseline hemoglobin A1c level was found to be associated with acute kidney injury (P=0.0001. None of the patients became hemodialysis dependent. The cut off value for acute kidney injury in our group of patients was 5.75%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in non-diabetics, elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c level may be associated with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Prospective randomized studies in larger groups are needed to confirm these results.

  16. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients. ... Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2011 ..... This study was designed to determine the relationship .... mobiles and devices.

  17. The impact of hemoglobin levels on patient and graft survival in renal transplant recipients.

    Moore, Jason

    2008-08-27

    It remains unclear whether low hemoglobin levels are associated with increased mortality or graft loss after renal transplantation. This study assessed the relationship of hemoglobin levels with patient and graft survival in 3859 patients with functioning renal transplants more than 6-months posttransplantation.

  18. Hemoglobin levels and new-onset heart failure in the community

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Postmus, Douwe; Voors, Adriaan A.; Brouwers, Frank P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Hillege, Hans L.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    Background In established cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), low hemoglobin levels are associated with unfavorable outcome. Whether hemoglobin levels are associated with the development of new-onset HF in the population is unclear. This study sought to investigate the relationship

  19. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  20. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur.

    Nagra, Navraj S; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored perioperatively. Analysis found a statistically and clinically significant mean drop in hemoglobin of 31.1 g/L over time from pre-operatively (D0) to day-5 post-operatively (p hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p = 0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-h post-operative period (D0 to day-1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at day-2. Relying on the day-1 hemoglobin could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused, and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring. Level IV Prognostic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the ...

  2. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  3. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur

    Navraj S. Nagra; Dmitri van Popta; Sigrid Whiteside; Edward M. Holt

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored pe...

  4. The relationship between Type D personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure.

    Nina Kupper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore, psychological distress characterized by such alterations may adversely affect hemoglobin in HF. The association between hemoglobin and Type D personality and affective symptomatology in the context of HF is poorly understood. AIM: To examine the relationship between Type D personality and affective symptomatology with hemoglobin levels at inclusion and 12-month follow-up, controlling for relevant clinical factors. METHODS: Plasma levels of hemoglobin and creatinine were assessed in 264 HF patients at inclusion and at 12-month follow-up. Type D personality and affective symptomatology were assessed at inclusion. RESULTS: At inclusion, hemoglobin levels were similar for Type D and non-Type D HF patients (p = .23, and were moderately associated with affective symptomatology (r = -.14, p = .02. Multivariable regression showed that Type D personality (β = -.15; p = .02, was independently associated with future hemoglobin levels, while controlling for renal dysfunction, gender, NYHA class, time since diagnosis, BMI, the use of angiotensin-related medication, and levels of affective symptomatology. Change in renal function was associated with Type D personality (β = .20 and hemoglobin at 12 months (β = -.25. Sobel mediation analysis showed significant partial mediation of the Type D - hemoglobin association by renal function deterioration (p = .01. Anemia prevalence increased over time, especially in Type D patients. Female gender, poorer baseline renal function, deterioration of renal function and a longer HF history predicted the observed increase in anemia prevalence over time, while higher baseline hemoglobin was protective

  5. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  6. Hemoglobin Levels Across the Pediatric Critical Care Spectrum: A Point Prevalence Study.

    Hassan, Nabil E; Reischman, Diann E; Fitzgerald, Robert K; Faustino, Edward Vincent S

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevailing hemoglobin levels in PICU patients, and any potential correlates. Post hoc analysis of prospective multicenter observational data. Fifty-nine PICUs in seven countries. PICU patients on four specific days in 2012. None. Patients' hemoglobin and other clinical and institutional data. Two thousand three hundred eighty-nine patients with median age of 1.9 years (interquartile range, 0.3-9.8 yr), weight 11.5 kg (interquartile range, 5.4-29.6 kg), and preceding PICU stay of 4.0 days (interquartile range, 1.0-13.0 d). Their median hemoglobin was 11.0 g/dL (interquartile range, 9.6-12.5 g/dL). The prevalence of transfusion in the 24 hours preceding data collection was 14.2%. Neonates had the highest hemoglobin at 13.1 g/dL (interquartile range, 11.2-15.0 g/dL) compared with other age groups (p < 0.001). The percentage of 31.3 of the patients had hemoglobin of greater than or equal to 12 g/dL, and 1.1% had hemoglobin of less than 7 g/dL. Blacks had lower median hemoglobin (10.5; interquartile range, 9.3-12.1 g/dL) compared with whites (median, 11.1; interquartile range, 9.0-12.6; p < 0.001). Patients in Spain and Portugal had the highest median hemoglobin (11.4; interquartile range, 10.0-12.6) compared with other regions outside of the United States (p < 0.001), and the highest proportion (31.3%) of transfused patients compared with all regions (p < 0.001). Patients in cardiac PICUs had higher median hemoglobin than those in mixed PICUs or noncardiac PICUs (12.3, 11.0, and 10.6 g/dL, respectively; p < 0.001). Cyanotic heart disease patients had the highest median hemoglobin (12.6 g/dL; interquartile range, 11.1-14.5). Multivariable regression analysis within diagnosis groups revealed that hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with the geographic location and history of complex cardiac disease in most of the models. In children with cancer, none of the variables tested correlated with patients' hemoglobin levels

  7. The relationship between Type D Personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure

    Kupper, N.; Pelle, A.J.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore,

  8. Serum-free Erythroid Differentiation for Efficient Genetic Modification and High-Level Adult Hemoglobin Production.

    Uchida, Naoya; Demirci, Selami; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Raines, Lydia N; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2018-06-15

    In vitro erythroid differentiation from primary human cells is valuable to develop genetic strategies for hemoglobin disorders. However, current erythroid differentiation methods are encumbered by modest transduction rates and high baseline fetal hemoglobin production. In this study, we sought to improve both genetic modification and hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells in vitro . To model therapeutic strategies, we transduced human CD34 + cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lentiviral vectors and compared erythropoietin-based erythroid differentiation using fetal-bovine-serum-containing media and serum-free media. We observed more efficient transduction (85%-93%) in serum-free media than serum-containing media (20%-69%), whereas the addition of knockout serum replacement (KSR) was required for serum-free media to promote efficient erythroid differentiation (96%). High-level adult hemoglobin production detectable by electrophoresis was achieved using serum-free media similar to serum-containing media. Importantly, low fetal hemoglobin production was observed in the optimized serum-free media. Using KSR-containing, serum-free erythroid differentiation media, therapeutic adult hemoglobin production was detected at protein levels with β-globin lentiviral transduction in both CD34 + cells and PBMCs from sickle cell disease subjects. Our in vitro erythroid differentiation system provides a practical evaluation platform for adult hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells following genetic manipulation.

  9. Hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion in patients with sepsis in Internal Medicine Departments.

    Muady, Gassan Fuad; Bitterman, Haim; Laor, Arie; Vardi, Moshe; Urin, Vitally; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2016-10-13

    Acute reduction in hemoglobin levels is frequently seen during sepsis. Previous studies have focused on the management of anemia in patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care units (ICU's), including aggressive blood transfusion aiming to enhance tissue oxygenation. To study the changes in hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis in the setting of Internal Medicine (IM) units, and their correlation to survival. Observational prospective study. We recorded hemoglobin values upon admission and throughout the first week of hospital stay in a consecutive cohort of septic patients admitted to IM units at a community hospital, the patients were enrolled into a prospective registry. Data on blood transfusions was also collected, we examined the correlation between hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis and survival, the effect of blood transfusion was also assessed. Eight hundred and fifteen patients (815) with sepsis were enrolled between February 2008 to January 2009. More than 20 % of them had hemoglobin levels less than 10g/dL on admission, a rate that was doubled during the first week of sepsis. Overall, 68 (8.3 %) received blood transfusions, 14 of them (20.6 %) due to bleeding. Typically, blood transfusion was given to older patients with a higher rate of malignancy and lower hemoglobin levels. While hemoglobin concentration on admission had strong correlation with in-hospital mortality (O.R-0.83 [95 % C.I. 0.74-0.92], blood transfusion was not found to be an independent predicting factor for mortality. Anemia is very common in sepsis. While hemoglobin level on admission exhibit independent correlation with survival, blood transfusion do not.

  10. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  11. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Pblood are seen regularly in normal...... (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8...

  12. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  13. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of declining versus stable hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors

    Nasserinejad, Kazem; van Rosmalen, Joost; van den Hurk, Katja; Baart, Mireille; Hoekstra, Trynke; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; de Kort, Wim

    2015-01-01

    A too short recovery time after blood donation results in a gradual depletion of iron stores and a subsequent decline in hemoglobin (Hb) levels over time. This decline in Hb levels may depend on individual, unobserved characteristics of the donor. We used a data set of 5388 Dutch blood donors from

  15. Prevalence and determinants of declining versus stable hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors

    Nasserinejad, K.; van Rosmalen, J.; van den Hurk, K.; Baart, M.; Hoekstra, T.; Rizopoulos, D.; Lesaffre, E.; Kort, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background A too short recovery time after blood donation Results in a gradual depletion of iron stores and a subsequent decline in hemoglobin (Hb) levels over time. This decline in Hb levels may depend on individual, unobserved characteristics of the donor. Study Design and Methods We used a data

  16. Prediction of hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors: how to model donation history

    Baart, A.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Atsma, F.; Moons, K.G.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, prediction models for hemoglobin (Hb) deferral risk have been developed. These models consider the previous Hb level plus change in Hb. Here, we investigated if the performance of models could be improved by considering more information on Hb level history. STUDY DESIGN AND

  17. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  18. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the prediction of complicated Crohn's disease behavior--a cohort study.

    Rieder, Florian; Paul, Gisela; Schnoy, Elisabeth; Schleder, Stephan; Wolf, Alexandra; Kamm, Florian; Dirmeier, Andrea; Strauch, Ulrike; Obermeier, Florian; Lopez, Rocio; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Rogler, Gerhard; Klebl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Markers that predict the occurrence of a complicated disease behavior in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can permit a more aggressive therapeutic regimen for patients at risk. The aim of this cohort study was to test the blood levels of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) for the prediction of complicated CD behavior and CD related surgery in an adult patient population. Blood samples of 62 CD patients of the German Inflammatory Bowel Disease-network "Kompetenznetz CED" were tested for the levels of Hgb and Hct prior to the occurrence of complicated disease behavior or CD related surgery. The relation of these markers and clinical events was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and adjusted COX-proportional hazard regression models. The median follow-up time was 55.8 months. Of the 62 CD patients without any previous complication or surgery 34% developed a complication and/or underwent CD related surgery. Low Hgb or Hct levels were independent predictors of a shorter time to occurrence of the first complication or CD related surgery. This was true for early as well as late occurring complications. Stable low Hgb or Hct during serial follow-up measurements had a higher frequency of complications compared to patients with a stable normal Hgb or Hct, respectively. Determination of Hgb or Hct in complication and surgery naïve CD patients might serve as an additional tool for the prediction of complicated disease behavior.

  19. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  20. Hemoglobin levels and 30-day mortality in patients after myocardial infarction

    Lipsic, E; van der Horst, ICC; Voors, AA; van der Meer, P; Nijsten, MWN; van Gilst, WH; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Zijlstra, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure. However, the effect of hemoglobin levels on short-term CV mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains unclear. Methods: In a

  1. Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Nonhuman Apes at Moderate Altitudes: A Comparison with Humans.

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wilfong, DeeAnn

    2016-12-01

    Mortola, Jacopo P. and DeeAnn Wilfong. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of nonhuman apes at moderate altitudes: a comparison with humans. High Alt Med Biol. 17:323-335, 2016.-We asked to what extent the hematologic response (increase in hematocrit [Hct] and in blood hemoglobin concentration [Hb]) of humans to altitude hypoxia was shared by our closest relatives, the nonhuman apes. Data were collected from 29 specimens of 7 species of apes at 2073 m altitude (barometric pressure Pb = 598 mm Hg); additional data originated from apes located at a lower altitude (1493 m, Pb = 639 mm Hg). The human altitude profiles of Hct and Hb between sea level and 3000 m were constructed from a compilation of literature sources that (all combined) comprised data sets of 10,000-12,000 subjects for each gender. These human data were binned for 0-250 m altitude (sea level) and for each 500 m of progressively higher altitudes. Values of Hb and Hct of both men and women were significantly higher than at sea level at the 1500 bin (1250-1750 m); hence, the altitude threshold for the human hematological responses must be between 1000 and 1500 m. In the nonhuman apes, no increase in Hct or Hb was apparent at 1500 m; at 2000 m, the increase was significant only for the Hb of females. At either altitude in the group of nonhuman apes, the increase in Hct was much less than in humans, and that of Hb was significantly less at 1500 m. We conclude that lack of, or minimal, hematopoietic response to moderate altitude can occur in mammalian species that are not genetically adapted to high altitudes. Polycythemia is not a common response to altitude hypoxia and, at least at moderate altitudes, the degree of the human response may represent the exception among apes rather than the rule.

  2. HbA1c levels in individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants.

    Tavares, Ricardo Silva; Souza, Fábio Oliveira de; Francescantonio, Isabel Cristina Carvalho Medeiros; Soares, Weslley Carvalho; Mesquita, Mauro Meira

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants and compare the results of this test with those of a control group. This was an experimental study based on the comparison of HbA1c tests in two different populations, with a test group represented by individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants (AS and AC) and a control group consisting of people with electrophoretic profile AA. The two populations were required to meet the following inclusion criteria: Normal levels of fasting glucose, hemoglobin, urea and triglycerides, bilirubin > 20 mg/dL and non-use of acetylsalicylic acid. 50 heterozygous subjects and 50 controls were evaluated between August 2013 and May 2014. The comparison of HbA1c levels between heterozygous individuals and control subjects was performed based on standard deviation, mean and G-Test. The study assessed a test group and a control group, both with 39 adults and 11 children. The mean among heterozygous adults for HbA1c was 5.0%, while the control group showed a rate of 5.74%. Heterozygous children presented mean HbA1c at 5.11%, while the controls were at 5.78%. G-Test yielded p=0.93 for children and p=0.89 for adults. Our study evaluated HbA1c using ion exchange chromatography resins, and the patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants showed no significant difference from the control group.

  3. The effects of higher hemoglobin levels on mortality and hospitalization in hemodialysis patients.

    Ofsthun, Norma; Labrecque, John; Lacson, Eduardo; Keen, Marcia; Lazarus, J Michael

    2003-05-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia of chronic renal failure provided the opportunity to correct anemia in this patient population. The optimal target hemoglobin for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial. A large database of hemodialysis patients was analyzed to determine whether increasing hemoglobin level above the current Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) recommendations was associated with increased risk of mortality and hospitalization. A longitudinal study of hemodialysis patients in Fresenius Medical Care-North America facilities was performed. Selection was restricted to patients in the census for 6 consecutive months from July 1, 1998 through June 30, 2000. Patient mean hemoglobin and other covariates measured during the initial 6 months were related to survival, number of hospitalizations, and length of stay over the subsequent 6 months of follow-up. Patients with hemoglobin /=13 g/dL had an adjusted length of stay of 9.6 days compared to 10.9 days for those with 11 12 g/dL.

  4. Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A(1C) Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways

    Soranzo, Nicole; Sanna, Serena; Wheeler, Eleanor; Gieger, Christian; Radke, Doerte; Dupuis, Josee; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Stolerman, Elliot; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ricketts, Sally L.; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Willenborg, Christina; Wright, Benjamin; Altshuler, David; Arking, Dan; Balkau, Beverley; Barnes, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehm, Bernhard; Bonnefond, Amelie; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Boinstein, Stefan R.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Burnett-Miller, Mary Susan; Campbell, Harry; Cao, Antonio; Chambers, John; Clark, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Coresh, Josef; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dei, Mariano; Deloukas, Panos; Doering, Angela; Egan, Josephine M.; Elosua, Roberto; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita; Fox, Caroline S.; Franklin, Christopher; Zhao, Jing Hua; van der Hout, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA(1c). We aimed to

  5. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    Castillo Nieves; García-García Patricia; Rivero Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa Alejandro; Macía Manuel; Getino María; Méndez María; García-Pérez Javier; Navarro-González Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialy...

  6. EFFECT OF ROSELLE (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA ON CHANGES IN HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ANEMIA TAKING IRON SUPPLEMENT

    Rif’atun Nisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is one of the most common disorders in pregnant women in Indonesia. The Government has made efforts to overcome this problem, however, the rate of anemic mothers remains high. Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa is considered able to increase the hemoglobin levels in pregnant mothers. Objective: To analyze the effect of Rosella flower extract (Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the increase of Hemoglobin level in pregnant women with anemia receiving Fe tablet. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest-posttest control group design conducted in November - December 2016 in the working area of Tlogosari Wetan Community Health Center. Forty-two participants were selected using accidental sampling, which 21 assigned in the experiment and control group. All samples were pregnant women in the second trimester suffering from anemia and receiving iron tablets. Hemoglobin levels were measured using hematology analyzer in laboratory. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Paired t-test obtained p-value 0.00 (<0.05, indicated that there was an increase of hemoglobin levels in both experiment and control group. The mean increase of hemoglobin levels in the control group was 0.61 gr and in the experiment group was 1.08. The hemoglobin levels in the experiment group were higher than the levels in the control group. Independent t-test obtained p-value 0.000 (<0.05 indicating that there was a significant difference of mean of hemoglobin levels between the control group and the treatment group. Conclusion: The consumption of rosella extract combined with Fe tablet showed a significant increase of hemoglobin levels compared with the consumption of Fe tablet alone. Therefore, it is suggested for midwife to use the result of this research as a evidence practice through counseling for pregnant mother about utilization of rosella extract that can increase hemoglobin level in pregnant woman with anemia.

  7. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  8. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  9. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MIXED JUICE MUNG BEAN AND GUAVA FOR INCREASING HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

    Nurul Huda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in a year. One of therapy in curing cancer is chemotherapy. But unfortunately chemotherapy has some negative effects such as decreasing the level of hemoglobin (Hb. Mung bean that contain a lot of iron and Guava which is rich of vitamin C for iron absorption are useful in cancer patient with chemotherapy. Therefore, a mixture of both is believed in increasing hemoglobin level significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mixed juice mung bean and guava for increasing hemoglobin level in experiment and control group of cancer patient with chemotherapy.This research used Quasi Experiment design with pretest-posttest design control group approach. The total number of respondent was 30 chosen by purposive sampling method. Results of this study showed hemoglobin level in experiment group 14.07 and 10.42 in control group with p value (0,000 < α (0,05. It can be concluded that a mixture juice mung beans and guava effective for increasing hemoglobin level in cancer patient with chemotherapy. This research suggests that this mixture can be an option for nursing intervention in increasing hemoglobin level for cancer patient after receiving chemotherapy.

  10. The relationship between hemoglobin level and the type 1 diabetic nephropathy in Anhui Han's patients.

    Jiang, Jun; Lei, Lan; Zhou, Xiaowan; Li, Peng; Wei, Ren

    2018-02-20

    Recent studies have shown that low hemoglobin (Hb) level promote the progression of chronic kidney disease. This study assessed the relationship between Hb level and type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Anhui Han's patients. There were a total of 236 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and (T1DM) seen between January 2014 and December 2016 in our centre. Hemoglobin levels in patients with DN were compared with those without DN. The relationship between Hb level and the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was examined by Spearman's correlational analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The binary logistic multivariate regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlated factors for type 1 DN, calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95%confidence interval (CI). The predicting value of Hb level for DN was evaluated by area under receiver operation characteristic curve (AUROC) for discrimination and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test for calibration. The average Hb levels in the DN group (116.1 ± 20.8 g/L) were significantly lower than the non-DN group (131.9 ± 14.4 g/L) , P levels were independently correlated with the urinary ACR in multiple stepwise regression analysis. The logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the Hb level (OR: 0.936, 95% CI: 0.910 to 0.963, P level (Hb level for DN. The value of P was 0.593 in Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. In Anhui Han's patients with T1DM, the Hb level is inversely correlated with urinary ACR and DN. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical relevance of hemoglobin level in cervical cancer patients administered definitive radiotherapy

    Serkies, Krystyna; Badzio, Andrzej; Jassem, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    The prognostic impact of pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) level and its changes during definitive radiotherapy was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis in the group of 453 FIGO IB-IIIB cervical cancer patients. Pretreatment anemia (Hb 12 g/dl; p∼0.001). Baseline Hb =12 g/dl was also associated with longer disease-free survival and improved local control. Declining Hb level during radiotherapy predicted for impaired 5-year disease-free survival and local control probability. In multivariate analysis, low pretreatment Hb level remained associated with worse overall and disease-free survival, whereas adverse impact of declining Hb level on outcome was not observed. With regard to other clinical factors, stage and tumor extension (uni- or bilateral parametrium involvement for Stage III) were the only independent determinants of prognosis

  12. Impact of preoperative levels of hemoglobin and albumin on the survival of pancreatic carcinoma.

    Ruiz-Tovar, J; Martín-Pérez, E; Fernández-Contreras, M E; Reguero-Callejas, M E; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer presents the worst survival rates of all neoplasms. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment, but is associated with high complication rates and outcome is bad even in those resected cases. Therefore, candidates amenable for resection must be carefully selected. Identification of prognostic factors preoperatively may help to improve the treatment of these patients, focusing on individually management based on the expected response. We perform a retrospective study of 59 patients with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma between 1999 and 2003, looking for possible prognostic factors. We analyze 59 patients, 32 males and 27 females with a mean age of 63.8 years. All the patients were operated, performing palliative surgery in 32% and tumoral resection in 68%, including pancreaticoduodenectomies in 51% and distal pancreatectomy in 17%. Median global survival was 14 months (Range 1-110).We observed that preoperative levels of hemoglobin under 12 g/dl (p = 0.0006) and serum albumina under 2.8 g/dl (p = 0.021) are associated with worse survival. Preoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumina may be prognostic indicators in pancreatic cancer.

  13. Effect of altitude on oxygen binding by hemoglobin and on organic phosphate levels

    Lenfant, Claude; Torrance, John; English, Eugenia; Finch, Clement A.; Reynafarje, Cesar; Ramos, Jose; Faura, Jose

    1968-01-01

    The relationship between oxygen dissociation and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in the red cell has been studied in subjects moving from low to high altitude and vice versa. Within 24 hr following the change in altitude there was a change in hemoglobin affinity for oxygen; this modification therefore represents an important rapid adaptive mechanism to anoxia. A parallel change occurred in the organic phosphate content of the red cell. While this study does not provide direct evidence of a cause-effect relationship, the data strongly suggest that with anoxia, the observed rise in organic phosphate content of the red cell is responsible for increased availability of oxygen to tissues. Images PMID:5725278

  14. Investigation of the effect of hemoglobin F and A levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Erdöl, Hidayet; Hacioglu, Dilek; Kola, Mehmet; Türk, Adem; Aslan, Yakup

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of hemoglobin F (HbF) and hemoglobin A (HbA) levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. In this prospective study, blood samples were collected from the side of the heel of 49 premature infants at postnatal months 0, 1, 2, and 3. HbF and HbA levels were measured in all samples and analyzed statistically. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed regarding development of ROP, blood transfusion, and HbF and HbA levels. A total of 49 infants were included. The mean gestational age of the premature infants was 30.9 ± 2.7 weeks (range, 25-35 weeks); mean birth weight, 1542 ± 582 g (range, 520-3240 g). Of the 49 premature infants, stage 1 ROP or above developed in 26 (53%). Mean HbF levels were lower at postnatal months 1 and 2 in premature infants with ROP compared to those without ROP (P = 0.013 and 0.02, respectively); however, mean HbA levels were higher in the infants with ROP than the others (P = 0.034 and 0.029, respectively). Analysis of covariance that ignored transfusion revealed no difference between the means of Hb variants in the infants with and without ROP (P = 0.572 and 0.486). Blood transfusion significantly altered the levels of HbF and HbA in premature infants, and Hb variants have no direct effect on development of ROP. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do blood tests cause anemia in hospitalized patients? The effect of diagnostic phlebotomy on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Bagai, Akshay; Ebidia, Albert; Detsky, Allan S; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether phlebotomy contributes to changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in hospitalized general internal medicine patients. Retrospective cohort study. General internal medicine inpatient service at a tertiary care hospital. All adult patients discharged from the Toronto General Hospital's internal medicine service between January 1 and June 30, 2001. A total of 989 hospitalizations were reviewed and 404 hospitalizations were included in our analysis. Mean (SD) hemoglobin and hematocrit changes during hospitalization were 7.9 (12.6) g/L (Phemoglobin and hematocrit were predicted by the volume of phlebotomy, length of hospital stay, admission hemoglobin/hematocrit value, age, Charlson comorbidity index, and admission intravascular volume status. The volume of phlebotomy remained a strong predictor of drop in hemoglobin and hematocrit after adjusting for other predictors using multivariate analysis (Phemoglobin and hematocrit of 7.0 g/L and 1.9%, respectively. Phlebotomy is highly associated with changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels for patients admitted to an internal medicine service and can contribute to anemia. This anemia, in turn, may have significant consequences, especially for patients with cardiorespiratory diseases. Knowing the expected changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit due to diagnostic phlebotomy will help guide when to investigate anemia in hospitalized patients.

  16. Correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life

    Rosa de Fátima da Silva Vieira Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 221 binomials (mother-child enrolled in a breastfeeding support program, who were stratified into six groups according to the children's age group. The sample consisted of children born at term with normal weight, with no neonatal complications and whose mothers did not have anemia or infectious disease at the time of data collection. Interviews were carried out with the mothers, blood was collected by peripheral venipuncture from mothers and children, and children's anthropometric data were assessed. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the hemoglobin levels of mothers and children were calculated. Six multiple linear regression models were adjusted with regression coefficient estimates, considering as statistically significant associations with p ≤ 0.05. Results: The correlation coefficients of hemoglobin levels of mothers and children ranged from 0.253, at three months, to 0.601, at five months. The hemoglobin level of mothers was correlated with the hemoglobin level of their children at four months (r = 0.578 and at five months (r = 0.601. In the adjusted multiple linear regression, the regression coefficients were higher at four months (β = 1.134; p = 0.002 and at five months (β = 0.845; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These findings allow for the conclusion that there is a correlation between the hemoglobin of mothers and the hemoglobin of their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life.

  17. Fish hemoglobins

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  18. Correlation between Glycated Hemoglobin and Triglyceride Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Naqvi, Syeda; Naveed, Shabnam; Ali, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Syed Masroor; Asadullah Khan, Raad; Raj, Honey; Shariff, Shoaib; Rupareliya, Chintan; Zahra, Fatima; Khan, Saba

    2017-06-13

    Dyslipidemia is quite prevalent in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Maintaining tight glycemic along with lipid control plays an essential role in preventing micro- and macro-vascular complications associated with diabetes. The main purpose of the study was to highlight the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and triglyceride levels. This may in turn help in predicting the triglyceride status of type 2 diabetics and therefore identifying patients at increased risk from cardiovascular events. Hypertriglyceridemia is one of the common risk factors for coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Careful monitoring of the blood glucose level can be used to predict lipid status and can prevent most of the complications associated with the disease. This is a cross-sectional study using data collected from the outpatient diabetic clinic of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) Karachi, Pakistan. Patients of age 18 years and above were recruited from the clinic. A total of consenting 509 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled over a period of 11 months.  For statistical analysis, SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0 ( IBM Corp, Armonk, New York) was used and Chi-square and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to find the association between triglyceride and HbA1c. The HbA1c was dichotomized into four groups on the basis of cut-off. Chi-square was used for association between HbA1c with various cut-off values and high triglyceride levels. Odds-ratio and its 95% confidence interval were calculated to estimate the level of risk between high triglyceride levels and HbA1c groups. The p-value triglyceride was evaluated in four different groups of HbA1c, with a cut-off seven, eight, nine and 10 respectively. With HbA1c cut-off value of 7%, 74% patients had high triglycerides and showed a significant association with high triglyceride levels at p index, lifestyle) and health status factors (blood pressure

  19. Hemoglobin and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in transfused dialysis patients with myocardial infarction.

    Crowley, J P; Valeri, C R; Metzger, J B; Pono, L; Chazan, J

    1992-01-01

    Thirty frequently transfused patients on long term hemodialysis were studied and a similar number of age and sex-matched patients who were infrequently transfused were used as a control group to ascertain the influence of a previous myocardial infarction (MI) on transfusion requirements. The frequency of previous MI on electrocardiogram (ECG) in the transfused and control groups was similar (40 percent and 37 percent, respectively). In frequently transfused dialysis patients with MI, the hemoglobin level (transfusion trigger) at which these patients were transfused was higher than that of frequently transfused patients without MI (8.3 +/- 1.5 g per dl vs. 6.9 +/- 1 g per dl, p less than 0.01) which indicated that patients without MI tolerated a greater degree of anemia than those with MI. The 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels were significantly elevated in all transfused patients when compared to matched controls. However, levels of 2,3-DPG were significantly higher in MI patients receiving frequent transfusions than in other transfused patients, suggesting oxygen demands may not have been fully met despite the frequent transfusions. The results suggest levels of 2,3-DPG deserve further study in relation to the adequacy of tissue oxygenation in anemic dialysis patients.

  20. Hemoglobin Level to Facilitate Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass without Transfusion.

    Kim, Kun Il; Lee, Won Yong; Ko, Ho Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Jeong, Jae Han

    2014-08-01

    Conservation of blood during cardiac surgery is important because of the shortage of donor blood, risks associated with transfusion, and the costs of allogeneic blood products. This retrospective study explored the feasibility of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) without transfusion. One hundred and two consecutive patients underwent OPCAB from January 2007 to June 2012 at Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Excluding 10 chronic renal failures patients, 102 patients were enrolled. Their characteristics, clinical data, and laboratory data were analyzed. We investigated the success rate of OPCAB without transfusion according to pre-operative hemoglobin (Hb), and the cutoff point of the Hb level and the risk factors for transfusion. We implemented multidisciplinary blood-saving protocols. The overall operative mortality and the success rate of OPCAB without transfusion were 2.9% (3/102) and 73.5% (75/102). The success rates in patients with Hb70 years, diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, preoperative Hb and creatinine levels, and operation time. The events precipitating the need for transfusion were low Hb level in 9 patients and hypotension or excessive bleeding in 18 patients. The preoperative Hb level of >11 facilitates OPCAB without transfusion. These results suggest that transfusion-free OPCAB can be performed by modifying the risk factors and correctable causes of transfusion and improving various blood salvage methods.

  1. CRIT-LINE: a noninvasive tool to monitor hemoglobin levels in pediatric hemodialysis patients.

    Garro, Rouba; Sutherland, Scott; Bayes, Liz; Alexander, Steven; Wong, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    The national average for achieving the KDOQI-recommended hemoglobin (Hgb) target level of 11-12 g/dL is low with the current anemia management protocol of measuring Hgb levels every 2-4 weeks to guide intervention. The objective of this study was to correlate initial Hgb readings from the CRIT-LINE monitor with actual serum Hgb levels in pediatric patients on hemodialysis (HD). Data were collected from pediatric HD patients who had Hgb tests ordered for routine and/or clinical reasons. Hgb concentrations were read with the CRIT-LINE after 0.5 or 1 L of blood had been processed by HD in patients with a body weight of ≤20 or >20 kg, respectively. Ultrafiltration was kept at a minimum until the CRIT-LINE Hgb was read. In total, 217 Hgb readings from 23 HD patients were analyzed. Results showed a statistically significant correlation between CRIT-LINE readings and laboratory Hgb measurements (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) using Pearson correlation coefficients for well-distributed data. The mean Hgb levels measured by CRIT-LINE and the laboratory were 11.12 ± 1.63 and 11.31 ± 1.69 g/dL, respectively. The CRIT-LINE monitor is an accurate instrument for monitoring Hgb levels in HD patients. Further studies will be needed to evaluate whether using CRIT-LINE Hgb levels to guide anemia management will improve the percentage of children with Hgb levels within target.

  2. The Effect of Growing Rod Treatment on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in Early-onset Scoliosis.

    Barrett, Kody K; Lee, Christopher; Myung, Karen; Johnston, Charles; Shah, Suken A; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Skaggs, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study examines preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels in a group of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients and the effect of distraction-based growing rods (GRs) on these levels. Children with EOS are at risk for respiratory insufficiency and chronic hypoxemia. Increased Hgb and Hct levels have been identified as surrogate markers for chronic hypoxemia. A study of patients who underwent VEPTR surgery showed a significant decrease in Hgb levels following surgery. Data were retrospectively collected on 66 EOS patients without confounding respiratory issues or oxygen dependence who were treated with GRs at 5 institutions. Average age at initial surgery was 5.5 years. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (average 3.7 y). Preoperative and postoperative Hgb and Hct levels were converted to Z-scores based on age-adjusted mean blood indices and were compared using a paired t test. The prevalence of elevated Hgb and Hct levels (Z-score >2) preoperatively was 15% (10/66) and 19% (12/64), respectively. The average Hgb Z-score decreased from 0.20 to -0.31 (P=0.005) 6 to 24 months following surgery and the Hct Z-score decreased from 0.31 to -0.28 (P=0.002) 6 to 24 months following surgery. Following distraction-based GR treatment of children with EOS there was a significant decrease in both their Hgb and Hct. This is a physiological marker of decreased hypoxemia and improved pulmonary function. Level III-therapeutic study.

  3. Association in Long-Evans hooded rats of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels with hemoglobin types.

    Brewer, G; Gilman, J; Noble, N; Crews, V

    1978-08-01

    Two sublines of commercially available Long-Evans hooded rats have been developed by genetic selection. These sublines have widely differing levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) due to different alleles at a single genetic locus. In the present work, it is shown that rats from the commercial population are also polymorphic at a hemoglobin locus, probably involving two alleles of the IIIbeta-globin chain locus. Particular hemoglobin types have been found to be strongly associated with certain DPG types, not only in the high-DPG and low-DPG lines but also in the commercial population. Two explanations for this association are considered. One is a single-locus hypothesis, with hemoglobin allelic variation causing DPG variation, and the other is a two-locus hypothesis, with marked linkage disequilibrium.

  4. Maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy and childhood lung function and asthma. The Generation R Study

    Pereira de Jesus, S.M.C.B. (Sabrina M. C. B.); H.T. den Dekker (Herman); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine the associations of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy with childhood lung function and asthma, and whether adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition modify the associations. Methods: In a population-based prospective cohort study

  5. Efficacy and safety of once-weekly intravenous epoetin alfa in maintaining hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Filippini, Armando; Cannella, Giuseppe; De Ferrari, Giacomo; Naso, Agostino; Rossi, Egidio; Formica, Marco; Lombardi, Luigi; Rotolo, Ugo; Conte, Feruccio

    2008-01-01

    Although an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) is most frequently administered intravenously for treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis, few studies have compared the efficacy of different intravenous (i.v.) dosing schedules. This multicenter, phase IIIb, open-label, controlled study randomized 289 stable hemodialysis patients to continue with conventional dosing of i.v. epoetin alfa or darbepoetin, or to switch to once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa at the same cumulative weekly starting dose, to maintain hemoglobin levels at 11.0-13.0 g/dL, and within 1.0 g/dL of the baseline value. Hemoglobin levels and ESA doses were recorded every 4 weeks for 28 weeks. Hemoglobin levels fell significantly and ESA doses increased significantly between baseline and week 28 (mean of week 16-28 values) in the once-weekly epoetin alfa group, compared with the conventional treatment group (phemoglobin levels between the groups was 0.73 g/dL (greater than the threshold for therapeutic equivalence of 0.5 g/dL). The changes between groups from baseline was significant at all time points for hemoglobin levels (0.36, 0.46, 0.81, 0.87, 0.78, 0.62 and 0.49 g/dL) and from week 12 for ESA dose (718.5, 1,326.5, 1,732.0, 1,839.7 and 1,959.1 IU/week; p=0.005). Hemoglobin was maintained at the target level in 78% and 84% of patients on conventional dosing, and 67% and 64% of those on once-weekly epoetin alfa in the intention-to-treat (p=0.1) and per protocol (p=0.016) populations, respectively. This study did not show therapeutic equivalence of once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa with conventional dosing regimens.

  6. Specific absorption spectra of hemoglobin at different PO2 levels: potential noninvasive method to detect PO2 in tissues.

    Liu, Peipei; Zhu, Zhirong; Zeng, Changchun; Nie, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb), as one of main components of blood, has a unique quaternary structure. Its release of oxygen is controlled by oxygen partial pressure (PO2). We investigate the specific spectroscopic changes in Hb under different PO2 levels to optimize clinical methods of measuring tissue PO2. The transmissivity of Hb under different PO2 levels is measured with a UV/Vis fiber optic spectrometer. Its plotted absorption spectral curve shows two high absorption peaks at 540 and 576 nm and an absorption valley at 560 nm when PO2 is higher than 100 mm Hg. The two high absorption peaks decrease gradually with a decrease in PO2, whereas the absorption valley at 560 nm increases. When PO2 decreases to approximately 0 mm Hg, the two high absorption peaks disappear completely, while the absorption valley has a hypochromic shift (8 to 10 nm) and forms a specific high absorption peak at approximately 550 nm. The same phenomena can be observed in visible reflectance spectra of finger-tip microcirculation. Specific changes in extinction coefficient and absorption spectra of Hb occur along with variations in PO2, which could be used to explain pathological changes caused by tissue hypoxia and for early detection of oxygen deficiency diseases in clinical monitoring.

  7. Effects of Sleep Disorders on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Ahmet Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have reported the presence of sleep disorders in approximately 50-70% of diabetic patients, and these may contribute to poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy, and overnight hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sleep disorders in diabetic patients, and to investigate possible relationships between scores of these sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and diabetic parameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and lipid levels. Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire (BQ for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels. Results: The study included 585 type 2 diabetic patients admitted to family medicine clinics between October and December 2014. Sleep, sleep quality, and sleep scores were used as the dependent variables in the analysis. The ESS scores showed that 54.40% of patients experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, and according to the PSQI, 64.30% experienced poor-quality sleep. The BQ results indicated that 50.20% of patients were at high-risk of OSAS. HbA1c levels correlated significantly with the ESS and PSQI results (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 and r = 0.14, P = 0.001, respectively, and were significantly higher in those with high-risk of OSAS as defined by the BQ (P < 0.001. These results showed that HbA1c levels were related to sleep disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in diabetic patients and negatively affect the control of diabetes. Conversely, poor diabetes control is an important factor disturbing sleep quality. Addressing sleep disturbances in patients who have difficulty controlling their blood glucose has dual benefits: Preventing diabetic complications caused by sleep disturbance and improving diabetes control.

  8. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Liang, Jun; Zhou, Na; Teng, Fei; Zou, Caiyan; Xue, Ying; Yang, Manqing; Song, Huaidong; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT). The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend trend = 0.004) and had higher blood pressure (≥120 [systolic blood pressure]/80 mmHg [diastolic blood pressure]; P for trend = 0.028) than those who were younger and had lower blood pressure (P for trend >0.05). HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  9. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC study.

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The American Diabetes Association (ADA recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  10. Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Kotova, Natalia; Frostne, Cecilia; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Tareke, Eden; Bergman, Rolf; Haghdoost, Siamak; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta; Segerbäck, Dan; Jenssen, Dag; Grawé, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  11. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    Castillo Nieves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE. Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18 months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. Results After dialysis, Hb cocentration rise by 6.1 ± 5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104 ± 120 vs 128 ± 124 U/kg/week (P P = 0.001. The prediction model is: Postdialysis Hb (g/dL = 1.636 + 0.871 x predialysis Hb* (g/dL + 0.099 x UF rate** (mL/kg/h - 0.39 for women***. [R2 = 0.74; *P P = 0.001; ***P = 0.03. Conclusions Postdialysis Hb can be a better reflect of the real Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Using postdialysis Hb would avoid the use of inappropriately high ESA doses. The prediction of postdialysis Hb with an adjusted model would help us to identify those patients at risk for ESA overdosification.

