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Sample records for hemoglobin checker system

  1. Parity generator and parity checker in the modified trinary number system using savart plate and spatial light modulator

    Ghosh, Amal K.

    2010-09-01

    The parity generators and the checkers are the most important circuits in communication systems. With the development of multi-valued logic (MVL), the proposed system with parity generators and checkers is the most required using the recently developed optoelectronic technology in the modified trinary number (MTN) system. This system also meets up the tremendous needs of speeds by exploiting the savart plates and spatial light modulators (SLM) in the optical tree architecture (OTA).

  2. A Model Checker for Bigraphs

    Perrone, Gian David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a model checking tool for Bigraphical Reactive Systems that may be instantiated as a model checker for any formalism or domain-specific modelling language encoded as a Bigraphical Reactive System. We describe the implementation of the tool, and how it can be used to verify correctness...

  3. A grammar checker based on web searching

    Joaquim Moré

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an English grammar and style checker for non-native English speakers. The main characteristic of this checker is the use of an Internet search engine. As the number of web pages written in English is immense, the system hypothesises that a piece of text not found on the Web is probably badly written. The system also hypothesises that the Web will provide examples of how the content of the text segment can be expressed in a grammatically correct and idiomatic way. Thus, when the checker warns the user about the odd nature of a text segment, the Internet engine searches for contexts that can help the user decide whether he/she should correct the segment or not. By means of a search engine, the checker also suggests use of other expressions that appear on the Web more often than the expression he/she actually wrote.

  4. A usability review of a model checker VIS for the verification of NPP I and C system safety software

    Son, H. S.; Kwon, K. C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the usability of a model checker VIS in the verification of safety software of NPP I and C systems. The software development environment exemplified in this paper is for PLC and ESF-CCS which are being developed in KNICS project. In this environment, STATEMATE is used in requirement analysis and design phases. PLC is expected to be implemented using C language and an assembly language because it has many interfaces with hardware like CPU, I/O devices, communication devices. ESF-CCS is supposed to be developed in terms of PLC programming languages which are defined in IEC 61131-3 standard. In this case, VIS proved to be very useful through the review. We are also able to expect greater usability of VIS if we further develop the techniques for code abstraction and automatic translation from code to verilog, which is the input of VIS

  5. Hemoglobin

    1993-03-08

    affinity, which is less at low levels of hemoglobin saturation, increases markedly as fractional saturation increases. Thus, high affinity for 02 at... diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), and carbon dioxide (Co 2). Since they are linked to 02 binding, they are called oxygen-linked effectors. The oxygen...hemoglobin molecule because of the negative charge of the ions. 2,3- Diphosphoglycerate is a molecule formed during the breakdown of sugar in normal human

  6. Pellet dimension checker

    Marmo, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A pellet dimension checker was developed for use in making nuclear-fuel pellets. This checker eliminates operator handling of the pellet but permits remote-monitoring of the operation, and is thus suitable for mass production of green fuel pellets particularly in reprocessing plants handling irradiated uranium or plutonium. It comprises a rotatable arm for transferring a pellet from a conveyor to several dimensional measuring stations and back to the conveyor if the dimensions of the pellet are within predetermined limits. If the pellet is not within the limits, the arm removes the pellet from the process stream. (DN)

  7. Model-Based Specification Checker for Multi-Domain Systems (SpecCheck), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's software-intensive extraterrestrial exploration and observation systems are raising performance and reliability bars to unprecedented levels. Exaggerating the...

  8. Constraint-Based Abstraction of a Model Checker for Infinite State Systems

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    Abstract interpretation-based model checking provides an approach to verifying properties of infinite-state systems. In practice, most previous work on abstract model checking is either restricted to verifying universal properties, or develops special techniques for temporal logics such as modal t...... to implementation of abstract model checking algorithms for abstract domains based on constraints, making use of an SMT solver....

  9. On the Designing of Model Checkers for Real-Time Distributed Systems

    D. Yu. Volkanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify real-time properties of UML statecharts one may apply a UPPAAL, toolbox for model checking of real-time systems. One of the most suitable ways to specify an operational semantics of UML statecharts is to invoke the formal model of Hierarchical Timed Automata. Since the model language of UPPAAL is based on Networks of Timed Automata one has to provide a conversion of Hierarchical Timed Automata to Networks of Timed Automata. In this paper we describe this conversion algorithm and prove that it is correct w.r.t. UPPAAL query language which is based on the subset of Timed CTL.

  10. I Love to Rite! Spelling Checkers in the Writing Classroom.

    Eiser, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    Highlights the advantages of word processors and spelling checkers in improving student writing skills. Explains how spelling checkers work and describes the types of available checkers. Also provides lists of Apple, IBM, and Commodore word processors and checkers. (ML)

  11. A Markov reward model checker

    Katoen, Joost P.; Maneesh Khattri, M.; Zapreev, I.S.; Zapreev, I.S.

    2005-01-01

    This short tool paper introduces MRMC, a model checker for discrete-time and continuous-time Markov reward models. It supports reward extensions of PCTL and CSL, and allows for the automated verification of properties concerning long-run and instantaneous rewards as well as cumulative rewards. In

  12. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. 864.7440 Section 864.7440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864...

  14. SU-F-T-552: A One-Year Evaluation of the QABeamChecker+ for Use with the CyberKnife System

    Gersh, J [Gibbs Cancer Center & Research Institute - Pelham, Greer SC (United States); Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: By attaching an adapter plate with fiducial markers to the QA BeamChecker+ (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI), the output of the CyberKnife can be accurately, efficiently, and consistently evaluated. The adapter plate, known as the Cutting Board, allows for automated alignment of the QABC+ using the CK’s stereoscopic kV image-based treatment localization system (TLS). Described herein is an evaluation of the system following a year of clinical utilization. Methods: Based on a CT scan of the QABC+ and CB, a treatment plan is generated which delivers a beam to each of the 5 plane-parallel ionization chambers. Following absolute calibration of the CK, the QA plan is delivered, and baseline measurements are acquired (and automatically corrected for temperature and pressure). This test was performed at the beginning of each treatment day for a year. A calibration evaluation (using a water-equivalent slab and short thimble chamber) is performed every four weeks, or whenever the QABC+ detects a deviation of more than 1.0%. Results: During baseline evaluation, repeat measurements (n=10) were performed, with an average output of 0.25% with an SD of 0.11%. As a test of the reposition of the QABC+ and CB, ten additional measurements were performed where between each acquisition, the entire system was removed and re-positioned using the TLS. The average output deviation was 0.30% with a SD of 0.13%. During the course of the year, 187 QABC+ measurements and 13 slab-based measurements were performed. The output measurements of the QABC+ correlated well with slab-based measurements (R2=0.909). Conclusion: By using the QABC+ and CB, daily output was evaluated accurately, efficiently, and consistently. From setup to break-down (including analysis), this test required 5 minutes instead of approximately 15 using traditional techniques (collimator-mounted ionization chambers). Additionally, by automatically saving resultant output deviation to a database, trend

  15. College Aptitude Test Simple Checker (Version 2

    Jake G. Maggay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All enrolees of the Cagayan State University are required to take the College Aptitude Test (CAT. The CAT result serves as a basis for recommendation and admission to a specific course or field of specialization, thus, result must be accurate. The study a imed to develop a computerized College Aptitude Test (CAT Simple Checker of Cagayan State University – Lasam Campus to facilitate and to reduce the time of the guidance counsellor in checking many aptitude test papers as well as to ensure accuracy of resu lt. It followed the framework of Design Science Research in Information Systems which consists of six steps such as problem identification and motivation, definition of objectives for a solution based on the identified problem, design and development of th e system, demonstration of the system to the guidance counsellor, evaluation of the system’s functionality and impact and communication which involves documentation and publication. A combination of Visual Basic 6 as the programming language and SQL Server 2005 as the Database Management System (DBMS were used in the development of the system. As a result, the system provides support to the guidance counsellor in performing the assigned tasks by reducing the time consumed in checking aptitude test papers t hat makes the guidance counsellor more effective, efficient and productive.

  16. A Flexible Statechart-to-Model-Checker Translator

    Rouquette, Nicolas; Dunphy, Julia; Feather, Martin S.

    2000-01-01

    Many current-day software design tools offer some variant of statechart notation for system specification. We, like others, have built an automatic translator from (a subset of) statecharts to a model checker, for use to validate behavioral requirements. Our translator is designed to be flexible. This allows us to quickly adjust the translator to variants of statechart semantics, including problem-specific notational conventions that designers employ. Our system demonstration will be of interest to the following two communities: (1) Potential end-users: Our demonstration will show translation from statecharts created in a commercial UML tool (Rational Rose) to Promela, the input language of Holzmann's model checker SPIN. The translation is accomplished automatically. To accommodate the major variants of statechart semantics, our tool offers user-selectable choices among semantic alternatives. Options for customized semantic variants are also made available. The net result is an easy-to-use tool that operates on a wide range of statechart diagrams to automate the pathway to model-checking input. (2) Other researchers: Our translator embodies, in one tool, ideas and approaches drawn from several sources. Solutions to the major challenges of statechart-to-model-checker translation (e.g., determining which transition(s) will fire, handling of concurrent activities) are retired in a uniform, fully mechanized, setting. The way in which the underlying architecture of the translator itself facilitates flexible and customizable translation will also be evident.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of free hemoglobin aid in the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as sickle cell... blood cells), and leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming organs). (b) Classification. Class II...

  18. Model Checker for Java Programs

    Visser, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Java Pathfinder (JPF) is a verification and testing environment for Java that integrates model checking, program analysis, and testing. JPF consists of a custom-made Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that interprets bytecode, combined with a search interface to allow the complete behavior of a Java program to be analyzed, including interleavings of concurrent programs. JPF is implemented in Java, and its architecture is highly modular to support rapid prototyping of new features. JPF is an explicit-state model checker, because it enumerates all visited states and, therefore, suffers from the state-explosion problem inherent in analyzing large programs. It is suited to analyzing programs less than 10kLOC, but has been successfully applied to finding errors in concurrent programs up to 100kLOC. When an error is found, a trace from the initial state to the error is produced to guide the debugging. JPF works at the bytecode level, meaning that all of Java can be model-checked. By default, the software checks for all runtime errors (uncaught exceptions), assertions violations (supports Java s assert), and deadlocks. JPF uses garbage collection and symmetry reductions of the heap during model checking to reduce state-explosion, as well as dynamic partial order reductions to lower the number of interleavings analyzed. JPF is capable of symbolic execution of Java programs, including symbolic execution of complex data such as linked lists and trees. JPF is extensible as it allows for the creation of listeners that can subscribe to events during searches. The creation of dedicated code to be executed in place of regular classes is supported and allows users to easily handle native calls and to improve the efficiency of the analysis.

  19. Hemoglobin system of Sparus aurata: Changes in fishes farmed under extreme conditions

    Campo, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giancarlo; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Giuseppe M.; Avenoso, Angela; Traina, Paola; Calatroni, Alberto; Burrascano, Emanuele; Ferlazzo, Alida; Lupidi, Giulio; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Falcioni, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain more knowledge on the stress responses of gilhead seabream (Sparus aurata) under extreme conditions, this study investigated the functional properties of the hemoglobin system and globin gene expression under hypoxia and low salinity. The oxygen affinity for the two hemoglobin components present inside the S. aurata erythrocyte was practically identical as was the influence of protons and organic phosphates (Root effect). The quantification of S. aurata hemoglobin fractions performed by HPLC and the data on gene expression of globin chains assayed by PCR indicate that under hypoxia and low salinity there is a change in the ratio between the two different hemoglobin components. The result indicating that the distinct hemoglobins present in S. aurata erythrocyte have almost identical functional properties, does not explain the adaptive response (expression change) following exposure of the animal to hypoxia or low salinity on the basis of their function as oxygen transporter. We hypothesize that other parallel biological functions that the hemoglobin molecule is known to display within the erythrocyte are involved in adaptive molecular mechanisms. The autoxidation-reduction cycle of hemoglobin could be involved in the response to particular living conditions

  20. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  1. GPGPU Parallel SPIN Model Checker

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model Checking is a powerful technique used to verify that a system does not violate its intended behavior. While this is very useful in proving the robustness of a...