  12. [Noninvasive detection of hematocrit and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels by Vis-NIR spectroscopy].

    Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Lu, Xiao-Zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) and mean hemoglobin concentration(MCHC) play a very important role in preventing cardiovascular disease and anemia. A method was developed on the basis of spectroscopy to detect HCT and MCHC non-invasively and accurately. The anatomical study showed that the blood rheology abnormalities and blood viscosity's changes can cause the changes of tongue, so there is a certain correlation between tongue and blood components. Reflectance spectrums from the tongue tips of 240 volunteers were collected, then the tongue pictures were captured and the biochemical analysis results were recorded at the same time. The 240 samples were separated into two parts: calibration sample and test sample. Spectra were then subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to develop mathematics models for predicting HCT levels. The correlation between the data and prediction of HCT and MCHC yielded calibration samples value of 0.998 and 0.938. HCT and MCHC levels of test samples predicted by this model from Visible-Near infrared spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.979 and 0.883 with an average relative error of prediction of 1.65% and 1.88%, a root mean square error of prediction of 4.066 and 4.139. From the experiment results we can see that the model which was built before can better predict the HCT and MCHC, and the results also showed that spectrometry method may provide a promising approach to the noninvasive measurement of human HCT and MCHC with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  13. Maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy and childhood lung function and asthma. The Generation R Study.

    Pereira de Jesus, Sabrina M C B; den Dekker, Herman T; de Jongste, Johan C; Reiss, Irwin K; Steegers, Eric A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2018-02-01

    To examine the associations of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy with childhood lung function and asthma, and whether adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition modify the associations. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 3672 subjects, we measured maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in early pregnancy, and lung function by spirometry and current asthma by questionnaire at age 10 years. Higher maternal hematocrit levels, both continuously and categorized into clinical cut-offs, were associated with lower forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF 75 ) in children (Z-score (95%CI): -0.04 (-0.07, -0.01), per increase of 1 SDS in hematocrit level; Z-score (95%CI) difference: -0.11 (-0.20, -0.03) compared with normal hematocrit levels, respectively), taking lifestyle and socio-economic factors into account. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition did not modify the results. No associations of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit with current asthma were observed. Higher maternal hematocrit levels during pregnancy are associated with lower childhood lung function but not with risk of asthma. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition do not modify these associations. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Hemoglobin E Thalassemias

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Weatherall, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders. PMID:22908199

  15. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  16. The Relationship between Food Pattern and Hemoglobin Level in Pregnant Women at Maros, South Sulawesi

    Zulkifli Abdullah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption pattern is known as a determinant factor for nutritional problems among pregnant mothers. This study was intended to assess food consumption and its relationship to anemia in Maros Districts, Indonesia. This study was conducted in two sub-districts and pregnant mothers was randomly selected (n = 200 and proportionally from both districts. Data was collected by train field workers including measurement of hemoglobin, height and weight, 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to see the relationship between food consumption and anemia. It showed that anemia prevalence was 41% whereas mostly in mild and moderate levels (44% and 55% respectively. The most common pattern of food consumption was rice, fish, and some vegetables. However, vegetables and fruit mostly consumed only 3-6 time a week. Energy and protein intakes were only 59% to 72% recommended dietary allowance (RDA or 1300 kcal and 48 gr respectively. Most vitamin was consumed only around 40% except for vitamin A (76%, 605 RE, folic acid (195%, 1170 ug, and Vitamin B12 (142%, 3,7 ug. However, iron and zinc intakes were only 6.1 gr (17.5% RDA and 5.9 gr (44% RDA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that education duration of mothers, nutritional status, iron tablet intakes, vitamin C, and B6 consumption were significantly related to anemia of pregnant mothers in the study and accounted for 24% (p<0.05. We conclude that food consumption was relatively low and caused lack intakes for both macro and micro nutrients of pregnant mothers in the study. Education and nutritional status of the mothers contributed also to the anemia prevalence.

  17. Placental share and hemoglobin level in relation to birth weight in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Zhao, D; Slaghekke, F; Middeldorp, J M; Duan, T; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2014-12-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a newly described form of chronic twin transfusion. Previous observational studies noted a discordance between birth weight and individual placental share in TAPS. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fetal growth in monochorionic (MC) twins with TAPS is determined by placental share or by the net inter-twin blood transfusion. All consecutive MC twin placentas of live-born twin pairs with and without TAPS examined at our center between June 2002 and February 2014 were included in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels and individual placental share were evaluated at birth and correlated with birth weight share. We excluded MC twin pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. A total of 270 MC twin pregnancies (TAPS group, n = 20; control group without TAPS, n = 250) were included in this study. Donors with TAPS had a lower birth weight than recipients in 90% (18/20) of cases, but a larger placental share in 65% (13/20) of cases. In the TAPS group, birth weight share was positively correlated with Hb share at birth (P < 0.01) but not with placental share (P = 0.54). In the control group without TAPS, birth weight share was strongly correlated with placental share (P < 0.01) but not with Hb share (P = 0.14). A relatively larger placental share may enable the survival of the anemic twin in TAPS. In contrast with uncomplicated MC twins, fetal growth in MC twins with TAPS is determined primarily by the net inter-twin blood transfusion instead of placental share. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association Between Neighborhood Supermarket Presence and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Zhang, Y Tara; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Laraia, Barbara A; Warton, E Margaret; Blanchard, Samuel D; Moffet, Howard H; Downing, Janelle; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-06-15

    We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (≥9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The prognostic role of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing concurrent chemo-radiation for anal cancer.

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Montagnani, Francesco; Arcadipane, Francesca; Casadei, Chiara; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Martini, Stefania; Iorio, Giuseppe Carlo; Scartozzi, Mario; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Fornaro, Lorenzo; Cassoni, Paola; Cascinu, Stefano; Ricardi, Umberto; Casadei Gardini, Andrea

    2018-05-02

    Concurrent chemo-radiation (CT-RT) is a standard therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Different clinical and biological factors may potentially affect outcome. We investigated the prognostic role of baseline hemoglobin (Hb) in a cohort of anal cancer patients submitted to CT-RT with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Up to 161 patients with clinical stage T1-T4/N0-N3/M0 were treated. Response was assessed at 6 weeks and thereafter at 3, 6 and 12 months. Two different approaches were used:a)simultaneous integrated boost following RTOG 05-29 indications;b)first sequence of 45Gy/25 fractions to the pelvis followed by 9-14.4 Gy/5-8 fractions to the macroscopic disease. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). On multivariate analysis, pre-treatment Hb level had a significant correlation to OS (HR:0.53;95% CI:0.33-0.87; p = 0.001), but not to PFS (HR:0.78;95% CI:0.53-1.15; p = 0.12) Patients with pre-treatment Hb ≥ 12 g/dl had 5-year PFS and OS of 82.2%, compared to 29.3% and 32.8% for those below the threshold. The likelihood to achieve a complete remission increased by 5.6% for every single-unit (g/dl) increase in baseline Hb level over 11 g/dl. On multivariate analysis, response to treatment had a significant correlation to PFS (incomplete vs complete response - HR:5.43;95% CI:2.75-10.7; p < 0.0001) and OS (HR: 6.96;95% CI:2.96-16.5; p < 0.0001). We showed that baseline Hb level is a strong indicator for poor response to RT-CT in anal cancer patients. A close clinical monitoring for incomplete response to treatment should be advised in patients with low pre-treatment Hb. The hypothesis that the preservation of adequate Hb level during treatment may lead to a better outcome needs prospective evaluation.

  20. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study.

    Castillo, Nieves; García-García, Patricia; Rivero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro; Macía, Manuel; Getino, María Adela; Méndez, María Luisa; García-Pérez, Javier; Navarro-González, Juan F

    2012-07-16

    Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requirements. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18 months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. After dialysis, Hb concentration rise by 6.1 ± 5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104 ± 120 vs 128 ± 124 U/kg/week (P < 0.001). Using predialysis Hb, 40.2% of subjects had a Hb level above 12 g/dL, whereas this percent increased to 70.1% using postdialysis Hb. During the follow-up, 15 patients had a CVE, without differences in Hb levels respect to subjects without CVE. However, patients with CVE had received higher ESA doses: 186 ± 180 vs 111 ± 98 U/Kg/week (P = 0.001). The prediction model is: Postdialysis Hb (g/dL) = 1.636 + 0.871 x predialysis Hb* (g/dL) + 0.099 x UF rate** (mL/kg/h) - 0.39 for women***. [R2 = 0.74; *P < 0,001; **P = 0.001; ***P = 0.03). Postdialysis Hb can be a better reflect of the real Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Using postdialysis Hb would avoid the use of inappropriately high ESA doses. The prediction of postdialysis Hb with an adjusted model would help us to identify those patients at risk for ESA overdosification.

  1. Genetic determinants of glycated hemoglobin levels in the Greenlandic Inuit population

    Appel, Emil V R; Moltke, Ida; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2018-01-01

    We previously showed that a common genetic variant leads to a remarkably increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the small and historically isolated Greenlandic population. Motivated by this, we aimed at discovering novel genetic determinants for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and at estimating...

  2. Vitamin D deficiency and low hemoglobin level as risk factors for severity of acute lower respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children: A case-control study

    Abeer S. El Sakka

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with severity of ALRTIs. Low hemoglobin level was more prevalent in those children. Improving the nutritional status in children by preventing vitamin D deficiency and low hemoglobin might influence the outcome of children with ALRTI.

  3. Assessment of Microcirculatory Hemoglobin Levels in Normal and Diabetic Subjects using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Visible Region — a Pilot Study

    Sujatha, N.; Anand, B. S. Suresh; Nivetha, K. Bala; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, R.

    2015-07-01

    Light-based diagnostic techniques provide a minimally invasive way for selective biomarker estimation when tissues transform from a normal to a malignant state. Spectroscopic techniques based on diffuse reflectance characterize the changes in tissue hemoglobin/oxygenation levels during the tissue transformation process. Recent clinical investigations have shown that changes in tissue oxygenation and microcirculation are observed in diabetic subjects in the initial and progressive stages. In this pilot study, we discuss the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the visible (Vis) range to differentiate the skin microcirculatory hemoglobin levels between normal and advanced diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. Average concentration of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the probed tissue volume is estimated for a total of four different sites in the foot sole. The results indicate a statistically significant decrease in average total hemoglobin and increase in hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels for diabetic foot compared with a normal foot. The present study demonstrates the ability of reflectance spectroscopy in the Vis range to determine and differentiate the changes in tissue hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels in normal and diabetic subjects.

  4. Hemoglobin (image)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  5. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  6. Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells

    Liu, Rongrong; Spicer, Graham; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Hao F.; Yi, Ji; Backman, Vadim

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen saturation (sO2) of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries can indirectly assess local tissue oxygenation and metabolic function. For example, the altered retinal oxygenation in diabetic retinopathy and local hypoxia during tumor development in cancer are reflected by abnormal sO2 of local capillary networks. However, it is far from clear whether accurate label-free optical oximetry (i.e., measuring hemoglobin sO2) is feasible from dispersed RBCs at the single capillary level. The sO2-dependent hemoglobin absorption contrast present in optical scattering signal is complicated by geometry-dependent scattering from RBCs. We present a numerical study of backscattering spectra from single RBCs based on the first-order Born approximation, considering practical factors: RBC orientations, size variation, and deformations. We show that the oscillatory spectral behavior of RBC geometries is smoothed by variations in cell size and orientation, resulting in clear sO2-dependent spectral contrast. In addition, this spectral contrast persists with different mean cellular hemoglobin content and different deformations of RBCs. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of, and provides a theoretical model for, label-free optical oximetry at the single capillary level using backscattering-based imaging modalities, challenging the popular view that such measurements are impossible at the single capillary level.

  7. Convergent Evolution of Hemoglobin Function in High-Altitude Andean Waterfowl Involves Limited Parallelism at the Molecular Sequence Level.

    Chandrasekhar Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in evolutionary genetics concerns the extent to which adaptive phenotypic convergence is attributable to convergent or parallel changes at the molecular sequence level. Here we report a comparative analysis of hemoglobin (Hb function in eight phylogenetically replicated pairs of high- and low-altitude waterfowl taxa to test for convergence in the oxygenation properties of Hb, and to assess the extent to which convergence in biochemical phenotype is attributable to repeated amino acid replacements. Functional experiments on native Hb variants and protein engineering experiments based on site-directed mutagenesis revealed the phenotypic effects of specific amino acid replacements that were responsible for convergent increases in Hb-O2 affinity in multiple high-altitude taxa. In six of the eight taxon pairs, high-altitude taxa evolved derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity that were caused by a combination of unique replacements, parallel replacements (involving identical-by-state variants with independent mutational origins in different lineages, and collateral replacements (involving shared, identical-by-descent variants derived via introgressive hybridization. In genome scans of nucleotide differentiation involving high- and low-altitude populations of three separate species, function-altering amino acid polymorphisms in the globin genes emerged as highly significant outliers, providing independent evidence for adaptive divergence in Hb function. The experimental results demonstrate that convergent changes in protein function can occur through multiple historical paths, and can involve multiple possible mutations. Most cases of convergence in Hb function did not involve parallel substitutions and most parallel substitutions did not affect Hb-O2 affinity, indicating that the repeatability of phenotypic evolution does not require parallelism at the molecular level.

  8. Chemoradiation of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: impact of pretreatment hemoglobin level on patterns of failure

    Morganti, A.G.; Macchia, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Forni, F. [Dept. of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Valentini, V.; Smaniotto, D.; Trodella, L.; Balducci, M.; Cellini, N. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    Aim: To evaluate, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma undergoing concomitant chemoradiation, the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on the outcome in terms of clinical response, local control, metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Patients and Methods: 30 patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiation (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day, continuous i.v. infusion days 1-4 of radiotherapy) and external beam radiotherapy (50.4-59.4 Gy) were divided into two groups based on pretreatment median Hb value (11.5 g/dl). The potential prognostic factors examined besides Hb concentration were: tumor site (head vs body-tail), sex (female vs male), cN (cN0 vs cN1), dose of external beam radiotherapy (50.4 Gy vs 59.4 Gy), presence of jaundice at diagnosis (yes vs no), weight loss at diagnosis ({>=} 5 kg vs < 5 kg), epigastric-lumbar pain at diagnosis (yes vs no), maximum tumor diameter (< 40 mm vs {>=} 40 mm). Results: Pretreatment Hb ranged between 9.6 and 15.0 g/dl. No statistically significant differences were observed as for clinical response and local control between patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and those with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl. Metastasis-free survival was 5.1 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and 10.7 months in patients with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl (p = 0.010). Median actuarial disease-free survival was 5.1 and 10.2 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.026). Median actuarial overall survival was 7.5 and 10.3 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, Hb concentration at diagnosis was the only factor prognostically correlated with metastasis-free survival (p = 0.026), disease-free survival (p = 0.032), and overall survival (p = 0.048). Conclusion: In a group of patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma treated with chemoradiation, a significant correlation was observed

  9. Does pretreatment hemoglobin level affect outcome in patients with T1 glottic cancer?

    Canaday, Daniel J.; Regine, William F.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Zollinger, William; Machtay, Mitchell; Lee, Jason; Schultz, Delray; Rosenthal, David I.; Rudoltz, Marc S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Recent reports have suggested that pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) is significantly associated with local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) in patients with T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. This study evaluates the association of pretreatment Hgb level and other factors with outcome in patients limited to T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with external beam radiation. Methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx were analyzed. Median follow-up was 5 years (range 2-22). Median pretreatment Hgb was 14.4 gm/dl (range 8.2-17.2). The following parameters were analyzed for their impact on LC, OS, and disease specific survival (DSS): age, gender, pretreatment Hgb, tumor grade, anterior commissure involvement, field size, total dose, dose per fraction, and overall treatment time. Results: Five year actuarial LC was 84%. Pretreatment Hgb was not a significant predictor for LC when assessed as a continuous variable (p=0.38). LC was 82% for patients with Hgb >13 vs 92% for Hgb ≤ 13 (p=0.13). No other factor was significant for LC. Five year actuarial OS was 74%. On univariate analysis, pretreatment Hgb ≤ 13 gm/dl was a significant factor for poorer OS (78% vs 68%, p=0.004), as were total dose 61 years (p=0.017). On multivariate analysis, only age >61 (p=0.014) and Hgb ≤ 13 (p=0.001) retained significance for OS. Five year actuarial DSS was 92%. Pretreatment Hgb was not a prognostic factor for DSS, nor were any other analyzed factors. Conclusion: Pretreatment Hgb is not a significant prognostic factor for LC in patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx, but it does predict for a poorer OS without affecting DSS. This suggests that patients with lower pretreatment Hgb may have confounding medical problems which detract from their overall survival

  10. Immunological non-response and low hemoglobin levels are predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-infected individuals on Truvada-based therapy in Botswana.

    Lucy Mupfumi

    Full Text Available There is a high burden of tuberculosis (TB in HIV antiretroviral programmes in Africa. However, few studies have looked at predictors of incident TB while on Truvada-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART regimens.We estimated TB incidence among individuals enrolled into an observational cohort evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of Truvada-based cART in Gaborone, Botswana between 2008 and 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine predictors of incident TB.Of 300 participants enrolled, 45 (15% had a diagnosis of TB at baseline. During 428 person-years (py of follow-up, the incidence rate of TB was 3.04/100py (95% CI, 1.69-5.06, with 60% of the cases occurring within 3 months of ART initiation. Incident cases had low baseline CD4+ T cell counts (153cells/mm3 [Q1, Q3: 82, 242]; p = 0.69 and hemoglobin levels (9.2g/dl [Q1, Q3: 8.5,10.1]; p<0.01. In univariate analysis, low BMI (HR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.58-0.91; p = 0.01 and hemoglobin levels <8 g/dl (HR = 10.84; 95%CI: 2.99-40.06; p<0.01 were risk factors for TB. Time to incident TB diagnosis was significantly reduced in patients with poor immunological recovery (p = 0.04. There was no association between baseline viral load and risk of TB (HR = 1.75; 95%CI: 0.70-4.37.Low hemoglobin levels prior to initiation of ART are significant predictors of incident tuberculosis. Therefore, there is potential utility of iron biomarkers to identify patients at risk of TB prior to initiation on ART. Furthermore, additional strategies are required for patients with poor immunological recovery to reduce excess risk of TB while on ART.

  11. An update on mortality and morbidity in patients with very low postoperative hemoglobin levels who decline blood transfusion (CME).

    Shander, Aryeh; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Naqvi, Sajjad; Aregbeyen, Oshuare; Caylan, Mustafa; Demir, Selma; Juhl, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Severely anemic patients for whom blood transfusion is not an option provide highly valuable information on risks of anemia and alternative management strategies. This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients at least 18 years old who could not be transfused, had surgery at a patient blood management center between 2003 and 2012, and had at least one hemoglobin (Hb) measurement of not more than 8 g/dL during the postoperative period. The primary outcome measure was mortality, occurring anytime in the period after the surgery until discharge or 30th day after the surgery, whichever was sooner. Postoperative morbidities included the occurrence of any of sepsis, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, deep wound infection, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia. A total of 293 patients (including 288 who self-identified as "Jehovah's Witness") were eligible and enrolled. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 61.5 ± 16.9 years and 74.1% were female. Overall mortality rate was 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%-11.3%). Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of death per each 1 g/dL decrease in the nadir postoperative Hb was 2.04 (95% CI, 1.52-2.74); OR of death after adjustment for other significant factors (urgency, American Society of Anesthesiology score, and age) was 1.82 (95% CI, 1.27-2.59). Our study confirms the previously reported low risk of mortality in upper nadir Hb ranges of 7 to 8 g/dL and much higher risk in lower ranges, albeit the number of patients reaching extremely low Hb levels were lower than previous report, possibly suggestive of improved management strategy of these patients. © 2014 AABB.

  12. Fructosamine and Hemoglobin A1c Correlations in HIV-Infected Adults in Routine Clinical Care: Impact of Anemia and Albumin Levels

    Luisa Duran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructosamine is an alternative method to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c for determining average glycemia. However, its use has not been extensively evaluated in persons living with HIV (PLWH. We examined the relationship between HbA1c and fructosamine values, specifically focusing on anemia (which can affect HbA1c and albumin as a marker of liver disease. We included 345 PLWH from two sites. We examined Spearman rank correlations between fructosamine and HbA1c and performed linear test for trends to compare fructosamine and HbA1c correlations by hemoglobin and albumin quartiles. We examined discrepant individuals with values elevated only on one test. We found a correlation of 0.70 between fructosamine and HbA1c levels. Trend tests for correlations between fructosamine and HbA1c were significant for both albumin (p=0.05 and hemoglobin (p=0.01 with the lowest correlations in the lowest hemoglobin quartile. We identified participants with unremarkable HbA1c values but elevated fructosamine values. These discrepant individuals had lower mean hemoglobin levels than those elevated by both tests. We demonstrated a large correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine across a range of hemoglobin and albumin levels. There were discrepant cases particularly among those with lower hemoglobin levels. Future studies are needed to clarify the use of fructosamine for diabetes management in PWLH.

  13. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  14. Study on the relationship between blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and micro-vascular nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Luo Rong; Li Zhuocheng; Yan Dewen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between blood levels of glycated hemoglobin and microvascular nephropathy in patients with type diabetes. Methods: Blood Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were determined with affinity chromatography and 24 hour urinary microalbumin (m-Alb), β 2 microglobin (β 2 -m) quantified with RIA in 76 patients and 30 controls. Results: With glycated hemoglobin within normal range, there were no differences between the amounts of patients' urinary protein contents and those in controls (P>0.05). With higher blood glycated hemoglobin levels, significant differences could be observed (P 2 microglobin. Differences among the 24 hour urinary quantities of mAlb and β 2 -m in the three groups of patients (divided according to the HbA1c levels, namely 9.0%) were also significant (P 2 microglobin is very important for early detection of diabetic nephropathy

  15. Prognostic significance of hemoglobin level in patients with congestive heart failure and normal ejection fraction.

    Varadarajan, Padmini; Gandhi, Siddharth; Sharma, Sanjay; Umakanthan, Branavan; Pai, Ramdas G

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have shown low hemoglobin (Hb) to have an adverse effect on survival in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF); but its effect on survival in patients with CHF and normal EF is not known. This study sought to determine whether low Hb has an effect on survival in patients with both CHF and normal EF. Detailed chart reviews were performed by medical residents on 2,246 patients (48% with normal EF) with a discharge diagnosis of CHF in a large tertiary care hospital from 1990 to 1999. The CHF diagnosis was validated using the Framingham criteria. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Index. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, low Hb (< 12 gm/dl) compared with normal hemoglobin was associated with a lower 5-year survival in patients with CHF and both normal (38 vs. 50%, p = 0.0008) and reduced (35 vs. 48%, p = 0.0009) EF. Using the Cox regression model, low Hb was an independent predictor of mortality after adjusting for age, gender, renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and EF in both groups of patients. Low Hb has an independent adverse effect on survival in patients with CHF and both normal and reduced EF in both groups of patients.

  16. A probe to study the toxic interaction of tartrazine with bovine hemoglobin at the molecular level.

    Li, Yating; Wei, Haoran; Liu, Rutao

    2014-03-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in food products, but tartrazine in the environment is potentially harmful. The toxic interaction between tartrazine and bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was investigated using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular modeling techniques under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence data showed that tartrazine can bind with BHb to form a complex. The binding process was a spontaneous molecular interaction, in which van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonds played major roles. Molecular docking results showed that the hydrogen bonds exist between the oxygen atoms at position 31 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys99, and also between the oxygen atoms at position 15 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys104, Lys105. The results of UV-vis and CD spectra revealed that tartrazine led to conformational changes in BHb, including loosening of the skeleton structure and decreasing α helix in the secondary structure. The synchronous fluorescence experiment revealed that tartrazine binds into the hemoglobin central cavity, and this was verified using a molecular modeling study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobintest.html Hemoglobin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hemoglobin Test? A hemoglobin test measures the levels of hemoglobin ...

  18. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Techniques used for the screening of hemoglobin levels in blood donors: current insights and future directions

    Chaudhary R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation. These include the anatomical source of blood sample, posture of the donor, timing of sample and several other biological factors. Qualitative copper sulfate gravimetric method has been the archaic time-tested method that is still used in resource-constrained settings. Portable hemoglobinometers are modern quantitative devices that have been further modified to reagent-free cuvettes. Furthermore, noninvasive spectrophotometry was introduced, mitigating pain to blood donor and eliminating risk of infection. Notwithstanding a tremendous evolution in terms of ease of operation, accuracy, mobility, rapidity and cost, a component of inherent variability persists, which may partly be attributed to pre-analytical variables. Hence, blood centers should pay due attention to validation of test methodology, competency of operating staff and regular proficiency testing of the outputs. In this article, we have reviewed various regulatory guidelines, described the variables that affect the measurements and compared the validated

  20. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M.; Pistillucci, G.; D'Aprile, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy

  1. Twice-monthly administration of a lower dose of epoetin beta pegol can maintain adequate hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Morikami, Yuki; Fujimori, Akira; Okada, Shioko; Kumei, Mai; Mizobuchi, Noriko; Sakai, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Epoetin beta pegol is a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) with a long half-life. Although CERA has been shown to maintain adequate hemoglobin (Hb) levels at prolonged dosing intervals, the optimal dosing schedule remains unclear. We therefore compared the efficacy of maintaining hemoglobin levels with administration of twice-monthly CERA (TWICE) versus once-monthly CERA (ONCE). Twenty hemodialysis patients receiving epoetin beta (EPO) were enrolled in this crossover study. Patients were assigned to either the TWICE or the ONCE group based on matching Hb levels and EPO doses. After 6 months of treatment, the CERA dosage was interchanged between the groups and the study was continued for an additional 6 months. The effect of the different regimens on iron metabolism was also assessed during the first 6 months of the study. Hb levels significantly increased in the TWICE group, allowing for a reduction in CERA dosage, while the dose of CERA required to maintain Hb levels in the ONCE group remained unchanged. After the interchange, a decrease in Hb levels with incremental increase in CERA dosage was observed in the TWICE→ONCE group, with the opposite effect observed in the ONCE→TWICE group. Although increases in ferritin and hepcidin-25 levels in the ONCE group were noted at one month, they disappeared at 6 months. Although Hb levels were maintained in both the ONCE and TWICE groups, a twice-monthly administration was advantageous, as it required a lower dose of CERA. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  2. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  3. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Ju-Young Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMost type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsFor 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 µg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 µg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV, body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment.ResultsAfter 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively, while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289. In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively.ConclusionEffects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  4. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation.

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects' TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  5. Fish hemoglobins

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  6. Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity to predict fetal hemoglobin levels in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Slaghekke, F; Pasman, S; Veujoz, M; Middeldorp, J M; Lewi, L; Devlieger, R; Favre, R; Lopriore, E; Oepkes, D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) Doppler measurements in prediction of hemoglobin levels in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). This study involved a consecutive cohort comprising monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by TAPS managed at three European fetal medicine centers between 2005 and 2013. The accuracy of MCA-PSV, measured immediately prior to fetal hemoglobin (Hb) measurement by fetal or cord blood sampling, for prediction of anemia and polycythemia was assessed using 2 × 2 tables. A total of 116 measurements (74 recorded in donors and 42 in recipients) from 43 twin pregnancies complicated by TAPS were available for analysis. MCA-PSV multiples of the median (MoM) values correlated well with Hb levels (r = - 0.86; P  5 SD below the mean) in TAPS donors was 94% (95% CI, 85-98%); specificity was 74% (95% CI, 62-83%); positive and negative predictive values were 76% (95% CI, 65-85%) and 94% (95% CI, 83-98%), respectively. The sensitivity of MCA-PSV ≤ 1.0 MoM to predict polycythemia (Hb level > 5 SD above the mean) in TAPS recipients was 97% (95% CI, 87-99%); specificity was 96% (95% CI, 89-99%); positive and negative predictive values were 93% (95% CI, 81-97%) and 99% (95% CI, 93-100%), respectively. MCA-PSV measurement has high diagnostic accuracy for predicting abnormal Hb levels in fetuses with TAPS. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Immunological non-response and low hemoglobin levels are predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-infected individuals on Truvada-based therapy in Botswana.

    Mupfumi, Lucy; Moyo, Sikhulile; Molebatsi, Kesaobaka; Thami, Prisca K; Anderson, Motswedi; Mogashoa, Tuelo; Iketleng, Thato; Makhema, Joseph; Marlink, Ric; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Essex, Max; Musonda, Rosemary M; Gaseitsiwe, Simani

    2018-01-01

    There is a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV antiretroviral programmes in Africa. However, few studies have looked at predictors of incident TB while on Truvada-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens. We estimated TB incidence among individuals enrolled into an observational cohort evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of Truvada-based cART in Gaborone, Botswana between 2008 and 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine predictors of incident TB. Of 300 participants enrolled, 45 (15%) had a diagnosis of TB at baseline. During 428 person-years (py) of follow-up, the incidence rate of TB was 3.04/100py (95% CI, 1.69-5.06), with 60% of the cases occurring within 3 months of ART initiation. Incident cases had low baseline CD4+ T cell counts (153cells/mm3 [Q1, Q3: 82, 242]; p = 0.69) and hemoglobin levels (9.2g/dl [Q1, Q3: 8.5,10.1]; pimmunological recovery (p = 0.04). There was no association between baseline viral load and risk of TB (HR = 1.75; 95%CI: 0.70-4.37). Low hemoglobin levels prior to initiation of ART are significant predictors of incident tuberculosis. Therefore, there is potential utility of iron biomarkers to identify patients at risk of TB prior to initiation on ART. Furthermore, additional strategies are required for patients with poor immunological recovery to reduce excess risk of TB while on ART.

  8. Correction to: Association of adiposity with hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis.

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ono, Kota; Akizawa, Tadao; Nitta, Kosaku; Hishida, Akira

    2018-02-06

    The article Association of adiposity with hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis, written by Hirokazu Honda, Kota Ono, Tadao Akizawa, Kosaku Nitta and Akira Hishida, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently springerlink) on November 4, 2017 without open access. With the author(s)' decision to opt for Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on February 6, 2018 to © The Author(s) [2017] and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The original article was corrected.

  9. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  10. Racial Contrasts in Hemoglobin Levels and Dietary Patterns Related to Hematopoiesis in Children: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Racial differences in hemoglobin were explored in pre-adolescent and adolescent children. After controlling for variations in dietary patterns, race accounted for a notable proportion of hemoglobin variance in both age groups. These differences exist independently of nutrient intake and maturational changes. (Author/VM)

  11. Evaluation of the effect of hemoglobin or hematocrit level on dural sinus density using unenhanced computed tomography.

    Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Ick

    2013-01-01

    To identify the relationship between hemoglobin (Hgb) or hematocrit (Hct) level and dural sinus density using unenhanced computed tomography (UECT). Patients who were performed UECT and had records of a complete blood count within 24 hours from UECT were included (n=122). We measured the Hounsfield unit (HU) of the dural sinus at the right sigmoid sinus, left sigmoid sinus and 2 points of the superior sagittal sinus. Quantitative measurement of dural sinus density using the circle regions of interest (ROI) method was calculated as average ROI values at 3 or 4 points. Simple regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between mean HU and Hgb or mean HU and Hct. The mean densities of the dural sinuses ranged from 24.67 to 53.67 HU (mean, 43.28 HU). There was a strong correlation between mean density and Hgb level (r=0.832) and between mean density and Hct level (r=0.840). Dural sinus density on UECT is closely related to Hgb and Hct levels. Therefore, the Hgb or Hct levels can be used to determine whether the dural sinus density is within the normal range or pathological conditions such as venous thrombosis.

  12. Modification of hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after 45Ca internal irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of MPG has been studied on the hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes after injecting radiocalcium ( 45 Ca) at the dose level of 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was injected 15-30 minutes before 45 Ca injection at dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice following 45 Ca internal irradiation. (author)

  13. The effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Zen Rahfiludin, M; Ginandjar, Praba

    2013-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax infection in humans can relapse and is associated with iron deficiency. The immune response plays an important role in preventing relapse. In this study we analyzed the effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with P. vivax malaria. We measured immune response by examining interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Subjects were divided into either treatment or control groups. The treatment group received daily zinc and vitamin C supplementation for 45 days. Compliance with supplement consumption was recorded weekly. After 45 days of supplementation, IFN-gamma and IL-1 levels were remeasured. All study subjects in both groups had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The hemoglobin levels increased only in the supplementation group (p=0.011), while hematocrit levels increased in both the supplementation (p=0.001) and control (p=0.023) groups. IFN-gamma decreased slightly in the supplementation group, but the change was not significant (p=0.688). IL-10 increased slightly in both the supplementation and the control groups, but the change were not significant (p=0.421 and p=0.556, respectively), suggesting the elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were unrelated to immune response.

  14. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    Michiko Koda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods: The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers and their visceral fat area (VFA (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2. Results: The serum triglyceride (TG levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3% exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4% and non-smokers (18.8%. The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9% and former smokers (14.9% demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%. In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions: Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  15. Nitrosylated hemoglobin levels in human venous erythrocytes correlate with vascular endothelial function measured by digital reactive hyperemia.

    Irina I Lobysheva

    Full Text Available Impaired nitric oxide (NO-dependent endothelial function is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that erythrocyte levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin (HbNO-heme may reflect vascular endothelial function in vivo. We developed a modified subtraction method using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy to identify the 5-coordinate α-HbNO (HbNO concentration in human erythrocytes and examined its correlation with endothelial function assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT. Changes in digital pulse amplitude were measured by PAT during reactive hyperemia following brachial arterial occlusion in a group of healthy volunteers (50 subjects. Erythrocyte HbNO levels were measured at baseline and at the peak of hyperemia. We digitally subtracted an individual model EPR signal of erythrocyte free radicals from the whole EPR spectrum to unmask and quantitate the HbNO EPR signals.Mean erythrocyte HbNO concentration at baseline was 219+/-12 nmol/L (n = 50. HbNO levels and reactive hyperemia (RH indexes were higher in female (free of contraceptive pills than male subjects. We observed a dynamic increase of HbNO levels in erythrocytes isolated at 1-2 min of post-occlusion hyperemia (120+/-8% of basal levels; post-occlusion HbNO levels were correlated with basal levels. Both basal and post-occlusion HbNO levels were significantly correlated with reactive hyperemia (RH indexes (r = 0.58; P<0.0001 for basal HbNO.The study demonstrates quantitative measurements of 5-coordinate α-HbNO in human venous erythrocytes, its dynamic physiologic regulation and correlation with endothelial function measured by tonometry during hyperemia. This opens the way to further understanding of in vivo determinants of NO bioavailability in human circulation.

  16. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  17. Sun-dried cowpeas and amaranth leaves recipe improves β-carotene and retinol levels in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children.

    Nawiri, Mildred P; Nyambaka, Hudson; Murungi, Jane I

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia are major challenges among children and expecting and lactating mothers in developing countries. Intervention with locally available dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) is more sustainable to eradicate VAD, being cost-effective and readily adaptable to local communities. DGLV contain high levels of iron and β-carotene (BC) and therefore useful in fighting VAD and anemia. Since DGLVs are season-dependent sun-drying enables their availability during low seasons. However, their contribution to the bioavailability of BC and the improvement of hemoglobin are not well understood. The study therefore investigated the effect of consuming cooked recipe consisting of sun-dried amaranth and cowpea leaves on the levels of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin in preschool children from Machakos District, a semiarid region in Kenya. Vegetables were purchased from local vegetable market, with some sun-dried in an open shade. Levels of BC and retinol in serum and BC in fresh and processed vegetables were determined by a HPLC method and hemoglobin using a portable Hemocue Analyzer. All-trans-BC levels in uncooked fresh cowpea and amaranth leaves were 806.0 μg/g and 599.0 μg/g dry matter, respectively, while the dehydration and cooking processes retained the β-carotene levels at over 60 %. Consumption of the dehydrated vegetables significantly improved both serum BC and retinol levels (p < 0.05), while the baseline hemoglobin levels improved by 4.6 %. The study has shown that intervention with locally available sun-dried vegetables improves the bioavailability of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin levels among preschool children.

  18. Association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with Iinsulin ...

    Material and Methods: This study included 70 obese and 60 normal weight healthy children between the ages of 3 and 15. ... Plasma glucose levels were measured by the glucose oxidase method. Plasma ... resistance, a condition that can cause diabetes mellitus ... resistance was estimated by using the homeostasis.

  19. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...

  20. Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with normal and altered glycated hemoglobin levels in two regions in Brazil

    Natalia Pimentel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco. A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars; bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103. There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  1. [Levels of anemia and hemoglobin in pregnant adolescents who attended health care facilities of Ministry of Health of Peru, 2009-2012].

    Munares-García, Oscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To determine hemoglobin levels and anemia in pregnant adolescents who attended the health care facilities of the Ministry of Health of Peru between the years 2009 and 2012. Cross-sectional study of secondary data analysis using the Information System of the Nutritional Status of Children and Pregnant Women (SIEN). 265,788 records of pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years were reviewed. Hemoglobin levels (g/dL) and the percentage of anemia in the first, second and third trimesters were measured. Descriptive statistics with confidence intervals at 95% were applied. 3.4% of pregnant women were aged 10 to 14 years (early adolescence), 21.6% between 15 to 16 years (middle adolescence) and 75% between 17 to 19 years (late adolescence). Hemoglobin levels in pregnant adolescents were 11.6 ± 1.3 g/dL in 2009 and 11.5 ± 1.3 g/dL during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. The overall incidence of anemia for 2009 was 25.1% (95% CI 24.4-25.8); for 2010 was 26.0% (95% CI 25.3-26.6) for 2011 was 26.4% (95% CI 25.8-27.1) and 25.2% for 2012 (95% CI 24.6-25.9). Hemoglobin levels were on average lower for pregnant residents in high Andean areas. About a quarter of pregnant adolescents in our sample had anemia.

  2. Retrospective review of hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels with occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    Fullmer, Amber C; Miller, Rickey

    2009-09-01

    No data exists that directly compares hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between cancer patients with and without occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). To determine the association of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels with the occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with ESAs. A retrospective case-control study approved by the Institutional Review Board was conducted on cancer patients billed for epoetin or darbepoetin between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2007. Cases were defined as patients billed for thrombosis while controls were defined as patients not billed for thrombosis. Sixteen patients had an occurrence of thrombosis (cases) and were matched to 16 patients that did not have an occurrence of thrombosis (controls) based on age, sex, and cancer type. The mean peak hemoglobin levels for cases and controls were 12.6 +/- 1.2 g/dL versus 12.6 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p = 0.9). The mean peak hematocrit levels for cases and controls were 37.3 +/- 3.8% versus 37.9 +/- 4.3% (p = 0.8). For the 16/586 (2.7%) patients with thrombosis, the mean hemoglobin and hematocrit at time of thrombosis were 9.6 +/- 1.0 g/dL and 28.9 +/- 3.1%. A significant identifiable risk factor for thrombosis between the cases and controls was history of thrombosis 31.3% versus 0% (p = 0.04). There was no statistical difference in peak hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between patients with thrombosis and those without thrombosis. Further study is warranted to determine if these levels are true risk factors for thrombosis.

  3. Is hemoglobin A1c level effective in predicting the prognosis of Fournier gangrene?

    Sen, Haluk; Bayrak, Omer; Erturhan, Sakip; Borazan, Ersin; Koc, Mustafa Nihat

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of immune failure and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) association on the mortality and morbidity of the Fournier's Gangrene (FG), and interrelatedly, the usability of HbA1c level in the prediction of prognosis. The data of 38 patients with the diagnosis of FG were investigated retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as patients with DM (Group 1, n = 18) and non-diabetics (Group 2, n = 20). The patients in group 1 were also divided into two subgroups as patients with HbA1c value ≥7 (Group 1a) and HbA1c value 38°C) (n = 22, 57.8%), purulent discharge from genital or perineal areas (n = 13, 34.2%), skin bruises (n = 11, 28.9%) and general state disorder in five patients that were admitted from day care center (13.1%). DM, as the most often comorbid disease, was detected in 18 patients (47.3%). Six patients (15.7%) were deceased during the follow-up period. In the present study, the researchers determined that diabetic patients with HbA1c level of 7 or higher had worse prognosis, and increased mortality.