  2. Implementing a Rule-Based Contract Compliance Checker

    Strano, Massimo; Molina-Jimenez, Carlos; Shrivastava, Santosh

    The paper describes the design and implementation of an independent, third party contract monitoring service called Contract Compliance Checker (CCC). The CCC is provided with the specification of the contract in force, and is capable of observing and logging the relevant business-to-business (B2B) interaction events, in order to determine whether the actions of the business partners are consistent with the contract. A contract specification language called EROP (for Events, Rights, Obligations and Prohibitions) for the CCC has been developed based on business rules, that provides constructs to specify what rights, obligation and prohibitions become active and inactive after the occurrence of events related to the execution of business operations. The system has been designed to work with B2B industry standards such as ebXML and RosettaNet.

  3. Overproduction of alpha chains provides a proton-insensitive component to the bluefish hemoglobin system.

    Bonaventura, Celia; Godette, Gerald; Stevens, Robert; Brenowitz, Michael; Henkens, Robert

    2005-12-09

    Expression of alpha and beta chains and their post-translational assembly into alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers is fundamental to the formation and function of most vertebrate hemoglobins. There is a strong evolutionary bias that favors expression of equal amounts of the two types of chains, because cooperativity, pH sensitivity, and anionic control of function occurs only for the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers. Remarkably, an over-production of alpha chains, as in the pathological condition known as beta thalassemia in humans, is adaptive rather than pathological in the bluefish hemoglobin system. The thalassemia of the bluefish is a novel means of providing for oxygen uptake and delivery when low pH conditions incapacitate the highly pH-sensitive Root effect hemoglobins of the fish. Although fish often have pH-insensitive along with highly pH-sensitive hemoglobins, having pH-insensitive alpha chain monomers in circulation is an unusual structural variation. The role of bluefish alpha chains in oxygen transport is enabled by their remarkably lower oxygen affinity relative to human alpha chains. This is the first reported case of a thalassemic condition that is maintained in a species as an adaptive advantage.

  4. Hemoglobin (image)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  5. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  6. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  7. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al, E-mail: abdullah.hafiz@kaust.edu.sa [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Li, Ren [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Younis, Mohammad I. [PSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Fariborzi, Hossein [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-03

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized. - Highlights: • A 4-bit parity checker circuit is proposed and demonstrated based on MEMS resonator based logic elements. • Multiple copies of MEMS resonator based XOR logic gates are used to construct a complex logic circuit. • Functionality and feasibility of micro-resonator based logic platform is demonstrated.

  8. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-11

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  9. Distributed MAP in the SpinJa Model Checker

    Stefan Vijzelaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spin in Java (SpinJa is an explicit state model checker for the Promela modelling language also used by the SPIN model checker. Designed to be extensible and reusable, the implementation of SpinJa follows a layered approach in which each new layer extends the functionality of the previous one. While SpinJa has preliminary support for shared-memory model checking, it did not yet support distributed-memory model checking. This tool paper presents a distributed implementation of a maximal accepting predecessors (MAP search algorithm on top of SpinJa.

  10. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  11. Fish hemoglobins

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  12. Contribution of electron paramagnetic resonance to the studies of hemoglobin: the nitrosylhemoglobin system

    Bemski, G.

    1995-03-01

    Since the initial work of Ingram Electron Paramagnetic Resonance contributed considerably to research in hemoglobins. Now, 40 years later some of the results of the application of EPR to nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO), are reviewed as an example of the diversity of information which this technique can provide are reviewed. (author). 34 refs, 7 figs

  13. Analysis of the binding interaction in uric acid - Human hemoglobin system by spectroscopic techniques

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    The binding interaction between human hemoglobin and uric acid has been studied for the first time, by UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence techniques. Characteristic effects observed for human hemoglobin intrinsic fluorescence during interaction with uric acid at neutral pH point at the formation of stacking non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes. All the calculated parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants, as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters confirm the existence of static quenching. The results of synchronous fluorescence measurements indicate that the fluorescence quenching of human hemoglobin originates both from Trp and Tyr residues and that the addition of uric acid could significantly hinder the physiological functions of human hemoglobin.

  14. A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety

    Liu Fang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural language processing. To extract Unified Medical Language System (UMLS concepts from free text and classify AEFI reports based on concepts they contain, we first needed to clean the text by expanding abbreviations and shortcuts and correcting spelling errors. Our objective in this paper was to create a UMLS-based spelling error correction tool as a first step in the natural language processing (NLP pipeline for AEFI reports. Methods We developed spell checking algorithms using open source tools. We used de-identified AEFI surveillance reports to create free-text data sets for analysis. After expansion of abbreviated clinical terms and shortcuts, we performed spelling correction in four steps: (1 error detection, (2 word list generation, (3 word list disambiguation and (4 error correction. We then measured the performance of the resulting spell checker by comparing it to manual correction. Results We used 12,056 words to train the spell checker and tested its performance on 8,131 words. During testing, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV for the spell checker were 74% (95% CI: 74–75, 100% (95% CI: 100–100, and 47% (95% CI: 46%–48%, respectively. Conclusion We created a prototype spell checker that can be used to process AEFI reports. We used the UMLS Specialist Lexicon as the primary source of dictionary terms and the WordNet lexicon as a secondary source. We used the UMLS as a domain-specific source of dictionary terms to compare potentially misspelled words in the corpus. The prototype sensitivity was comparable to currently available

  15. Fish hemoglobins

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  16. SEPHYRES 1: A Symptom Checker based on Semantic Pain Descriptors and Weight Spreading

    Ali SANAEIFAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-enabled medical diagnostic systems, which have exploited an ontology in their internal engines, have failed to perfectly describe disease profiles, especially in complex medical terms having a variant generality level or certainty in the medical literature. The main objective of this paper was to present an ontology with a highly matching grade of proeminent medical concepts able to analyze the patient’s descriptive medical condition. Focusing on semantic pain descriptors and weight spreading techniques, we proposed a semantic-pseudo-fuzzy engine entitled SEPHYRES, with which we tried to present an ontology-based solution using not only a generic semantic reasoner but also complementary domain-heuristic reasoning. Having applied the valid evidence-based references along with local experts, we illustrated how the resilient expressive model represents the complex medical term relations. The twenty test cases were extracted from the MEDSCAPE and PubMed databases and the precision and recall were calculated. Finally, the results were compared against the Isabel symptom checker and performed the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The recall measures indicated that the accuracy was equal to 75%, if the system was adjusted to only ten results as differential diagnoses. Moreover, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that there was significant difference between SEPHYRES and Isabel symptom checker (P= 0.016 so that this method is sufficiently able to improve semantic expressiveness in both professional medical diagnosis and patient decision aid systems.