  4. GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING HEMOGLOBIN F LEVEL IN β-THALASSEMIA/HB E DISEASE.

    Ruangrai, Waraporn; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors influencing Hb F content in adult red blood cells include β-thalassemia genotypes, co-inheritance of α-thalassemia traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping of α- and β-thalassemia and five SNPs in β-globin gene cluster previously identified in genome-wide association studies as being markers of elevated Hb F in β-thalassemia were performed in 81 subjects diagnosed with β-thalassemia/Hb E. Hb F levels are higher (0.9-7.1 g/dl) in subjects (n = 57) with the severe compared to mild β-thalassemia (0.8-2.5 g/ dl) (n = 4) genotypes, and are similarly low (0.7-3.5 g/dl) in those (n = 15) with α-thalassemia co-inheritance. Hb F levels in non-thalassemia controls (n = 150) range from 0 to 0.15 g/dl. The presence of homozygous minor alleles of the 5 SNPs are significant indicators of β-thalassemia/Hb E individuals with high Hb F (> 4 g/dl), independent of their thalassemia genotypes. Given that re-activation of γ-globin genes leads to amelioration of β-thalassemia severity, understanding how genetic factors up-regulate Hb F production may lead to possible therapeutic interventions, genetically or pharmacologically, of this debilitating disease in the not too distant future.

  5. [Levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the difference in the cost of health care for diabetic patients: an econometric study].

    Lenz, Rony; Zarate, Aldo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ramírez, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Complications increase treatment costs of diabetes mellitus (DM). An adequate metabolic control of the disease could reduce these costs. To evaluate the costs of medical care for a cohort of patients with DM, according to their degree of metabolic compensation. All diabetic patients attended in a regional hospital from 2005 to 2010 were analyzed. A correlational study between costs of individual healthcare and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), was performed in a series of annual cross-sectional measurements. The study comprised 1,644 diabetic patients. During the study period the average cost of healthcare per patient increased from $878,000 to more than $1,000,000 Chilean pesos (CLP) during the study period. The percentage of patients with HbA1c levels below 7.0% varied between 43.0% and 54.9%. Costs for patients with HbA1c levels between 7 and 8.9% were 1.3 to 1.5 times greater. For the group of patients with HbA1c levels between 9 and 10.9% the costs increased 1.4 to 1.6 times. For patients with HbA1c levels greater than 11.0%, healthcare costs doubled. Healthcare expenditure varied according to metabolic control, which is consistent with international findings. This study was limited by its selected population, incomplete information on health expenditures, and the inclusion of only direct costs to the health system. If all patients would achieve metabolic compensation, the yearly savings would be CLP $308,000,000 (or USD $657,000).

  6. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors lower hemoglobin and hematocrit only in renal transplant recipients with initially higher levels.

    Mikolasevic, I; Zaputovic, L; Zibar, L; Begic, I; Zutelija, M; Klanac, A; Majurec, I; Simundic, T; Minazek, M; Orlic, L

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels as well as on the evaluation of kidney graft function in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in respect with initially higher or lower Hb and Htc values. The study group comprised of 270 RTRs with stable graft function. Besides other prescribed antihypertensive therapy, 169 of them have been taking RAAS inhibitors. We wanted to analyze the effect of the use of RAAS inhibitors on Hb and Htc in patients with initially higher or lower Hb/Htc values. For this analysis, only RTRs that were taking RAAS inhibitors were stratified into two groups: one with higher Hb and Htc (initial Hb≥150g/L and Htc≥45%) and another one with lower Hb and Htc (initial Hb<150g/L and Htc<45%) values. Thirty-four RTRs with initially higher Hb and 41 RTRs with initially higher Htc had a statistically significant decrease in Hb (p=0.006) and Htc (p<0.0001) levels after 12-months of follow-up. In the group of patients with initially lower Hb (135 RTRs) and Htc (128 RTRs) there was a significant increase in Hb (p=0.0001) and Htc (p=0.004) levels through the observed period. The use of RAAS inhibitors has been associated with a trend of slowing renal insufficiency in RTRs (p=0.03). RAAS inhibitors lower Hb and Htc only in RTRs with initially higher levels. In patients with initially lower Hb and Htc levels, the use of these drugs is followed by beneficial impact on erythropoiesis and kidney graft function. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  8. Hemoglobin C disease

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  9. Therapeutic hemoglobin levels after gene transfer in β-thalassemia mice and in hematopoietic cells of β-thalassemia and sickle cells disease patients.

    Laura Breda

    Full Text Available Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate the feasibility of treating β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD by lentiviral-mediated transfer of the human β-globin gene. However, previous studies have not addressed whether the ability of lentiviral vectors to increase hemoglobin synthesis might vary in different patients.We generated lentiviral vectors carrying the human β-globin gene with and without an ankyrin insulator and compared their ability to induce hemoglobin synthesis in vitro and in thalassemic mice. We found that insertion of an ankyrin insulator leads to higher, potentially therapeutic levels of human β-globin through a novel mechanism that links the rate of transcription of the transgenic β-globin mRNA during erythroid differentiation with polysomal binding and efficient translation, as reported here for the first time. We also established a preclinical assay to test the ability of this novel vector to synthesize adult hemoglobin in erythroid precursors and in CD34(+ cells isolated from patients affected by β-thalassemia and SCD. Among the thalassemic patients, we identified a subset of specimens in which hemoglobin production can be achieved using fewer copies of the vector integrated than in others. In SCD specimens the treatment with AnkT9W ameliorates erythropoiesis by increasing adult hemoglobin (Hb A and concurrently reducing the sickling tetramer (Hb S.Our results suggest two major findings. First, we discovered that for the purpose of expressing the β-globin gene the ankyrin element is particularly suitable. Second, our analysis of a large group of specimens from β-thalassemic and SCD patients indicates that clinical trials could benefit from a simple test to predict the relationship between the number of vector copies integrated and the total amount of hemoglobin produced in the erythroid cells of prospective patients. This approach would provide vital information to select the best candidates for these

  10. Is hemoglobin A1c level effective in predicting the prognosis of Fournier gangrene?

    Haluk Sen

    2016-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The data of 38 patients with the diagnosis of FG were investigated retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as patients with DM (Group 1, n = 18 and non-diabetics (Group 2, n = 20. The patients in group 1 were also divided into two subgroups as patients with HbA1c value ≥7 (Group 1a and HbA1c value 38°C (n = 22, 57.8%, purulent discharge from genital or perineal areas (n = 13, 34.2%, skin bruises (n = 11, 28.9% and general state disorder in five patients that were admitted from day care center (13.1%. DM, as the most often comorbid disease, was detected in 18 patients (47.3%. Six patients (15.7% were deceased during the follow-up period. Conclusion: In the present study, the researchers determined that diabetic patients with HbA1c level of 7 or higher had worse prognosis, and increased mortality.

  11. Correlations of Hemoglobin Level and Perioperative Blood Transfusion with the Prognosis of Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dai-Yang; Duan, Yu-Han; Zhang, Ying-Qiong; Cui, Xian-Nian; Luo, Zheng

    2017-05-23

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the correlations of hemoglobin level (Hb) and perioperative blood transfusion with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study consisted of 210 patients with GC who all received a D2 radical operation. These patients were assigned into three groups: 68 cases in group A (blood transfusion >5 U); 59 cases in group B (blood transfusion blood transfusion). A 5-year follow-up was conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival of the patients. Univariate analysis was performed to reveal the relationship between the indicators and the patients with GC. Kaplan-Meier method was employed to analyze the survival rate of patients, and Cox regression analysis was applied to determine the independent prognostic factors of GC. RESULTS The univariate analysis indicated that age, perioperative blood transfusion amount, TNM staging, maximal tumor diameter, differentiation degree and invasion degree were associated with the prognosis of GC. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the disease-free survival rate was declined in the patients who were older, those received more amount of blood transfusion, those in advanced TNM staging, those had larger tumor diameter, and those with decreased degree of differentiation and invasion. Cox regression analysis indicated that perioperative blood transfusion, maximal tumor diameter and invasion degree were the independent factors affecting disease-free survival of the GC. CONCLUSIONS Our study revealed that large amount of perioperative blood transfusion leads to poor prognosis of GC.

  12. The effects of malaria and HIV co-infection on hemoglobin levels among pregnant women in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana.

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Acquah, Samuel; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2013-03-01

    To assess the burden of maternal malaria and HIV among pregnant women in Ghana and to determine the risk of anemia among women with dual infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 4 hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana. The study group comprised 872 consenting pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics. Venous blood samples were screened for malaria, HIV, and hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between malaria, HIV, and risk of anemia. In all, 34.4% of the study cohort had anemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant women with either malaria (odds ratio 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.77; P=HIV (odds ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.80; P=0.014) had an increased risk of anemia. In adjusted models, pregnant women co-infected with both malaria and HIV displayed twice the risk of anemia. The adjusted odds ratio was 2.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.97; P=0.002). Pregnant women infected with both malaria and HIV are twice as likely to be anemic than women with a single infection or no infection. Measures to control malaria, HIV, and anemia during pregnancy are imperative to improve birth outcomes in this region of Ghana. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the prevalence of Hemoglobin A1C level di sorder in women affected with polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS at Imam Ali Hospital, Karaj

    Maryam Amin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PCOS in commonly associated with metabolic disorders, therefore it, is reasonable and timely action to identify and manage the disorders. Accordingly in this study we decided to determine, the prevalence of abnormal hemoglobin A1C levels in women with signs and symptoms at PCOS .so 50 women with PCOS, based on clinical symptoms and laboratory results, were studied. Then hemoglobin A1C levels were assessed (by a blood test. The data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Chi-Square test didn't show the significant relationship between BMI and HbA1C levels (P>0.05. Chi-Square test didn't show the significant relationship between age and HbA1C levels (P>0.05. Independent T-test showed, there is significant relationship between fasting blood glucose and HbA1C levels (P<0.05.

  14. Relationship between Hemoglobin Levels Corrected by Interdialytic Weight Gain and Mortality in Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study

    Iwakiri, Takashi; Sato, Yuji; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Although hemoglobin (Hb) levels are affected by a change in the body fluid status, the relationship between Hb levels and mortality while taking interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) at blood sampling into account has not yet been examined in hemodialysis patients. Study design Cohort study. Setting, Participants Data from the Miyazaki Dialysis cohort study, including 1375 prevalent hemodialysis patients (median age (interquartile range), 69 (60–77) years, 42.3% female). Predictor Patients were divided into 5 categories according to baseline Hb levels and two groups based on the median value of IDWG rates at blood sampling at pre-HD on the first dialysis session of the week. Outcomes All-cause and cardiovascular mortalities during a 3-year follow-up. Measurements Hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox model for the relationship between Hb categories and mortality, and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, dialysis duration, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage, Kt/V, comorbid conditions, anti-hypertensive drug use, serum albumin, serum C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, and serum intact parathyroid hormone. Patients with Hb levels of 9–9.9 g/dL were set as our reference category. Results A total of 246 patients (18%) died of all-cause mortality, including 112 cardiovascular deaths. Lower Hb levels (<9.0g/dL) were associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HRs 2.043 [95% CI, 1.347–3.009]), while Hb levels were not associated with cardiovascular mortality. When patients were divided into two groups using the median value of IDWG rates (high IDWG, ≥5.4% and low IDWG, <5.4%), the correlation between lower Hb levels and all-cause mortality disappeared in high IDWG patients, but was maintained in low IDWG patients (adjusted HRs 3.058 [95% CI,1.575–5.934]). On the other hand, higher Hb levels (≥12g/dL) were associated with cardiovascular mortality in high IDWG patients (adjusted HRs 2.724 [95% CI, 1.010–7.349]), but not in low

  15. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    Rades, Dirk; Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p 1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results

  16. The Association of Increased Total Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels with Delayed Age at Menarche in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    Danielson, Kirstie K.; Palta, Mari; Allen, Catherine; D’Alessio, Donn J.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed menarche is associated with subsequent reproductive and skeletal complications. Previous research has found delayed growth and pubertal maturation with type 1 diabetes and with poor glycemic control. The effect of diabetes management on menarche is important to clarify because tighter control might prevent these complications. Objective: To investigate age at menarche in young women with type 1 diabetes, and examine the effect of diabetes management (e.g. total glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) level, number of blood glucose checks, insulin therapy intensity, insulin dose) on age at menarche in those diagnosed before menarche. Design: The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Project is a follow-up study of a type 1 diabetes population-based incident cohort initially enrolled 1987 – 1992. Setting: Twenty-eight counties in south-central Wisconsin. Patients or Other Participants: Recruited through referrals, self-report, and hospital/clinic ascertainment. Individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, <30 years old, were invited to participate. Of 288 young women enrolled, 188 reported menarche by 2002; 105 were diagnosed before menarche. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Age at menarche. Results: Mean age at menarche was 12.78 years, compared to 12.54 years in the United States (p = 0.01). Ages at menarche and diagnosis were not associated. For those diagnosed before menarche, age at menarche was delayed 1.3 months with each one percent increase in mean total GHb level in the three years prior to menarche. Conclusions: Age at menarche was moderately delayed in young women with type 1 diabetes. Delayed menarche could potentially be minimized with improved GHb levels. PMID:16204372

  17. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students.

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during

  18. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1±0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7±0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb

  19. Study on the relationship between blood levels of growth hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin and micro-vascular nephropathy in patients with diabetes

    Cai Facheng; Yao Yingfei; Zhang Jinchi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between blood levels of growth hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin and micro-vascular nephropathy in patients with diabetes. Methods: Blood growth hormone and β 2 -m levels were determined with RIA and GH2 bA 1C , blood glucose were determined with biochemical method in 41 diabetic patients and 32 controls. Results: The blood levels of growth hormone, glycosylated hemoglobin, β 2 -microglobulin and fasting blood glucose in the patients with diabetes well controlled (n=22) were significantly higher than those in controls and levels in patients with diabetes poorly controlled (n=19) were again significantly higher than those in patients with diabetes well controlled (P 2 -microglobulin and fasting blood glucose is very important for early detection of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  20. The Relationship between Serum Hemoglobin and Creatinine Levels and Intra-Hospital Mortality and Morbidity in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Afsoon Fazlinezhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR and Hemoglobin (Hb concentrations are two predictive values for ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (MI mortality.. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between GFR and Hb concentrations and intra-hospital mortality and electrocardiographic (ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities in ST-elevation MI patients admitted to a highly equipped hospital in Mashhad. The results will help define some factors to manage these patients more efficiently.. Patients and Methods: This descriptive study aimed to assess the relationship between Hb and GFR concentrations and mortality and morbidity among 294 randomly selected patients with ST-elevation MI. Echocardiography, ECG, and routine laboratory tests, including Hb and creatinine, were performed for all the patients. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 16 and were analyzed using chi-square, t-test, and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.. Results: Intra-hospital mortality rate was 10.5%. Besides, the results showed higher levels of serum blood sugar (P < 0.001, higher levels of creatinine (P < 0.001, lower levels of GFR (P < 0.001, lower ejection fraction (P < 0.001, higher grades of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.002, and lower mean Hb concentration (P = 0.022 in the dead compared to the alive cases. Besides, the patients with mechanical complications had lower Hb levels (P = 0.008. The results showed no significant relationship between creatinine level and mechanical and electrical complications (P = 0.430 and P = 0.095, respectively. However, ejection fraction was significantly associated with GFR (P = 0.016.. Conclusions: According to the results, low levels of Hb and GFR could predict mortality caused by ST-elevation MI and ECG abnormalities could notify intra-hospital death. Moreover, lower Hb levels were associated with mechanical

  1. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism

    McClain, Donald A.; Abuelgasim, Khadega A.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E.; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M.Celeste; Huang, Jingyu; Simcox, Judith A.; Yoon, Donghoon; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2012-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHLR200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wildtype VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHLR200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHLR200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc but not Pdk2 was decreased and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1 and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:23015148

  2. Low Levels of Hemoglobin at Admission Are Associated With Increased 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Hip Fracture

    Praetorius, Katrine; Madsen, Christian M; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous smaller studies suggest that anemia is a risk factor for mortality in patients with hip fracture. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the correlation between hemoglobin at admission with 30-day mortality following a hip fracture in a large-scale study. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2012, all patients with hip fracture (>60 years of age) admitted to Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, were identified from a local hip fracture database. We excluded conservatively treated patients and patients who died preoperatively. RESULTS: Seven thousand four...... hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with hip fracture were identified. Of those 7319 had a hemoglobin measurement on admission and were thus eligible for further analysis. Mean hemoglobin for patients alive at 30 days was 7.6 (standard deviation [SD]: 1.0) and for deceased patients 7.4 (SD: 1.1), P...

  3. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    ... Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may ...

  4. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  5. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = -0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = -0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations.

  6. Highly Selective Fluorescence Determination of the Hematin Level in Human Erythrocytes with No Need for Separation from Bulk Hemoglobin.

    Ji, Lijuan; Chen, Li; Wu, Ping; Gervasio, Dominic F; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-04-05

    Hematin-induced fluorescence quenching of boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) allows for determination of hematin concentration in human erythrocytes with no need for separating hematin from hemoglobin before performing the assay. The BGQDs are made by oxidizing a graphite anode by holding the voltage between a graphite rod and a Pt cathode at 3 V for 2 h in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The fluorescence intensity of BGQDs is measurable in real time, and its quenching is very sensitive to the concentration of hematin in the system but not to other coexisting biological substances. The analytical signal is defined as ΔF = 1 - F/F0, where F0 and F are the fluorescence intensities of the BGQDs before and after interaction with hematin, respectively. There is a good linear relationship between ΔF and hematin concentration, ranging from 0.01 to 0.92 μM, with the limit of detection (LOD) being ∼0.005 ± 0.001 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This new method is sensitive, label-free, simple, and inexpensive, and many tedious procedures related to sample separation and preparation can be omitted, implying that this method has potential for applications in clinical examinations and disease diagnoses. For example, the determination of the hematin levels in two kind of red blood cell samples, healthy human and sickle cell erythrocytes, gives average concentrations of hematin of ∼(23.1 ± 4.9) μM (average of five samples) for healthy red cell cytosols and ∼(52.5 ± 9.5) μM (average of two samples) for sickle red cell cytosols.

  7. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

    Anika Reinbott

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and retinol binding protein (RBP were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%. Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.German Clinical Trials

  8. Cerebral oxygen transport failure?: decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after ischemic stroke predict poor outcome and mortality: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of hemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Kellert, Lars; Martin, Evgenia; Sykora, Marek; Bauer, Harald; Gussmann, Philipp; Diedler, Jennifer; Herweh, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten; Bösel, Julian

    2011-10-01

    Although conceivably relevant for penumbra oxygenation, the optimal levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are unknown. We identified patients from our prospective local stroke database who received intravenous thrombolysis based on multimodal magnet resonance imaging during the years 1998 to 2009. A favorable outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score≤2 and a poor outcome as a modified Rankin Scale score≥3. The dynamics of Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and other relevant laboratory parameters as well as cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively assessed and analyzed between these 2 groups. Of 217 patients, 114 had a favorable and 103 a poor outcome. In a multivariable regression model, anemia until day 5 after admission (odds ratio [OR]=2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.11; P=0.005), Hb nadir (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.99; P=0.038), and Hct nadir (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.038) remained independent predictors for poor outcome at 3 months. Mortality after 3 months was independently associated with Hb nadir (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; P=0.028) and Hb decrease (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.76; P=0.04) as well as Hct decrease (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.027). Poor outcome and mortality after ischemic stroke are strongly associated with low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels. This decrease of Hb and Hct levels after admission might be more relevant and accessible to treatment than are baseline levels.

  9. Change in Hemoglobin Levels due to Anesthesia in Mice: An Important Confounder in Studies on Hematopoietic Drugs

    Gothelf, Anita; Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Analgesic and anesthetic drugs may have an impact on the results achieved from animal experiments. In the study presented here, we try to enlighten whether anesthesia with fentanyl/fluniasone and midazolam (Hypnorm and Dormicum) has an influence on measurements of hemoglobin in mice. In a cross...

  10. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls

    Padma Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis is associated with a slight elevation in glycosylated hemoglobin (lab and chair side kit and that the clinical significance of this difference remains to be determined. This preliminary finding is consistent with earlier reports that chronic periodontitis is associated with elevated blood glucose in adults without diabetes and may increase one′s risk for type-2 diabetes.

  11. The impact of the treatment method on intradialytic intercurrences and serum levels of hemoglobin, calcium and albumin of the person with chronic kidney disease

    JOAQUIM CARREIRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introdution: The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease has led to the development of renal function replacement techniques as a treatment for individuals with the disease. Hemodialysis (HD is the most commonly used method for the treatment of patients with the disease. Even if it has improved a lot, the intercurrences during dialysis continue to be a reality. The literature is not consensual when it relates the modalities of treatment and the benefits and harms associated with them. If on the one hand there is evidence that hemodiafiltration (HDF has fewer implications for patients than hemodialysis, others do not show significant differences when comparing the two treatment modalities. Methods: A prospective, comparative, quasi-experimental study was developed over a period of 8 months to determine if there were differences in the number of intercurrences and serum levels of calcium, albumin and hemoglobin observed in each treatment modality, HD versus HDF. Results and discussion: The data obtained show that there are no statistically significant differences in the number of intercurrences and serum levels of calcium, albumin and hemoglobin observed in each treatment modality. Conclusions: It was not possible to determine which of the treatment modalities is associated with major/minor intradialytic intercurrences or serum levels of hemoglobin, calcium and albumin.

  12. Effects of school-based deworming on hemoglobin level, growth development and school performance of primary school children in North Sumatera

    Pasaribu, A. P.; Angellee, J.; Pasaribu, S.

    2018-03-01

    Worm infestation is mainly caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infecting one-third of the world’s population, where the most affected are primary school children. This chronic, long-lasting infection can affect the growth aspects in children. A school-based deworming is one of the treatments recommended by WHO to counterattack worm infection in primary school children. To evaluate the effect of school-based deworming on the hemoglobin level, growth and school performance of primary school children, an open randomized clinical trial was conducted on 165 targeted populations in SukaKaro village, North Sumatra; 156 of which were then chosen based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The samples’ feces- sampling, hemoglobin level, and growth chart data were recorded on the first day of study before any treatment was given. They were then divided into two groups; the first group of 80 samples did not receive any treatment, while the second group of 76 samples received 400mg of albendazole as part of a school-based deworming program. The samples were being followed up after sixth months of study. In conclusion, albendazole is able to improve the hemoglobin level, growth development, and school performance of the samples, although there were no significant differences between the two groups.

  13. [Effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin levels and anthropometric indicators in children from five districts in Huánuco Peru].

    Vargas-Vásquez, Alejandro; Bado, Ricardo; Alcázar, Lorena; Aquino, Oscar; Rodríguez, Amelia; Novalbos, José Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives . To determine the effect of consumption of a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on hemoglobin levels, anemia and anthropometric indicators in children aged six to eleven months old in five districts in the province of Ambo in the region of Huanuco, Peru. A pre-experimental, pre-post study was performed. The study population included children aged six to eleven months old in 19 health facilities in five districts with very high vulnerability to chronic malnutrition in the province of Ambo, Huanuco. Data from 147 children who received the lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) from six to eleven months old were obtained. The mean hemoglobin significantly increased by 0.67 g/dL (panemia dropped by 27 percentage points (panemia in children under twelve months, which might constitute an effective alternative to prevent and control childhood anemia.

  14. Prognostic impact of hemoglobin level and other factors in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy and sequential chemotherapy based on temozolomide. A 10-year experience at a single institution

    Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta; Buonaguidi, Roberto; Galzio, Renato J.; Di Nicola, Marta

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

  15. Study of 222Rn emanation levels present in naturally occurring radioactive materials - NORM

    Miranda, Marcia Valeria F.E. Sa; Crispim, Verginia Reis; Lima, Clara Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas installations, is usual in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. The segregation of contaminated residues although necessary, is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the installation with controlled access. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scales are mixtures of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO 4 ), that easily incorporate 226 Ra and 228 Ra in their structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of α particle tracks emanated by 222 Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Since the number of those tracks resulted proportional to the emanation rate of 222 Rn this methodology allowed the comparison of contamination levels in analyzed samples. (author)

  16. Study of the emanation levels of 222Rn present in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - NORM

    Miranda, Marcia Valeria de Fatima da Encarnacao Sa

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas facilities, is a common fact in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. Thus, contaminated residues need to be segregated but, this is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the facility whose access is controlled. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scale is a mixture of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO 4 ), that easily incorporates 226 Ra and 228 Ra in its structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in these NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of particle alpha tracks emanated by 222 Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Being that the emanation rate of 222 Rn was proportional to the number of these tracks the methodology permitted the comparison of contamination levels of the analyzed samples. (author)

  17. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  18. The Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A), Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Cutoff Points in Double Heterozygous Hb E/- -SEA α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers are Dependent on Hemoglobin Levels.

    Leckngam, Prapapun; Limweeraprajak, Ektong; Kiewkarnkha, Tiemjan; Tatu, Thanusak

    2017-01-01

    Identifying double heterozygosities in Hb E (HBB: c.79 G>A)/- - SEA (Southeast Asian) (α-thalassemia-1) (α-thal-1) in patients first diagnosed as carrying Hb E is important in thalassemia control. Low Hb E, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) levels have been observed in this double heterozygosity. However, the cutoff points of these parameters have never been systematically established. Here, we analyzed Hb E and red blood cell (RBC) parameters in 372 Hb E patients grouped by Hb levels, by the status of - - SEA and -α 3.7 (α-thal-2; rightward) deletions, to establish the cutoff points. Then, the established cutoff points were evaluated in 184 Hb E patients. It was found that the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV, MCH were significantly dependent on the Hb levels. In the group having Hb levels Hb E, MCV and MCH were 21.2%, 64.9 fL and 21.0 pg, respectively, and were 25.6%, 72.8 fL and 23.9 pg, respectively, in the group having Hb levels 10.0-11.9 g/dL. Finally, in the group having Hb levels ≥12.0 g/dL, the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV and MCH were 27.1%, 76.7 fL and 25.3 pg, respectively. Thus, to screen for the double heterozygous Hb E/- - SEA anomaly in patients initially diagnosed as carrying Hb E, the Hb levels must be taken into account in choosing the suitable cutoff points of these three parameters.

  19. Modification of postnatal hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after gamma radiation in utero by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    Goyal, P.K.; Kumar, S.; Dev, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were irradiated with oamma radiation at post-conception days 14.5, 16.25 and 18.25. Hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of the male offsprings were found to be below normal during the early postnatal development. The value became normal from 4 week onwards. However these values were found to be significantly elevated in the early postnatal development of the male offsprings of the mice which were administered MPG before irradiation. The possible radioprotective mechanism of MPG is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  20. Impact of Hemoglobin Levels and Anemia on Mortality in Acute Stroke: Analysis of UK Regional Registry Data, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Barlas, Raphae S; Honney, Katie; Loke, Yoon K; McCall, Stephen J; Bettencourt-Silva, Joao H; Clark, Allan B; Bowles, Kristian M; Metcalf, Anthony K; Mamas, Mamas A; Potter, John F; Myint, Phyo K

    2016-08-17

    The impact of hemoglobin levels and anemia on stroke mortality remains controversial. We aimed to systematically assess this association and quantify the evidence. We analyzed data from a cohort of 8013 stroke patients (mean±SD, 77.81±11.83 years) consecutively admitted over 11 years (January 2003 to May 2015) using a UK Regional Stroke Register. The impact of hemoglobin levels and anemia on mortality was assessed by sex-specific values at different time points (7 and 14 days; 1, 3, and 6 months; 1 year) using multiple regression models controlling for confounders. Anemia was present in 24.5% of the cohort on admission and was associated with increased odds of mortality at most of the time points examined up to 1 year following stroke. The association was less consistent for men with hemorrhagic stroke. Elevated hemoglobin was also associated with increased mortality, mainly within the first month. We then conducted a systematic review using the Embase and Medline databases. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. When combined with the cohort from the current study, the pooled population had 29 943 patients with stroke. The evidence base was quantified in a meta-analysis. Anemia on admission was found to be associated with an increased risk of mortality in both ischemic stroke (8 studies; odds ratio 1.97 [95% CI 1.57-2.47]) and hemorrhagic stroke (4 studies; odds ratio 1.46 [95% CI 1.23-1.74]). Strong evidence suggests that patients with anemia have increased mortality with stroke. Targeted interventions in this patient population may improve outcomes and require further evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Modulation of the human gut microbiota by dietary fibres occurs at the species level.

    Chung, Wing Sun Faith; Walker, Alan W; Louis, Petra; Parkhill, Julian; Vermeiren, Joan; Bosscher, Douwina; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2016-01-11

    Dietary intake of specific non-digestible carbohydrates (including prebiotics) is increasingly seen as a highly effective approach for manipulating the composition and activities of the human gut microbiota to benefit health. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about the global response of the microbial community to particular carbohydrates. Recent in vivo dietary studies have demonstrated that the species composition of the human faecal microbiota is influenced by dietary intake. There is now potential to gain insights into the mechanisms involved by using in vitro systems that produce highly controlled conditions of pH and substrate supply. We supplied two alternative non-digestible polysaccharides as energy sources to three different human gut microbial communities in anaerobic, pH-controlled continuous-flow fermentors. Community analysis showed that supply of apple pectin or inulin resulted in the highly specific enrichment of particular bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on 16S rRNA gene sequences). Of the eight most abundant Bacteroides OTUs detected, two were promoted specifically by inulin and six by pectin. Among the Firmicutes, Eubacterium eligens in particular was strongly promoted by pectin, while several species were stimulated by inulin. Responses were influenced by pH, which was stepped up, and down, between 5.5, 6.0, 6.4 and 6.9 in parallel vessels within each experiment. In particular, several experiments involving downshifts to pH 5.5 resulted in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii replacing Bacteroides spp. as the dominant sequences observed. Community diversity was greater in the pectin-fed than in the inulin-fed fermentors, presumably reflecting the differing complexity of the two substrates. We have shown that particular non-digestible dietary carbohydrates have enormous potential for modifying the gut microbiota, but these modifications occur at the level of individual strains and species and are not easily predicted a priori

  2. Association of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate with Hemoglobin Level in Korean Adults: The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Sang Youb Han

    Full Text Available Little is known about anemia in patients with early renal dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association of hemoglobin level and anemia prevalence with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR decline using a nation-wide representative sample of the adult Korean population.In total, 17,373 participants (7,296 men; weighted n = 18,330,187; mean age, 44.2±0.3 years; 9,886 women, weighted n = 18,317,454; mean age, 46.9±0.3 years were included. eGFR was divided into 5 groups: Group 1, ≥105; Group 2, 90-104; 75-89; Group 4, 60-74; and Group 5, <60 mL/min/1.73m2.The weighted anemia prevalence rates were 2.6% in men and 12.8% in women. In men, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked at an eGFR of 60-89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter at an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (15.19±0.03, 15.35±0.03, 15.53±0.03, 15.52±0.06, and 14.90±0.12 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5 after adjustment for age, college graduation, cancer history, current smoking, waist circumference, serum cholesterol level, serum triglyceride level, and diastolic blood pressure. In women, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked with an eGFR of 75-89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter (12.90±0.03, 13.08±0.02, 13.20±0.04, 13.14±0.05, and 12.47±0.11 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5 after adjustment for menstruation, pregnancy, estrogen replacement, and the above-mentioned variables. In both sexes, the weighted prevalence of anemia with an eGFR of 60-104 mL/min/1.73m2 was significantly lower than that with an eGFR of ≥105 mL/min/1.73m2 (men, 3.2±0.4%, 1.9±0.3%, 1.8±0.3%, 2.0±0.9%, and 18.1±3.1%; women, 14.0±0.8%, 11.2±0.7%, 10.5±1.0%, 13.2±1.6%, and 32.3±3.2% from Groups 1 to 5.We noted a compensatory increase in the hemoglobin level with a minor decline in kidney function (in the range of eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2 prior to a marked decrease in hemoglobin level with severe renal

  3. Combined intravenous, topical and oral tranexamic acid administration in total knee replacement: Evaluation of safety in patients with previous thromboembolism and effect on hemoglobin level and transfusion rate.

    Jansen, Joris A; Lameijer, Joost R C; Snoeker, Barbara A M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety of combined intravenous, oral and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total knee replacement. We assessed dose-related efficacy on hemoglobin level, transfusion, length of stay and thromboembolic complications. In addition, TXA safety in patients with previous history of thromboembolism >12months ago was monitored specifically. From January 2013 until January 2016, 922 patients were included who received TXA after primary total knee replacement. Patients without TXA administration or with thromboembolic events 10-25mg/kg and >25-50mg/kg. Between the three TXA groups no significant difference was found in thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)), wound leakage and transfusion rate. For patients with DVT or PE in their history >12months ago specifically, no more complications were noted in higher-TXA-dosage groups compared to the low-dosage group. Length of stay was shorter in the highest-TXA-dosage group compared with lower-dosage groups (median two vs three days). With high TXA dose a smaller difference between pre- and postoperative Hb was found: the >25-50mg/kg TXA group had a 0.419mmol/l smaller decrease in postoperative hemoglobin compared to the lowest-dosage group (Ptopical TXA is effective in knee replacement and can safely be given to patients with a thromboembolic history >12months ago. High dosage (>25-50mg/kg) TXA resulted in the smallest decrease in postoperative hemoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  6. Effect of Locomotor Respiratory Coupling Induced by Cortical Oxygenated Hemoglobin Levels During Cycle Ergometer Exercise of Light Intensity.

    Oyanagi, Keiichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Yasufuku, Yuichi; Takai, Haruna; Kera, Takeshi; Tamaki, Akira; Iwata, Kentaro; Onishi, Hideaki

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) induced by light load cycle ergometer exercise on oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and sensorimotor cortex (SMC). The participants were 15 young healthy adults (9 men and 6 women, mean age: 23.1 ± 1.8 (SEM) years). We conducted a task in both LRC-inducing and LRC-non-inducing conditions for all participants. O2Hb was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. The LRC frequency ratio during induction was 2:1; pedaling rate, 50 rpm; and intensity of load, 30 % peak volume of oxygen uptake. The test protocol included a 3-min rest prior to exercise, steady loading motion for 10 min, and 10-min rest post exercise (a total of 23 min). In the measurement of O2Hb, we focused on the DLPFC, SMA, and SMC. The LRC frequency was significantly higher in the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). O2Hb during exercise was significantly lower in the DLPFC and SMA, under the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). The study revealed that even light load could induce LRC and that O2Hb in the DLPFC and SMA decreases during exercise via LRC induction.

  7. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  8. Enhancing arsenic removal from groundwater at household level with naturally occurring iron

    Anitha Kumari Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of drinking water low in Arsenic (As prevents arsenic poisoning. The presence of high concentrations of iron (Fe in groundwater under the alluvial plains of the large rivers in Southeast Asia is a prerequisite for the simple removal of As. This study investigated the mechanisms and possibilities for enhancing As removal with naturally occurring Fe in a reliable, low cost and sustainable way. The results of the study show that As removal with Fe is greatly enhanced by the addition of an oxidizing agent (preferably KMnO4 immediately after the pumping of groundwater. Further enhancement of As removal in the presence of Fe can be achieved by adding a small volume of a concentrated basic solution of MnO4- and AlO2-, which has a combined oxidation, coagulation and buffering capacity. Best results were obtained when this solution was mixed with the groundwater immediately after its pumping until a pale pink color appeared. Maximum required reaction time was 10 minutes and subsequent filtration of the water was able to reduce the As concentration to near zero. Concentrations of MnO4- and AlO2- can be varied in the solution to achieve sufficient As removal to suit different Fe/As ratios and the presence of interfering co-occurring anions.

  9. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    Bakri, Jusuf; Siregar, Roland

    2003-01-01

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  10. [Effect of almitrine administered by the oral route on levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen in healthy subjects].

    Clerbaux, T; Frans, A

    1985-02-01

    Clinical and pharmacological studies have shown that almitrine increased arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and tissular oxygenation. We have verified whether this drug could also increase the 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG) level and so modify the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (ODC). Determinations performed 3 hours and 5 days after daily oral administration (1,5 mg/kg) of the drug showed no alterations of DPG and ODC in normal subjects. The presence of almitrine does not explain the observed PaO2 increase by means of a direct effect on the hemoglobin oxygen affinity. However, one cannot exclude almitrine long term effect; indeed, after 15 days, DPG levels and Hill coefficient increased significantly (p less than 0.05) but no the P50 (respectively + 1,5 mumole/gHb; +0.1 and 26.0 vs 26.5 mmHg).

  11. Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Mercer, J S; Erickson-Owens, D A; Collins, J; Barcelos, M O; Parker, A B; Padbury, J F

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the effects of a 5-min delay (DCC) versus immediate cord clamping (ICC) on residual placental blood volume (RPBV) at birth, and hemoglobin and serum bilirubin at 24 to 48 h of age. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 73 women with term (37 to 41 weeks) singleton fetuses were randomized to DCC (⩾5 min; n=37) or ICC (protocol violations. Cord milking was the proxy for DCC (n=11) when the provider could not wait. Infants randomized to DCC compared with ICC had significantly less RPBV (20.0 versus 30.8 ml kg -1 , Phemoglobin levels (19.4 versus 17.8 g dl -1 , P=0.002) at 24 to 48 h, with no difference in bilirubin levels. Term infants had early hematological advantage of DCC without increases in hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia.

  12. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  13. Role of XmnIgG Polymorphism in Hydroxyurea Treatment and Fetal Hemoglobin Level at Isfahanian Intermediate β-Thalassemia Patients.

    Motovali-Bashi, Majid; Ghasemi, Tayyebeh

    2015-01-01

    β-thalassemia is the most common monogenic disorder in human. The (C-->T) polymorphism at -158 upstream region of the γG-globin gene and pharmacological factors such as hydroxyurea have been reported to influence γ-globin gene expression and the severity of clinical symptoms of β-thalassemia. In the present study, 51 β-thalassemia intermediate patients were studied. Xmn1γG polymorphism genotype was determined using Tetra-Primer ARMS-PCR technique. Hemoglobin (Hb) and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels were determined by gel electrophoresis. Of 51 patients, 35 (68.6%) patients were heterozygous (CT) and 16 (31.4%) patients were homozygous (CC). Of 30 patients under treatment by hydroxyurea, 20 (66.7%) patients were heterozygous (CT) and 10 (33.3%) patients were homozygous (CC). Our results demonstrated that in the heterozygous (CT) genotype, the Hb (9.58 ± 1.25 gm/dl) and HbF (89.30 ± 21.87) levels were significantly higher in comparison with homozygous (CC) genotype (7.94 ± 1.34 gm/dl and 70.32 ± 40.56, respectively). Furthermore, we observed that after drug usage, the Hb and HbF levels in patients with heterozygous (CT) genotype (0.7 ± 1.26 gm/dl and 5.95 ± 14.8, respectively) raised more in comparison with homozygous (CC) genotype (0.26 ± 1.43 gm/dl and 0.8 ± 1.31, respectively). Hb and HbF levels in the patients carrying T allele are increased significantly, and they also response to hydroxyurea treatment.

  14. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  15. Detection of indoxyl sulfate levels in dogs and cats suffering from naturally occurring kidney diseases.

    Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences

    Kendall, G.M. [University of Oxford, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wakeford, R. [University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Athanson, M. [University of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Oxford (United Kingdom); Vincent, T.J. [University of Oxford, Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford (United Kingdom); Carter, E.J. [University of Worcester, Earth Heritage Trust, Geological Records Centre, Henwick Grove, Worcester (United Kingdom); McColl, N.P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Little, M.P. [National Cancer Institute, DHHS, NIH, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matern correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matern model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matern model. (orig.)