  17. Hemoglobin C disease

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  18. A Model-Based Privacy Compliance Checker

    Siani Pearson; Damien Allison

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, e-business organisations are coming under pressure to be compliant to a range of privacy legislation, policies and best practice. There is a clear need for high-level management and administrators to be able to assess in a dynamic, customisable way the degree to which their enterprise complies with these. We outline a solution to this problem in the form of a model-driven automated privacy process analysis and configuration checking system. This system models privacy compliance ...

  19. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  20. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-04-13

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.

  1. Immunotherapy for glioblastoma: playing chess, not checkers.

    Jackson, Christopher M; Lim, Michael

    2018-04-24

    Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit a complex state of immune dysfunction involving multiple mechanisms of local, regional, and systemic immune suppression and tolerance. These pathways are now being identified and their relative contributions explored. Delineating how these pathways are interrelated is paramount to effectively implementing immunotherapy for GBM. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. The unique hemoglobin system of Pleuragramma antarcticum, an antarctic migratory teleost. Structure and function of the three components.

    Tamburrini, M; D'Avino, R; Fago, A; Carratore, V; Kunzmann, A; Prisco, G

    1996-09-27

    Pleuragramma antarcticum (suborder Notothenioidei, family Nototheniidae) is the most abundant fish in the antarctic shelf. This pelagic species has a circum-antarctic distribution and is characterized by spawning migration. This species displays the highest multiplicity of major hemoglobins (three); the other notothenioids have a single one (except one species, having two) with relatively low oxygen affinity regulated by pH and organophosphates. The hemoglobins of P. antarcticum display strong Bohr and Root effects; however, they reveal important functional differences in subunit cooperativity and organophosphate regulation and, above all, in the response of oxygenation to temperature. Despite the substitution ValbetaE11 --> Ile found in Hb 2, which decreases the affinity in human mutants, the hemoglobins have similar oxygen affinity, higher than that of the other notothenioids. Hb 1 has the alpha chain in common with Hb 2 and the beta in common with Hb 3. The amino acid sequence of all four chains has been established. Thus the hematological features of P. antarcticum differ remarkably from those of antarctic notothenioids. This unique and sophisticated oxygen transport system may adequately meet the requirements of the unusual mode of life of this fish.

  3. Elderly’s Family Life Supplies - Innovative Chinese Checkers Game Board

    CHAO, Fanglin

    2017-09-01

    The product design course for industrial design students was implemented in our university which spans 9 weeks. Throughout the creativity rules and field study, students achieve high standard on problem identification and concept generation. The prototype test with elderly in design projects is helpful to make students with deeper understand user demand, which in turn enhance the concept further. Traditional Chinese checkers are redesigned using special checkers with different height or shape and specific rules to increase user interest and game diversity. Game is more challenging due to location weighting on score calculation to planning its strategies. Redesign Chinese checkers game board include reconfigurable board and several shape checkers. Checkers has 3 parts: standing ring body, the base body, both support the side holding structure. The body shows slightly concave to facilitate the fingers hold. The upper portion of the body is provided with different shapes extension section which can be engaged with base body. Player move the checker to the opposite target area. When one of player moved all the checkers to the opposite target area; they shift to the scoring calculation stage. The participant may develop specific strategy to gain higher score by maximized weighted checkers into its target block regions.

  4. Deep Blue Cannot Play Checkers: The Need for Generalized Intelligence for Mobile Robots

    Troy D. Kelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized intelligence is much more difficult than originally anticipated when Artificial Intelligence (AI was first introduced in the early 1960s. Deep Blue, the chess playing supercomputer, was developed to defeat the top rated human chess player and successfully did so by defeating Gary Kasporov in 1997. However, Deep Blue only played chess; it did not play checkers, or any other games. Other examples of AI programs which learned and played games were successful at specific tasks, but generalizing the learned behavior to other domains was not attempted. So the question remains: Why is generalized intelligence so difficult? If complex tasks require a significant amount of development, time and task generalization is not easily accomplished, then a significant amount of effort is going to be required to develop an intelligent system. This approach will require a system of systems approach that uses many AI techniques: neural networks, fuzzy logic, and cognitive architectures.

  5. Towards a Certified Lightweight Array Bound Checker for Java Bytecode

    Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic array bound checks are crucial elements for the security of a Java Virtual Machines. These dynamic checks are however expensive and several static analysis techniques have been proposed to eliminate explicit bounds checks. Such analyses require advanced numerical and symbolic manipulations that 1) penalize bytecode loading or dynamic compilation, 2) complexify the trusted computing base. Following the Foundational Proof Carrying Code methodology, our goal is to provide a lightweight bytecode verifier for eliminating array bound checks that is both efficient and trustable. In this work, we define a generic relational program analysis for an imperative, stackoriented byte code language with procedures, arrays and global variables and instantiate it with a relational abstract domain as polyhedra. The analysis has automatic inference of loop invariants and method pre-/post-conditions, and efficient checking of analysis results by a simple checker. Invariants, which can be large, can be specialized for proving a safety policy using an automatic pruning technique which reduces their size. The result of the analysis can be checked efficiently by annotating the program with parts of the invariant together with certificates of polyhedral inclusions. The resulting checker is sufficiently simple to be entirely certified within the Coq proof assistant for a simple fragment of the Java bytecode language. During the talk, we will also report on our ongoing effort to scale this approach for the full sequential JVM.