  17. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences

    Kendall, G.M.; Wakeford, R.; Athanson, M.; Vincent, T.J.; Carter, E.J.; McColl, N.P.; Little, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matern correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matern model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matern model. (orig.)

  18. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  19. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  20. The impact of low hemoglobin levels and transfusion on critical care patients with severe ischemic stroke: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of HemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Kellert, L; Schrader, F; Ringleb, P; Steiner, T; Bösel, J

    2014-04-01

    Optimal management of hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in neurologic intensive care unit (NICU) patients has not been determined yet. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of anemia and transfusion activity in patients who had acute ischemic stroke. A retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, and outcome data of patients with severe acute ischemic stroke treated on our NICU between 2004 and 2011 was performed. Of 109 patients, 97.2% developed anemia and 33% received RBCT. Significant correlations were found between NICU length of stay (NICU LOS) and lowest (nadir) Hb (correlation coefficient, -0.42, P hematocrit (Hct; -0.43, P < .001), and Hct decrease (0.51, P < .001). Duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) was strongly associated with both nadir Hb (-0.41, P < .001) and decrease (0.42, P < .001) and nadir Hct (-0.43, P < .001) and decrease (0.40, P < .001). Red blood cell transfusion correlated with NICU LOS (0.33, P < .001) and with duration of MV (0.40, P < .001). None of these hematologic parameters correlated with in-hospital mortality or 90-day outcome. The linear regression model showed number of RBCT (0.29, P = .008), nadir Hb (-0.18, P = .049), Hb decrease (0.33, P < .001), nadir Hct (-0.18, P = .03), and Hct decrease (0.29, P < .001) to be independent predictors of NICU LOS. Duration of MV was also independently predicted by number of RBC transfusions (0.29, P < .001), nadir Hb (-0.20, P = .02), Hb decrease (0.25, P = .002), nadir Hct (-0.21, P = .015), and Hct decrease (0.26, P < .001). Low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels as well as RBCT activity are associated with prolonged NICU stay and duration of MV but not with mortality or long-term outcome. Our findings do not justify using a more aggressive transfusion practice at present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  2. Hemoglobin levels and quality of life in patients with symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia: the eAQUA study

    Mouysset JL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Loup Mouysset,1 Beata Freier,2 Joan van den Bosch,3 Charles Briac Levaché,4 Alain Bols,5 Hans Werner Tessen,6 Laura Belton,7 G Chet Bohac,8 Jan-Henrik Terwey,9 Giuseppe Tonini101Department of Medical Oncology, Clinique Rambot Provencale, Aix en Provence, France; 2Clinical Oncology, Wojewodzki Szpital Specjalistyczny, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Internal Medicine/Oncology, Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis locatie Dordwijk, Dordrecht, the Netherlands; 4Radiotherapy Service, Medical Oncology, Polyclinique Francheville, Périgueux, France; 5Central Pharmacy, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende AV, Brugge, Belgium; 6Private Oncology Practice. Goslar, Germany; 7LB Biostatistics, London, UK; 8Clinical Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 9Medical Development – Oncology, Amgen (Europe GmbH, Zug, Switzerland; 10Department of Medical Oncology, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Roma, ItalyPurpose: To assess hemoglobin (Hb outcomes and fatigue-related quality-of-life (QoL (electronic assessment in patients with solid tumors and symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa (DA or another erythropoiesis-stimulating agent according to European indication.Methods: eAQUA was a Phase IV prospective observational study. The primary outcome (assessed in the primary analysis set [PAS]: patients receiving one or more DA dose who had baseline and week 9 assessments for Hb and QoL was the proportion of patients receiving DA having both Hb increases ≥1 g/dL and improved QoL between baseline and week 9. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F subscale scores were anchored to fatigue visual analog scale scores to determine the minimally important difference for improved QoL. Overall data/data over time are reported for the full analysis set (patients receiving one or more erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose, n=1,158; week 9 data (ie, data relating to the primary and secondary outcomes are reported

  3. Relationship Between Low Hemoglobin Levels and Outcomes After Treatment With Radiation or Chemoradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: Has the Impact of Anemia Been Overstated?

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Allen, Pamela K.; Klopp, Ann H.; Meyer, Larissa A.; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous reports have suggested that anemia increases rates of recurrence after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. However, these studies may not have fully corrected for confounding risk factors. Using a well-characterized cohort of cervical cancer patients, we examined the association between anemia and outcomes before and after the introduction of chemoradiation as standard of care. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 2454 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy from 1980 through 2011. Minimum hemoglobin level (Hgb min ) was recorded for 2359 patients (96%). Endpoints included freedom from central recurrence (FFCR), freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results: For the entire cohort, hemoglobin concentrations of 9, 10, and 12 g/dL before and during radiation were all significantly associated with FFCR, FFDM, and DSS (all P<.001) on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate analysis, only Hgb min less than 10 g/dL during RT (RT-Hgb <10 ) remained significant, and it was correlated with lower DSS (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28) and FFDM (P=.03, HR = 1.33) but not with FFCR. In a subset analysis of patients receiving chemoradiation (n=678), RT-Hgb <10 was associated only with DSS (P=.008, HR = 1.49), not with FFCR or FFDM. In this subgroup, despite an association between RT-Hgb <10 and DSS, the use of transfusion was not correlated with benefit. Conclusions: No evidence was found supporting anemia as an independent predictor of central recurrence in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Less emphasis on correcting anemia in cervical cancer patients may be warranted

  4. Relationship Between Low Hemoglobin Levels and Outcomes After Treatment With Radiation or Chemoradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: Has the Impact of Anemia Been Overstated?

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Allen, Pamela K.; Klopp, Ann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Meyer, Larissa A. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J., E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous reports have suggested that anemia increases rates of recurrence after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. However, these studies may not have fully corrected for confounding risk factors. Using a well-characterized cohort of cervical cancer patients, we examined the association between anemia and outcomes before and after the introduction of chemoradiation as standard of care. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 2454 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy from 1980 through 2011. Minimum hemoglobin level (Hgb{sub min}) was recorded for 2359 patients (96%). Endpoints included freedom from central recurrence (FFCR), freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results: For the entire cohort, hemoglobin concentrations of 9, 10, and 12 g/dL before and during radiation were all significantly associated with FFCR, FFDM, and DSS (all P<.001) on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate analysis, only Hgb{sub min} less than 10 g/dL during RT (RT-Hgb{sub <10}) remained significant, and it was correlated with lower DSS (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28) and FFDM (P=.03, HR = 1.33) but not with FFCR. In a subset analysis of patients receiving chemoradiation (n=678), RT-Hgb{sub <10} was associated only with DSS (P=.008, HR = 1.49), not with FFCR or FFDM. In this subgroup, despite an association between RT-Hgb{sub <10} and DSS, the use of transfusion was not correlated with benefit. Conclusions: No evidence was found supporting anemia as an independent predictor of central recurrence in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Less emphasis on correcting anemia in cervical cancer patients may be warranted.

  5. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  6. STRATEGY FOR THE USE OF ERYTHROPOETIN ALPHA TO MAINTAIN HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN BREAST CANCER PATIENT TREATED WITH ANTHRACYCLINE-BASE OF ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY

    Dimyati Achmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the value of erythropoietin alpha (epoetin administration, as an alternative treatment of anemia in the operable breast cancer patients. Methods: This is a multicenter phase III randomized clinical trial to evaluate the value of epoetin administration among anemic breast cancer patients who are undergoing anthracyclin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixty four patients were incuded in this trial with initial hemoglobin (Hb level of 10–12 g/dL. The patients were randomly distributed into two groups: one group received aministration of 40,000 IU epoetin/week for six times a week after operation and the other did not. In the third week after the operation, both groups were started on a 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with three weeks intervals. Hb levels were evaluated during every chemotherapy cycle. Results: The Hb levels in the epoetin group were always above 10 g/dL up until the end of the sixth chemotherapy cycle or until the twenty first week post operation without blood transfusion. Conclusions: The administration of epoetin 3 weeks prior and 3 weeks after the first cycles of chemotherapy, maintains a sufficient/normal Hb level in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

  7. A common signaling pathway is activated in erythroid cells expressing high levels of fetal hemoglobin: a potential role for cAMP-elevating agents in β-globin disorders

    Ikuta T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ikuta,1 Yuichi Kuroyanagi,1 Nadine Odo,1 Siyang Liu21Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USABackground: Although erythroid cells prepared from fetal liver, cord blood, or blood from β-thalassemia patients are known to express fetal hemoglobin at high levels, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously showed that cyclic nucleotides such as cAMP and cGMP induce fetal hemoglobin expression in primary erythroid cells. Here we report that cAMP signaling contributes to high-level fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and β-thalassemia.Methods: The status of the cAMP signaling pathway was investigated using primary erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and the mononuclear cells of patients with β-thalassemia; erythroid cells from adult bone marrow mononuclear cells served as the control.Results: We found that intracellular cAMP levels were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood and β-thalassemia than from adult bone marrow. Protein kinase A activity levels and cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood or β-thalassemia than in adult bone marrow progenitors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play a role in fetal hemoglobin expression, were not consistently activated in cord blood or β-thalassemia erythroid cells. When cAMP signaling was activated in adult erythroid cells, fetal hemoglobin was induced at high levels and associated with reduced expression of BCL11A, a silencer of the β-globin gene.Conclusion: These results suggest that activated cAMP signaling may be a common mechanism among erythroid cells with high fetal hemoglobin levels, in part because of downregulation of BCL11A. Activation of the cAMP signaling pathway with cAMP-elevating agents may prove to be an important signaling mechanism to

  8. Effectiveness of an Interprofessional Glycemic Optimization Clinic on Preoperative Glycated Hemoglobin Levels for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.

    Houlden, Robyn L; Yen, Joy L; Moore, Sarah

    2017-12-26

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes and refractory obesity; however, many patients have nonoptimal glycemic control preoperatively. We created an interprofessional bariatric glycemic optimization clinic. Patients were seen monthly and received weekly phone calls. We analyzed the effectiveness in assisting patients reach a preoperative glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level of weight was 134.4±29.2 kg. Baseline body mass index was 48.2±8.3 kg/m 2 . Duration of diabetes was 9±7.9 years. Baseline A1C level was 9.0±1.2%. Number of antihyperglycemic agents at baseline was 2.7±0.96. Seventy-five percent reached a target A1C level of ≤7.5%, 92% reached a target of ≤8.0% and 95% reached a target of ≤8.5%; 32% had achieved A1C levels ≤7.5% at 1 month, 59% at 2 months, 70% at 3 months, 73% at 4 months and 75% at 5 months. Mean number of antihyperglycemic agents at target A1C levels was 3.6±1.1. Mean absolute decrease in A1C levels from baseline to target A1C levels was 1.7±1.2. Mean absolute change in weight was -1.9±8.0 kg. Percent change in body weight from baseline to target A1C level was -1.3±4.9%. Glycemic optimization for candidates with diabetes for bariatric surgery is possible in a short time by an interprofessional diabetes team and without weight gain. Further research is needed to determine whether better preoperative glycemic control improves bariatric surgery outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Hemoglobin levels do not predict biochemical outcome for localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant androgen-suppression therapy and external-beam radiotherapy

    Pai, Howard Huaihan; Ludgate, Charles; Pickles, Tom; Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc.; Agranovich, Alex; Berthelet, Eric; Duncan, Graeme; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Kwan, Winkle; Lim, Jan; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether hemoglobin (Hb) levels affect outcome in men with localized prostate adenocarcinoma (LPA) treated with neoadjuvant androgen-suppression therapy (NAST) and external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 563 men with LPA treated with NAST (median: 5.3 months) and EBRT who had Hb levels during treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables, including the following Hb variables, were subjected to univariate and multivariable analyses to identify factors that predict biochemical control (bNED) and overall survival (OS): pre-EBRT Hb, Hb nadir during EBRT, and change in Hb from pre-EBRT to nadir during EBRT. Results: Median PSA follow-up was 4.25 years. Forty-nine percent of men were anemic during EBRT, with a median Hb of 13.4 g/dL, and 68% experienced a decline in Hb from pre-EBRT to during EBRT of median 0.6 g/dL. Five-year Nadir + 2 bNED and OS rates were similar for anemic and nonanemic patients during EBRT. High percent-positive biopsies, PSA and Gleason score, and use of AA monotherapy predicted worse bNED. High stage and age predicted worse OS. Hb variables were not predictive of bNED or OS. Conclusions: Anemia is a common side effect of NAST and is usually mild. Hb levels, however, do not predict biochemical control or survival

  10. Relationship between pulmonary function and elevated glycated hemoglobin levels in health checkups: A cross-sectional observational study in Japanese participants

    Saigo Baba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance has been associated with cytokines, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha soluble receptor, both of which are elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Few studies have investigated the relationship between pulmonary function tests using spirometry (PFT and fasting plasma glucose (FPG or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in Japanese participants. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between PFT in Japanese people who had health checkups and their FPG or HbA1c levels. In the context of preventative medicine, we intend to connect early detection of COPD to an index of blood sugar. Methods: From August 2013 through March 2014, 1019 participants underwent health checkups. PFT, FPG, and HbA1c measurements were conducted. HbA1c levels were measured according to National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program guidelines. Results: Participants with FPG ≥100 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥5.6% showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s:forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC compared to participants with lower FPG and Hb1Ac levels. Prevalence of FEV1/FVC values <70% in PFT differed significantly depending on sex, age, body mass index, FPG, HbA1c, and smoking habits. Age (≥60 years, HbA1c (≥5.6%, and current or former smoking were associated with FEV1/FVC values <70%. Conclusion: In Japan, HbA1c levels were higher in participants with FEV1/FVC values <70% in PFT than in those with FEV1/FVC ≥70%. In preventive medicine, PFT by spirometry should be performed in elderly participants with elevated HbA1c levels who are current or former smokers.

  11. Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Tizeba, Yustina A; Mirambo, Mariam M; Kayange, Neema; Mhada, Tumaini; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Smart, Luke R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-12-13

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of Hemoglobin A1c Levels on Residual Platelet Reactivity and Outcomes After Insertion of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (from the ADAPT-DES Study)

    Schoos, Mikkel M.; Dangas, George D.; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    An increasing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level portends an adverse cardiovascular prognosis; however, the association between glycemic control, platelet reactivity, and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. We sought to investigate whether Hb...... With Drug Eluting Stents registry, HbA1c levels were measured as clinically indicated in 1,145 of 8,582 patients, stratified by HbA1c 8.5% (n = 171, 14.9%). HPR on clopidogrel and aspirin was defined after PCI as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) >208...... >208 (42.5%, 50.2%, and 62.3%, p definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST; 0.9%, 2.7%, and 4.2%, p = 0.02) increased progressively with HbA1c groups. Clinically relevant bleeding was greatest in the intermediate HbA1c group (8.2% vs 13.1% vs 9.5%, p = 0.04). In adjusted models...

  13. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. - Highlights: • Association between soil geochemical components and birth defects risk was proposed. • The relative risk difference among villages were estimated with CAR model. • Arsenic levels in cropland showed a significant association to birth defect risk. • The finding warrants further investigation on arsenic as a teratogen. - The difference of risk levels estimate by spatial statistics to birth defect significantly associated with arsenic levels in cropland soils warrants further investigation

  14. The relationship between periapical lesions and the serum levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S; Abozor, Basel M; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the presence of periapical lesions (PL) and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between September 2013 and February 2015. Medical and dental history and Sociodemographic data were obtained from participants. Dental and periodontal examinations were conducted and blood samples were obtained to determine levels of HbA1c and CRP. The presence of PL was recorded from panoramic and periapical radiographs. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used for data analyses.  Results: One hundred patients were included; mean age was 48.9 ± 8.5 years. Of these patients, 14% had no PL, whereas 25% had one or 2 lesions, 32% had 3 or 4 lesions, and 29% had ≥5 PL. The mean HbA1c was 9.8% (± 2.5) mg/L and CRP was 6.9 mg/L (± 6.3). The presence of PL was significantly associated with a higher level of HbA1c independent of age, gender, probing depth, and plaque index (p=0.023). Individuals with PL were also more likely to have a high CRP level (greater than 3 mg/L) independent of the previous covariates (odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41).  Conclusion: Periapical lesions are associated with a poorer glycemic control and a higher CRP level in type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. The relationship between periapical lesions and the serum levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients

    Mohammad S. Al-Zahrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the presence of periapical lesions (PL and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between September 2013 and February 2015. Medical and dental history and Sociodemographic data were obtained from participants. Dental and periodontal examinations were conducted and blood samples were obtained to determine levels of HbA1c and CRP. The presence of PL was recorded from panoramic and periapical radiographs. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used for data analyses. Results: One hundred patients were included; mean age was 48.9 ± 8.5 years. Of these patients, 14% had no PL, whereas 25% had one or 2 lesions, 32% had 3 or 4 lesions, and 29% had ≥5 PL. The mean HbA1c was 9.8% (± 2.5 mg/L and CRP was 6.9 mg/L (± 6.3. The presence of PL was significantly associated with a higher level of HbA1c independent of age, gender, probing depth, and plaque index (p=0.023. Individuals with PL were also more likely to have a high CRP level (>3 mg/L independent of the previous covariates (odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41. Conclusion: Periapical lesions are associated with a poorer glycemic control and a higher CRP level in type 2 diabetic patients.

  16. Effect of temperature, pH, and oxygen level on the multiplication of naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila in potable water.

    Wadowsky, R M; Wolford, R; McNamara, A M; Yee, R B

    1985-05-01

    A water culture containing naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila and associated microbiota was maintained in the laboratory by serially transferring the culture in tap water which had been sterilized by membrane filtration. Successful maintenance of the water culture depended upon transferring the culture when the growth of L. pneumophila was in the late-exponential to early-stationary phase. The water culture was used as a source of naturally occurring bacteria to determine some of the parameters which affect the multiplication of L. pneumophila in tap water. Naturally occurring L. pneumophila multiplied at a temperature between 25 and 37 degrees C, at pH levels of 5.5 to 9.2, and at concentrations of dissolved oxygen of 6.0 to 6.7 mg/liter. Multiplication did not occur in tap water which contained less than 2.2 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter. An association was observed between the multiplication of L. pneumophila and the non-Legionellaceae bacteria which were also present in the water culture. The method of preserving naturally occurring L. pneumophila and associated microbiota may facilitate studies on the symbiosis of L. pneumophila with other microorganisms.

  17. Quadriplegia caused by an epidural abscess occurring at the same level of cervical destructive spondyloarthropathy: a case report.

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Ryu, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Won

    2017-01-10

    Destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) is one of the major complications in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, an epidural abscess occurring at the level of preexisting cervical DSA has not been well described in the literature. We report a unique case of quadriplegia caused by an epidural abscess occurring at the same level of preexisting cervical DSA. A 49-year-old woman was transferred to our emergency department with 5 days of sepsis, drowsy mental status, and quadriplegia below the C5 level. The patient had a medical history of hemodialysis for 10 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord compression by an epidural abscess at the level of preexisting cervical DSA. Blood culture revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Infection of the arteriovenous (AV) shunt was considered as the primary focus of sepsis and pyogenic spondylitis. We performed an emergent open door laminoplasty and the vascular team debrided the infected AV shunt site. Approximately 8 months after surgery, the patient was able to perform activities of daily living somewhat independently. Emergent surgical decompression and intensive medical care led to successful recovery from a septic and quadriplegic state in this patient. When diagnosing a patient who has undergone long-term hemodialysis presenting with neurologic deficits, the possibility of infectious spondylitis at the same level as DSA should be considered.

  18. Radio-ligand immunoassay for human hemoglobin variants

    Javid, J.; Pettis, P.K.; Miller, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the individual assay of human hemoglobin variants occurring singly or in mixture. The hemoglobin to be assayed is bound to specific antibody; the immune complex is attached to protein A-containing S. aureus and removed from the mixture. The hemoglobin thus isolated is quantified by its ability to bind radiolabeled haptoglobin. The technique is accurate and distinguishes among the 4 hemoglobins tested, namely Hb A, S, C and F. It has the advantage over conventional radioimmunoassay that a single probe, radiolabeled haptoglobin, is needed for the specific assay of any hemoglobin. (Auth.)

  19. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  20. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  1. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure.

    Andrew D Govus

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass and iron parameters after 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure.Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females exposed to moderate altitude (1,350-3,000 m were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT].Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66].Oral iron supplementation during 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure may enhance Hbmass production and assist the maintenance of iron balance in some athletes with low pre-altitude iron stores.

  2. Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in China

    Zhao, Yaohui; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Cai, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce. Objective To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification. Results We identified 1,760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6 μg/m3 during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1μg/m3) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26 mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups. Conclusions This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China. PMID:27148900

  3. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and anthropometry of sickle cell anemia patients in steady state at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

    Animasahun, B A; Temiye, E O; Ogunkunle, O O; Izuora, A N; Njokanma, O F

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has multisystemic manifestations and is associated with severe morbidity and high mortality. It commonly affects growth leading to wasting and stunting. This study aimed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status on the nutritional status using anthropometric measurements and steady-state hemoglobin, of children with homozygous SCA, aged 1 year to 10 years in steady state at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the oxy-hemoglobin method. This study demonstrated a significantly lower mean weight and weight-for-height in the SCA patients than those of controls (P hemoglobin concentration were observed from social class 1 to 4; this was statistically significant in controls (P = 0.00) but not in subjects (P > 0.1). However, SCA patients had significantly lower values than controls in each of the social classes. Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients.

  4. The effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on hemoglobin A1c levels in persons with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Engebretson, Steven P; Hyman, Leslie G; Michalowicz, Bryan S; Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Gelato, Marie C; Hou, Wei; Seaquist, Elizabeth R; Reddy, Michael S; Lewis, Cora E; Oates, Thomas W; Tripathy, Devjit; Katancik, James A; Orlander, Philip R; Paquette, David W; Hanson, Naomi Q; Tsai, Michael Y

    2013-12-18

    Chronic periodontitis, a destructive inflammatory disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth, is prevalent in patients with diabetes. Limited evidence suggests that periodontal therapy may improve glycemic control. To determine if nonsurgical periodontal treatment reduces levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in persons with type 2 diabetes and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. The Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT), a 6-month, single-masked, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Participants had type 2 diabetes, were taking stable doses of medications, had HbA1c levels between 7% and less than 9%, and untreated chronic periodontitis. Five hundred fourteen participants were enrolled between November 2009 and March 2012 from diabetes and dental clinics and communities affiliated with 5 academic medical centers. The treatment group (n = 257) received scaling and root planing plus chlorhexidine oral rinse at baseline and supportive periodontal therapy at 3 and 6 months. The control group (n = 257) received no treatment for 6 months. Difference in change in HbA1c level from baseline between groups at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in probing pocket depths, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, gingival index, fasting glucose level, and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) score. Enrollment was stopped early because of futility. At 6 months, mean HbA1c levels in the periodontal therapy group increased 0.17% (SD, 1.0), compared with 0.11% (SD, 1.0) in the control group, with no significant difference between groups based on a linear regression model adjusting for clinical site (mean difference, -0.05% [95% CI, -0.23% to 0.12%]; P = .55). Periodontal measures improved in the treatment group compared with the control group at 6 months, with adjusted between-group differences of 0.28 mm (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.37) for probing depth, 0.25 mm (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.36) for clinical attachment loss, 13.1% (95% CI, 8

  5. CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotyping and 3-aminobiphenyl and 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adduct levels in smokers and non-smokers

    Sarkar, Mohamadi; Stabbert, Regina; Kinser, Robin D.; Oey, Jan; Rustemeier, Klaus; Holt, Klaus von; Schepers, Georg; Walk, Roger A.; Roethig, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    Some aromatic amines are considered to be putative bladder carcinogens. Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of 3-aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) have been used as biomarkers of exposure to aromatic amines from cigarette smoke. One of the goals of this study was to determine intra- and inter-individual variability in 3-ABP and 4-ABP Hb adducts and to explore the predictability of ABP Hb adduct levels based on caffeine phenotyping. The study was conducted in adult smokers (S, n = 65) and non-smokers (NS, n 65). The subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2 and NAT2 using urinary caffeine metabolites. Blood samples were collected twice within 6 weeks and adducts measured by GC/MS. The levels of 4-ABP Hb adducts were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater in S (34.5 ± 21.06 pg/g Hb) compared to NS (6.3 ± 3.02 pg/g Hb). The levels of 3-ABP Hb adducts were below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in most (82%) of the NS and about 10-fold lower in S (3.6 ± 3.29 pg/g Hb) compared to 4-ABP Hb adducts. No differences were observed in the adduct levels between weeks 1 and 6 in the smokers, suggesting that a single sample would be adequate to monitor cigarette smoke exposure. The regression model developed with CYP1A2, NAT2 phenotype and number of cigarettes smoked (NCIG) accounted for 47% of the variability in 3-ABP adducts, whereas 32% variability in 4-ABP adducts was accounted by CYP1A2 and NCIG. The ratio of 4-ABP Hb adducts in adult S:NS was ∼ 5:1, whereas 3-ABP Hb adducts levels were BLOQ in some S, exhibited large interindividual variability (∼ 91% compared to 57% for 4-ABP Hb) and poor dose response relationship. Therefore, 4-ABP Hb adduct levels may be a more useful biomarker of aminobiphenyl exposure from cigarette smoke

  6. Glycated hemoglobin A1c level is associated with high urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in non-diabetic adult population.

    Kang, Seok Hui; Park, Jong Won; Do, Jun Young; Cho, Kyu Hyang

    2016-09-01

    Regarding the association between glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and microvascular complications, high HbA1c level in participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with a high urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Twelve thousand seven hundred and seventy four participants without DM were included in this study. The participants were divided into three groups according to HbA1c levels: a Low group (High group (>6.0%). A high UACR was defined as UACR ≥3.9 mg/g for men and UACR ≥7.5 mg/g for women. The proportions of participants with a high UACR in the Low, Middle, and High groups were 22.4%, 27.9%, and 38.1%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that logUACR was greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants without metabolic syndrome (MetS), the proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values were greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants with MetS, no differences were found for proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values in the Low, Middle, and High groups. Non-DM participants with relatively high HbA1c levels should be closely monitored for UACR, especially if participants do not have MetS. KEY MESSAGES HbA1c level was positively associated with the proportion of participants with a high UACR and logUACR in participants without DM. For participants without MetS, the proportion of participants with a high UACR was greater in the High group than in the other groups and logUACR was greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants with MetS, there were significant associations between HbA1c and the proportion of participants with a high UACR as a categorical variable or logUACR as a continuous variable, but the statistical significance of this finding was weak. No differences were found for proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values in the Low, Middle, and High groups.

  7. Hemoglobin LjGlb1-1 is involved in nodulation and regulates the level of nitric oxide in the Lotus japonicus-Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis.

    Fukudome, Mitsutaka; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Kado, Tomohiro; Osuki, Ken-Ichi; Rubio, Maria Carmen; Murakami, Ei-Ichi; Nagata, Maki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Becana, Manuel; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-09-01

    Leghemoglobins transport and deliver O2 to the symbiosomes inside legume nodules and are essential for nitrogen fixation. However, the roles of other hemoglobins (Hbs) in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis are unclear. Several Lotus japonicus mutants affecting LjGlb1-1, a non-symbiotic class 1 Hb, have been used to study the function of this protein in symbiosis. Two TILLING alleles with single amino acid substitutions (A102V and E127K) and a LORE1 null allele with a retrotransposon insertion in the 5'-untranslated region (96642) were selected for phenotyping nodulation. Plants of all three mutant lines showed a decrease in long infection threads and nodules, and an increase in incipient infection threads. About 4h after inoculation, the roots of mutant plants exhibited a greater transient accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) than did the wild-type roots; nevertheless, in vitro NO dioxygenase activities of the wild-type, A102V, and E127K proteins were similar, suggesting that the mutated proteins are not fully functional in vivo The expression of LjGlb1-1, but not of the other class 1 Hb of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-2), was affected during infection of wild-type roots, further supporting a specific role for LjGlb1-1. In conclusion, the LjGlb1-1 mutants reveal that this protein is required during rhizobial infection and regulates NO levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Statistical methods for determination of background levels for naturally occuring radionuclides in soil at a RCRA facility

    Guha, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is critical that summary statistics on background data, or background levels, be computed based on standardized and defensible statistical methods because background levels are frequently used in subsequent analyses and comparisons performed by separate analysts over time. The final background for naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations in soil at a RCRA facility, and the associated statistical methods used to estimate these concentrations, are presented. The primary objective is to describe, via a case study, the statistical methods used to estimate 95% upper tolerance limits (UTL) on radionuclide background soil data sets. A 95% UTL on background samples can be used as a screening level concentration in the absence of definitive soil cleanup criteria for naturally occurring radionuclides. The statistical methods are based exclusively on EPA guidance. This paper includes an introduction, a discussion of the analytical results for the radionuclides and a detailed description of the statistical analyses leading to the determination of 95% UTLs. Soil concentrations reported are based on validated data. Data sets are categorized as surficial soil; samples collected at depths from zero to one-half foot; and deep soil, samples collected from 3 to 5 feet. These data sets were tested for statistical outliers and underlying distributions were determined by using the chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit. UTLs for the data sets were then computed based on the percentage of non-detects and the appropriate best-fit distribution (lognormal, normal, or non-parametric). For data sets containing greater than approximately 50% nondetects, nonparametric UTLs were computed

  9. KLF10 gene expression is associated with high fetal hemoglobin levels and with response to hydroxyurea treatment in β-hemoglobinopathy patients

    Borg, Joseph; Phylactides, Marios; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Tafrali, Christina; Lederer, Carsten; Felice, Alexander E.; Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Kourakli, Alexandra; Stavrou, Eleana F.; Christou, Soteroula; Hou, Jun; Karkabouna, Sophia; Lappa-Manakou, Christina; Ozgur, Zeliha; van Ijcken, Wilfred; von Lindern, Marieke; Grosveld, Frank G.; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Kleanthous, Marina; Philipsen, Sjaak; Patrinos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production is controlled by many intricate mechanisms that, to date, remain only partly understood. Pharmacogenomic analysis of the effects of hydroxyurea (HU) on HbF production was undertaken in a collection of Hellenic β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD)

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies common loci influencing circulating glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in non-diabetic subjects

    An, Ping; Miljkovic, Iva; Thyagarajan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a stable index of chronic glycemic status and hyperglycemia associated with progressive development of insulin resistance and frank diabetes. It is also associated with premature aging and increased mortality. To uncover novel loci for HbA1c that are associated with...

  11. Blood Pressure Is the Determinant for the Increased Risk for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Subjects with Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Oh, Hyung-Geun; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is known to be an important vascular complication of diabetes. Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is considered as an important cause of stroke in Asians. We aimed to analyze the risk for ICAS assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in different groups of young Korean subjects divided by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This study included 10,437 participants without history of cardiovascular diseases (81.3% men, mean age 43 years) from a health screening program, in whom TCD ultrasonography was used to detect greater than 50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the SONIA (Stroke Outcomes and Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis) trial. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to HbA1c levels: HbA1c < 5.7%, 5.7 ≤ HbA1c < 6.5%, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or under medication for diabetes. Among the participants, 3.0% of the subjects had ICAS. The subjects with ICAS tended to have higher mean HbA1c level compared with those without ICAS (5.8 ± .8 versus 5.7 ± .6, P = .063). The proportion of subjects with ICAS significantly increased as the HbA1c increased from the first to the third group (2.8%, 3.0%, 4.6%, P for linear trend = .022). In logistic regression analysis with ICAS as the dependent variable, the group with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% showed significantly increased odds ratio for ICAS with subjects with HbA1c < 5.7% as the reference after adjustment for confounding variables (1.575, 95% confidence interval 1.056-2.347). However, this significance disappeared with inclusion of presence of hypertension in the model. The risk for ICAS assessed by TCD was increased in young Korean subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. However, this significance was attenuated after adjustment for presence of hypertension, suggesting the importance of hypertension in ICAS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Profile of glycated-hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamin and cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross sectional study at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia

    Praba Ginandjar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-12. Status of antioxidant vitamins was determined by concentration of vitamin A and E using HPLC. Blood glucose control was determined by HbA1c concentration (HbA1c ≥7% is considered as uncontrolled. Results: A significant difference of age between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal and uncontrolled blood glucose (p = 0.000 was showed, while all other characteristics (sex, education, occupation did not differ with p = 0.050, 0.280, 0.380 respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.25 ± 2.70%. Prevalence of uncontrolled glucose among pulmonary TB patients was 29%. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 did not differ according to HbA1c concentration (p = 0.159 and p = 0.965 respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with uncontrolled blood glucose has higher vitamin E (p = 0.006, while vitamin A did not differ significantly (p = 0.478. Conclusions: This study supports the importance of performing diabetes screening among pulmonary TB patients. Further study needs to be done to determine the feasibility of TB-DM co-management. Keywords: HbA1c, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Vitamin A, Vitamin E

  13. The impact of carbohydrate intake and its sources on hemoglobin A1c levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes not taking anti-diabetic medication

    Haimoto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Haimoto,1 Shiho Watanabe,2 Masashi Komeda,3 Kenji Wakai4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Jinsenkai Hospital, Morofuku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan Background: Although postprandial glucose levels largely depend on carbohydrate intake, the impact of carbohydrate and its sources on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels has not been demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM probably because, in previous studies, more than 50% of patients were taking anti-diabetic medication, and the researchers used energy percent of carbohydrate as an indicator of carbohydrate intake.Patients and methods: We recruited 125 Japanese men (mean age 58±12 years and 104 women (mean age 62±10 years with T2DM who were not taking anti-diabetic medication and dietary therapy. We used 3-day dietary records to assess total carbohydrate intake and its sources, computed Spearman’s correlation coefficients, and conducted multiple regression analyses for associations of carbohydrate sources with HbA1c by sex.Results: Mean HbA1c and total carbohydrate intake were 8.2%±1.9% and 272.0±84.6 g/day in men and 7.6%±1.3% and 226.7±61.5 g/day in women, respectively. We observed positive correlation of total carbohydrate intake (g/day with HbA1c in men (rs=0.384 and women (rs=0.251, but no correlation for % carbohydrate in either sex. Regarding carbohydrate sources, we found positive correlations of carbohydrate from noodles (rs=0.231 and drinks (rs=0.325, but not from rice, with HbA1c in men. In women, carbohydrate from rice had a positive correlation (rs=0.317, but there were no correlations for carbohydrate from noodles and drinks. The association of total carbohydrate intake (g/day and carbohydrate from soft drinks with HbA1c in

  14. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  16. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  17. Glucocorticoid resistance in two key models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs at the level of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    Schmidt, Stefan; Irving, Julie A E; Minto, Lynne; Matheson, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Lindsay; Ploner, Andreas; Parson, Walther; Kofler, Anita; Amort, Melanie; Erdel, Martin; Hall, Andy; Kofler, Reinhard

    2006-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) specifically induce apoptosis in malignant lymphoblasts and are thus pivotal in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, GC-resistance is a therapeutic problem with an unclear molecular mechanism. We generated approximately 70 GC-resistant sublines from a GC-sensitive B- and a T-ALL cell line and investigated their mechanisms of resistance. In response to GCs, all GC-resistant subclones analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed a deficient up-regulation of the GC-receptor (GR) and its downstream target, GC-induced leucine zipper. This deficiency in GR up-regulation was confirmed by Western blotting and on retroviral overexpression of GR in resistant subclones GC-sensitivity was restored. All GC-resistant subclones were screened for GR mutations using denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC), DNA-fingerprinting, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Among the identified mutations were some previously not associated with GC resistance: A484D, P515H, L756N, Y663H, L680P, and R714W. This approach revealed three genotypes, complete loss of functional GR in the mismatch repair deficient T-ALL model, apparently normal GR genes in B-ALLs, and heterozygosity in both. In the first genotype, deficiency in GR up-regulation was fully explained by mutational events, in the second by a putative regulatory defect, and in the third by a combination thereof. In all instances, GC-resistance occurred at the level of the GR in both models.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO 2 ), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1α, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO 2 ), HIF-1α and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1α expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO 2 correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1α or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1α, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found

  19. Drought occurence

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  20. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1947-01-01

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  1. Anemia intrahospitalaria y descenso de hemoglobina en pacientes internados Hospital-acquired anemia and decrease of hemoglobin levels in hospitalized patients

    Carina V. Gianserra

    2011-06-01

    estadía hospitalaria prolongada, la presencia de leucocitosis, la hidratación parenteral y colocación de acceso venoso central fueron factores predictivos de descenso de hemoglobina = 2 g/dl.It is common to observe the development of anemia in hospitalized patients, especially in critical cases. Few studies have evaluated its prevalence and associated factors in patients in the general ward. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, characteristics and associated clinical factors of hospital-acquired anemia and the drop of hemoglobin concentration in hospitalized patients. This is a cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study. A total of 192 consecutive in-patients in the general ward were studied. Associated risk factors to the drop in hemoglobin by = 2g/dl were analyzed; 139 patients (72.4% presented anemia; 89 of them (46.4% had it at admission and 50 (26% developed hospital-acquired anemia, 47 out of 192 showed a drop in hemoglobin = 2 g/dl(24.48%. They also presented lower values of hematocrite and hemoglobin at discharge (p = 0.01, parenteral hydration at a higher volume (p = 0.01, and lengthier hospitalizations (p = 0.0001. In the univariate analysis, the following variables were statistically significant risk factors: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2,02; 1.03-4; p = 0.01, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:3.39; 1.62-7.09; p = 0.0006, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.47; 1.06-6.4; p = 0.01, central venous access (OR; IC95%:10.29; 1.75-108.07; p = 0.003 and hospital-acquired anemia (OR; IC95%: 7.06; 3.41-15.83; p = 0.00000004. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independent predictive factors of the hemoglobin decrease = 2 g/dl: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2.45; 1.14-5,27; p = 0.02, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:5.15; 2.19-12.07; p = 0.0002, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.95; 1.13-7.72; p = 0.02, central venous access (OR; IC95%:8.82; 1.37-56.82; p = 0

  2. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  3. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  4. B-chromosome effects on Hsp70 gene expression does not occur at transcriptional level in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Navarro-Domínguez, Beatriz; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2016-10-01

    As intragenomic parasites, B chromosomes can elicit stress in the host genome, thus inducing a response for host adaptation to this kind of continuous parasitism. In the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans, B-chromosome presence has been previously associated with a decrease in the amount of the heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). To investigate whether this effect is already apparent at transcriptional level, we analyze the expression levels of the Hsp70 gene in gonads and somatic tissues of males and females with and without B chromosomes from two populations, where the predominant B chromosome variants (B2 and B24) exhibit different levels of parasitism, by means of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on complementary DNA (cDNA). The results revealed the absence of significant differences for Hsp70 transcripts associated with B-chromosome presence in virtually all samples. This indicates that the decrease in HSP70 protein levels, formerly reported in this species, may not be a consequence of transcriptional down-regulation of Hsp70 genes, but the result of post-transcriptional regulation. These results will help to design future studies oriented to identifying factors modulating Hsp70 expression, and will also contribute to uncover the biological role of B chromosomes in eukaryotic genomes.

  5. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  6. Effect of naturally-occurring uranium and thorium on the level of crystal lattice damage of Malaysian Zircon

    Meor Yusoff Sulaiman; Khangoankar, P.R.; Kamarudin Husin

    1999-01-01

    Malaysian zircon is classified as a radioactive mineral due to its high uranium and thorium content. Recoil α, which is produce from the decay process of these radioactive elements, could results to the damage of the crystal. Metamictization or crystal lattice damage level of this mineral can be determined from their crystallise size and lattice strain values. Results for two local zircon samples with different uranium and thorium content seem to suggest that there is some relationship between the concentration of these elements and its metamictization level. Comparison of the lattice strain value with previous results conducted on zircon from different country shows that the value is still within the range obtained. Microstructure analysis was also done on the samples. Fractures and pores formed on the mineral surface support the lattice expansion phenomena obtained from the crystallographic analysis. Production of a clean, white non-radioactive zircon pigment is among the commercial potential that could be derived from this study. (Author)

  7. A new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia to improve body composition and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a pilot study.

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Martínez Guardado, Ismael; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timon, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study had the aim to determine the effects of a new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia in active adults. Twenty-four university student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia group, normoxia group or control group. The eight training sessions consisted of 2 sets of 5 repeated sprints of 10 seconds with a recovery of 20 seconds between sprints and a recovery period of 10 minutes between sets. Body composition was measured following standard procedures. A blood sample was taken for an immediate hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration assessment. An all-out 3-ute test was performed to evaluate ventilation parameters and power. HCT and Hb were significantly higher for the hypoxia group in Post- and Det- (P=0.01; P=0.03). Fat mass percentage was significantly lower for the hypoxia group in both assessments (P=0.05; P=0.05). The hypoxia group underwent a significant increase in mean power after the recovery period. A new dose of 8 sessions of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia is enough to decrease the percentage of fat mass and to improve HCT and Hb parameters and mean muscle power in healthy and active adults.

  8. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  9. A new multi-wavelength optical-plethysmograph for quantitative determination of pulpal hemoglobin content and oxygen level using green and near-infrared LEDs

    Kakino, S.; Miwa, Z.; Kirimoto, A.; Ohuchi, K.; Takatani, S.; Takagi, Y.

    2007-02-01

    A new multi-wavelength optical-plethysmograph has been designed to study the relation between the transmitted optical density (OD) of the tooth vs. hemoglobin (Hb) content and oxygen saturation (SO II) of the pulpal blood using the 467, 506, 522 and 810 nm light emitting diodes (LEDs). The experimental model utilized the extracted human upper incisor where the pulp cavity was filled with the blood having various values of Hb and SO II. A resin cap was made to fit the tooth crown and optical fibers for transmission measurement. The LEDs were pulsed sequentially at 520 Hz with the pulse duration of 240 μs. The OD as a function of Hb for the isosbestic wavelengths of 506 and 522 nm increased almost linearly from 8.0 to 11.0 for Hb changing from 0.0 (saline control) to 2.5 g/dL, but beyond 2.5 g/dL no change was observed. At 810 nm, the OD increased linearly till Hb of 13.4 g/dL, but its change was much smaller with 1.0 OD per 13.4 g/dL. As for SO II, the OD at 467 nm with Hb of 1.0 g/dL that simulated the mean pulpal Hb content in vivo varied by about 1.0 for SO II changing from 100 to 40%. The OD change with respect to Hb change at 506 and 522 nm showed better sensitivity than that at 810 nm. The combination of 467 and 506 or 522 nm wavelengths can provide a noninvasive measurement of both pulpal Hb content and SO II to diagnose pulp vitality of teeth in vivo.

  10. Radiation - induced changes in the optical properties of hemoglobin molecule

    Selim, N.S; El-Marakby, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adult male albino rats were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from Cs-137 source. Hemoglobin samples were analyzed 24 hrs after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of hemoglobin molecule was measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The overall spectrum of the hemoglobin molecule showed hypochromicity that increased with dose increase. To investigate the effect of radiation on the hemoglobin molecule, different parameters of the spectrum were calculated: molar absorption coefficient, absorption cross section, transition dipole moment , dipole length, the optical energy gap and activation energy for each characteristic peak. The obtained results revealed that the radiation effect can induce rearrangement of the transition dipole moments and change molecular energy levels of the hemoglobin molecule

  11. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Niveles de hemoglobina en gestantes atendidas en establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud del Perú, 2011 Hemoglobin levels in pregnant women seen in health care centers of the peruvian ministry of health, 2011

    Oscar Munares-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los niveles de hemoglobina y la prevalencia de anemia en gestantes atendidas en los establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud a nivel nacional. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal donde se analizó la base de datos del Sistema de Información del Estado Nutricional del Niño menor de 5 años y de la Gestante (SIEN. Se incluyó 287 691 registros de gestantes evaluadas en establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud del Perú en 2011, se analizaron los niveles de hemoglobina corregida a la altura, edad, edad gestacional, altitud a nivel del mar y prevalencia de anemia (leve, moderada y grave. Se aplicaron estadísticas descriptivas y chi cuadrado. Resultados. La prevalencia a nivel nacional de anemia en la gestante fue de 28,0% siendo anemia leve de 25,1%, moderada de 2,6% y grave de 0,2%. Los niveles de hemoglobina son mayores en mujeres con mayor edad y menores durante los primeros meses de gestación, la frecuencia de anemia decrece con la altitud. Asimismo, la prevalencia es mayor en departamentos de la sierra. Huancavelica fue el departamento con mayor prevalencia de anemia (53,6%, seguido de Puno con 51,0%. Conclusiones. Los niveles de hemoglobina son mayores conforme la edad materna es mayor, y menores conforme el trimestre de gestación y altitud. Huancavelica tiene la mayor prevalencia de anemia en gestantesObjectives. Determine hemoglobin levels and prevalence of anemia in pregnant women seen in health care centers of the Ministry of Health at national level. Materials and methods. Cross-cut study where the database of the Information System on the Nutritional Health of Children under 5 and Pregnant Women (SIEN were analyzed. 287 691 records of pregnant women examined at the health care centers of the Peruvian Ministry of Health in 2011 were included, hemoglobin levels corrected by height, age, gestational age, altitude and prevalence of anemia (light, moderate and serious were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and

  13. Quantifying risk of penile prosthesis infection with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Wilson, S K; Carson, C C; Cleves, M A; Delk, J R

    1998-05-01

    Elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin above levels of 11.5 mg.% has been considered a contraindication to penile prosthesis implantation in diabetic patients. We determine the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in penile prosthesis infections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients to confirm or deny this prevalent opinion. We conducted a 2-year prospective study of 389 patients, including 114 diabetics, who underwent 3-piece penile prosthesis implantation. All patients had similar preoperative preparation without regard to diabetic status, control or glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level. Risk of infection was statistically analyzed for diabetics versus nondiabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values above and below 11.5 mg.%, insulin dependent versus oral medication diabetics, and fasting blood sugars above and below 180 mg.%. Prosthesis infections developed in 10 diabetics (8.7%) and 11 nondiabetics (4.0%). No increased infection rate was observed in diabetics with high fasting sugars or diabetics on insulin. There was no statistically significant increased infection risk with increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C among all patients or among only the diabetics. In fact, there was no meaningful difference in the median or mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in the infected and noninfected patients regardless of diabetes. Use of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values to identify and exclude surgical candidates with increased risk of infections is not proved by this study. Elevation of fasting sugar or insulin dependence also does not increase risk of infection in diabetics undergoing prosthesis implantation.

  14. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    2013. Sample was taken by simple random sampling, obtained 37 students. Measuring of instruments IQ with CFQT, hemoglobin was measured using a Portable Digital Analyzer Easy Touch is a digital gauge Hb, external variable body mass index was meas- ured directly using the parameters height and weight of children. Analysis using Linear Regression. This research showed BMI was not associated with IQ (p value = 0.052. Relationship with the child’s intelligence anemia showed enough relationship (r = 0.491 and a positive pattern, where the higher levels Haemoglobin as the higher IQ score of the child’s. The coefficient of 0.241 explained 24.1 % variation anemia that is good enough to explain the variable IQ. There is a relationship between hemoglobin levels with IQ (p value = 0.002.

  15. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  16. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  18. Lack of Correlation of the Serum 25(OH Vitamin D Levels with the Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and the Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Oral Antidiabetic Drugs – Preliminary Data

    Bakalov D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from different studies correlating the serum 25(OHD levels with the metabolic and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients are still varying. The objective if this study was to describe the correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and some metabolic parameters in Bulgarian type 2 diabetes patients on oral antidiabetic drugs. One hundred type 2 diabetes patients participated - 56 men and 44 women. The mean age and diabetes duration of the women was 59.0 and 9.8 years, of the men - 58.0 and 7.7 years respectively. Complete patient history was taken and physical examination was performed (body weight and height, waist circumference. Body composition was measured on a leg-to-leg body impedance analyzer (TBF-215, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured by electro-hemi-luminescent detection as 25-(ОН D Total (ECLIA, Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland. Glycated hemoglobin A1c was measured on a NycoCard reader (Alere™. Total, HDL-cholesterol (direct and triglycerides were analyzed on a Cobas Integra 400+ analyzer. Correlation analysis was performed on a SPSS 13.0 for Windows platform and included 10 curves. The data were first analyzed for the group as a whole and then separately for men and women as well as in the different vitamin D tertiles. The mean serum 25-OH-vitamin D levels were 23.8 ± 12.1 nmol/l in women and 33.3 ± 20.0 nmol/l in men. We were unable to find any statistically significant correlation between serum 25(OH vitaminand the serum lipids (cholesterol profile and triglycerides. On the contrary, there was a weak correlation with the glycated hemoglobin A1c (cubic model, R2 = 0.178, p = 0.05 and the BMI (inverse model, R2 = 0.101, p = 0.038. The sub-analyses (men versus women or according to tertiles of vitamin D did not produce any additional information. The influence of vitamin D on the parameters of the metabolic control in type 2 diabetes is very weak on an individual level. It

  19. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin.

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  20. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  1. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  2. Improvement of hemoglobin levels after a switch from intravenous to subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Christiansen, Ingelise; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    (Hb) and hemolytic variables. RESULTS: Seventeen patients completed the study. At enrollment, the Hb level was 138 ± 12 g/L, haptoglobin level was 1.4 ± 0.5 g/L, reticulocyte count was 58.7 × 10(9) ± 21.3 × 10(9) /L, and bilirubin level was 6.6 ± 2.3 µmol/L. The average of the two blood samples drawn.......9 × 10(9) ± 35.8 × 10(9) to 54.5 × 10(9) ± 16.3 × 10(9) /L (p = 0.02), and bilirubin decreasing from 7.3 ± 2.8 to 5.8 ± 1.8 µmol/L (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: A switch from IVIG to SCIG was associated with a slight increase of Hb levels and an improvement of laboratory variables related to hemolytic...

  3. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  4. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  5. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  6. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  7. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Silvia Vanni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD subjects and age-matched controls.Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD (n = 20, iCJD (n = 11, sCJD (n = 23, gPrD (n = 30, and AD (n = 14 patients and age-matched controls (n = 30. RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis.Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level.Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue—together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease—seem to dictate the peculiar

  8. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Vanni, Silvia; Zattoni, Marco; Moda, Fabio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Haïk, Stéphane; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Ironside, James W; Carmona, Margarita; Ferrer, Isidre; Kovacs, Gabor G; Legname, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively) and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD) in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects and age-matched controls. Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD ( n = 20), iCJD ( n = 11), sCJD ( n = 23), gPrD ( n = 30), and AD ( n = 14) patients and age-matched controls ( n = 30). RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis. Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level. Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue)-together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease-seem to dictate the peculiar hemoglobin

  9. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça; Lilian Ferreira Muniz; Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda; Alcides da Silva Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels cons...

  10. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  11. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients.

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  12. Propanil-induced methemoglobinemia and hemoglobin binding in the rat

    McMillan, D.C.; McRae, T.A.; Hinson, J.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1990-09-15

    Administration of (ring-U-14C)propanil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) to male Sprague-Dawley rats (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, ip) increased the formation of methemoglobin at the two highest doses. Following a propanil dose of 100 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 5% by 1.5 hr and declined to normal levels (approximately 2.5%) by 12 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 50 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Following a propanil dose of 300 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 24% by 4.5 hr, and declined to a level of 5% by 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 425 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding was also detected at the lowest propanil dose (10 pmol/mg protein) even though methemoglobin formation was not observed. HPLC analysis of alkaline-treated hemoglobin from propanil-treated rats indicated the presence of one radiolabeled compound with the same HPLC retention time as 3,4-dichloraniline. These data are consistent with the concept that propanil is converted to N-hydroxy-3,4-dichloroaniline in the liver. Subsequently, this metabolite enters the erythrocyte and is oxidized by hemoglobin to 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene with concomitant conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. The 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene binds to cysteine residues on hemoglobin as the corresponding sulfinic acid amide adduct. These data suggest that human exposure to propanil may be monitored in the absence of observable toxicity by the analysis of propanil metabolites bound to hemoglobin.

  13. Hemoglobin Wayne Trait with Incidental Polycythemia.

    Ambelil, Manju; Nguyen, Nghia; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon; Wahed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, caused by mutations in the globin genes, are one of the most common inherited disorders. Many of the hemoglobin variants can be identified by hemoglobin analysis using conventional electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography; however hemoglobin DNA analysis may be necessary in other cases for confirmation. Here, we report a case of a rare alpha chain hemoglobin variant, hemoglobin Wayne, in a 47-year-old man who presented with secondary polycythemia. Capillary zone electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography revealed a significant amount of a hemoglobin variant, which was further confirmed by hemoglobin DNA sequencing as hemoglobin Wayne. Since the patient was not homozygous for hemoglobin Wayne, which is associated with secondary polycythemia, the laboratory diagnosis in this case was critical in ruling out hemoglobinopathy as the etiology of his polycythemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  15. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  16. Farklı Yemlerle Beslemenin Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’nda Hematokrit ve Hemoglobin Miktarı Üzerine Etkileri / The Effects of Liver Feed on Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Atamanalp, Muhammed; Bayır, Abdulkadir; Sirkecioğlu, A. Necdet; Yanık, Telat; Yılmaz, Mehtap; Cengiz, Mehtap

    2010-01-01

    ÖZET: Bu araştırmada beslenme-kan parametre ilişkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla kontrollü yetiştirme şartlarında tutulan gökkuşağı alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’ nda rasyona karaciğer ilavesinin hematokrit ve hemoglobin değerleri üzerine etkileri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Karaciğerle beslenen balıklarda gerek hemoglobin gerekse hematokrit değerleri, karaciğer + kuru karma yem ve yalnızca kuru karma yemle beslenen gruplara nazaran &...

  17. An Innovative Simple Technique of Blood Conservation in Adult Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot and Severely Raised Hemoglobin

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients...

  18. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  19. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  20. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  1. Raman Tweezers as a Diagnostic Tool of Hemoglobin-Related Blood Disorders

    Giulia Rusciano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in the field of biomedicine. Herein a Raman Tweezers system has been applied to investigate the effects of thalassemia, a blood disease quite diffuse in the Mediterranean Sea region. By resonant excitation of hemoglobin Raman bands, we examined the oxygenation capability of normal, alpha- and beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. A reduction of this fundamental red blood cell function, particularly severe for beta-thalassemia, has been found. Raman spectroscopy was also used to draw hemoglobin distribution inside single erythrocytes; the results confirmed the characteristic anomaly (target shape, occurring in thalassemia and some other blood disorders. The success of resonance Raman spectroscopy for thalassemia detection reported in this review provide an interesting starting point to explore the application of a Raman Tweezers system in the analysis of several blood disorders.

  2. Heterozygote Hemoglobin G-Coushatta as the Cause of a Falsely Decreased Hemoglobin A1C in an Ion-Exchange HPLC Method

    Kurtoğlu Ayşegül Uğur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is used for the assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA1c measurement. Here, we report two cases of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta (HBB:c.68A>C variant that interferes in the measurement of HbA1c by a cation-exchange HPLC (CE-HPLC method. HbA1c was measured by a CE-HPLC method in a Tosoh HLC-723 G7 instrument. The HbA1c levels were 2.9% and 4%. These results alerted us to a possible presence of hemoglobinopathy. In the hemoglobin variant analysis, HbA2 levels were detected as 78.3% and 40.7% by HPLC using the short program for the Biorad Variant II. HbA1c levels were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a Siemens Dimension instrument. HbA1c levels were reported as 5.5% and 5.3%. DNA mutation analysis was performed to detect the abnormal hemoglobin variant. Presence of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta variant was detected in the patients. The Hb G-Coushatta variants have an impact on the determination of glycated hemoglobin levels using CEHPLC resulting in a false low value. Therefore, it is necessary to use another measurement method.

  3. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  4. Correlation of Oxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration and Psychophysical Amount on Speech Recognition

    Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    The subjective understanding on oral language understanding task is quantitatively evaluated by the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by the near-infrared spectroscopy. The English listening comprehension test wihch consists of two difficulty level was executed by 4 subjects during the measurement. A significant correlation was found between the subjective understanding and the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration.

  5. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors involved in renal clearance of hemoglobin

    Gburek, Jakub; Verroust, Pierre J; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    -Sepharose affinity chromatography of solubilized renal brush-border membranes. Apparent dissociation constants of 1.7 microM for megalin and 4.1 microM for cubilin were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The binding was calcium dependent in both cases. Uptake of fluorescence-labeled hemoglobin by BN......The kidney is the main site of hemoglobin clearance and degradation in conditions of severe hemolysis. Herein it is reported that megalin and cubilin, two epithelial endocytic receptors, mediate the uptake of hemoglobin in renal proximal tubules. Both receptors were purified by use of hemoglobin...... not affect the uptake. By use of immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that uptake of hemoglobin in proximal tubules of rat, mouse, and dog kidneys occurs under physiologic conditions. Studies on normal and megalin knockout mouse kidney sections showed that megalin is responsible for physiologic...

  6. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of c...

  7. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  8. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  9. Candidate Sequence Variants and Fetal Hemoglobin in Children with Sickle Cell Disease Treated with Hydroxyurea

    Green, Nancy S.; Ender, Katherine L.; Pashankar, Farzana; Driscoll, Catherine; Giardina, Patricia J.; Mullen, Craig A.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Manwani, Deepa; Crotty, Jennifer; Kisselev, Sergey; Neville, Kathleen A.; Hoppe, Carolyn; Barral, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Background Fetal hemoglobin level is a heritable complex trait that strongly correlates swith the clinical severity of sickle cell disease. Only few genetic loci have been identified as robustly associated with fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease, primarily adults. The sole approved pharmacologic therapy for this disease is hydroxyurea, with effects largely attributable to induction of fetal hemoglobin. Methodology/Principal Findings In a multi-site observational analysis of children with sickle cell disease, candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with baseline fetal hemoglobin levels in adult sickle cell disease were examined in children at baseline and induced by hydroxyurea therapy. For baseline levels, single marker analysis demonstrated significant association with BCL11A and the beta and epsilon globin loci (HBB and HBE, respectively), with an additive attributable variance from these loci of 23%. Among a subset of children on hydroxyurea, baseline fetal hemoglobin levels explained 33% of the variance in induced levels. The variant in HBE accounted for an additional 13% of the variance in induced levels, while variants in the HBB and BCL11A loci did not contribute beyond baseline levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings clarify the overlap between baseline and hydroxyurea-induced fetal hemoglobin levels in pediatric disease. Studies assessing influences of specific sequence variants in these and other genetic loci in larger populations and in unusual hydroxyurea responders are needed to further understand the maintenance and therapeutic induction of fetal hemoglobin in pediatric sickle cell disease. PMID:23409025

  10. Hemoglobin as an important prognostic factor in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    Toma, Takashi; Nagai, Yutaka; Moromizato, Hidehiko; Toita, Takafumi; Murayama, Sadayuki; Kanazawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of hemoglobin with clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Seventy-five patients with Stage IB to IVA disease who were treated with CCRT were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age was 49.8 years. In the treatment, standard radiotherapy was performed accompanied by concomitant chemotherapy using cisplatin. Pre-treatment hemoglobin was defined as the earliest hemoglobin level prior to the initiation of treatment. Weekly nadir hemoglobin levels throughout treatment were averaged and used as average weekly nadir hemoglobin during treatment (AWNHg). The mean follow-up time was 28.6 months. The mean pre-treatment hemoglobin of 11.6 g/dL was significantly reduced to the mean AWNHg of 9.9 g/dL. The levels of pre-treatment hemoglobin and AWNHg were significantly associated with tumor response to treatment. The 5-year cumulative disease-free survival and overall survival rates for all 75 patients were 67.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that AWNHg (≥9.0 versus <9.0 g/dL) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.038), but pre-treatment hemoglobin was not a significant factor. AWNHg was one of the most powerful independent predictors of overall survival in patients undergoing CCRT for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  11. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  12. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silence...... suggests that 3-on-3 hemoglobins apart from a role in hypoxic stress play a general role under non-stressed conditions where they are essential for normal development by controlling the level of NO which tends to accumulate in floral buds and leaf hydathodes of plants......In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...

  13. Action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

    Vanuxem, D.; Weiller, P.J.; Guillot, C.; Grimaud, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen by measuring P50 in whole blood and in stripped hemoglobin before and after exposition of blood samples from heavy smokers and polycythemic patients with high levels of HbCO to hyperbaric oxygen (2.2 ata). The concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was normal although P50 was significantly lowered, not only in whole blood but also in stripped hemoglobin. Hyperbaric oxygen normalized P50 by removing CO radicals from stripped hemoglobin. This may indicate that CO radicals exert a direct action on the hemoglobin molecule, at least at the HbCO levels studied in this work.

  14. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  15. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Nikita Taparia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  17. Changes in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity with shape variations of red blood cells

    Chowdhury, Aniket; Dasgupta, Raktim; Majumder, Shovan K.

    2017-10-01

    Shape variations of red blood cells (RBCs) are known to occur upon exposure to various drugs or under diseased conditions. The commonly observed discocytic RBCs can be transformed to echinocytic or stomatocytic shape under such conditions. Raman spectra of the three major shape variations, namely discocyte, echinocyte, and stomatocyte, of RBCs were studied while subjecting the cells to oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions. Analysis of the recorded spectra suggests an increased level of hemoglobin (Hb)-oxygen affinity for the echinocytes. Also, some level of Hb degradation could be noticed for the deoxygenated echinocytes. The effects may arise from a reduced level of intracellular adenosine triphosphate in echinocytic cells and an increased fraction of submembrane Hb.

  18. An evaluation of naturally occurring levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in a small city and the impact on clean-up criteria and risk assessment - a case study

    Cramer, C.A.; Lund, K.D. [Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Novi, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. conducted an investigation of potential manufactured gas plant (MGP) impacts at a site in a small city in the midwestern United States. Published literature pertaining to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface soils in urban environments has focused mainly on large historically urban areas. As a result, it has been difficult to correlate PAH levels encountered in surface soils during evaluations of MGP sites to typical urban background levels. An investigation completed by Geraghty & Miller of an MGP site in a city with a population of approximately 40 000 has shown that background levels of PAHs can range from non-detectable levels to as high as 44 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg). The detailed surface-soil evaluation was necessary because a portion of the former MGP property is currently a residential apartment complex and is used as a playground for an elementary school. The regulatory agency required characterization of surface soils for MGP-indicator parameters such as PAHs, metals, cyanide, and volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Although the levels of total PAHs ranged as high as 31.5 mg/kg, Geraghty & Miller`s experience with similar sites suggested that the detected levels were likely indicative of urban background conditions. Many of the PAHs in urban soils are from recent activities not old industries. Before soil remediation current pollution sources should be checked.

  19. Change in Vitamin D Levels Occurs Early after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Depends on Treatment Regimen in Resource-Limited Settings

    Havers, Fiona P.; Detrick, Barbara; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Berendes, Sima; Lama, Javier R.; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Mwelase, Noluthando H.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Gupta, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Study Background Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels, but these studies have been done in North American and European populations. Methods Using a prospective cohort study design nested in a multinational clinical trial, we examined the effect of three combination antiretroviral (cART) regimens on serum vitamin D levels in 270 cART-naïve, HIV-infected adults in nine diverse countries, (Brazil, Haiti, Peru, Thailand, India, Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the United States). We evaluated the change between baseline serum vitamin D levels and vitamin D levels 24 and 48 weeks after cART initiation. Results Serum vitamin D levels decreased significantly from baseline to 24 weeks among those randomized to efavirenz/lamivudine/zidovudine (mean change: −7.94 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) −10.42, −5.54] ng/ml) and efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir-DF (mean change: −6.66 [95% CI −9.40, −3.92] ng/ml) when compared to those randomized to atazanavir/emtricitabine/didanosine-EC (mean change: −2.29 [95% CI –4.83, 0.25] ng/ml). Vitamin D levels did not change significantly between week 24 and 48. Other factors that significantly affected serum vitamin D change included country (p<0.001), season (p<0.001) and baseline vitamin D level (p<0.001). Conclusion Efavirenz-containing cART regimens adversely affected vitamin D levels in patients from economically, geographically and racially diverse resource-limited settings. This effect was most pronounced early after cART initiation. Research is needed to define the role of Vitamin D supplementation in HIV care. PMID:24752177

  20. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  1. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  2. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics

    Arunpreet Singh Kahlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3% had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came

  3. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics.

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Pathak, Rambha

    2011-07-01

    Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3%) had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came out to be .311. This correlation was found to be statistically

  4. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  5. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  6. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging

  7. Re-recognition of Age-dependent Reference Range for the Serum Creatinine Level in Teenagers - A Case of Slowly Progressive Tubulointerstitial Nephritis which Occurred in an Adolescent.

    Ono, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Kojiro; Shibata, Eriko; Matsuura, Motokazu; Kishi, Seiji; Inagaki, Taizo; Minato, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ueda, Sayo; Obata, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Tamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Fumi; Murakami, Taichi; Abe, Hideharu; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji; Doi, Toshio

    2017-08-15

    For the first time, a 15-year-old boy was found to have a slight degree of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria during annual school urinalysis screening. His kidney function had already severely deteriorated. A kidney biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration. His medical records showed his serum creatinine level to be 0.98 mg/dL two years ago, which was abnormally high considering his age. Although the etiology of slowly progressive TIN was unclear, glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy improved his kidney function. This case report suggests that all doctors should recognize the reference range for the serum creatinine level in teenagers.

  8. Níveis séricos de hemoglobina em adolescentes segundo estágio de maturação sexual Hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    Maria Fernanda Petroli Frutuoso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência constitui etapa de risco para o desenvolvimento da anemia ferropriva, uma vez que ocorre aumento da necessidade de ferro decorrente do crescimento estatural e da maturação biológica. Estudaram-se 130 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, para verificar os valores de hemoglobina sérica em diferentes fases de maturação sexual. Utilizou-se o método de fotometria para dosar a hemoglobina sérica e realizou-se auto-avaliação do estágio de maturação sexual com base nos critérios de Tanner. Os níveis médios de hemoglobina foram semelhantes entre sexos, bem como entre meninas que menstruavam ou não. O nível médio de hemoglobina foi de 13,3g/dL tanto para os meninos como para as meninas (p=0,64, com desvios-padrão de 1,12 e de 0,83, respectivamente. Entre os adolescentes estudados, 7,7% tinham anemia ferropriva. Recomenda-se atenção ao grupo de adolescentes, devido ao aumento da necessidade de ferro durante o estirão de crescimento, principalmente entre as meninas, aumentando a suscetibilidade à anemia.During adolescence, the risk of development of iron-deficiency anemia is higher because of the growth spurt and the sexual maturation which increase the iron requirement. One hundred and thirty adolescents (males and females were studied, in order to assess the serum hemoglobin values in different sexual maturation stages. The photometric method was used and a self-evaluation of the sexual maturation stage based on Tanner's criteria was applied. The average hemoglobin values were similar for both sexes, as well for girls who had menstruated or not. The average hemoglobin values were 13.3 (s.d. 1.12g/dL for males and 13.3 (s.d. 0.83g/dL for females (p=0.64. Among the studied adolescents, 7.7% had iron-deficiency anemia. Due to the iron requirement increase during the growth spurt, mainly in females, and the higher susceptibility to iron deficiency anemia, special attention to the adolescents is recommended.

  9. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  10. Regulation of hemoglobin AIc formation in human erythrocytes in vitro. Effects of physiologic factors other than glucose.

    Smith, R J; Koenig, R J; Binnerts, A; Soeldner, J S; Aoki, T T

    1982-01-01

    The formation of hemoglobin AIc was studied in intact human erythrocytes in vitro. Satisfactory methods were developed for maintaining erythrocytes under physiologic conditions for greater than 8 d with less than 10% hemolysis. Hemoglobin AIc levels were determined chromatographically on erythrocyte hemolysates after removal of reversible components by incubation for 6 h at 37 degree C. Hemoglobin AIc concentration was found to increase linearly with time during 8 d of incubation. The rate of...

  11. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  12. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  13. Co-Occurring Disorders

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  14. Hemoglobin radiolabeling: in vitro and in vivo comparison of iodine labeling with iodogen and a new method for technetium labeling

    Bleeker, W.K.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Plas, J. van der; Agterberg, J.; Rigter, G.; Bakker, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation compares the suitability of two radiolabeling techniques for hemoglobin. 125 I labeling of hemoglobin with Iodogen as iodinating agent caused major changes in the chromatographic behaviour and an accelerated plasma clearance of the labeled hemoglobin in rats. A recently developed two-step procedure for 99m Tc labeling gave better results. The label had only minimal influence on the chromatographic behaviour of hemoglobin. In vivo, no free label occurred in the circulation and no transfer of the label to other plasma proteins took place. The plasma clearance of 99m Tc-labeled hemoglobin in rats was slowed. However, this could be explained entirely by diminishing glomerular filtration, probably by inhibition of the dissociation of the hemoglobin molecule into dimers. The plasma clearance of hemoglobin modified by intramolecular cross-linking, which prevents dissociation of the molecule into dimers and thus excretion by the kidney, was not influenced by the label. We conclude that the 99m Tc labeling procedure is suitable for in vivo distribution studies of hemoglobin when it is taken into account that the urinary excretion is underestimated. For cross-linked hemoglobin, which is more promising as plasma expander, no such restriction exists. (author)

  15. Long-term high-level expression of human beta-globin occurs following transplantation of transgenic marrow into irradiated mice.

    Himelstein, A; Ward, M; Podda, S; de la Flor Weiss, E; Costantini, F; Bank, A

    1993-03-01

    When the human beta-globin gene is transferred into the bone marrow cells of live mice, its expression is very low. To investigate the reason for this, we transferred the bone marrow of transgenic mice containing and expressing the human beta-globin into irradiated recipients. We demonstrate that long-term high level expression of the human beta-globin gene can be maintained in the marrow and blood of irradiated recipients following transplantation. Although expression decreased over time in most animals because of host marrow reconstitution, the ratio of human beta-globin transgene expression to endogenous mouse beta-globin gene expression in donor-derived erythroid cells remained constant over time. We conclude that there is no inherent limitation to efficient expression of an exogenous human beta-globin gene in mouse bone marrow cells following marrow transplantation.

  16. An innovative simple technique of blood conservation in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot and severely raised hemoglobin.

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-12-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients because of the fear of possible hemodynamic instability, and hypoxemic spell. We describe an innovative, simple technique of blood conservation for adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot with severely raised hemoglobin. With this technique, hemoglobin can be normalized on CPB; moreover, there is no fear of hypoxemic spell or hemodynamic instability. Furthermore, the blood conserved is readily available for transfusion in the perioperative period, if needed.

  17. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  18. Hemoglobin drop after anesthesia in craniosynstosis: Dilemma of operate or not to operate

    El-Ghandour, Nihal; Kassem, Salah; Al Sabbagh, Abdelrahman J.; Al-Banyan, Ayman; Shubbak, Firas A.; Hassib, Ahmad; Zaki, Hazem

    2011-01-01

    An infant with craniosynostosis for craniectomy and cranial-vault remodelling was detected to have very low hemoglobin (6.8 gm%) after induction of anesthesia. This posed a dilemma whether to proceed with or abandon the surgical procedure. The case was postponed and was rescheduled for surgery one week later with hope that his hemoglobin would rise during this period. However, even before second anesthesia his hemoglobin level was found to be unchanged. Meticulous anesthesia management resulted in uneventful surgical procedure. PMID:25885398

  19. Detection of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin in Haiti by Genotyping and Hemoglobin Solubility Tests

    Carter, Tamar E.; von Fricken, Michael; Romain, Jean R.; Memnon, Gladys; St. Victor, Yves; Schick, Laura; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a growing global health concern because infants born with the disorder in developing countries are now surviving longer with little access to diagnostic and management options. In Haiti, the current state of sickle cell disease/trait in the population is unclear. To inform future screening efforts in Haiti, we assayed sickle hemoglobin mutations using traditional hemoglobin solubility tests (HST) and add-on techniques, which incorporated spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation. We also generated genotype data as a metric for HST performance. We found 19 of 202 individuals screened with HST were positive for sickle hemoglobin, five of whom did not carry the HbS allele. We show that spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation add-on techniques could resolve false positives associated with the traditional HST approach, with some limitations. We also discuss the incorporation of insoluble hemoglobin separation observation with HST in suboptimal screening settings like Haiti. PMID:24957539

  20. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  1. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  2. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  3. Hydroxyurea-Increased Fetal Hemoglobin Is Associated with Less Organ Damage and Longer Survival in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Hsieh, Matthew M; Allen, Darlene; Coles, Wynona A; Seamon, Cassie; Ring, Michael; Zhao, Xiongce; Minniti, Caterina P; Rodgers, Griffin P; Schechter, Alan N; Tisdale, John F; Taylor, James G

    2015-01-01

    Adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) are inconsistently treated with hydroxyurea. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of elevating fetal hemoglobin with hydroxyurea on organ damage and survival in patients enrolled in our screening study between 2001 and 2010. An electronic medical record facilitated development of a database for comparison of study parameters based on hydroxyurea exposure and dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00011648. Three hundred eighty-three adults with homozygous sickle cell disease were analyzed with 59 deaths during study follow-up. Cox regression analysis revealed deceased subjects had more hepatic dysfunction (elevated alkaline phosphatase, Hazard Ratio = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.006, phydroxyurea, although only 66% of those received a dose within the recommended therapeutic range. Hydroxyurea use was associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.97, p = 0.040). This effect was most pronounced in those taking the recommended dose of 15-35 mg/kg/day (Hazard Ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73, p = 0.0050). Hydroxyurea use was not associated with changes in organ function over time. Further, subjects with higher fetal hemoglobin responses to hydroxyurea were more likely to survive (p = 0.0004). While alkaline phosphatase was lowest in patients with the best fetal hemoglobin response (95.4 versus 123.6, p = 0.0065 and 96.1 versus 113.6U/L, p = 0.041 at first and last visits, respectively), other markers of organ damage were not consistently improved over time in patients with the highest fetal hemoglobin levels. Our data suggest that adults should be treated with the maximum tolerated hydroxyurea dose, ideally before organ damage occurs. Prospective studies are indicated to validate these findings.

  4. Radiological impact on the UK population of industries which use or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Part II: the steel production industry

    Crockett, G.M.; Smith, K.R.; Oatway, W.B.; Mobbs, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the UK population of the steel production industry within the UK. The radiological impact of the primary industry, the waste streams produced and the use of by-product slag have been considered. Individual doses from atmospheric releases from ail currently operating integrated steel plants in the UK are less than 10 μSv y -1 for all age groups. The per caput dose rate in the UK population from 500 years of continuous steel production at the current levels is estimated to be 0.1 μSv y -1 . Estimated maximum doses to workers at the steel production plant, landfill workers, and workers manufacturing and using building materials containing slag were generally less than 20 μSv y -1 . The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag depend upon the radon emanation fraction assumed for the material. Experimental data in this area is sparse, and thus a range was considered. The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag ranged between 7.0 and 10.8 Bq m -3 , compared with 9.9 Bq m -3 when slag-free concrete is assumed. The estimated dose from radon exposure ranges between 363 μSv y -1 and 559 μSv y -1 , compared with 510 μSv y -1 when slag-free concrete is used. The estimated external dose to an individual in a house constructed using concrete containing slag is 790 μSv y -1 compared with 758 μSv y -1 for slag-free concrete. The overall effect of the use of the slag in building materials therefore ranges between a reduction in dose of 115 μSv y -1 and an increase of 81 μSv y -1 . Other scenarios involving exposure of members of the public to slag resulted in doses of less than 5 μSv y -1 . The estimated peak individual risk from landfill disposal of steel industry waste is less than approximately 1 10 -8 y -1 . Currently, radiological controls on the operation of steel production sites are confined to the

  5. Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show that portable deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences incorporated into host cells make them produce hemoglobins - oxygen-binding proteins essential to function of red blood cells. Method useful in several biotechnological applications. One, enhancement of growth of cells at higher densities. Another, production of hemoglobin to enhance supplies of oxygen in cells, for use in chemical reactions requiring oxygen, as additive to serum to increase transport of oxygen, and for binding and separating oxygen from mixtures of gases.

  6. Hydrogen-tritium exchange survey of allosteric effects in hemoglobin

    Englander, J.J.; Englander, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The oxy and deoxy forms of hemoglobin display major differences in H-exchange behavior. Hydrogen-tritium exchange experiments on hemoglobin were performed in the low-resolution mode to observe the dependence of these differences on pH (Bohr effect), organic phosphates, and salt. Unlike a prior report, increasing pH was found to decrease the oxy-deoxy difference monotonically, in general accordance with the alkaline Bohr effect. A prior report that the H-exchange difference between oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin vanishes at pH 9, and thus appears to reflect the Bohr effect alone, was found to be due to the borate buffer used, which at high pH tends to abolish the oxy-deoxy difference in a limited region of the H-exchange curve. Effects on hemoglobin H exchange due to organic phosphates parallel the differential binding of these agents (inositol hexaphosphate more than diphosphoglycerate, deoxy more than oxy, at low pH more than at high pH). Added salt slows H exchange of deoxyhemoglobin and has no effect on the oxy form. These results display the sensitivity of simple H-exchange measurements for finding and characterizing effects on structure and dynamics that may occur anywhere in the protein and help to define conditions for higher resolution approaches that can localize the changes observed

  7. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  8. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  9. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  10. The impact of hemoglobin on the efficacy of phototherapy in hyperbilirubinemic infants

    Donneborg, Mette L; Vandborg, Pernille K; Hansen, Bo M

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundPhototherapy is the routine treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Absorption of light in the skin transforms the native Z,Z-bilirubin to photobilirubins. This study investigates whether the hemoglobin concentration has an impact on efficacy of phototherapy, expressed by the decline...... decrease in TsB after 24 h was 121 (57-199) μmol/l; the median hemoglobin was 12.0 (7.0-14.7) mmol/l. There was a significant effect of hemoglobin concentration on the decrease in TsB of -3.61 μmol/mmol hemoglobin (P=0.022), after adjusting for initial TsB and postnatal age. That is, assuming the same...... initial TsB and postnatal age, for each mmol/l increase in hemoglobin, the decrease in TsB was 3.61 μmol/l smaller. In our hemoglobin range, the decrease in TsB is reduced by 28 μmol/l (23%).ConclusionIncreasing hemoglobin levels led to a decrease in the efficacy of phototherapy. Our data provide...

  11. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels considered as mild anemia (9 g/dL 0.05, nor with socioeconomic or demographic characteristics (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of anemia was low and classified as a mild health problem, preventive nutrition education involving the dissemination of healthy eating habits in schools and encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods are strongly recommended.

  12. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Pitfalls in the biological diagnosis of common hemoglobin disorders.

    Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    In West-European countries, hemoglobin disorders are no more rare diseases. Programs for diagnosis of heterozygous carriers have been established to prevent cases with major sickle cell disease or thalassemias. These studies have been done essentially by high performance liquid chromatography on cation-exchange columns and electrophoresis (mostly capillary electrophoresis). They have been done through systematic population studies or premarital diagnosis. We describe in this work the frequent or rare pitfalls encountered, which led to false negative or positive diagnosis both in the field of sickle cell disease and thalassemias. In the absence of a well identified hemoglobin disorder in the proband's family, it is a rule that the use of a single test is insufficient to identify formally HbS. The presence of HbS could also be masked by another hemoglobin abnormality. The sole measurement of HbA2 level is insufficient to characterize a thalassemic trait: this level needs always to be interpreted considering RBC parameters and iron metabolic status. In difficult cases, the definitive answer may require a family study and/or a molecular genetic characterization.