  6. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  7. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO 2 therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. → Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO 2 infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. → These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO 2 alone. → NaNO 2 -mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO 2 with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO 2 on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO 2 , at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO 2 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  8. Combining multivariate statistics and the think-aloud protocol to assess Human-Computer Interaction barriers in symptom checkers.

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Bønes, Erlend; de la Asunción, Estela; Gabarron, Elia; Aviles-Solis, Juan Carlos; Lee, Eunji; Traver, Vicente; Sato, Keiichi; Bellika, Johan G

    2017-10-01

    Symptom checkers are software tools that allow users to submit a set of symptoms and receive advice related to them in the form of a diagnosis list, health information or triage. The heterogeneity of their potential users and the number of different components in their user interfaces can make testing with end-users unaffordable. We designed and executed a two-phase method to test the respiratory diseases module of the symptom checker Erdusyk. Phase I consisted of an online test with a large sample of users (n=53). In Phase I, users evaluated the system remotely and completed a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model. Principal Component Analysis was used to correlate each section of the interface with the questionnaire responses, thus identifying which areas of the user interface presented significant contributions to the technology acceptance. In the second phase, the think-aloud procedure was executed with a small number of samples (n=15), focusing on the areas with significant contributions to analyze the reasons for such contributions. Our method was used effectively to optimize the testing of symptom checker user interfaces. The method allowed kept the cost of testing at reasonable levels by restricting the use of the think-aloud procedure while still assuring a high amount of coverage. The main barriers detected in Erdusyk were related to problems understanding time repetition patterns, the selection of levels in scales to record intensities, navigation, the quantification of some symptom attributes, and the characteristics of the symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A MoS₂-based system for efficient immobilization of hemoglobin and biosensing applications.

    Chao, Jie; Zou, Min; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Haofan; Pan, Dun; Pei, Hao; Su, Shao; Yuwen, Lihui; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2015-07-10

    A novel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on a gold nanoparticle-decorated MoS2 nanosheet (AuNPs@MoS2) nanocomposite film modified glass carbon electrode. The AuNPs@MoS2 nanocomposite not only made the immobilized Hb keep its native biological activity but also facilitated the electron transfer between electrode and the electroactive center of Hb due to its excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalytic activity of Hb were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of H2O2 and NO. Under optimal conditions, the current response was linear with the concentration of H2O2 and NO in the range from 10 to 300 μM and 10 to 1100 μM with a detection limit of 4 and 5 μM, respectively. This MoS2-based biosensor was sensitive, reproducible and stable, indicating that AuNPs@MoS2 nanocomposite maybe a promising platform to construct electrochemical sensors for chemical and biological molecules detection.

  10. One-step genetic correction of hemoglobin E/beta-thalassemia patient-derived iPSCs by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Wattanapanitch, Methichit; Damkham, Nattaya; Potirat, Ponthip; Trakarnsanga, Kongtana; Janan, Montira; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Klincumhom, Nuttha; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2018-02-26

    Thalassemia is the most common genetic disease worldwide; those with severe disease require lifelong blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy. The definitive cure for thalassemia is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is limited due to lack of HLA-matched donors and the risk of post-transplant complications. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers prospects for autologous cell-based therapy which could avoid the immunological problems. We now report genetic correction of the beta hemoglobin (HBB) gene in iPSCs derived from a patient with a double heterozygote for hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia (HbE/β-thalassemia), the most common thalassemia syndrome in Thailand and Southeast Asia. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the hemoglobin E mutation from one allele of the HBB gene by homology-directed repair with a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide template. DNA sequences of the corrected iPSCs were validated by Sanger sequencing. The corrected clones were differentiated into hematopoietic progenitor and erythroid cells to confirm their multilineage differentiation potential and hemoglobin expression. The hemoglobin E mutation of HbE/β-thalassemia iPSCs was seamlessly corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The corrected clones were differentiated into hematopoietic progenitor cells under feeder-free and OP9 coculture systems. These progenitor cells were further expanded in erythroid liquid culture system and developed into erythroid cells that expressed mature HBB gene and HBB protein. Our study provides a strategy to correct hemoglobin E mutation in one step and these corrected iPSCs can be differentiated into hematopoietic stem cells to be used for autologous transplantation in patients with HbE/β-thalassemia in the future.

  11. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  12. Pinus ponderosa: A checkered past obscured four species.

    Willyard, Ann; Gernandt, David S; Potter, Kevin; Hipkins, Valerie; Marquardt, Paula; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Langer, Stephen K; Telewski, Frank W; Cooper, Blake; Douglas, Connor; Finch, Kristen; Karemera, Hassani H; Lefler, Julia; Lea, Payton; Wofford, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon. We genotyped six highly variable plastid simple sequence repeats in 1903 individuals from 88 populations of P. ponderosa and related Ponderosae (P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, and P. jeffreyi). We used multilocus haplotype networks and discriminant analysis of principal components to test clustering of individuals into genetically and geographically meaningful taxonomic units. There are at least four distinct plastid clusters within P. ponderosa that roughly correspond to the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Some geographic regions have intermixed plastid lineages, and some mitochondrial and plastid boundaries do not coincide. Based on relative distances to other species of Ponderosae, these clusters diagnose four distinct taxa. Newly revealed geographic boundaries of four distinct taxa (P. benthamiana, P. brachyptera, P. scopulorum, and a narrowed concept of P. ponderosa) do not correspond completely with taxonomies. Further research is needed to understand their morphological and nuclear genetic makeup, but we suggest that resurrecting originally published species names would more appropriately reflect the taxonomy of this checkered classification than their current treatment as varieties of P. ponderosa. © 2017 Willyard et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  13. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  14. Systematic evaluation of fault trees using real-time model checker UPPAAL

    Cha, Sungdeok; Son, Hanseong; Yoo, Junbeom; Jee, Eunkyung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2003-01-01

    Fault tree analysis, the most widely used safety analysis technique in industry, is often applied manually. Although techniques such as cutset analysis or probabilistic analysis can be applied on the fault tree to derive further insights, they are inadequate in locating flaws when failure modes in fault tree nodes are incorrectly identified or when causal relationships among failure modes are inaccurately specified. In this paper, we demonstrate that model checking technique is a powerful tool that can formally validate the accuracy of fault trees. We used a real-time model checker UPPAAL because the system we used as the case study, nuclear power emergency shutdown software named Wolsong SDS2, has real-time requirements. By translating functional requirements written in SCR-style tabular notation into timed automata, two types of properties were verified: (1) if failure mode described in a fault tree node is consistent with the system's behavioral model; and (2) whether or not a fault tree node has been accurately decomposed. A group of domain engineers with detailed technical knowledge of Wolsong SDS2 and safety analysis techniques developed fault tree used in the case study. However, model checking technique detected subtle ambiguities present in the fault tree

  15. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  16. The neXtProt peptide uniqueness checker: a tool for the proteomics community.

    Schaeffer, Mathieu; Gateau, Alain; Teixeira, Daniel; Michel, Pierre-André; Zahn-Zabal, Monique; Lane, Lydie

    2017-11-01

    The neXtProt peptide uniqueness checker allows scientists to define which peptides can be used to validate the existence of human proteins, i.e. map uniquely versus multiply to human protein sequences taking into account isobaric substitutions, alternative splicing and single amino acid variants. The pepx program is available at https://github.com/calipho-sib/pepx and can be launched from the command line or through a cgi web interface. Indexing requires a sequence file in FASTA format. The peptide uniqueness checker tool is freely available on the web at https://www.nextprot.org/tools/peptide-uniqueness-checker and from the neXtProt API at https://api.nextprot.org/. lydie.lane@sib.swiss. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Transformation of cooperative free energies between ligation systems of hemoglobin: resolution of the carbon monoxide binding intermediates.

    Huang, Y; Ackers, G K

    1996-01-23

    A strategy has been developed for quantitatively "translating" the distributions of cooperative free energy between different oxygenation analogs of hemoglobin (Hb). The method was used to resolve the cooperative free energies of all eight carbon monoxide binding intermediates. These parameters of the FeCOHb system were determined by thermodynamic transformation of corresponding free energies obtained previously for all species of the Co/FeCO system, i.e., where cobalt-substituted hemes comprise the unligated sites [Speros, P. C., et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7254-7262]. Using hybridized combinations of normal and cobalt-substituted Hb, ligation analog systems Co/FeX (X = CO, CN) were constructed and experimentally quantified. Energetics of cobalt-induced structural perturbation were determined for all species of both the "mixed metal" Co/Fe system and also the ligated Co/FeCN system. It was found that major energetic perturbations of the Co/Fe hybrid species originate from a pure cobalt substitution effect on the alpha subunits. These perturbations are transduced to the beta subunit within the same dimeric half-tetramer, resulting in alteration of the free energies for binding at the nonsubstituted (Fe) sites. Using the linkage strategy developed in this study along with the determined energetics of these couplings, the experimental assembly free energies for the Co/FeCO species were transformed into cooperative free energies of the 10 Fe/FeCO species. The resulting values were found to distribute according to predictions of a symmetry rule mechanism proposed previously [Ackers, G. K., et al. (1992) Science 255, 54-63]. Their distribution is consistent with accurate CO binding data of normal Hb [Perrella, M., et al. (1990b) Biophys. Chem. 37, 211-223] and also with accurate O2 binding data obtained under the same conditions [Chu, A. H., et al. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 604-617].

  18. Accuracy of three hemoglobin A1c point-of-care systems for glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Torregrosa, María-Eugenia; Molina, Juan; Argente, Carlos R; Ena, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Use of hemoglobin A1c point-of-care devices in physician offices provides immediate results and reduces inconveniences for the patients. We compared the analytical performances of 3 point-of-care HbA1c analyzers to high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). We preselected a pool of 40 EDTA-preserved whole blood samples from our laboratory with HbA1c results obtained by HPLC (mean 6.6% [49 mmol/mol] and range: 4.6-9.9% [27-87 mmol/mol]). Aliquots of theses samples were tested by Afinion AS100, DCA Vantage and In2it point-of-care systems. According the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute EP-09 protocol we determined linearity (linear regression and correlation coefficient between point-of-care and reference methods), bias (Bland-Altman analysis) and coefficient of variation (%). We used the acceptability criteria endorsed by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program. The calculated correlation coefficients (r) were 0.98, 0.98 and 0.83 for Afinion AS100, DCA Vantage and In2it systems, respectively. The 95% confidence interval of the error between point-of-care systems and the reference method was -0.41% and +0.34% (p =.22) for Afinion AS100, -0.62% and +0.05% (p =.57) for DCA Vantage, and -1.15% and +1.26% (p<.001) for the In2it. The coefficients of variation for Afinion AS100, DCA Vantage and In2it systems were 1.80, 3.74 and 7.14%, respectively. Only the Afinion AS100 point-of-care system met all NGSP performance criteria. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. What checkers actually check: an eye tracking study of inhibitory control and working memory.

    Ben Harkin

    Full Text Available Not only is compulsive checking the most common symptom in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD with an estimated prevalence of 50-80% in patients, but approximately ∼15% of the general population reveal subclinical checking tendencies that impact negatively on their performance in daily activities. Therefore, it is critical to understand how checking affects attention and memory in clinical as well as subclinical checkers. Eye fixations are commonly used as indicators for the distribution of attention but research in OCD has revealed mixed results at best.Here we report atypical eye movement patterns in subclinical checkers during an ecologically valid working memory (WM manipulation. Our key manipulation was to present an intermediate probe during the delay period of the memory task, explicitly asking for the location of a letter, which, however, had not been part of the encoding set (i.e., misleading participants. Using eye movement measures we now provide evidence that high checkers' inhibitory impairments for misleading information results in them checking the contents of WM in an atypical manner. Checkers fixate more often and for longer when misleading information is presented than non-checkers. Specifically, checkers spend more time checking stimulus locations as well as locations that had actually been empty during encoding.We conclude that these atypical eye movement patterns directly reflect internal checking of memory contents and we discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of behavioural and neuropsychological data. In addition our results highlight the importance of ecologically valid methodology for revealing the impact of detrimental attention and memory checking on eye movement patterns.

  20. The Hemoglobin E Thalassemias

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Weatherall, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders. PMID:22908199

  1. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors lower hemoglobin and hematocrit only in renal transplant recipients with initially higher levels.