  14. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  15. Three-state combinatorial switch models as applied to the binding of oxygen by human hemoglobin.

    Straume, M; Johnson, M L

    1988-02-23

    We have generated a series of all 6561 unique, discrete three-state combinatorial switch models to describe the partitioning of the cooperative oxygen-binding free change among the 10 variously ligated forms of human hemoglobin tetramers. These models were inspired by the experimental observation of Smith and Ackers that the cooperative free energy of the intersubunit contact regions of the 10 possible ligated forms of human hemoglobin tetramers can be represented by a particular distribution of three distinct energy levels [Smith, F. R., & Ackers, G. K. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 5347-5351]. A statistical thermodynamic formulation accounting for both dimer-tetramer equilibria and ligand binding properties of hemoglobin solutions as a function of oxygen and protein concentrations was utilized to exhaustively test these thermodynamic models. In this series of models each of the 10 ligated forms of the hemoglobin tetramer can exist in one, and only one, of three possible energy levels; i.e., each ligated form was assumed to be associated with a discrete energy state. This series of models includes all possible ways that the 10 ligation states of hemoglobin can be distributed into three distinct cooperative energy levels. The mathematical models, as presented here, do not permit equilibria between energy states to exist for any of the 10 unique ligated forms of hemoglobin tetramers. These models were analyzed by nonlinear least-squares estimation of the free energy parameters characteristic of this statistical thermodynamic development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles from hemoglobin and myoglobin

    Sayyad, Arshad S; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ci, Lijie; Kabbani, Ahmad T; Vajtai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Stable iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from naturally occurring and abundant Fe-containing bio-precursors, namely hemoglobin and myoglobin. The formation of stable iron nanoparticles was achieved through a one-pot, single-phase chemical reduction approach. The reduction of iron ions present in the bio-precursors was carried out at room temperature and avoids the use of harsh chemical reagents. The size distribution of the product falls into the narrow 2–5 nm range and the particles were found to be crystalline. This method can be a valuable synthetic approach for producing bio-conjugated nanoparticle systems for biological applications. (paper)

  17. A spectroscopic study on the interaction between gold nanoparticles and hemoglobin

    Garabagiu, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The interaction was studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. ► Gold nanoparticles quench the fluorescence emission of hemoglobin solution. ► The binding and thermodynamic constants were calculated. ► Major impact: electrochemical applications of the complex onto a substrate. -- Abstract: The interaction between horse hemoglobin and gold nanoparticles was studied using optical spectroscopy. UV–vis and fluorescence spectra show that a spontaneous binding process occurred between hemoglobin and gold nanoparticles. The Soret band of hemoglobin in the presence of gold nanoparticles does not show significant changes, which proves that the protein retained its biological function. A shift to longer wavelengths appears in the plasmonic band of gold nanoparticles upon the attachment of hemoglobin molecules. Gold nanoparticles quench the fluorescence emission of tryptophan residues in the structure of hemoglobin. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant, the binding constant and the number of binding sites were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the binding was mainly due to hydrophobic interactions.

  18. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  19. Efeito da duração da amamentação exclusiva e mista sobre os níveis de hemoglobina nos primeiros seis meses de vida: um estudo de seguimento Effect of length of exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding on hemoglobin levels in the first six months of life: a follow-up study

    Andréa Silva de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da duração da amamentação exclusiva e mista sobre os níveis de hemoglobina de lactentes. Trata-se de um estudo de seguimento com seis meses de duração, envolvendo 150 crianças nascidas na maternidade de Mutuípe, Bahia, Brasil. Mensalmente, as crianças eram submetidas ao exame de sangue para avaliação dos níveis de hemoglobina e realizava-se coleta de dados de consumo alimentar. Foram obtidos, ainda, dados obstétricos e sócio-econômicos. Utilizou-se o modelo linear de efeitos mistos para investigar as associações de interesse. Ao final do seguimento, a perda amostral foi de 15,3%, e detectou-se uma prevalência de 71,7% de anemia. Constatou-se um incremento de 0,091g/dL nos níveis de hemoglobina a cada mês de duração de aleitamento materno exclusivo (p = 0,031, enquanto, a cada mês de duração de aleitamento materno misto, os níveis de hemoglobina declinaram em 0,097g/dL (p = 0,017. Concluiu-se que as práticas alimentares inadequadas parecem estar diretamente envolvidas na etiologia da deficiência nutricional de ferro nesse período da vida.This six-month follow-up study aimed to assessing the effect of length of both exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding on hemoglobin levels in 150 infants born at the Mutuípe maternity facility in Bahia State, Brazil. Blood tests were performed monthly to assess the hemoglobin levels, at which time data were gathered on food intake. Obstetric and socioeconomic data were also collected. The linear mixed effects model was used to investigate the target associations. Loss to follow-up was 15.3%, and anemia prevalence was 71.7%. An increase of 0.091g/dL (p = 0.031 in hemoglobin levels was found for each month of exclusive breastfeeding, while a decrease of 0.097g/dL (p = 0.017 was shown for each month of mixed feeding. In conclusion, inadequate food practices appear to be directly involved in the etiology of iron deficiency anemia during

  20. Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.

    Lin, Hsin-I; Wu, Ching-Chu; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Shiesh, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-21

    Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of hemoglobin spray (Granulox® as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers

    Sharon D. Hunt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemoglobin spray (Granulox® comprises purified hemoglobin and is a novel approach for increasing oxygen availability in the wound bed in diabetic foot ulcer patients. Its mode of action is to bind oxygen from the atmosphere and diffuse it into the wound bed to accelerate wound healing in slow-healing wounds. Patients and methods: Wound healing outcomes, that is, wound size, pain, percentage of slough, and exudate levels, were compared retrospectively to a similar cohort of patients treated over the same period the previous year. The same inclusion and exclusion criteria applied to both groups. Results: All 20 (100% hemoglobin spray-treated patients and 15 (75% control patients experienced some wound healing by week 4, with 5 (25% and 1 (5%, respectively, achieving complete wound closure. At week 4, mean wound size reduction was 63% in the hemoglobin spray group versus 26% for controls, increasing to 95% reduction at week 28 in the hemoglobin spray group versus 63% for controls (p<0.05 at all timepoints. Hemoglobin spray was associated with substantially lower pain scores using a 10-cm visual analogue scale, with 19/19 patients (100% being pain-free from week 12 onwards, compared to 6/18 patients (33% in the control group. At week 28, 2/18 patients (11% in the control group still had pain. Both groups had similar baseline slough levels, but hemoglobin spray-treated wounds had slough completely eliminated after 4 weeks versus 10% mean reduction in the control group (p<0.001. Hemoglobin spray was associated with markedly reduced exudate levels; within 4 weeks, no patients had high exudate levels in the hemoglobin spray group versus 5 in the control group. Conclusion: Standard wound care plus hemoglobin spray results in improvements in wound closure, wound size reduction, pain, slough, and exudate levels compared to control patients for chronic diabetic foot ulcer treatment.

  2. Hemopressins and other hemoglobin-derived peptides in mouse brain: Comparison between brain, blood, and heart peptidome and regulation in Cpefat/fat mice

    Gelman, Julia S.; Sironi, Juan; Castro, Leandro M.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Many hemoglobin-derived peptides are present in mouse brain, and several of these have bioactive properties including the hemopressins, a related series of peptides that bind to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Although hemoglobin is a major component of red blood cells, it is also present in neurons and glia. To examine whether the hemoglobin-derived peptides in brain are similar to those present in blood and heart, we used a peptidomics approach involving mass spectrometry. Many hemoglobin-derived peptides are found only in brain and not in blood, whereas all hemoglobin-derived peptides found in heart were also seen in blood. Thus, it is likely that the majority of the hemoglobin-derived peptides detected in brain are produced from brain hemoglobin and not erythrocytes. We also examined if the hemopressins and other major hemoglobin-derived peptides were regulated in the Cpefat/fat mouse; previously these mice were reported to have elevated levels of several hemoglobin-derived peptides. Many, but not all of the hemoglobin-derived peptides were elevated in several brain regions of the Cpefat/fat mouse. Taken together, these findings suggest that the post-translational processing of alpha and beta hemoglobin into the hemopressins, as well as other peptides, is upregulated in some but not all Cpefat/fat mouse brain regions. PMID:20202081

  3. The effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of diabetic patients

    Castilho E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG. Decreases in 2,3-DPG concentration within the red cell shift the curve to the left, whereas increases in concentration cause a shift to the right of the ODC. Some earlier studies on diabetic patients have reported that insulin treatment may reduce the red cell concentrations of 2,3-DPG, causing a shift of the ODC to the left, but the reports are contradictory. Three groups were compared in the present study: 1 nondiabetic control individuals (N = 19; 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM patients (on insulin treatment (N = 19; 3 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and no insulin treatment (N = 22. The overall position of the ODC was the same for the three groups despite an increase of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction that was expected to shift the ODC to the left in both groups of diabetic patients (HbA1c: control, 4.6%; IDDM, 10.5%; NIDDM, 9.0%. In IDDM patients, the effect of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction on the position of the ODC appeared to be counterbalanced by small though statistically significant increases in 2,3-DPG concentration from 2.05 (control to 2.45 µmol/ml blood (IDDM. Though not statistically significant, an increase of 2,3-DPG also occurred in NIDDM patients, while red cell ATP levels were the same for all groups. The positions of the ODC were the same for control subjects, IDDM and NIDDM patients. Thus, the PO2 at 50% hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was 26.8, 28.2 and 28.5 mmHg for control, IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. In conclusion, our data question the idea of adverse side effects of insulin treatment on oxygen transport. In other words, the shift to the left reported by others to be caused by insulin treatment was not detected.

  4. The effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of diabetic patients.

    Castilho, E M; Glass, M L; Manço, J C

    2003-06-01

    The position of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Decreases in 2,3-DPG concentration within the red cell shift the curve to the left, whereas increases in concentration cause a shift to the right of the ODC. Some earlier studies on diabetic patients have reported that insulin treatment may reduce the red cell concentrations of 2,3-DPG, causing a shift of the ODC to the left, but the reports are contradictory. Three groups were compared in the present study: 1) nondiabetic control individuals (N = 19); 2) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients (on insulin treatment) (N = 19); 3) non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and no insulin treatment (N = 22). The overall position of the ODC was the same for the three groups despite an increase of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction that was expected to shift the ODC to the left in both groups of diabetic patients (HbA1c: control, 4.6%; IDDM, 10.5%; NIDDM, 9.0%). In IDDM patients, the effect of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction on the position of the ODC appeared to be counterbalanced by small though statistically significant increases in 2,3-DPG concentration from 2.05 (control) to 2.45 mol/ml blood (IDDM). Though not statistically significant, an increase of 2,3-DPG also occurred in NIDDM patients, while red cell ATP levels were the same for all groups. The positions of the ODC were the same for control subjects, IDDM and NIDDM patients. Thus, the PO2 at 50% hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was 26.8, 28.2 and 28.5 mmHg for control, IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. In conclusion, our data question the idea of adverse side effects of insulin treatment on oxygen transport. In other words, the shift to the left reported by others to be caused by insulin treatment was not detected.

  5. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  7. In vitro determination of hemoglobin A1c for diabetes diagnosis and management: technology update

    English E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emma English,1 Elise T Milosevich,1 W Garry John2 1School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, United Kingdom; 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom Abstract: It is fascinating to consider the analytical improvements that have occurred since glycated hemoglobin was first used in routine clinical laboratories for diabetes monitoring around 1977; at that time methods displayed poor precision, there were no calibrators or material with assayed values for quality control purposes. This review outlines the major improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c measurement that have occurred since its introduction, and reflects on the increased importance of this hemoglobin fraction in the monitoring of glycemic control. The use of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool is discussed in addition to its use in monitoring the patient with diabetes; the biochemistry of HbA1c formation is described, and how these changes to the hemoglobin molecule have been used to develop methods to measure this fraction. Standardization of HbA1c is described in detail; the development of the IFCC Reference Measurement Procedure for HbA1c has enabled global standardization to be achieved which has allowed global targets to be set for glycemic control and diagnosis. The importance of factors that may interfere in the measurement of HbA1c are highlighted. Keywords: glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, IFCC

  8. Point-of-care hemoglobin testing for postmortem diagnosis of anemia.

    Na, Joo-Young; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Ha; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-03-01

    An autopsy involves examination of a body using invasive methods such as dissection, and includes various tests using samples procured during dissection. During medicolegal autopsies, the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration is commonly measured using the AVOXimeter® 4000 as a point-of-care test. When evaluating the body following hypovolemic shock, characteristics such as reduced livor mortis or an anemic appearance of the viscera can be identified, but these observations arequite subjective. Thus, a more objective test is required for the postmortem diagnosis of anemia. In the present study, the AVOXimeter® 4000 was used to investigate the utility of point-of-care hemoglobin testing. Hemoglobin tests were performed in 93 autopsy cases. The AVOXimeter® 4000 and the BC-2800 Auto Hematology Analyzer were used to test identical samples in 29 of these cases. The results of hemoglobin tests performed with these two devices were statistically similar (r = 0.969). The results of hemoglobin tests using postmortem blood were compared with antemortem test results from medical records from 31 cases, and these results were similar. In 13 of 17 cases of death from internal hemorrhage, hemoglobin levels were lower in the cardiac blood than in blood from the affected body cavity, likely due to compensatory changes induced by antemortem hemorrhage. It is concluded that blood hemoglobin testing may be useful as a point-of-care test for diagnosing postmortem anemia.

  9. Effect of hemolysis and free hemoglobin on optical hematocrit measurements in the extracorporeal circulation.

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kellner, Josef; Elshehabi, Morad; Schneditz, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Clinically significant hemolysis is a rare but serious problem in dialysis. Because hemolysis affects red blood cell count and optical density of plasma it has been speculated whether techniques used for online blood volume monitoring would be useful to detect hemolysis. In this study the influence of free hemoglobin on hematocrit and relative blood volume changes measured by optical means (CritLine, HemaMetrics, Kaysville, UT) were examined using an in vitro model with bovine blood. Free hemoglobin solutions were added in steps to circulating whole blood at baseline hematocrits covering a range from 30% to 60% and at blood flows of approximately 200 and 400 ml/min. The free hemoglobin concentration reached was in the range of 2 to 3 g/dl. The presence of free hemoglobin led to a relative increase in hematocrit in the range of 0.3% per 0.1 g of free hemoglobin per dl (+3% dl/g). As an increase in hematocrit is interpreted as a decrease in blood volume, this change referred to an apparent decrease in relative blood volume in the same order of magnitude (-3% dl/g). Effects were more pronounced at low baseline hematocrit. Thus, although optical hematocrit readings are affected by the presence of free hemoglobin the changes at levels associated with clinical symptoms appear to be too small to be accurately detected in the in vivo situation where the hematocrit and the resulting optical signal is affected by various physiological processes and therefore much noisier.

  10. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  11. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  12. Hemoglobin mass and intravascular volume kinetics during and after exposure to 3,454-m altitude

    Siebenmann, C; Cathomen, A; Hug, M

    2015-01-01

    High altitude (HA) exposure facilitates a rapid contraction of plasma volume (PV) and a slower occurring expansion of hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). The kinetics of the Hbmass expansion has never been examined by multiple repeated measurements, and this was our primary study aim. The second aim...

  13. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-02-01

    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  15. Impacto do uso de cereal adicionado de ferro sobre os níveis de hemoglobina e a antropometria de pré-escolares Effect of the use of iron-enriched cereal on the serum hemoglobin levels and anthropometric values of preschool children

    Márcia Regina Vítolo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A anemia na infância tem sido considerada um dos grandes desafios nutricionais nos países em desenvolvimento, seguida da desnutrição energética. Têm-se discutido muito a eficácia dos alimentos enriquecidos no combate a esse problema. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação diária de cereal adicionado de ferro e o seu impacto nos parâmetros antropométricos e nos níveis de hemoglobina de crianças de 1 a 4 anos de idade. Foram estudadas 54 crianças de uma creche municipal, de duas salas, sendo o grupo I constituído de 24 crianças com média de idade 2 anos e 2 meses e o grupo II constituído de 30 crianças de 3 anos e 6 meses. Essas crianças foram avaliadas, no início e no final da intervenção, quanto à ingestão alimentar, peso, estatura e níveis de hemoglobina sérica. Durante o período de dois meses, o café da manhã e o lanche da tarde, que eram constituídos de leite e pão, foram substituídos pelo cereal adicionado de ferro na forma de mingau, o que proporcionou aumento de 2 a 3mg de ferro por dia. Os resultados mostraram que houve aumento significante na adequação do índice P/E das crianças com desnutrição atual. Quanto aos níveis de hemoglobina sérica, o grupo I, cujo valor médio inicial foi de 9,9 ± 2,0g/dl, apresentou valor médio significantemente mais alto ao final do estudo, 11,4 ± 1,0g/dl (pAnemia and energetic malnutrition are considered to be the major nutritional challenges in developing countries. The efficacy of the various programs implemented to solve these problems has been assessed by studies with enriched food products. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the daily acceptance of an iron-enriched cereal, as well as its effect on the anthropometric parameters and hemoglobin levels of children aged 1 to 4 years old. Fifty-four children enrolled at a public day care unit participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: Group I with 24 children (median

  16. The Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c to Blood Glucose

    Sikaris, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The understanding that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) represents the average blood glucose level of patients over the previous 120 days underlies the current management of diabetes. Even in making such a statement, we speak of “average blood glucose” as though “blood glucose” were itself a simple idea. When we consider all the blood glucose forms—arterial versus venous versus capillary, whole blood versus serum versus fluoride-preserved plasma, fasting versus nonfasting—we can start to see that this ...

  17. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  18. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  19. Nutrition education and knowledge, attitude and hemoglobin status of Malaysian adolescents.

    Yusoff, Hafzan; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2012-01-01

    A higher occurrence of iron deficiency anemia is present in rural Malaysia than urban Malaysia due to a lower socio-economic status of rural residents. This study was conducted in Tanah Merah, a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia. Our objective was to investigate the impact of nutrition education alone, daily iron, folate and vitamin C supplementation or both on knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin status of adolescent students. Two hundred eighty fourth year secondary students were each assigned by school to 1 of 4 different treatment groups. Each intervention was carried out for 3 months followed by 3 months without treatment. A validated self-reported knowledge and attitude questionnaire was administered; hemoglobin levels were measured before and after intervention. At baseline, no significant difference in hemoglobin was noted among the 4 groups (p = 0.06). The changes in hemoglobin levels at 3 months were 11, 4.6, 3.9 and -3.7% for the supplementation, nutrition education, combination and control groups, respectively. The changes at 6 months were 1.0, 6.8, 3.7 and -14.8%, respectively. Significant improvements in knowledge and attitude were evidenced in both the nutritional education and combination groups. The supplementation and control groups had no improvement in knowledge or attitudes. This study suggests nutritional education increases knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin levels among Malaysian secondary school adolescents.

  20. Impact determination of strength and resistance training on Glycoside hemoglobin and blood sugar on patients with type II diabetes”

    Bahman Hasanvand

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that endurance training reduces Glycoside hemoglobin levels, the amount of strength training, although it did not significantly reduce, the strength training appears to cause more significant changes.

  1. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  2. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    Jie Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56 had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05 compared with the NIDA group (n = 38 and control group (n = 46. Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for

  3. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults.

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-05-02

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group ( n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor ( p iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia was 27.2 pg, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92.9%. The cut-off values for

  4. Multispectroscopic and calorimetric studies on the binding of the food colorant tartrazine with human hemoglobin.

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-11-15

    Interaction of the food colorant tartrazine with human hemoglobin was studied using multispectroscopic and microcalorimetric techniques to gain insights into the binding mechanism and thereby the toxicity aspects. Hemoglobin spectrum showed hypochromic changes in the presence of tartrazine. Quenching of the fluorescence of hemoglobin occurred and the quenching mechanism was through a static mode as revealed from temperature dependent and time-resolved fluorescence studies. According to the FRET theory the distance between β-Trp37 of hemoglobin and bound tartrazine was evaluated to be 3.44nm. Synchronous fluorescence studies showed that tartrazine binding led to alteration of the microenvironment around the tryptophans more in comparison to tyrosines. 3D fluorescence and FTIR data provided evidence for conformational changes in the protein on binding. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the binding led to significant loss in the helicity of hemoglobin. The esterase activity assay further complemented the circular dichroism data. Microcalorimetric study using isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the binding to be exothermic and driven largely by positive entropic contribution. Dissection of the Gibbs energy change proposed the protein-dye complexation to be dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. Negative heat capacity change also corroborated the involvement of hydrophobic forces in the binding process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  6. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  7. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    Rades, Dirk; Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age (≤68 vs. ≥69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (≤II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: ≤50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. ≥12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. ≥12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels ≥12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels ≥12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for locally

  8. PERBEDAAN KADAR HEMOGLOBIN METODE SIANMETHEMOGLOBIN DENGAN DAN TANPA SENTRIFUGASI PADA SAMPEL LEUKOSITOSIS

    wahdah norsiah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Examination of hemoglobin levels influenced leukocytosis sianmethemoglobin method that causes increased absorbance measurements of hemoglobin levels increased significantly and the false blood sample that has been diluted with a solution Drabkins in centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and then the absorbance of the supernatant was measured with a photometer at λ 546 nm. This study aimed to analyze the differences in hemoglobin level examination siamethemoglobin method with and without centrifugation at sample leukocytosis. This type of research is observational research laboratory. The study design was cross-sectional study. Samples were taken from the remaining blood samples of patients who have been examined leukositnya number more than 20,000 / uL with Hematology Analyzer (CEL-DYN Ruby February-April 2014, and were divided into 4 groups based on criteria that group 1. leukocyte count of 20,000 / uL-29 999 / mL, group II. 30,000 / uL-39 999 / uL, the group III. 40,000 / uL-49,999 / uL, the group IV. More than 50,000 / uL. The number of samples taken were 20 samples of each group, a total sample of 80 samples. The analysis showed no significant difference in hemoglobin levels siamethemoglobin method with and without centrifugation at sample leukocytosis with a value of p = 0.000 less than 0.05 α. Leukocytosis Turbidity affects the difference in hemoglobin levels with and without centrifugation, the higher the number the greater the difference in leukocyte levels of hemoglobin, hemoglobin level examination results of the study based on the criteria of the number of leukocytes obtained by the difference in hemoglobin levels with and without centrifugation in group I. 0.22 ± 0.07 g / dL, group II 0.40 ± 0.22 g / dL, a group III. 0.44 ± 0.14 g / dL, Group IV. 0.85 ± 0.41 g / dL. The level of hemoglobin in the sample sianmethemoglobin method leukocytosis with more than 20,000 / uL need a centrifuge so that appropriate

  9. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting.

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Idriss, Ali; May, Juergen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2011-04-21

    In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no

  10. Pengetahuan Gizi dan Kadar Hemoglobin Anak Sekolah Dasar Penderita Anemia Setelah Mendapatkan Suplementasi Besi dan Pendidikan Gizi

    Zulaekah, Siti; Widajanti, Laksmi

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is the major health problem for 26,5 % of the school children and teenagers in Indonesia. It is expected that by giving nutrition education to the anemic school age children, their nutritional knowledge and their diet pattern improve. Their better food intake especially higher iron intake willthen increase their hemoglobin levels. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of iron supplementation and nutrition education on hemoglobin levels of the anemic school age children. Thi...

  11. Long-Term Effect of Renal Transplantation and Aging on Hemoglobin A1C Levels: A Case-Control Study in 191 Non-Diabetic Deceased Donor Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Tillmann, Frank-Peter; Hermsen, Derik; Hemmrich, Katrin; Woznowski, Magdalena; Rump, Lars Christian; Quack, Ivo

    2015-12-08

    Reduced renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease is linked to insulin resistance; and impairments in glucose homeostasis, as measured by HbA1c levels, are related to cardiovascular events. Recently, aging has been reported to affect HbA1c levels over time in non-diabetic individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between renal function and aging in non-diabetic deceased-donor renal transplant recipients. A total of 191 patients were analyzed (mean age 50.6±12.2 years, dialysis vintage 6.5±3.1 years, 53.4% male patients). HbA1-c levels were measured on the day of transplantation and on follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 4.9±3.1 years. Renal transplantation resulted in an increase in eGFR of 38.6±18.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 as compared to baseline levels on dialysis and the mean eGFR on follow-up was 45.5±18.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. HbA1c levels increased significantly from the day of transplantation to the last follow-up (5.3±0.4% to 5.6±0.4%, page and renal transplant function. In conclusion, we observed a significant increase in HbA1c levels over a 5-year post-transplant follow-up period in non-diabetic deceased-donor renal transplant recipients. In contrast to the non-diabetic general population, the increase in HbA1c observed in this cohort was greater but not associated with aging.

  12. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The autocatalytic reaction between nitrite and the oxy form of globins involves free radicals. For myoglobin (Mb), an initial binding of nitrite to the iron-coordinated oxygen molecule was proposed; the resulting ferrous-peroxynitrate species was not detected, but its decay product, the high...... to a simple kinetic model involving a transient met-aqua form, in contrast to the ferryl detected in the case of Mb in a similar reaction sequence. These data are in line with a previous observation of a transient accumulation of ferryl Hb under auto-catalytic conditions at much lower concentrations......-peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...

  13. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  14. Perbandingan Zat Besi dengan dan Tanpa Vitamin C terhadap Kadar Hemoglobin Wanita Usia Subur

    Tuti Anggriani Utama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia pada wanita pekerja masih merupakan masalah kesehatan yang dapat menurunkan produktivitas kerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan zat besi dengan dan tanpa vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan yaitu Quasy Experimental dengan Pre Test and Post Test Control Group Design. Populasi penelitian berjumlah 600 orang dan sampel berjumlah 60 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel random sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara pengamatan, wawancara, pemeriksaan hemoglobin, dan data sekunder. Pada kelompok perlakuan diberi tablet zat besi dan dVitamin C, pada kelompok kontrol hanya diberi tablet zat besi. Intervensi yang dilakukan adalah pemberian tablet zat besi dengan dan tanpa vitamin C, satu kapsul perminggu.Nilai rata-rata kadar hemoglobin pada kelompok kontrol pada sebelum intervensi yaitu 9,15 gram/dL dan setelah intervensi meningkat menjadi 10,19 gram/dL. Pada kelompok perlakuan rata-rata kadar hemoglobin sebelum intervensi sebesar 9,5 gram/dL dan meningkat menjadi 11,44 gram/dL sesudah inter- vensi. Hasil uji T berpasangan menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan pada nilai mean kadar hemoglobin pada kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan (nilai p = 0,000. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu masukan perencanaan dan evaluasi program gizi yang dapat dilakukan dalam rangka meningkatkan pola hidup sehat wanita pekerja di PT Sarana Mandiri Mukti Kepahiang. Anemia in women workers, remains a health problem that can reduce work productivity. The study aimed to compare iron with and without vitamin C to hemoglobin levels. Quasy experimental research was conducted with pre test and post test control group design. Study population were of 600 people and 60 people as sample with random sampling technique. Data was collected through observations, interviews, examination of hemoglobin and secondary data. In the treatment group were given iron and plus Vitamin C, in the control group were given

  15. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  16. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  17. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  18. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  19. Pengaruh suplementasi taburia (sprinkle terhadap kadar hemoglobin balita gizi kurang usia 3-5 tahun di Kecamatan Lewimunding Kabupaten Majalengka

    Teguh Akbar Budiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is the most common nutritional problem found in the world, whichal sooccurred in under five children. Anemia is one of themain nutritional problems in Indonesia. Anemia treatment by iron (Fe supplementation the community level were not successfull yet. This research aimed to investigate the effect of sprinkle supplementation on hemoglobin level of malnourished children aged 3-5 years. Method: Randomized pretest - posttest control group design was implemented on 66 anemic malnourished children aged 3-5 years. Study was conducted in Lewimunding subdistrict. Subjects were divided into two groups, treatment and control groups. Sprinkle supplementation and nurition education were given to treatment group for 2 months, while control group were only recieved nutrition education. All subjects treated by 400 mg Albendazol before supplementation. Data were nutrient intake collected by 24 hour Recall method. Hb was measured by Cyamethaemoglobin. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney,  Independent Sample Test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Paired Test and linear regression method. Result: There was no difference in energy, protein, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and vitamin C on both treatment and control groups. There is no difference in hemoglobin levels between the groups before supplementation (p=0.290. Hemoglobin increased on treatment group from (11.14±0.85 mg/dl to (12.31±0.55 mg/dl with p=0.001. Hemoglobin also increased from (10,95 ± 0,71 mg/dl to (11,81 ±0,53 mg/dl in the control group (p=0.001. Sprinkle  supplementation increased by hemoglobin level  0.69 mg/dl higher than the control group (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis that hemoglobin level increased by  0.66 mg/dl higher compared to the control group after controlled by initial hemoglobin. Conclusion: Sprinkle supplementation for two months increase hemoglobin level of anemic malnourished children.

  20. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting

    Idriss Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. Method EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Results Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p Conclusion Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.

  1. Correlation of maternal factors and hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy Shiraz 2006

    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a serious condition, contributing to maternal mortality, morbidity and fetal morbidity and its prevalence varies between 35-100% in developing countries. This investigation is conducted to survey the correlation of maternal factors and the changes in hemoglobin in pregnant women. Method: In this study, 108 healthy pregnant women with gestational age of 10 to 14 weeks, chosen by cluster random sampling were included. The women were followed in three visits: at the end of the first, second and third trimester. In addition, correlation of Hb concentration with maternal factors including BMI, age parity, hyperemesis, gestational age, pregnancy interval and weight gain was investigated. Results: There was no significant correlation between BMI, parity, pregnancy interval, severe nausea and vomiting and also maternal age with hemoglobin level during pregnancy. Moreover, Multiple regression models showed that adequate maternal weight gain (P<0.009 and high hemoglobin (p<0.0001 in the first trimester were positive predictors and late iron supplementation was negative predictor of hemoglobin in pregnancy (P<0.006. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that adequate maternal weight gain, high hemoglobin in the first trimester and also late iron supplementation could be as predictors in clinical settings in this query.

  2. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  3. Hemoglobin and hematocrit at the end of hemodialysis: a better way to adjust erythropoietin dose?

    Rangel, Erika B; Andreoli, Maria Claudia; Matos, Ana Cristina C; Guimarães-Souza, Nadia K; Mallet, Ana Cláudia; Carneiro, Fabiana D; Santos, Bento C

    2010-04-01

    A severe disadvantage of administration of recombinant human erythropoietin to hemodialysis patients has been reported. A significant correlation has been shown with hemoglobin values determined online by use of the blood volume monitor (BVM) and by laboratory measurement. Online hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured by use of the BVM during hemodialysis session. Data were analyzed by t test and statistical significance was defined as a P of hemoglobin and hematocrit from 11.6 +/- 1.9 to 13.9 +/- 2.4 g/dL (17.4 +/- 7.1%, P = 0.02) and from 34.4 +/- 6.8 to 42 +/- 8.3% (20.6 +/- 8.8%, P = 0.022), respectively, were observed from the beginning to the end of dialysis. We hypothesize that a new strategy for adjusting erythropoietin dose may be based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values evaluated at the end of hemodialysis, when patients are no longer hypervolemic. Inadvertent high levels of hemoglobin could be one explanation why patients present higher rates of cardiovascular and access-related events, especially when monitored online by use of the BVM to achieve the dry weight.

  4. Therapeutic Depletion of Iron Stores Is Not Associated with a Reduced Hemoglobin Mass in a Hemochromatosis Patient

    Nina Wrobel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hereditary hemochromatosis features a dysregulated iron absorption leading to iron overload and organ damage. The regulation of total hemoglobin mass during depletion of iron deposits by therapeutic phlebotomy has not been studied. Case Presentation: The initial ferritin level of the 52-year-old male subject was 1,276 μg/l. Despite successful depletion of iron stores (ferritinmin: 53 μg/l through phlebotomies, total hemoglobin mass stabilized at the pretherapy level. However, regeneration of total hemoglobin mass was accelerated (up to 10.8 g/day. Conclusion: In this hemochromatosis patient, the total hemoglobin mass was not altered in the long term, but regeneration was accelerated, possibly due to elevated body iron content.

  5. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  6. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%), heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%), heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%), double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%), and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%). The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors. PMID:25050123

  7. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  8. Boronate-Modified Interdigitated Electrode Array for Selective Impedance-Based Sensing of Glycated Hemoglobin

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-01-01

    An impedance-based label-free affinity sensor was developed for the recognition of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Interdigitated gold microelectrode arrays (IDA) were first modified with a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and subsequent binding of 3......-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA), which selectively binds HbA1c via cis-diol interactions. Impedance sensing was demonstrated to be highly responsive to the clinically relevant HbA1c levels (0.1%-8.36%) with a detection limit of 0.024% (3σ). The specificity of the assay was evaluated with non-glycated hemoglobin (Hb...

  9. Hydroxyurea-Increased Fetal Hemoglobin Is Associated with Less Organ Damage and Longer Survival in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Courtney D Fitzhugh

    Full Text Available Adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS are inconsistently treated with hydroxyurea.We retrospectively evaluated the effects of elevating fetal hemoglobin with hydroxyurea on organ damage and survival in patients enrolled in our screening study between 2001 and 2010.An electronic medical record facilitated development of a database for comparison of study parameters based on hydroxyurea exposure and dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00011648.Three hundred eighty-three adults with homozygous sickle cell disease were analyzed with 59 deaths during study follow-up. Cox regression analysis revealed deceased subjects had more hepatic dysfunction (elevated alkaline phosphatase, Hazard Ratio = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.006, p<0.0.0001, kidney dysfunction (elevated creatinine, Hazard Ratio = 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.27, p = 0.043, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction (elevated tricuspid jet velocity on echocardiogram, Hazard Ratio = 2.22, 1.23-4.02, p = 0.0082. Sixty-six percent of subjects were treated with hydroxyurea, although only 66% of those received a dose within the recommended therapeutic range. Hydroxyurea use was associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.97, p = 0.040. This effect was most pronounced in those taking the recommended dose of 15-35 mg/kg/day (Hazard Ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73, p = 0.0050. Hydroxyurea use was not associated with changes in organ function over time. Further, subjects with higher fetal hemoglobin responses to hydroxyurea were more likely to survive (p = 0.0004. While alkaline phosphatase was lowest in patients with the best fetal hemoglobin response (95.4 versus 123.6, p = 0.0065 and 96.1 versus 113.6U/L, p = 0.041 at first and last visits, respectively, other markers of organ damage were not consistently improved over time in patients with the highest fetal hemoglobin levels.Our data suggest that adults should be treated with the maximum tolerated hydroxyurea dose

  10. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-08-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to manipulate water content. Hydration properties are probed using the water-sensitive fluorescence from Hb bound pyranine and covalently attached Badan. Protein dynamics are probed through ligand recombination traces derived from photodissociated carbonmonoxy hemoglobin on a log scale that exposes the potential role of both α and β solvent fluctuations in modulating protein dynamics. The results open the possibility of probing hydration level phenomena in this system using a combination of NMR and optical probes.

  11. Hemolytic anemia repressed hepcidin level without hepatocyte iron overload: lesson from Günther disease model.

    Millot, Sarah; Delaby, Constance; Moulouel, Boualem; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Pilard, Nathalie; Ducrot, Nicolas; Ged, Cécile; Lettéron, Philippe; de Franceschi, Lucia; Deybach, Jean Charles; Beaumont, Carole; Gouya, Laurent; De Verneuil, Hubert; Lyoumi, Saïd; Puy, Hervé; Karim, Zoubida

    2017-02-01

    Hemolysis occurring in hematologic diseases is often associated with an iron loading anemia. This iron overload is the result of a massive outflow of hemoglobin into the bloodstream, but the mechanism of hemoglobin handling has not been fully elucidated. Here, in a congenital erythropoietic porphyria mouse model, we evaluate the impact of hemolysis and regenerative anemia on hepcidin synthesis and iron metabolism. Hemolysis was confirmed by a complete drop in haptoglobin, hemopexin and increased plasma lactate dehydrogenase, an increased red blood cell distribution width and osmotic fragility, a reduced half-life of red blood cells, and increased expression of heme oxygenase 1. The erythropoiesis-induced Fam132b was increased, hepcidin mRNA repressed, and transepithelial iron transport in isolated duodenal loops increased. Iron was mostly accumulated in liver and spleen macrophages but transferrin saturation remained within the normal range. The expression levels of hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 and hemopexin receptor CD91 were drastically reduced in both liver and spleen, resulting in heme- and hemoglobin-derived iron elimination in urine. In the kidney, the megalin/cubilin endocytic complex, heme oxygenase 1 and the iron exporter ferroportin were induced, which is reminiscent of significant renal handling of hemoglobin-derived iron. Our results highlight ironbound hemoglobin urinary clearance mechanism and strongly suggest that, in addition to the sequestration of iron in macrophages, kidney may play a major role in protecting hepatocytes from iron overload in chronic hemolysis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptor Activation in Response to Eccentric Exercise Up-Regulates Myogenic-Related Gene Expression Independent of Differing Serum Estradiol Levels Occurring during the Human Menstrual Cycle.

    Haines, Mackenzie; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K; Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Josh J; Hwang, Paul S; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m) underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle. Prior to (PRE), at 6 (6HRPOST), and 24 (24HRPOST) hours post-exercise for each session, participants had muscle biopsies obtained. Skeletal muscle estradiol and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) content and ER-DNA binding were determined with ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to assess ER-α, Myo-D, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 x 3 repeated measures univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA) for each criterion variable (p ≤ .05). Skeletal muscle estradiol levels were not significantly impacted by either menstrual phase (p > 0.05); however, both ER-α mRNA and protein were significantly increased during MF (p < 0.05). ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression increased significantly in both menstrual phases in response to exercise but were not different from one another; however, cyclin D1 mRNA expression was significantly greater during MF. This study demonstrates that skeletal muscle ER-α activation in response to eccentric exercise up-regulates myogenic-related gene expression independent of serum estradiol levels occurring during the human menstrual cycle.

  13. Hair cortisol concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African American adults.

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study.

    Wittenmeier, Eva; Bellosevich, Sophia; Mauff, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Eli, Michael; Pestel, Gunther; Noppens, Ruediger R

    2015-10-01

    Collecting a blood sample is usually necessary to measure hemoglobin levels in children. Especially in small children, noninvasively measuring the hemoglobin level could be extraordinarily helpful, but its precision and accuracy in the clinical environment remain unclear. In this study, noninvasive hemoglobin measurement and blood gas analysis were compared to hemoglobin measurement in a clinical laboratory. In 60 healthy preoperative children (0.2-7.6 years old), hemoglobin was measured using a noninvasive method (SpHb; Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter), a blood gas analyzer (clinical standard, BGAHb; ABL 800 Flex), and a laboratory hematology analyzer (reference method, labHb; Siemens Advia). Agreement between the results was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and by determining the percentage of outliers. Sixty SpHb measurements, 60 labHb measurements, and 59 BGAHb measurements were evaluated. In 38% of the children, the location of the SpHb sensor had to be changed more than twice for the signal quality to be sufficient. The bias/limits of agreement between SpHb and labHb were -0.65/-3.4 to 2.1 g·dl(-1) . Forty-four percent of the SpHb values differed from the reference value by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . Age, difficulty of measurement, and the perfusion index (PI) had no influence on the accuracy of SpHb. The bias/limits of agreement between BGAHb and labHb were 1.14/-1.6 to 3.9 g·dl(-1) . Furthermore, 66% of the BGAHb values differed from the reference values by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . The absolute mean difference between SpHb and labHb (1.1 g·dl(-1) ) was smaller than the absolute mean difference between BGAHb and labHb (1.5 g·dl(-1) /P = 0.024). Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hemoglobin and atherosclerosis in patients with manifest arterial disease. The SMART-study

    Dijk, J. M.; Wangge, G.; Graaf, Y. van der; Bots, M. L.; Grobbee, D. E.; Algra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased hemoglobin levels are known to be associated with an increased risk of coronary mortality and morbidity. This is largely thought to result from the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Similar remodeling mechanisms of the vessel wall that may result in atherosclerosis are likely to

  16. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    Mayneord, W V

    1960-12-01

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong.