    Mikolasevic, I; Zaputovic, L; Zibar, L; Begic, I; Zutelija, M; Klanac, A; Majurec, I; Simundic, T; Minazek, M; Orlic, L

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels as well as on the evaluation of kidney graft function in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in respect with initially higher or lower Hb and Htc values. The study group comprised of 270 RTRs with stable graft function. Besides other prescribed antihypertensive therapy, 169 of them have been taking RAAS inhibitors. We wanted to analyze the effect of the use of RAAS inhibitors on Hb and Htc in patients with initially higher or lower Hb/Htc values. For this analysis, only RTRs that were taking RAAS inhibitors were stratified into two groups: one with higher Hb and Htc (initial Hb≥150g/L and Htc≥45%) and another one with lower Hb and Htc (initial Hb<150g/L and Htc<45%) values. Thirty-four RTRs with initially higher Hb and 41 RTRs with initially higher Htc had a statistically significant decrease in Hb (p=0.006) and Htc (p<0.0001) levels after 12-months of follow-up. In the group of patients with initially lower Hb (135 RTRs) and Htc (128 RTRs) there was a significant increase in Hb (p=0.0001) and Htc (p=0.004) levels through the observed period. The use of RAAS inhibitors has been associated with a trend of slowing renal insufficiency in RTRs (p=0.03). RAAS inhibitors lower Hb and Htc only in RTRs with initially higher levels. In patients with initially lower Hb and Htc levels, the use of these drugs is followed by beneficial impact on erythropoiesis and kidney graft function. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Sebia Capillarys 3 Tera and the Bio-Rad D-100 Systems for the Measurement of Hemoglobin A1c.

    Herpol, Margaux; Lanckmans, Katrien; Van Neyghem, Stefaan; Clement, Pascale; Crevits, Stefanie; De Crem, Kim; Gorus, Frans K; Weets, Ilse

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the Bio-Rad (Irvine, CA) D-100 and the Sebia (Lisses, France) Capillarys 3 Tera for the measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in venous blood samples. Whole-blood samples and control material were analyzed with the D-100 and Capillarys 3 Tera and compared with our routine method, HLC-723G7 (Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan). An evaluation protocol to test precision, trueness, linearity, carryover, and selectivity was set up according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The results were presented in National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) units. Both systems showed excellent precision (total coefficients of variation hemoglobin (≤0.5 mmol/L potassium cyanate), hemoglobin variants, bilirubin (≤15 mg/dL), and triglycerides (≤3,360 mg/dL). The Bio-Rad D-100 and the Sebia Capillarys 3 Tera instruments performed well for the determination of HbA1c in terms of quality criteria as well as for sample throughput. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A Bovine Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier as Pump Prime for Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Reduced Systemic Lactic Acidosis and Improved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Low-flow in a Porcine Model

    2010-11-10

    1 A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2007 - November 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen...carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral oxygen metabolism during low-flow in a

  4. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  5. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  6. A Load Time Policy Checker for Open Multi-Application Smart Cards

    Dragoni, Nicola; Lostal, Eduardo; Gadyatskaya, Olga

    2011-01-01

    , traditional approaches for information flow analysis are not suitable. We suggest the Security-by-Contract approach for loading time application certification on the card, that will enable the stakeholders with the means to ensure the compliance of every update of the card with their security policy. We...... describe an extension of the card security architecture to deal with verification for different types of updates and present a Java Card prototype implementation of the Policy Checker with performance measurements....

  7. Evaluation of a next generation direct whole blood enzymatic assay for hemoglobin A1c on the ARCHITECT c8000 chemistry system.

    Teodoro-Morrison, Tracy; Janssen, Marcel J W; Mols, Jasper; Hendrickx, Ben H E; Velmans, Mathieu H; Lotz, Johannes; Lackner, Karl; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Armbruster, David; Maine, Gregory; Yip, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes requires an accurate, precise and robust test measurement system. Currently, immunoassay and HPLC are the most popular methods for HbA1c quantification, noting however the limitations associated with some platforms, such as imprecision or interference from common hemoglobin variants. Abbott Diagnostics has introduced a fully automated direct enzymatic method for the quantification of HbA1c from whole blood on the ARCHITECT chemistry system. Here we completed a method evaluation of the ARCHITECT HbA1c enzymatic assay for imprecision, accuracy, method comparison, interference from hemoglobin variants and specimen stability. This was completed at three independent clinical laboratories in North America and Europe. The total imprecision ranged from 0.5% to 2.2% CV with low and high level control materials. Around the diagnostic cut-off of 48 mmol/mol, the total imprecision was 0.6% CV. Mean bias using reference samples from IFCC and CAP ranged from -1.1 to 1.0 mmol/mol. The enzymatic assay also showed excellent agreement with HPLC methods, with slopes of 1.01 and correlation coefficients ranging from 0.984 to 0.996 compared to Menarini Adams HA-8160, Bio-Rad Variant II and Variant II Turbo instruments. Finally, no significant effect was observed for erythrocyte sedimentation or interference from common hemoglobin variants in patient samples containing heterozygous HbS, HbC, HbD, HbE, and up to 10% HbF. The ARCHITECT enzymatic assay for HbA1c is a robust and fully automated method that meets the performance requirements to support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

  8. The Prevalence and Role of Hemoglobin Variants in Biometric Screening of a Multiethnic Population: One Large Health System's Experience.