  17. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  18. The Determinants of Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    Tomanoski Vasilije

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Factors that have been reported to affect erythropoietin (EPO responsiveness in hemodialysis (HD patients include iron deficiency, chronic inflammation, secondary hyperparathyroidism, malnutrition and inadequate HD dose. The aim of the study was to analyze the deteminants of hemoglobin variability in HD patients. Methods. The study encompassed 526 patients (197 F and 329 M. According to HD vintage at the beginning of the study the patients were divided into two groups: group-1 encompassed 153 patients with HD vintage bellow 24 months, and group-2 encompassed 329 patients with HD vintage over 24 months. Over a period of 21 months after admission the following parameters were analyzed: hemoglobin (Hb, EPO dose, iron dose, HD dose (eKT/V, transferrin saturation (TSAT, C-reactive protein (CRP, ferritin and serum albumin at 3 months and parathyroid hormone (PTH at 6 months. Results. The percentage of patients with Hb>=105g/L significantly improved, and the average Hb level significantly increased in both groups over a period of 21 months. The average EPO and iron dose significantly decreased, but TSAT and ferritin levels significantly increased over a period of 21 months. The average eKT/V and s-albumin values significantly increased, but the average CRP and PTH levels significantly decresead over a period of 21 months. In group-1 EPO dose and CRP, but in group-2 EPO dose, ferritin, HD vintage, and iron dose were statistically significant predictors of the Hb level 9 months after admission. Conclusions. Insufficient EPO therapy, iron deficiency and chronic inflammation were the main factors of inadequate correction of anemia in HD patients before admission.

  19. Interaction of thyroid hormone and hemoglobin: nature of the interaction and effect of hemoglobin on thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    Davis, P.J.; Yoshida, K.; Schoenl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Gel filtration of human erythrocyte (RBC) lysate incubated with labeled thyroxine (Tu) or triiodothyronine (Tt) revealed co-elution of a major iodothyronine-binding fraction (R-2) and hemoglobin. Solutions of purified human hemoglobin and Tt also showed co-elution of hormone and hemoglobin. Because hematin and protoporphyrin were shown to bind labeled Tt, the oxygen-binding site on hemoglobin was excluded as the site of iodothyronine-hemoglobin interaction. Analysis of hormone binding by heme and globin moieties showed Tt binding to be limited to the heme fraction. Addition of excess unlabeled Tt to hemoglobin or heme incubated with labeled Tt indicated 75% to 90% of hormone binding was poorly dissociable. These observations suggested that the presence of hemoglobin in RBC lysate or in serum could influence the measurement of Tu and Tt by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Subsequent studies of the addition to serum of human hemoglobin revealed a significant reduction in Tt and Tu detectable by RIA in the presence of this protein. The effect was influenced by the concentration of hemoglobin and by duration and temperature of incubations of hemoglobin and serum prior to RIA

  20. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality.

  1. Porphyromonas endodontalis binds, reduces and grows on human hemoglobin.

    Zerr, M; Drake, D; Johnson, W; Cox, C D

    2001-08-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis is a black-pigmented, obligate anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium implicated as playing a major role in endodontic infections. We have previously shown that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin nucleus, preferably supplied as hemoglobin, as a growth supplement. The bacteria also actively transport free iron, although this activity does not support growth in the absence of a porphyrin source. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the binding and subsequent utilization of human hemoglobin by P. endodontalis. P. endodontalis binds hemoglobin and reduces the Fe(III) porphyrin, resulting in a steady accumulation of ferrous hemoglobin. Reduction of methemoglobin was similar to the extracellular reduction of nitrobluetetrazolium in the presence of oxidizable substrate. Turbidimetric and viable cell determinations showed that P. endodontalis grew when supplied only hemoglobin. Therefore, we conclude that hemoglobin appears to serve as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, and that these bacteria reduce extracellular compounds at the expense of oxidized substrates.

  2. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  3. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  4. The effects of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass in swimmers.

    Wachsmuth, N B; Völzke, C; Prommer, N; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Frese, F; Spahl, O; Eastwood, A; Stray-Gundersen, J; Schmidt, W

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the influence of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass (Hb-mass) in elite swimmers under the following aspects: (1) normal oscillation of Hb-mass at sea level; (2) time course of adaptation and de-adaptation; (3) sex influences; (4) influences of illness and injury; (5) interaction of Hb-mass and competition performance. Hb-mass of 45 top swimmers (male 24; female 21) was repeatedly measured (~6 times) over the course of 2 years using the optimized CO-rebreathing method. Twenty-five athletes trained between one and three times for 3-4 weeks at altitude training camps (ATCs) at 2,320 m (3 ATCs) and 1,360 m (1 ATC). Performance was determined by analyzing 726 competitions according to the German point system. The variation of Hb-mass without hypoxic influence was 3.0 % (m) and 2.7 % (f). At altitude, Hb-mass increased by 7.2 ± 3.3 % (p altitude. In conclusion, the altitude (2,320 m) effect on Hb-mass is still present 3 weeks after return, it decisively depends on the health status, but is not influenced by sex. In healthy subjects it exceeds by far the oscillation occurring at sea level. After return from altitude performance increases after a delay of 3 weeks.

  5. Reactivation of fetal hemoglobin in thalassemia and sickle cell disease

    Sandro Eridani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been recently devoted to mechanisms involved in the perinatal hemoglobin switch, as it was long ago established that the survival of fetal hemoglobin (HbF production in significant amount can reduce the severity of the clinical course in severe disorders like β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD. For instance, when β-thalassemia is associated with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH the disease takes a mild course, labeled as thalassemia intermedia. The same clinical amelioration occurs for the association between HPFH and SCD. As for the mechanism of this effect, some information has been obtained from the study of natural mutations at the human β-globin locus in patients with increased HbF, like the Corfu thalassemia mutations. Important evidence came from the discovery that drugs capable of improving the clinical picture of SCD, like decitabine ad hydroxycarbamide, are acting through the reactivation, to some extent, of HbF synthesis. The study of the mechanism of action of these compounds was followed by the identification of some genetic determinants, which promote this event. In particular, among a few genetic factors involved in this process, the most relevant appears the BCL11A gene, which is now credited to be able to silence γ-globin genes in the perinatal period by interaction with several erythroid-specific transcription factors and is actually considered as a barrier to HbF reactivation by known HbF inducing agents. Epigenetics is also a player in the process, mainly through DNA demethylation. This is certified by the recent demonstration that hypomethylating agents such as 5-azacytidine and decitabine, the first compounds used for HbF induction by pharmacology, act as irreversible inhibitors of demethyltransferase enzymes. Great interest has also been raised by the finding that several micro-RNAs, which act as negative regulators of gene expression, have been implicated in the

  6. Outcome analysis of hemoglobin A1c, weight, and blood pressure in a VA diabetes education program.

    North, Susan L; Palmer, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of a specific diabetes education class (Basics) on hemoglobin A1c values, weight, and systolic blood pressure. In this retrospective study, the researchers compared 2 groups of male veterans with a recent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. One group received diabetes group education (n = 175) over a 4-month period, and the other received standard diabetes management follow-up (n = 184). Outpatient clinic setting in the Midwest. Basics class compared with standard level of care. Pre- and post-laboratory values for hemoglobin A1c, weight, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up univariate statistics for significant differences. Findings revealed significant differences in hemoglobin A1c (P education curriculum and reduction of hemoglobin A1c values. Some participants also had added benefit of significant weight loss. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Hemoglobin as an independent prognostic factor in the radiotherapy of head and neck tumors

    Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Mueller, S.B.; Schueller, P.; Willich, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic value of baseline hemoglobin levels before radiotherapy in patients with head and neck tumors. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study with a median follow-up of 43 months, we analyzed the results of 214 patients irradiated for head and neck cancer between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 1998 (180 men and 34 women; median age 58 years). The treatment concept consisted in adjuvant radiotherapy in 58 patients, 77 patients received definitive radiochemotherapy, 42 patients definitive radiotherapy, and 37 patients reirradiation for in-field recurrence. Baseline hemoglobin values were divided in four groups of the same patient number (quartiles). Several known prognostic factors like sex, tumor stage, histologic grading, performance status, and treatment scheme were analyzed for their influence on overall and event-free survival and correlated with pretreatment hemoglobin values (Kaplan-Meier method). In addition, univariate und multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of baseline hemoglobin on response rates. Results: The median survival (event-free survival) of all patients amounted to 15 months (10 months). 25%, 50%, and 75% of patients had hemoglobin values < 11.2 g/dl, < 12.7 g/dl, and < 13.9 g/dl, respectively. In the univariate analysis, the following variables were significant prognostic factors for overall/event-free survival (log-rank test): treatment concept (p < 0.001/ p < 0.001), tumor stage (p < 0.001/p < 0.001), general condition (p < 0.001/p < 0.001), and pretreatment hemoglobin (p = 0.014/p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis (Cox) proved these parameters to be independent of each other. In addition, response rate after radiation showed a strong association between hemoglobin and local control probability (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, baseline hemoglobin level was shown to be an independent significant prognostic factor in

  8. Postpartum hemorrhage is related to the hemoglobin levels at labor ...

    Kaima A. Frass

    2015-01-06

    Jan 6, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Anemia in pregnancy is common and linked to postpartum hemorrhage in terms of uterine atony. The more severe the anemia, the more likely the greater blood loss and adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the association between anemic women at labor and ...

  9. Overproduction of alpha chains provides a proton-insensitive component to the bluefish hemoglobin system.

    Bonaventura, Celia; Godette, Gerald; Stevens, Robert; Brenowitz, Michael; Henkens, Robert

    2005-12-09

    Expression of alpha and beta chains and their post-translational assembly into alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers is fundamental to the formation and function of most vertebrate hemoglobins. There is a strong evolutionary bias that favors expression of equal amounts of the two types of chains, because cooperativity, pH sensitivity, and anionic control of function occurs only for the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers. Remarkably, an over-production of alpha chains, as in the pathological condition known as beta thalassemia in humans, is adaptive rather than pathological in the bluefish hemoglobin system. The thalassemia of the bluefish is a novel means of providing for oxygen uptake and delivery when low pH conditions incapacitate the highly pH-sensitive Root effect hemoglobins of the fish. Although fish often have pH-insensitive along with highly pH-sensitive hemoglobins, having pH-insensitive alpha chain monomers in circulation is an unusual structural variation. The role of bluefish alpha chains in oxygen transport is enabled by their remarkably lower oxygen affinity relative to human alpha chains. This is the first reported case of a thalassemic condition that is maintained in a species as an adaptive advantage.

  10. Estimation of prevalence of anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among non pregnant females of urban slum

    Dhruvendra Pande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anemia is a major public health problem worldwide particularly in developing countries among women of reproductive age. WHO Hemoglobin Color Scale is easy, quick and handy technique to estimate hemoglobin level at field. Objective: To find out prevalence of anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among the females of reproductive age group. To find out the most common signs and symptoms associated with anemia. To find out the causes associated with anemia among females. Material& Methods: A cross sectional study with written informed consent was conducted in 400 females of an urban slum area of Indore city. Females were selected using systematic random sampling method. All the females of reproductive age group were included in study. Level of hemoglobin was obtaining using WHO Hemoglobin color scale. A questionnaire was used during interpersonal interview of all the anemic females which was followed by clinical examination to assess signs and symptoms associated with anemia. The data was analyzed using Microsoft office excel sheet. Results: 61% of females of reproductive age group were found to be anemic by hemoglobin color scale. 54 % complained of frequent headache, 50 % of difficulty in breathing during normal work and 49.18% of reduced appetite. Conclusion: Anemia is found more in females of reproductive age group in urban slum. Most common symptoms associated with anemia are frequent headache, difficulty in breathing, weakness throughout day.

  11. Estimation of prevalence of Anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among Non pregnant females of urban slum

    Satish Saroshe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anemia is a major public health problem worldwide particularly in developing countries among women of reproductive age. WHO Hemoglobin Color Scale is easy, quick and handy technique to estimate hemoglobin level at field. Objective: To find out prevalence of anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among the females of reproductive age group. To find out the most common signs and symptoms associated with anemia. To find out the causes associated with anemia among females. Material& Methods: A cross sectional study with written informed consent was conducted in 400 females of an urban slum area of Indore city. Females were selected using systematic random sampling method. All the females of reproductive age group were included in study. Level of hemoglobin was obtaining using WHO Hemoglobin color scale. A questionnaire was used during interpersonal interview of all the anemic females which was followed by clinical examination to assess signs and symptoms associated with anemia. The data was analyzed using Microsoft office excel sheet. Results: 61% of females of reproductive age group were found to be anemic by hemoglobin color scale. 54 % complained of frequent headache, 50 % of difficulty in breathing during normal work and 49.18% of reduced appetite. Conclusion: Anemia is found more in females of reproductive age group in urban slum. Most common

  12. Incidence of motion loss of the stifle joint in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture surgically treated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy: longitudinal clinical study of 412 cases.

    Jandi, Avtar S; Schulman, Alan J

    2007-02-01

    To report the incidence of loss of stifle extension or flexion and its relationship with clinical lameness after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Longitudinal study. Dogs (n=280) with CCL rupture (n=412). TPLO was performed without meniscal release or arthrotomy. Angles of extension and flexion of the stifle were measured by goniometry to determine range of motion. Based upon motion loss, stifles were divided in 3 groups: no loss of extension or flexion (n=322), or =10 degrees loss of extension or flexion (n=12). Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was associated with significantly (P=.001) higher clinical lameness scores in comparison with no loss, or loss of extension or flexion or =10 degrees was less tolerable and less amenable to physical rehabilitation than flexion loss. Loss of extension or flexion > or =10 degrees was responsible for higher clinical lameness scores. Osteoarthrosis in the cranial femorotibial joint led to extension loss. Loss of extension or flexion should be assessed in dogs with persistent clinical lameness after TPLO so that early intervention can occur. Our study provides guidelines to define clinically relevant loss of extension or flexion of stifle joint after TPLO.

  13. To Classify Spontaneous Motion Intention of Step Size by Using Cerebral Hemoglobin Information

    Zhu Kai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of walking-assistive devices, there is a need for it to develop devices controlled by spontaneous intention of patients. In recent study, we identified spontaneous motion intention of walking step based on cerebral hemoglobin information. Twenty healthy subjects performed walking tasks in three levels of step size (small, normal and large. According to distribution features of signals’ power spectral-density, six frequency bands (0-0.18Hz with an interval of 0.03Hz for each band width divided by applying wavelet packets decomposition were mainly analyzed. Feature vectors were extracted from the difference between oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb and deoxygenated hemoglobin (dexoyHb in different measuring channels in the six frequency bands. Support vector machine (SVM method was utilized to classify the three levels of step sizes. Mean recognition accuracy achieved up to 83.3%. The result indicated that it is possible to identify spontaneous walking by using cerebral hemoglobin information. This is helpful for enhancing the intelligence of walking-assistive devices and motivating the active control of patients, which further is profitable for enhancing self-confidence of patients.

  14. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  15. Pemberian kombinasi probiotik dan zinc terhadap perubahan kadar hemoglobin, albumin, dan indeks massa tubuh pada pasien tuberkulosis paru

    Meika Rahmawati Arifah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: TB patients are generally the most productive age group and suffer from chronic energy deficiency. Therefore, patients with TB requires a combination of chemotherapy and supplementary feeding as probiotics and zinc to boost the immune response and nutritional status. Objective: To analyze the effect of a combined of probiotics and zinc on the changes of hemoglobin, albumin level, and BMI. Method: This study is a quasi-experimental, randomized design with pre-post test control group involving 52 respondents. They were divided into two groups. The treatment group was given a combination of 1 capsule of probiotics (2 billion probiotics and zinc 20 mg per day for 28 days. The analysis is paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Pearson, Spearman, Covariance. Results: There was an increase in hemoglobin (p=0.01, albumin (p=0.01 and BMI (p=0.01. There is no difference between the two groups in the levels of hemoglobin parameter (p=0.21 and BMI (p=0.12, whereas there is a difference parameter albumin levels (p=0.01. The effectiveness of interventions is 4% for hemoglobin levels, 16% to albumin, and 1% for IMT. Conclusion: Probiotics and zinc for 28 days in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis may increase levels of hemoglobin, albumin, and BMI, but there is no significant difference in the changes of BMI. The most powerful influence of intervention effectiveness is on albumin.

  16. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  17. A thermodynamical measure of cooperativity: application to hemoglobin

    Jacchieri, S.G.; Ferreira, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the heat requirements for dioxygen exchange is made for hemoglobin and myoglobin, the latter taken as the prototype of the vertebrate hemoglobin's ancestor. it is shown that cooperativity manifests itself also in terms of energy utilization. (Author) [pt

  18. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  19. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of

  20. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex

  1. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  2. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  5. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    Croci, S.; Achterhold, K.; Ortalli, I.; Parak, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers (ΔG). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  6. Function of type-2 Arabidopsis hemoglobin in the auxin-mediated formation of embryogenic cells during morphogenesis

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim; Wang, Aiming

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the Arabidopsis GLB2, a type-2 nonsymbiotic hemoglobin, enhances somatic embryogenesis by increasing auxin production. In the glb2 knock-out line (GLB2 -/-) polarization of PIN1 proteins and auxin maxima occurred at the base of the cotyledons of the zygotic explants, which are the ...

  7. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  8. Hemoglobin genetics: recent contributions of GWAS and gene editing

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2016-01-01

    The β-hemoglobinopathies are inherited disorders resulting from altered coding potential or expression of the adult β-globin gene. Impaired expression of β-globin reduces adult hemoglobin (α2β2) production, the hallmark of β-thalassemia. A single-base mutation at codon 6 leads to formation of HbS (α2βS2) and sickle cell disease. While the basis of these diseases is known, therapy remains largely supportive. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy. Patients with elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) as adults exhibit reduced symptoms and enhanced survival. The β-globin gene locus is a paradigm of cell- and developmental stage-specific regulation. Although the principal erythroid cell transcription factors are known, mechanisms responsible for silencing of the γ-globin gene were obscure until application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we review findings in the field. GWAS identified BCL11A as a candidate negative regulator of γ-globin expression. Subsequent studies have established BCL11A as a quantitative repressor. GWAS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms lie within an essential erythroid enhancer of the BCL11A gene. Disruption of a discrete region within the enhancer reduces BCL11A expression and induces HbF expression, providing the basis for gene therapy using gene editing tools. A recently identified, second silencing factor, leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/Pokemon, shares features with BCL11A, including interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase repressive complex. These findings suggest involvement of a common pathway for HbF silencing. In addition, we discuss other factors that may be involved in γ-globin gene silencing and their potential manipulation for therapeutic benefit in treating the β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27340226

  9. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Popp, R.A.; Stratton, L.P.; Hawley, D.K.; Effron, K.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F 1 offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of α-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient α-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an α-thalassemia similar to human α-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with α-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining β-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 β-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC β-chain gene. (author)

  10. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Popp, R A; Stratton, L P; Hawley, D K; Effron, K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-01-15

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F/sub 1/ offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of ..cap alpha..-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia similar to human ..cap alpha..-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with ..cap alpha..-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining ..beta..-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 ..beta..-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC ..beta..-chain gene.

  11. Status gizi, kadar hemoglobin, ureum, dan kreatinin pasien konseling gizi hemodialisa

    Kristiawan P. A. Nugroho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground : Patients who are undergoing hemodialysis therapy must know which foods that may be consumed including foods containing animal protein, low potassium, and low salt. The role of nutritionists is needed to provide nutritional counseling related to dietary adjustment. Studies that have been conducted by previous researchers are about diet from hemodialysis patients and the various factors that affect dietary compliance of patients, but no one has been studying the relation related to nutritional status, hemoglobin, ureum, and creatinine levels before and after doing a counseling that also has a relationship with diet and dietary compliance for hemodialysis patients.Objectives : To analyze the relationship of nutritional status, hemoglobin, ureum, and creatinine levels of hemodialysis patients before and after doing nutritional counseling in RSUD Ungaran. Methods : The study used a descriptive quantitaive method with one group pretest posttest design with cross sectional approach. The research was conducted in Hemodialysis Unit of RSUD Ungaran with a total sampling of 30 hemodialysis patient. Primary data were obtained from respondent’s data entry and FFQ, observation, and interviews. Secondary data were obtained from respondent’s medical records include the level of hemoglobin, urea, and cretinine. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme with Paired t Test. Results : The results of SPSS analysis showed that probability value from urea men 0,016 < 0,05 and urea women – hemoglobin men and women – creatinin men and women overall 0,000 < 0,05, which means that the average levels of those components before and after doing a nutritional counseling is different.Conclusions : A nutritional counseling indicate any change in the nutritional status of the entire hemodialysis patients, based on hemoglobin levels increased, while urea and creatinine levels decreased; but all those components are not in the normal category. Levels of

  12. EFEK PROGRAM PEMBERIAN "TABURIA" TERHADAP KADAR HEMOGLOBIN BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Abas Basuni Jahari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of "Taburia" Intervention Program on Hemoglobin Concentration Among Children Under-Five Years of Poor Families In North Jakarta.Background: Anemia is one of the main nutritional problems in Indonesia. Anemia in children under fives years will have an impact on growth and mental development. In an effort to improve the nutritional status of infants, especially in poor families, the Japan Funds for Poverty Reduction (JFPR in collaboration with the Center for Nutrition and Food, Ministry of Health, Bogor, making multi-vitamin ingredients and micro nutrients called as TABURIA.Objectives: To study the influence of hemoglobin levels on child under fives years of poor families.Methods: Design of the study was Evaluation Before and After Treatment (Pre-Post Evaluation. This research was conducted in 9 urban villages in 3 Public health centers in North Jakarta City. The numbers of samples were 540 children aged 6-59 months from poor families. Tabuaria was distributed by a cadre posyandu to all children under fives years (5000 children in the research area. The data analyzed included: hemoglobin levels, economic social family, compliance and child morbidity. Data were analyzed by descriptive to determine changes in status of anemia and haemoglobin levels before and after intervention.Results: Most of children under fives years (87.8% to receive and consume Taburia. The average Hb levels increased from 10.5 mg/dl in baseline data to 12.0 mg/dl at endline evaluation. The proportion of anemia (Hb <11 mg/dl decreased significantly from 62.3% (baseline to 24.7%(endline-evaluation.Conclusion: Taburia be accepted by the majority of children under fives and can increase hemoglobin levels of children under fives.Recommendation: Taburia can increase the hemoglobin levels of children under fives years, but if would be implemented as national program, it should be study in others regions (pilot areas to explore the appropriateness Taburia distribution model in

  13. What occurred in the reactors

    Kudo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Described is what occurred in the reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) from the aspect of engineering science. The tsunami attacked the Plant 1 hr after the quake. The Plant had reactors in buildings no.1-4 at 10 m height from the normal sea level which was flooded by 1.5-5.5 m high wave. All reactors in no.1-6 in the Plant were the boiling water type, and their core nuclear reactions were stopped within 3 sec due to the first quake by control rods inserted automatically. Reactors in no.1-5 lost their external AC power sources by the breakdown and subsequent submergence (no.1-4) of various equipments and in no.1, 2 and 4, the secondary DC power was then lost by the battery death. Although the isolation condenser started to cool the reactor in no.1 after DC cut, its valve was then kept closed to heat up the reactor, leading to the reaction of heated Zr in the fuel tube and water to yield H 2 which was accumulated in the building: the cause of hydrogen explosion on 12th. The reactor in no.2 had the reactor core isolation cooling system (RCIC) which operated normally for few hrs, then probably stopped to heat up the reactor, resulting in meltdown of the core but no explosion occurred because of the opened door of the blowout panel on the wall by the blast of no.1 explosion. The reactor in no.3 had RCIC and high pressure coolant injection system, but their works stopped to result in the core damage and H 2 accumulation leading to the explosion on 14th. The reactor in no.4 had not been operated because of its periodical annual examination, but was explored on 15th, of which cause was thought to be due to backward flow of H 2 from no.3. Finally, the author discusses about this accident from the industrial aspect of the design of safety level (defense in depth) on international views, and problems and tasks given. (T.T.)

  14. Development and validation of a noncontact spectroscopic device for hemoglobin estimation at point-of-care

    Sarkar, Probir Kumar; Pal, Sanchari; Polley, Nabarun; Aich, Rajarshi; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Halder, Animesh; Chakrabarti, Subhananda; Chakrabarti, Prantar; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Anemia severely and adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. Measuring hemoglobin with the minimal involvement of human and financial resources has always been challenging. We describe a translational spectroscopic technique for noncontact hemoglobin measurement at low-resource point-of-care settings in human subjects, independent of their skin color, age, and sex, by measuring the optical spectrum of the blood flowing in the vascular bed of the bulbar conjunctiva. We developed software on the LabVIEW platform for automatic data acquisition and interpretation by nonexperts. The device is calibrated by comparing the differential absorbance of light of wavelength 576 and 600 nm with the clinical hemoglobin level of the subject. Our proposed method is consistent with the results obtained using the current gold standard, the automated hematology analyzer. The proposed noncontact optical device for hemoglobin estimation is highly efficient, inexpensive, feasible, and extremely useful in low-resource point-of-care settings. The device output correlates with the different degrees of anemia with absolute and trending accuracy similar to those of widely used invasive methods. Moreover, the device can instantaneously transmit the generated report to a medical expert through e-mail, text messaging, or mobile apps.

  15. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  16. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  17. In vivo distribution and elimination of hemoglobin modified by intramolecular cross-linking with 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5'-phosphate

    Bleeker, W.K.; van der Plas, J.; Feitsma, R.I.; Agterberg, J.; Rigter, G.; de Vries-van Rossen, A.; Pauwels, E.K.; Bakker, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Modified hemoglobin solutions have potential application as plasma expanders with oxygen-transporting capacity. In a previous study it was found that modification of hemoglobin by intramolecular cross-linking with 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5'-phosphate (NFPLP) improves the vascular retention time by a factor of three, and it also improves the oxygen-transporting properties. In the present study we investigated in rats how, after exchange transfusion of a clinically relevant dose, the modified hemoglobin (HbNFPLP) was distributed in the body compared with how the unmodified hemoglobin was distributed. By using a new technetium 99m labeling technique, we found in a scintigraphic study that accumulation of hemoglobin in the kidneys was greatly diminished by the intramolecular cross-linking with NFPLP. These findings were confirmed by light-microscopic observations after diaminobenzidine staining. It was concluded that the impairment of kidney function caused by blockade of the tubuli is not to be expected from HbNFPLP. In the liver and spleen, where the free HbNFPLP is possibly eliminated, some accumulation of 99mTc label was observed, but the major part of the extravascular label was diffusely spread throughout the body. This led to the conclusion that important accumulation of undegraded HbNFPLP does not occur in the liver and spleen. Rapid appearance of both hemoglobin and HbNFPLP in the lymph showed that cross-linking with NFPLP does not prevent the distribution of hemoglobin over the interstitial space in the first hours after administration. However, pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that transcapillary transfer contributes only to a limited extent to the disappearance from the circulation. During 24-hour infusions of HbNFPLP, a steady state with a constant plasma concentration was easily reached

  18. Pretreatment hemoglobin in early stage glottic cancer: red flag or red herring?

    Tucker, J. Curtis; Hixson, William C.; Kim, Robert Y.; Smith, Judy W.; Mayo, Matthew S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin levels on the recurrence rate of patients with early stage glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Between May 1972 and December 1992, one hundred three patients with stage I or II glottic carcinoma were treated with definitive radiotherapy. The records were reviewed and analyzed for the effects of pretreatment hemoglobin and hematocrit, stage, dose per fraction (180 vs 200 cGy), treatment interruptions, and differentiation of the tumor. The majority of stage I patients were treated to a total dose of 64 to 66 Gy, and stage II patients were treated to 68 to 70 Gy. Mean and median follow up were 85 and 75 months, respectively. Results: With mean follow up of 85 months, the recurrence rate for patients with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL was 33.3%, and patients with hemoglobin >13 g/dL was 20% (p 0.19). For stage I (n = 84), the recurrence rate with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL and >13 g/dL was 26% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.51). For stage II patients (n = 19) with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL and >13 g/dL, the recurrence rate was 50% and 36%, respectively (p = 0.66). Using a Fisher's exact test, the only variables showing a statistically significant prognosis for recurrence were treatment interruption and stage. The recurrence rate with a treatment interruption was 40% compared with 15% if there was no interruption (p 0.0039). The recurrence rate for stage I was 19%, and for stage II was 42% (p = 0.067). Other factors showed no significant increase in recurrence; dose per fraction (p = 0.421), grade of differentiation (p = 0.740). Conclusion: While pretreatment hemoglobin levels below 13 g/dL do not significantly affect the recurrence rates for T1N0 and T2N0 glottic carcinomas, treatment interruptions are a significant factor in the failure of these patients

  19. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  20. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  1. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  2. Non-thermal radio frequency and static magnetic fields increase rate of hemoglobin deoxygenation in a cell-free preparation.

    David Muehsam

    Full Text Available The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF, applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb in a cell-free assay. Deoxygenation of Hb was initiated using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT in an assay that allowed the time for deoxygenation to be controlled (from several min to several hours by adjusting the relative concentrations of DTT and Hb. The time course of Hb deoxygenation was observed using visible light spectroscopy. Exposure for 10-30 min to either PRF or SMF increased the rate of deoxygenation occurring several min to several hours after the end of EMF exposure. The sensitivity and biochemical simplicity of the assay developed here suggest a new research tool that may help to further the understanding of basic biophysical EMF transduction mechanisms. If the results of this study were to be shown to occur at the cellular and tissue level, EMF-enhanced oxygen availability would be one of the mechanisms by which clinically relevant EMF-mediated enhancement of growth and repair processes could occur.

  3. Extramedullary hematopoiesis and paraplegia in a patient with hemoglobin e-Beta thalassemia.

    Alam, M R; Habib, M S; Dhakal, G P; Khan, M R; Rahim, M A; Chowdhury, A J; Mahmud, T K

    2010-07-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs in patients with various hematologic disorders involving a chronic increase in the production of red blood cells, and is often associated polycythemia vera and sickle cell anaemia, but is less common with thalassemia especially with hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia. Spinal cord compression due to EMH is a extremely rare complication of thalassemia and may present with paraparesis or paraplegia with or without sensory impairment. Treatment options mostly include surgery and/or radiotherapy. Whereas cases presenting with paraplegia have been treated with either surgery or radiotherapy with equal frequency and efficacy, almost all reported cases with paraplegia have been treated with surgery with or without radiation therapy. We hereby report a case of hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia with paraplegia treated successfully with radiotherapy.

  4. Hemoglobin fructation promotes heme degradation through the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species

    Goodarzi, M.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A.; Habibi-Rezaei, M.; Shourian, M.; Ghourchian, H.; Ahmad, F.; Farhadi, M.; Saboury, A. A.; Sheibani, N.

    2014-09-01

    Protein glycation is a cascade of nonenzymatic reactions between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins. It is referred to as fructation when the reducing monosaccharide is fructose. Some potential mechanisms have been suggested for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by protein glycation reactions in the presence of glucose. In this state, glucose autoxidation, ketoamine, and oxidative advance glycation end products (AGEs) formation are considered as major sources of ROS and perhaps heme degradation during hemoglobin glycation. However, whether fructose mediated glycation produces ROS and heme degradation is unknown. Here we report that ROS (H2O2) production occurred during hemoglobin fructation in vitro using chemiluminescence methods. The enhanced heme exposure and degradation were determined using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Following accumulation of ROS, heme degradation products were accumulated reaching a plateau along with the detected ROS. Thus, fructose may make a significant contribution to the production of ROS, glycation of proteins, and heme degradation during diabetes.

  5. Effect of 2-Mercaptopropionyl-Glycine on the hemoglobin of rats exposed to low doses of fast neutrons

    Selim, N.S.; Ashry, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Adult male rats weighing 150± 10 gm, were divided into six groups: one group was kept untreated as normal control, one group received single administration of 20 mg/kg body weight 2-mercapto-propionyl glycine, commercially called thiola, the remaining four groups were injected with thiola and exposed to different doses of fast neutrons (4.32, 36, 70 and 140 mSv) 30 minutes after injection. The analysis of the hemoglobin molecule was performed 24 hours after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of the hemoglobin was recorded from 200 to nm using CECIL-3041 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The following parameters were calculated for the evaluation of the hemoglobin spectrum: 1- The maximum absorbance at 271, 340, 410, 540 and 574 nm, 2- The full width at half maximum of each peak (FWHM), 3-evaluation of the ratio between different peaks as follows: a) A 41 0/A 271 (iron to globin ratio) c) A 574 / A 271 : (heme to globin ratio), d)- A 574 /A 540 (spin state of the iron) and 4- recording the appearance of new peaks or the disappearance of normally occurring peaks. The injection of thiola, only, was found to affect the spatial distribution of the hemoglobin molecule. Also, it was shown to minimize the damaging effects of fast neutrons on the hemoglobin and decreased environmental perturbations

  6. Two-photon excited fluorescence emission from hemoglobin

    Sun, Qiqi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin, one of the most important proteins in blood, is responsible for oxygen transportation in almost all vertebrates. Recently, we discovered two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence and achieved label-free microvascular imaging based on the hemoglobin fluorescence. However, the mechanism of its fluorescence emission still remains unknown. In this work, we studied the two-photon excited fluorescence properties of the hemoglobin subunits, heme/hemin (iron (II)/(III) protoporphyrin IX) and globin. We first studied the properties of heme and the similar spectral and temporal characteristics of heme and hemoglobin fluorescence provide strong evidence that heme is the fluorophore in hemoglobin. Then we studied the fluorescence properties of hemin, globin and methemoglobin, and found that the hemin may have the main effect on the methemoglobin fluorescence and that globin has tryptophan fluorescence like other proteins. Finally, since heme is a centrosymmetric molecule, that the Soret band fluorescence of heme and hemoglobin was not observed in the single photon process in the previous study may be due to the parity selection rule. The discovery of heme two-photon excited fluorescence may open a new window for heme biology research, since heme as a cofactor of hemoprotein has many functions, including chemical catalysis, electron transfer and diatomic gases transportation.

  7. Using the MWC model to describe heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin

    Rapp, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a classical model allosteric protein. Research on hemoglobin parallels the development of key cooperativity and allostery concepts, such as the ‘all-or-none’ Hill formalism, the stepwise Adair binding formulation and the concerted Monod-Wymann-Changuex (MWC) allosteric model. While it is clear that the MWC model adequately describes the cooperative binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, rationalizing the effects of H+, CO2 or organophosphate ligands on hemoglobin-oxygen saturation using the same model remains controversial. According to the MWC model, allosteric ligands exert their effect on protein function by modulating the quaternary conformational transition of the protein. However, data fitting analysis of hemoglobin oxygen saturation curves in the presence or absence of inhibitory ligands persistently revealed effects on both relative oxygen affinity (c) and conformational changes (L), elementary MWC parameters. The recent realization that data fitting analysis using the traditional MWC model equation may not provide reliable estimates for L and c thus calls for a re-examination of previous data using alternative fitting strategies. In the current manuscript, we present two simple strategies for obtaining reliable estimates for MWC mechanistic parameters of hemoglobin steady-state saturation curves in cases of both evolutionary and physiological variations. Our results suggest that the simple MWC model provides a reasonable description that can also account for heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin. The results, moreover, offer a general roadmap for successful data fitting analysis using the MWC model. PMID:28793329

  8. Comparison of three noninvasive methods for hemoglobin screening of blood donors.

    Ardin, Sergey; Störmer, Melanie; Radojska, Stela; Oustianskaia, Larissa; Hahn, Moritz; Gathof, Birgit S

    2015-02-01

    To prevent phlebotomy of anemic individuals and to ensure hemoglobin (Hb) content of the blood units, Hb screening of blood donors before donation is essential. Hb values are mostly evaluated by measurement of capillary blood obtained from fingerstick. Rapid noninvasive methods have recently become available and may be preferred by donors and staff. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time all different noninvasive methods for Hb screening. Blood donors were screened for Hb levels in three different trials using three different noninvasive methods (Haemospect [MBR Optical Systems GmbH & Co. KG], NBM 200 [LMB Technology GmbH], Pronto-7 [Masimo Europe Ltd]) in comparison to the established fingerstick method (CompoLab Hb [Fresenius Kabi GmbH]) and to levels obtained from venous samples on a cell counter (Sysmex [Sysmex Europe GmbH]) as reference. The usability of the noninvasive methods was assessed with an especially developed survey. Technical failures occurred by using the Pronto-7 due to nail polish, skin color, or ambient light. The NBM 200 also showed a high sensitivity to ambient light and noticeably lower Hb levels for women than obtained from the Sysmex. The statistical analysis showed the following bias and standard deviation of differences of all methods in comparison to the venous results: Haemospect, -0.22 ± 1.24; NBM, 200 -0.12 ± 1.14; Pronto-7, -0.50 ± 0.99; and CompoLab Hb, -0.53 ± 0.81. Noninvasive Hb tests represent an attractive alternative by eliminating pain and reducing risks of blood contamination. The main problem for generating reliable results seems to be preanalytical variability in sampling. Despite the sensitivity to environmental stress, all methods are suitable for Hb measurement. © 2014 AABB.

  9. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  10. Hemoglobin redox reactions and red blood cell aging.

    Rifkind, Joseph M; Nagababu, Enika

    2013-06-10

    The physiological mechanism(s) for recognition and removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from circulation after 120 days of its lifespan is not fully understood. Many of the processes thought to be associated with the removal of RBCs involve oxidative stress. We have focused on hemoglobin (Hb) redox reactions, which is the major source of RBC oxidative stress. The importance of Hb redox reactions have been shown to originate in large parts from the continuous slow autoxidation of Hb producing superoxide and its dramatic increase under hypoxic conditions. In addition, oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with redox reactions that originate from Hb reactions with nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) and the resultant formation of highly toxic peroxynitrite when NO reacts with superoxide released during Hb autoxidation. The interaction of Hb, particularly under hypoxic conditions with band 3 of the RBC membrane is critical for the generating the RBC membrane changes that trigger the removal of cells from circulation. These changes include exposure of antigenic sites, increased calcium leakage into the RBC, and the resultant leakage of potassium out of the RBC causing cell shrinkage and impaired deformability. The need to understand the oxidative damage to specific membrane proteins that result from redox reactions occurring when Hb is bound to the membrane. Proteomic studies that can pinpoint the specific proteins damaged under different conditions will help elucidate the cellular aging processes that result in cells being removed from circulation.

  11. Evans Syndrome Complicated by Intratubular Hemoglobin Cast Nephropathy

    Iván González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose exact pathophysiology is unknown. It is characterized by the simultaneous or subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Intravascular hemolysis, with hemoglobinemia, is known to produce acute kidney injury; however, the development of intratubular hemoglobin casts (hemoglobin cast nephropathy in the setting of acute hemolysis is uncommon. Likewise, the association of ES and acute renal failure is equally uncommon. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with ES who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of intravascular hemolysis and had widespread intratubular hemoglobin casts.

  12. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  13. Clinical value of hemoglobin and its association with hepatocyte steatosis in chronic hepatitis B patients

    WANG Peng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available :ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical value of hemoglobin and its association with hepatocyte steatosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical and pathological data of 1580 CHB patients who were hospitalized in The First People′s Hospital of Shunde from January 2006 to December 2014 and underwent liver biopsy, among whom 216 (13.67% had hepatocyte steatosis (hepatocyte steatosis group and 1364 had no hepatocyte steatosis (non-hepatocyte steatosis group. The patients were divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 according to hemoglobin level, and the clinical and pathological features were analyzed and compared between the three groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between group; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparision between multiple groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for ranked data between groups. The Kruskal-wallis H test was used for ranked data between multiple groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Spearman correlation analysis was also performed to determine the correlation between two variables. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate stepwise regression analysis were used to identify the influencing factors for hepatocyte steatosis. ResultsBody mass index (BMI, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HBV DNA load increased with the increase in hemoglobin level (F=12718,3024,4026,4624,38276,28108,7358, all P<0.05. The incidence rates of hepatocyte steatosis in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.59%, 1176%,and 21.67%, respectively (χ2=44.23, P<0.05. Hemoglobin was positively correlated with hepatic steatosis (rs=0.211, P<0001. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hemoglobin (odds ratio [OR]=1.066, P<0.05, BMI (OR=1576, P<005, age (OR=1.041, P<0.05, sex

  14. Influence of Endurance Training During Childhood on Total Hemoglobin Mass.

    Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2018-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.

  15. Early resuscitation with polymerized bovine hemoglobin reverses acidosis, but not peripheral tissue oxygenation, in a severe hamster shock model.

    Wettstein, Reto; Tsai, Amy G; Harder, Yves; Erni, Dominique; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2006-11-01

    Awake hamsters equipped with the dorsal window chamber preparation were subjected to hemorrhage of 50% of the estimated blood volume. Initial resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) with polymerized bovine hemoglobin (PBH) or 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) occurred in concert with an equivolumetric bleeding to simulate the early, prehospital setting (exchange transfusion). Resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) without bleeding was performed with PBH, HES, or autologous red blood cells (HES-RBCs). Peripheral microcirculation, tissue oxygenation, and systemic hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were assessed. After exchange transfusion, base deficit was -8.6 +/- 3.7 mmol/L (PBH) and -5.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/L (HES) (not significant). Functional capillary density was 17% +/- 6% of baseline (PBH) and 31% +/- 11% (HES) (P < 0.05) and arteriolar diameter 73% +/- 3% of baseline (PBH) and 90% + 5% (HES) (P < 0.01). At the end, hemoglobin levels were 3.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL with HES, 8.2 +/- 0.6 g/dL with PBH, and 10.4 +/- 0.8 g/dL with HES-RBCs (P < 0.01 HES vs. PBH and HES-RBCs, P < 0.05 PBH vs. HES-RBCs). Base excess was restored to baseline with PBH and HES-RBCs, but not with HES (P < 0.05). Functional capillary density was 46% +/- 5% of baseline (PBH), 62% + 20% (HES-RBCs), and 36% +/- 19% (HES) (P < 0.01 HES-RBCs vs. HES). Peripheral oxygen delivery and consumption was highest with HES-RBCs, followed by PBH (P < 0.05 HES-RBCs vs. PBH, P < 0.01 HES-RBCs and PBH vs. HES). In conclusion, the PBH led to a correction of base deficit comparable to blood transfusion. However, oxygenation of the peripheral tissue was inferior with PBH. This was attributed to its negative impact on the peripheral microcirculation caused by arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  16. Maternal hemoglobin in Peru: regional differences and its association with adverse perinatal outcomes

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina.; Tapia, Vilma; Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Obstetríz.; Gasco, Manuel; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Carrillo, Carlos; Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate hemoglobin (Hb) levels in pregnant women from different geographical regions from Peru; to establish anemia and erythrocytocis rates and to establish the role of Hb on adverse perinatal outcomes using the Perinatal Information System (PIS) database of Peruvian Ministry of Health. Materials and methods. Data were obtained from 379,816 births of 43 maternity care units between 2000 and 2010. Anemia and erythrocytocis rates were determined in each geographical region as w...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of free hemoglobin aid in the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as sickle cell... blood cells), and leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming organs). (b) Classification. Class II...

  18. A nanocluster-based fluorescent sensor for sensitive hemoglobin detection.

    Yang, Dongqin; Meng, Huijie; Tu, Yifeng; Yan, Jilin

    2017-08-01

    In this report, a fluorescence sensor for sensitive detection of hemoglobin was developed. Gold nanoclusters were first synthesized with bovine serum albumin. It was found that both hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin could weakly quench the fluorescence from the gold nanoclusters, but when these two were applied onto the nanolcusters simultaneously, a much improved quenching was resulted. This enhancing effect was proved to come from the catalytic generation of hydroxyl radical by hemoglobin. Under an optimized condition, the quenching linearly related to the concentration of hemoglobin in the range of 1-250nM, and a limit of detection as low as 0.36nM could be obtained. This provided a sensitive means for the quantification of Hb. The sensor was then successfully applied for blood analyses with simple sample pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  20. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  1. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Administrator

    28. Li et al used single- walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and 1-hexyl-3- ... Electrochemistry of dextran/hemoglobin/carbon ionic liquid electrode. 273. 2.4 Procedures ..... used for the construction of H2O2 biosensor. Acknowledgement.

  2. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... (logP(50) vs 1/T) of D. mawsoni hemoglobin indicates that the enthalpy of oxygenation (slope of the plot) is temperature dependent and that at high temperatures oxygen-binding becomes less exothermic. Nearly linear relationships were found in the hemoglobins of the other two species. The data were...... oxygen binding. The degree of the temperature dependence of the heat of oxygenation observed in these hemoglobins seems to reflect the differences in their allosteric effects rather than a specific molecular adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, this study indicates that the disagreement between...

  3. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  4. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  5. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  6. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  7. Glycosylated hemoglobin as a forecast factor of progressing of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes type 1

    Pertseva N.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to propose a mathematical model for prediction of development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus by determining the level of glycosylated hemoglobin - as a factor in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. A survey of 136 patients with type 1 diabetes was performed in the endocrinology department of the OSH «Clinic of the Medical Academy», Dnipro in 2016-2017. Clinical laboratory examination included: determination of the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, level of blood creatinine, level of albuminuria. The GFR was calculated by the formula CKD-EPI. The obtained results of the study, using methods of correlation and regression analysis, show a clear correlation between the GFR score in patients with diabetes mellitus and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin. Statistical methods of analysis have shown that the level of glycosylated hemoglobin can be considered as an early predictor of development of diabetic nephropathy. The mathematical equation of prognosis for the onset of diabetic nephropathy can be used to determine the prognosis for the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus patients in clinical practice for the timely inclusion of patients with a high prognostic risk in a group requiring more stringent glycemic control.

  8. A relay network of extracellular heme-binding proteins drives C. albicans iron acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Kuznets, Galit; Vigonsky, Elena; Weissman, Ziva; Lalli, Daniela; Gildor, Tsvia; Kauffman, Sarah J; Turano, Paola; Becker, Jeffrey; Lewinson, Oded; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Iron scavenging constitutes a crucial challenge for survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the iron-poor host environment. Candida albicans, like many microbial pathogens, is able to utilize iron from hemoglobin, the largest iron pool in the host's body. Rbt5 is an extracellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored heme-binding protein of the CFEM family that facilitates heme-iron uptake by an unknown mechanism. Here, we characterize an additional C. albicans CFEM protein gene, PGA7, deletion of which elicits a more severe heme-iron utilization phenotype than deletion of RBT5. The virulence of the pga7-/- mutant is reduced in a mouse model of systemic infection, consistent with a requirement for heme-iron utilization for C. albicans pathogenicity. The Pga7 and Rbt5 proteins exhibit distinct cell wall attachment, and discrete localization within the cell envelope, with Rbt5 being more exposed than Pga7. Both proteins are shown here to efficiently extract heme from hemoglobin. Surprisingly, while Pga7 has a higher affinity for heme in vitro, we find that heme transfer can occur bi-directionally between Pga7 and Rbt5, supporting a model in which they cooperate in a heme-acquisition relay. Together, our data delineate the roles of Pga7 and Rbt5 in a cell surface protein network that transfers heme from extracellular hemoglobin to the endocytic pathway, and provide a paradigm for how receptors embedded in the cell wall matrix can mediate nutrient uptake across the fungal cell envelope.

  9. Hemoglobin protein hollow shells fabricated through covalent layer-by-layer technique

    Duan Li; He Qiang; Yan Xuehai; Cui Yue; Wang Kewei; Li Junbai

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) protein microcapsules held together by cross-linker, glutaraldehyde (GA), were successfully fabricated by covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The Schiff base reaction occurred on the colloid templates between the aldehyde groups of GA and free amino sites of Hb results in the formation of GA/Hb microcapsules after the removal of the templates. The structure of obtained monodisperse protein microcapsule was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The UV-Vis spectra measurements demonstrate the existence of Hb in the assembled capsules. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and potential-controlled amperometric measurements (I-t curve) confirm that hemoglobin microcapsules after fabrication remain their heme electroactivity. Moreover, direct electron transfer process from protein to electrode surface was performed to detect the heme electrochemistry without using any mediator or promoter. The experiments of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) by CLSM demonstrate that the hemoglobin protein microcapsules have an improved permeability comparing to the conventional polyelectrolyte microcapsules

  10. Ligand exchange reactions of the heme group in hemoglobin and myoglobin as studied by pulse radiolysis

    Raap, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis, the kinetic aspects of the ligand exchange reactions of hemoglobin are studied using the pulse radiolysis technique, in particular, the reactions of hydrated electrons with methemoglobin. A hitherto unobserved transient state of the heme group is observed which appears immediately after the rapid reduction process. The absorption spectrum of this new species has the characteristics of a ferrous low-spin state and can therefore be ascribed to the formation of a hemochrome non-equilibrium state. The subsequent relaxation of this intermediate structure into a deoxy-conformation is dependent on the amount of proton activity in the solution and on the presence of organic and inorganic phosphate anions. The final absorption spectrum of the heme group is shown to correspond to a ferrous high-spin state in the relaxed quaternary conformation. This is in agreement with the kinetics observen the binding of carbon monoxide and oxygen to partially reduced methemoglobin. At reduction degrees of methemoglobin as well as of valncy 8ybrids where there is an important contribution from species with two reduced subunits, the binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin occurs with on-rate constants characteristic for the tensed quaternary conformation. It is argued that this conformational change of hemoglobin (the R-to-T transition) takes place very rapidly, which suggests the participation of an activated relaxed conformation. In addition, it is found that there is a distinct heterogeneity in the binding of oxygen to partially reduced methemoglobin even at low degrees of reduction

  11. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  12. Investigations of immunoglobulins, circulating immune complexes and plasma free hemoglobin in cancer patients on 60Co gamma-ray therapy

    Horvath, M.; Rode, I.L.; Fekete, B.; Kiss, B.; Ringwald, G.

    1981-01-01

    32 patients with different tumours were irradiated by 60 Co gamma-rays. During therapy lasting for several weeks, changes in the content of immunoglobulin and of some other serum proteins, circulating immune complexes and plasma free hemoglobin were determined. Immunosuppression according to immunoglobulin content in serum was not produced by this type of radiation. Decrease in immune complex levels was a good prognostic sign. Low values of plasma hemoglobin content during treatment indicated that no erythrocyte membrane damage had been effected. (orig.) [de

  13. Impaired CD163-mediated hemoglobin-scavenging and severe toxic symptoms in patients treated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin

    Maniecki, M.B.; Hasle, H.; Friis-Hansen, L.

    2008-01-01

    , and low bilirubin after septicemia-induced intravascular hemolysis indicated abrogated clearance of haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. This was further supported by low levels of plasma soluble CD163 and a concordant low number of CD163-expressing monocytes. We show that CD163 positive monocytes...... and macrophages from liver, spleen, and bone marrow coexpress CD33, thus suggesting that the GO-induced cellular cytotoxicity of CD33 positive cells eradicates a significant part of the CD163 positive monocytes and macrophages. The risk of severe toxic symptoms from plasma hemoglobin should be considered after CD......33-targeted chemotherapy when the disease is complicated by a pathologic intravascular hemolysis. Furthermore, the cases provide further circumstantial evidence of a key role of (CD163-expressing) monocytes/macrophages in plasma hemoglobin clearance in vivo Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/15...

  14. Modifiers of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity as sensitizers of tumors to radiation

    Hirst, D.G.; Wood, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful mechanism in the control of oxygen delivery to tissues is the allosteric modification of hemoglobin. Increased or decreased release of oxygen can be achieved by altering the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Several studies have shown that tumor radiosensitivity is dependent on this relationship. The authors studied affinity changes produced in two distinctly different ways. Tumor bearing mice were given isovolemic exchange blood transfusions with the blood from donor mice which had been exposed to abnormal oxygen tensions, leading to increased or slightly decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) in their blood. When the recipient mice were irradiated, those receiving the blood with higher 2,3 DPG levels showed greater tumor sensitivity to radiation. An alternative strategy is the use of drugs which directly alter hemoglobin/oxygen affinity. The authors studied three antihyperlipoproteinemia drugs, all of which have produced markedly reduced affinities in vivo. Preliminary data indicate that the radiosensitization produced by at least one of these compounds is less than would have been expected from the 2,3 DPG experiments

  15. Hemoglobin H disease in the Al-Qatif region of Saudi Arabia

    Ankra-Badu, George A.; Al-Jama, A.; Al-Kadim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has thehighest prevalence of alpha-thalassemia genes in the Kingdom. Hemoglobin H(Hb H) disease, however, has been rarely reported. We decided therefore toverify the rarity of disease and characterize the presenting features incases identified. All patients seen in Qatif Central Hospital betweenSeptember 1988 and November 1990 with low red cell indices were screened forHb H disease and those found positive had clinical data compiled from theirhospital records and analyzed. Thirty-nine cases of Hb H were diagnosed. Themean age of patients was 18 years. The mean hemoglobin was 13.5 g/dL forneonates and 7.6 g/dL for others. The mean Hb Bart's level was 27.5% inneonates and the mean Hb H level in others was 11.1%. In addition to low redcell indices, all patients had a high red cell distribution width (RDW) meanof 25.6%. The main clinical signs were jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly.Concurrent glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was seen in28.2% of patients. Hemoglobin H disease is not uncommon in the Al-Qatifregion of Saudi Arabia. The red cell indices may mimic iron deficiency, whichshould be excluded by the presence of jaundice and organomegaly. Thecondition often co-exists with G6PD deficiency. (author)

  16. Hemoglobin structural dynamics as monitored by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Spiro, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the heme group are now understood at a level sufficient to provide a useful monitor of several heme structural features. Some porphyrin vibrational frequencies are sensitive to Fe oxidation state, or π-electron distribution, and give insight into the electronic structure of O 2 , CO and NO hemes. Others are sensitive to Fe spin-state, via the associated geometry variation, and provide an accurate index of the porphyrin core size. When examined during the photolysis of CO-hemoglobin via short laser pulses, these frequencies indicate that conversion from low- to h+gh-spin Fe 11 takes place within 30 ps of photolysis, presumably via intersystem-crossing in the excited state, but that the subsequent relaxation of the Fe atom out of the heme plane takes longer than 20 ns, probably because of restraint by the protein. Axial ligand modes have been identified for several heme derivatives. The Fe-imidazole frequency in deoxyhemoglobin is appreciably lowered in the T quaternary structure, as determined in both static and kinetic experiments, suggesting molecular tension or proximal imidazole H-bond weakening in the T state. (author)

  17. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  18. Impact of Mean Cell Hemoglobin on Hb A1c-Defined Glycemia Status.

    Rodriguez-Segade, Santiago; Garcia, Javier Rodriguez; García-López, José M; Gude, Francisco; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rs-Alonso, Santiago; Camiña, Félix

    2016-12-01

    Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A 1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A 1c determination is requested in clinical practice. The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A 1c , fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A 1c . Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A 1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A 1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A 1c , a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A 1c -defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%. For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A 1c -based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A 1c levels in clinical practice. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. How "lucky" we are that the Fukushima disaster occurred in early spring: predictions on the contamination levels from various fission products released from the accident and updates on the risk assessment for solid and thyroid cancers.

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-12-01

    The present paper studies how a random event (earthquake) and the subsequent disaster in Japan affect transport and deposition of fallout and the resulting health consequences. Therefore, except for the original accident in March 2011, three additional scenarios are assessed assuming that the same releases took place in winter 2010, summer 2011 and autumn 2011 in order to cover a full range of annual seasonality. This is also the first study where a large number of fission products released from the accident are used to assess health risks with the maximum possible efficiency. Xenon-133 and (137)Cs are directly estimated within the model, whereas 15 other radionuclides are calculated indirectly using reported isotopic ratios. As much as 85% of the released (137)Cs would be deposited in continental regions worldwide if the accident occurred in winter 2010, 22% in spring 2011 (when it actually happened), 55% in summer 2011 and 48% if it occurred during autumn 2011. Solid cancer incidents and mortalities from Fukushima are estimated to be between 160 and 880 and from 110 to 640 close to previous estimations. By adding thyroid cancers, the total number rises from 230 to 850 for incidents and from 120 to 650 for mortalities. Fatalities due to worker exposure and mandatory evacuation have been reported to be around 610 increasing total estimated mortalities to 730-1260. These estimates are 2.8 times higher than previously reported ones for radiocaesium and (131)I and 16% higher than those reported based on radiocaesium only. Total expected fatalities from Fukushima are 32% lower than in the winter scenario, 5% that in the summer scenario and 30% lower than in the autumn scenario. Nevertheless, cancer fatalities are expected to be less than 5% of those from the tsunami (~20,000). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of aba-type copolymers for encapsulation of bovine hemoglobin

    Lima, Felipe F.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biopolymers for the development of oxygen carriers has been extensively investigated. In this work, three different ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized and used to encapsulate purified bovine hemoglobin, using a double emulsion technique. The effect of polymer composition, homogenization velocity, and addition of a surfactant, on the protein entrapment was evaluated. These copolymers, which have a hydrophilic block, achieved higher values of encapsulation efficiency than the corresponding homopolymers. The increase in homogenization strength also promoted an increase in encapsulation efficiency. Capsules formation occurred even in the absence of PVA. (author)

  1. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of proximal histidyl residues in human normal and abnormal hemoglobins: a probe for the heme pocket

    Takahashi, S.; Lin, A.K.L.; Ho, C.

    1982-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 250 MHz has been used to investigate the conformations of proximal histidyl residues of human normal adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin Kempsey [K145(HC2) Tyr #betta# Asp], and hemoglobin McKees Rocks [K145(HC2) Tyr #betta# Term] around neutral pH in H 2 O at 27 0 C, all in the deoxy form. Two resonances that occur between 58 and 76 ppm downfield from the water proton signal have been assigned to the hyperfine shifted proximal histidyl NH-exchangeable protons of the J and K-chains of deoxyhemoglobin. These two resonances are sensitive to the quaternary state of hemoglobin, amino acid substitutions in the J 1 K 2 -subunit interface and in the carboxy-terminal region of the K-chain, and the addition of organic phosphates. The experimental results show that there are differences in the heme pockets among these four hemoglobins studied. The structural and dynamic information derived from the hyperfine shifted proximal histidyl NH-exchangeable proton resonances complement that obtained from the ferrous hyperfine shifted and exchangeable proton resonances of deoxyhemoglobin over the spectral region from 5 to 20 ppm downfield from H 2 O. The relationship between these findings and Perutz's stereochemical mechanism for the cooperative oxygenation of hemoglobin is discussed

  2. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Gray, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training)

  3. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  5. [Differences between observed and estimated by hematocrit hemoglobin and its relevance in the diagnosis of anemia among coastal population in Venezuela: analysis of the second national study of human growth and development (SENACREDH)].

    Flores-Torres, Jessica; Echeverría-Ortega, María; Arria-Bohorquez, Melissa; Hidalgo, Glida; Albano-Ramos, Carlos; Sanz, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the differences between the observed hemoglobin levels and those estimated based on hematocrit in the context of the 2nd National Study of Human Growth and Development of the Venezuelan Population (SENACREDH). 6,004 individuals were chosen by a probabilistic multistage cluster sampling representing 7,286,781 inhabitants from North Central Coastal area (Vargas, Carabobo, Capital District, Aragua and Miranda). Means of observed and estimated hemoglobin (hematocrit/3) were compared, using t test for related samples and linear regression. Mean difference between the values of observed and estimated hemoglobin was -0.3446 ±0.0002 (phemoglobin values. Regression models of hemoglobin on hematocrit showed an r2=0,87. In order to correct the estimation, we propose a new formula for calculating hemoglobin based on haematocrit values: estimated hemoglobin=(Haematocrit/3.135)+ 0.257. There is an overestimation of hemoglobin levels from hematocrit levels and therefore an underestimation of the prevalence of anemia; however, a high positive correlation between them was found, allowing modeling for achieving a better estimation of the hemoglobin from the hematocrit value.

  6. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  7. The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range

    Zhernovaya, O; Tuchin, V; Sydoruk, O; Douplik, A

    2011-01-01

    Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l -1 . This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l -1 . The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

  8. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  9. Post-transfusion hemoglobin values and patient blood management

    Moerman, Jan; Vermeulen, Edith; Van Mullem, Mia

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the added value of communicating post-transfusion hemoglobin values to clinicians as a strategy to improve RBC utilization in a 500-bed hospital. Methods: The total number of RBC transfusions, the mean number of RBC units...... transfused per patient, the mean pre- and post-transfusion hemoglobin values, the ratio of patients transfused and the ratio of patients with a post-transfusion hemoglobin > 10.5 g/dL were calculated per service and per department for six months. The data were reported to each service and compared...... with the data of the department as peer group. The impact of this communication strategy was evaluated in the following six months. Results: In the six months pre-intervention, the mean post-transfusion hemoglobin value was 9.2 g/dL. Post-transfusion hemoglobin was > 10.5 g/dL in 13.4% of patients (112...

  10. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  11. HEMOGLOBINA GLICOSILADA O HEMOGLOBINA GLICADA, ¿CUÁL DE LAS DOS? | GLYCOSILATED HEMOGLOBIN OR GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN, WHICH OF THE TWO?

    Mariela Bracho-Nava

    2015-11-01

    , according to the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC, as a generic term referring to a group of substances that are formed from biochemical reactions between hemoglobin A (HbA and some reducing sugars present in the bloodstream, glucose being the most abundant of them. This reaction is known as the Maillard reaction, which is based on a non-enzimatic glycosylation, or more correctly called, in a glycation. Custom, ignorance or confusion among both chemical processes has led to use the term glycosylated hemoglobin instead of glycated hemoglobin. This article provides a review of the process of formation of hemoglobin A1c, defining the reaction of glycosylation and the protein glycation, the chemical species that favor the glycation, the characteristics of the process of glycation of hemoglobin, stages in which it occurs and the effects related to the glycation of proteins in human beings, to finally conclude with a passage of designations which has received the HbA1c to the present; all with the aim of clarifying and giving property to the use of the term glycated hemoglobin.

  12. Near-simultaneous hemoglobin saturation and oxygen tension maps in mouse brain using an AOTF microscope.

    Shonat, R D; Wachman, E S; Niu, W; Koretsky, A P; Farkas, D L

    1997-09-01

    A newly developed microscope using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) was used to generate in vivo hemoglobin saturation (SO2) and oxygen tension (PO2) maps in the cerebral cortex of mice. SO2 maps were generated from the spectral analysis of reflected absorbance images collected at different wavelengths, and PO2 maps were generated from the phosphorescence lifetimes of an injected palladium-porphyrin compound using a frequency-domain measurement. As the inspiratory O2 was stepped from hypoxia (10% O2), through normoxia (21% O2), to hyperoxia (60% O2), measured SO2 and PO2 levels rose accordingly and predictably throughout. A plot of SO2 versus PO2 in different arterial and venous regions of the pial vessels conformed to the sigmoidal shape of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, providing further validation of the two mapping procedures. The study demonstrates the versatility of the AOTF microscope for in vivo physiologic investigation, allowing for the generation of nearly simultaneous SO2 and PO2 maps in the cerebral cortex, and the frequency-domain detection of phosphorescence lifetimes. This class of study opens up exciting new possibilities for investigating the dynamics of hemoglobin and O2 binding during functional activation of neuronal tissues.

  13. Antagonism by hemoglobin of effects induced by L-arginine in neuromuscular preparations from rats

    C.R. Ambiel

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO-synthase is present in diaphragm, phrenic nerve and vascular smooth muscle. It has been shown that the NO precursor L-arginine (L-Arg at the presynaptic level increases the amplitude of muscular contraction (AMC and induces tetanic fade when the muscle is indirectly stimulated at low and high frequencies, respectively. However, the precursor in muscle reduces AMC and maximal tetanic fade when the preparations are stimulated directly. In the present study the importance of NO synthesized in different tissues for the L-Arg-induced neuromuscular effects was investigated. Hemoglobin (50 nM did not produce any neuromuscular effect, but antagonized the increase in AMC and tetanic fade induced by L-Arg (9.4 mM in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. D-Arg (9.4 mM did not produce any effect when preparations were stimulated indirectly at low or high frequency. Hemoglobin did not inhibit the decrease of AMC or the reduction in maximal tetanic tension induced by L-Arg in preparations previously paralyzed with d-tubocurarine and directly stimulated. Since only the presynaptic effects induced by L-Arg were antagonized by hemoglobin, the present results suggest that NO synthesized in muscle acts on nerve and skeletal muscle. Nevertheless, NO produced in nerve and vascular smooth muscle does not seem to act on skeletal muscle.

  14. Fetal hemoglobin, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin are potential predictive first trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia.

    Anderson, Ulrik Dolberg; Gram, Magnus; Ranstam, Jonas; Thilaganathan, Basky; Kerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the preeclamptic placenta has been recently implicated as a new etiological factor of preeclampsia. In this study, maternal serum levels of HbF and the endogenous hemoglobin/heme scavenging systems were evaluated as predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia in combination with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Case-control study including 433 women in early pregnancy (mean 13.7weeks of gestation) of which 86 subsequently developed preeclampsia. The serum concentrations of HbF, total cell-free hemoglobin, hemopexin, haptoglobin and α1-microglobulin were measured in maternal serum. All patients were examined with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Logistic regression models were developed, which included the biomarkers, ultrasound indices, and maternal risk factors. There were significantly higher serum concentrations of HbF and α1-microglobulin and significantly lower serum concentrations of hemopexin in patients who later developed preeclampsia. The uterine artery Doppler ultrasound results showed significantly higher pulsatility index values in the preeclampsia group. The optimal prediction model was obtained by combining HbF, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin in combination with the maternal characteristics parity, diabetes and pre-pregnancy hypertension. The optimal sensitivity for all preeclampsia was 60% at 95% specificity. Overproduction of placentally derived HbF and depletion of hemoglobin/heme scavenging mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The combination of HbF and α1-microglobulin and/or hemopexin may serve as a prediction model for preeclampsia in combination with maternal risk factors and/or uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Perbedaan Kadar Hemoglobin dan Hematokrit Bayi Baru Lahir Akibat Perbedaan Waktu Penjepitan Tali Pusat

    Nuriah Arma

    2016-01-01

    delayed 3 minute its can increase the volume red blood cells about 58%. The objective of this study was to prove the difference of hemoglobin and hematocrit level between 3 minutes and 1 minute cord clamping.  Experimental research was conducted with post-test only control group design of 36 newborns. Data were analyzed by t-test. The result of this study showed that the mean of hemoglobin and hematocrit level in 3 minutes of clamp are higher  than 1 minute of clamp.There was a significant difference of hemoglobin level between 3 minutes cord clamping group and 1 minute cord clamping group with p value is 0.004. There was also a significant difference of hematocrit level between 3 minutes cord clamping group and 1 minute cord clamping group with p value is 0.001. The conclusion is the hemoglobin and hematocrit level are better in cord clamping delayed in 3 minutes after birth than clamping in 1 minute after birth. Keywords: hemoglobin, hematocrit, cord clamping

  16. Anemia among HIV-Infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: Improvement in Hemoglobin regardless of Degree of Immunosuppression and the Initiating ART Regimen

    Simbarashe Takuva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among those with HIV, anemia is a strong risk factor for disease progression and death independent of CD4 count and viral load. Understanding the role of anemia in HIV treatment is critical to developing strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. We conducted a prospective analysis among 10,259 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART between April 2004 and August 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The prevalence of anemia at ART initiation was 25.8%. Mean hemoglobin increased independent of baseline CD4. Females, lower BMI, WHO stage III/IV, lower CD4 count, and zidovudine use were associated with increased risk of developing anemia during follow-up. After initiation of ART, hemoglobin improved, regardless of regimen type and the degree of immunosuppression. Between 0 and 6 months on ART, the magnitude of hemoglobin increase was linearly related to CD4 count. However, between 6 and 24 months on ART, hemoglobin levels showed a sustained overall increase, the magnitude of which was similar regardless of baseline CD4 level. This increase in hemoglobin was seen even among patients on zidovudine containing regimens. Since low hemoglobin is an established adverse prognostic marker, prompt identification of anemia may result in improved morbidity and mortality of patients initiating ART.

  17. Early occurring and continuing effects

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  18. An Atomistic View on Human Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide Migration Processes

    Lucas, M. Fátima; Guallar, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    A significant amount of work has been devoted to obtaining a detailed atomistic knowledge of the human hemoglobin mechanism. Despite this impressive research, to date, the ligand diffusion processes remain unclear and controversial. Using recently developed computational techniques, PELE, we are capable of addressing the ligand migration processes. First, the methodology was tested on myoglobin's CO migration, and the results were compared with the wealth of theoretical and experimental studies. Then, we explored both hemoglobin tense and relaxed states and identified the differences between the α-and β-subunits. Our results indicate that the proximal site, equivalent to the Xe1 cavity in myoglobin, is never visited. Furthermore, strategically positioned residues alter the diffusion processes within hemoglobin's subunits and suggest that multiple pathways exist, especially diversified in the α-globins. A significant dependency of the ligand dynamics on the tertiary structure is also observed. PMID:22385860

  19. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E

    2017-01-01

    examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals...... in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken...

  20. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  1. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Yang, S.Y. [MagQu Co. Ltd., Sindian City, Taipei County 231, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: phyfv001@scc.ntnu.edu.tw; Hong, Chin-Yih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, Nantau County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cyhong@nkut.edu.tw; Yang, H.C. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcyang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Lai, Y.K. [College of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S. [Apex Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  2. Dichloromethane as an antisickling agent in sickle cell hemoglobin

    Schoenborn, B.P.; North, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Observations are reported that show that dichloromethane (DCM) does have a significant effect on the oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin. At DCM pressures high enough to prevent or reverse sickling, DCM would lower the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, therefore reducing oxygen transport at low oxygen pressure. This decrease in oxygen affinity might, however, increase the oxygen availability to tissue as long as a sufficiently large lung P/sub O/sub 2// is maintained. Crystallographic studies show that site D4 has a much lower affinity for DCM than site D3 while sites D1 and D2 show a higher affinity.

  3. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Yang, S.Y.; Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H.; Horng, H.E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H.C.; Lai, Y.K.; Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  4. Why are there two kinds of chain in tetrameric hemoglobins

    Ferreira, R.; Jacchieri, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The homeotropic allosteric interactions responsible for the sigmoidal oxygen saturation curves of α 2 β 2 hemoglobins are shown to be larger than those of hypothetical hemoglobins obeying identical curves and built from equivalent chains, γ 4 . It is also shown that this ensures for the α 2 β 2 species a more dependable cooperativity, through a biologically significative temperature range. On the basis of these findings it is argued that the existence of two different globin chains is advantageous in an evolutionary sense. (Author) [pt

  5. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  6. Is Routine Ordering of Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Justifiable?

    Addison, David J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to assess the value of routine simultaneous hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, paired determinations in the following groups were studied: (1) 360 consecutive pairs from the hematology laboratory, (2) 95 pairs on general medical patients, (3) 43 pairs on 10 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and (4) 62 pairs on 10 patients with burns. These values were plotted on scatter diagrams. In the 560 pairs only three disparate determinations were found. It is concluded that, in most clinical situations, determination of the hemoglobin or the hematocrit as a screening procedure provides as much useful information as the simultaneous determination of both. PMID:5296947

  7. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  8. Autologous blood sequestration using a double venous reservoir bypass circuit and polymerized hemoglobin prime.

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Guerrero, J Luis; Vlahakes, Gus J

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac surgery often necessitates transfusion of homologous blood. Hemoglobin based oxygen carrying solutions (HBOCs) transport oxygen, suggesting use in cardiopulmonary bypass. HBOC was used in a novel oxygenator double-reservoir circuit that permits acute sequestration of a portion of the autologous blood volume during bypass. Two groups of seven mongrel dogs each were studied in an experimental bypass model using global myocardial ischemia and cardioplegia protection: HBOC group, initial venous return drained to a separate reservoir and hypothermic bypass was conducted with HBOC containing perfusate in a second bypass reservoir; Control group, crystalloid prime in a conventional circuit. Hemodynamics and metabolic and hematologic parameters were measured before and 60 min after aortic clamp removal and reinfusion of sequestered autologous blood. Blood gases, base excess, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, and platelet counts were measured. In the HBOC group, metabolic acidosis did not occur, and ventricular function was preserved. Net conservation of platelets was noted at study conclusion: control 33+/-13 x 10(3) per mm3 versus HBOC 48+/-13 x 10(3), p conservation of the platelet mass occurs, a portion of which is not exposed to the deleterious effects of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass.

  9. Clinical Course of Homozygous Hemoglobin Constant Spring in Pediatric Patients.

    Komvilaisak, Patcharee; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Komwilaisak, Ratana; Jirapradittha, Junya; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan

    2018-04-17

    Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-globin gene variant due to a mutation of the stop codon resulting in the elongation of the encoded polypeptide from 141 to 172 amino acid residues. Patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring are usually mildly anemic. We retrospectively describe clinical manifestations, diagnosis, laboratory investigations, treatment, and associated findings in pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring followed-up at Srinagarind Hospital. Sixteen pediatric cases (5 males and 11 females) were diagnosed in utero (N=6) or postnatal (n=10). Eleven cases were diagnosed with homozygous Hb Constant Spring, 4 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with heterozygous Hb E, and 1 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with homozygous Hb E. Three cases were delivered preterm. Six patients had low birth weights. Clinical manifestations included fetal anemia in 6 cases, hepatomegaly in 1 case, hepatosplenomegaly in 2 cases, splenomegaly in 1 case. Twelve cases exhibited early neonatal jaundice, 9 of which required phototherapy. Six cases received red cell transfusions; 1 (3), >1 (3). After the first few months of life, almost all patients had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and an increased reticulocyte count with a wide red cell distribution (RDW), but no longer required red cell transfusion. At 1 to 2 years of age, some patients still had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and some had normocytic hypochromic anemia with Hb around 10 g/dL, increased reticulocyte count and wide RDW. Associated findings included hypothyroidism (2), congenital heart diseases (4), genitourinary abnormalities (3), gastrointestinal abnormalities (2), and developmental delay (1). Pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring developed severe anemia in utero and up to the age of 2 to 3 months postnatal, requiring blood transfusions. Subsequently, their anemia was mild with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly. Their Hb level was above 9 g/dL with hypochromic

  10. Relation of microalbuminuria to glycosylated hemoglobin and ...

    Background: Nephropathy is one of the complications of type 2 diabetes ... Materials and Methods: Study was conducted at Medical College, Kolkata. ... Results: Urinary microalbumin, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in the cases.

  11. Relation of microalbuminuria to glycosylated hemoglobin and ...

    2012-04-22

    Apr 22, 2012 ... between HbA1c and microalbuminuria with the duration of diabetes is not clear. ... the detection of increased urinary microalbumin levels at the initial stage can avert, ..... haemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Diabetic Retinopathy.

  12. HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRITE CHANGES DURING UNCOMPLICATED ANESTHESIA: GENERAL ANESTHESIA AND LOCAL ANESTHESIA

    KH NAGHIBI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite of vital role of blood and it"s components as an only curable treatment, it"s transfusion is accompanied by many complications. In the other way, the most important adverse effects of anemia is decrease in oxygen supply to the tissues. Therefore, it is essential to determine those patients need to blood transfusion and exact hemoglobine and hematocrite level which transfusion become necessary. Recent studies show that during general anesthesia due to vasodilation in the level of microcirculation and passage of many red blood cells from microcirculation there is a decreasing in hemoglobine level measured in peripheral veins which named plasma skimming. So, during sampling of hemoglobine and hematocrite from peripheral veins, there is a pseudodecrease in Hb and HCT levels. In this study we want to determine this decrease in Hb and HeT. Methods. Study was done in 182 patients with ASA 1 and 2 undergoing general or local anesthesia for cataract surgery. Duration of nill per os (NPO, preoperotive and intraoperative intravenous fluid administration were simillar in two groups. A sample of blood for preoperative evaluation and another one immediately after operation achevied and compared with each other. Results. There was not significant differences between mean Hb and HCT in two groups preoperotive. But postoperative, there was a significant differences between mean Hb and HCT in general anesthesia vs local anesthesia (P < 0.01. This decrease in Hb and HCT was orderly 0.91 ± 1.14 gr/dl for Hb and 2.862±3.6 percent for Hct. Discussion. In determining of Hb and HCT immediately after general anesthesia, there is some pseudo decrease due to plasma skimming that must be appreciated.

  13. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  14. Does overtraining occur in triathletes?

    I Margaritis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objective: Long distance triathlon training is characterized by considerably high volume training loads. This volume can provoke an overtraining state. The aim of the study was to determine whether overtraining occurs in well-trained male triathletes in relation with their volume training loads. 2. Experimental design: A questionnaire investigation was completed two days before the Nice long-distance triathlon (October 1995: 4-km swim, 120-km bike ride and 30-km run. 3. Participants: Ninety-three well-trained male triathletes who took part in the triathlon race. 4. Measures: A questionnaire to relate clinical symptoms, which are known to appear in case of overtraining, was collected. 5. Results: 39.8% of the questioned triathletes reported a decrease in triathlon performances within the last month preceding the race. Moreover, these triathletes exhibited significantly more overtraining-relied symptoms than the others (5.9±3.8 vs 3.4±2.6, P<0.05. Surprisingly, the occurrence of overtraining in triathletes appears not to depend on the volume training loads. 6. Conclusions: These results suggest that overtraining has to be considered in the case of triathletes. This preliminary study evidences the need for further investigation in order to monitor triathletes training respond and prevent overtraining.

  15. Haptoglobin Duplicon, Hemoglobin, and Vitamin C: Analyses in the British Women’s Heart and Health Study and Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Philip A. I. Guthrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haptoglobin acts as an antioxidant by limiting peroxidative tissue damage by free hemoglobin. The haptoglobin gene allele Hp2 comprises a 1.7 kb partial duplication. Relative to allele Hp1, Hp2 carriers form protein multimers, suboptimal for hemoglobin scavenging. Objective. To examine the association of haptoglobin genotype with a range of phenotypes, with emphasis on vitamin C and hemoglobin levels. Methods. We applied a quantitative PCR assay for the duplication junction to two population cohorts including 2747 British women and 1198 British men. We examined the association of haptoglobin duplicon copy number with hemoglobin and vitamin C and used the copy number to complete a phenome scan. Results. Hemoglobin concentrations were greater in those with Hp2,2 genotype, in women only (Hp1,1 13.45 g/dL, Hp1,2 13.49 g/dL, Hp2,2 13.61 g/dL; P=0.002, though statistically there was no evidence of a difference between the sexes (z value = 1.2, P=0.24. Haptoglobin genotype was not associated with vitamin C or any other phenotype in either cohort. Conclusions. Our results do not support association of haptoglobin genotype with vitamin C or with other phenotypes measured in two population cohorts. The apparent association between haptoglobin genotype and hemoglobin in the women’s cohort merits further investigation.

  16. The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis

    Lipinski, S

    1972-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis was studied and its effect on the quality of protein was discovered. The biological effects due to the changes in the structure of protein were also observed. The results of the experiments are presented.

  17. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    , the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...