    Wilburn, Clayton R; Bernard, David W; Zieske, Arthur W; Andrieni, Julia; Miller, Tara; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    To characterize and quantitate hemoglobin (Hb) variants discovered during biometric hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analyses in a large multiethnic population with a focus on the effect of variants on testing method and results. In total, 13,913 individuals had their HbA1c measured via ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples that had a variant Hb detected or HbF fraction more than 25% underwent variant Hb characterization and confirmation by gel electrophoresis. RBC indices were also evaluated for possible concomitant thalassemia. Of the 13,913 individuals evaluated, 524 (3.77%) had an Hb variant. The prevalence of each variant was as follows: HbS trait (n = 396, 2.85%), HbSS disease (n = 4, 0.03%), HbC trait (n = 85, 0.61%), HbCC disease (n = 2, 0.01%), HbSC disease (n = 5, 0.04%), HbE trait (n = 18, 0.13%), HbD or G trait (n = 9, 0.06%), HbS β-thalassemia + disease (n = 1, 0.01%), hereditary persistence of HbF (n = 2, 0.01%), and HbMontgomery trait (n = 1, 0.01%). Concomitant α-thalassemia was detected in 20 (3.82%) of the 524 individuals with an Hb variant. This study represents one of the largest epidemiologic investigations into the prevalence of Hb variants in a North American metropolitan, multiethnic workforce and their dependents and reinforces the importance of method selection in populations with Hb variants. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  10. A Scenario-Based Protocol Checker for Public-Key Authentication Scheme

    Saito, Takamichi

    Security protocol provides communication security for the internet. One of the important features of it is authentication with key exchange. Its correctness is a requirement of the whole of the communication security. In this paper, we introduce three attack models realized as their attack scenarios, and provide an authentication-protocol checker for applying three attack-scenarios based on the models. We also utilize it to check two popular security protocols: Secure SHell (SSH) and Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS).

  11. An enzymatic method for the rapid measurement of the hemoglobin A1c by a flow-injection system comprised of an electrochemical detector with a specific enzyme-reactor and a spectrophotometer

    Nanjo, Yoko; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Yao, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    A flow-injection analytical (FIA) system, comprised of an electrochemical detector with a fructosyl-peptide oxidase (FPOX-CET) reactor and a flow-type spectrophotometer, was proposed for the simultaneous measurement of glycohemoglobin and total hemoglobin in blood cell. The blood cell samples were hemolyzed with a surfactant and then treated with protease. In the first stage of operation, total hemoglobin in digested sample was determined spectrophotometrically. In the second stage, fructosyl valyl histidine (FVH) released from glycohemoglobin by the selective proteolysis was determined specifically using the electrochemical detector with the FPOX-CET reactor. The FIA system could be automatically processed at an analytical speed of 40 samples per hour. The proposed assay method could determine selectively only the glycated N-terminal residue of β-chain in glycohemoglobin and total hemoglobin in blood cell. The enzymatic hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) value calculated by the concentration ratio of the FVH to total hemoglobin, was closely correlated with the HbA 1c values certified by the Japan Diabetic Society (JDS) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC)

  12. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  13. Unveiling the checkered fortunes of the Ottoman Empire

    Dimitrova-Grajzl, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman Empire has been predominantly viewed as the ćSick Man of Europe.ć The question arises, however, how this perceived inefficiency can be reconciled with the long existence and prosperity of the Empire. I argue that the Ottoman system could have been efficient subject to constraints. More specifically, I explore the role of the technology of predation and the adherence to the law in determining relative changes in the social order and the power of the Sultan, which in turn led to the...

  14. Locator-Checker-Scaler Object Tracking Using Spatially Ordered and Weighted Patch Descriptor.

    Kim, Han-Ul; Kim, Chang-Su

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective object descriptor and a novel tracking algorithm to track a target object accurately. For the object description, we divide the bounding box of a target object into multiple patches and describe them with color and gradient histograms. Then, we determine the foreground weight of each patch to alleviate the impacts of background information in the bounding box. To this end, we perform random walk with restart (RWR) simulation. We then concatenate the weighted patch descriptors to yield the spatially ordered and weighted patch (SOWP) descriptor. For the object tracking, we incorporate the proposed SOWP descriptor into a novel tracking algorithm, which has three components: locator, checker, and scaler (LCS). The locator and the scaler estimate the center location and the size of a target, respectively. The checker determines whether it is safe to adjust the target scale in a current frame. These three components cooperate with one another to achieve robust tracking. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed LCS tracker achieves excellent performance on recent benchmarks.

  15. Hemoglobin and Myoglobin as Reducing Agents in Biological Systems. Redox Reactions of Globins with Copper and Iron Salts and Complexes.

    Postnikova, G B; Shekhovtsova, E A

    2016-12-01

    In addition to reversible O2 binding, respiratory proteins of the globin family, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), participate in redox reactions with various metal complexes, including biologically significant ones, such as those of copper and iron. HbO 2 and MbO 2 are present in cells in large amounts and, as redox agents, can contribute to maintaining cell redox state and resisting oxidative stress. Divalent copper complexes with high redox potentials (E 0 , 200-600 mV) and high stability constants, such as [Cu(phen) 2 ] 2+ , [Cu(dmphen) 2 ] 2+ , and CuDTA oxidize ferrous heme proteins by the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism through overlapping π-orbitals of the heme and the copper complex. Weaker oxidants, such as Cu2+, CuEDTA, CuNTA, CuCit, CuATP, and CuHis (E 0 ≤ 100-150 mV) react with HbO 2 and MbO 2 through preliminary binding to the protein with substitution of the metal ligands with protein groups and subsequent intramolecular electron transfer in the complex (the site-specific outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism). Oxidation of HbO 2 and MbO 2 by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(3) complexes with NTA, EDTA, CDTA, ATP, 2,3-DPG, citrate, and pyrophosphate PP i proceeds mainly through the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism via the exposed heme edge. According to Marcus theory, the rate of this reaction correlates with the difference in redox potentials of the reagents and their self-exchange rates. For charged reagents, the reaction may be preceded by their nonspecific binding to the protein due to electrostatic interactions. The reactions of LbO 2 with carboxylate Fe complexes, unlike its reactions with ferricyanide, occur via the site-specific outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism, even though the same reagents oxidize structurally similar MbO 2 and cytochrome b 5 via the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. Of particular biological interest is HbO 2 and MbO 2 transformation into met-forms in the presence

  16. Effects of Spell Checkers on English as a Second Language Students' Incidental Spelling Learning: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Lin, Po-Han; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Computer-based spell checkers help to correct misspells instantly. Almost all the word processing devices are now equipped with a spell-check function that either automatically corrects errors or provides a list of intended words. However, it is not clear on how the reliance on this convenient technological solution affects spelling learning.…

  17. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex

  18. Pore water composition of Permeable reef flat sediments on Checker Reef in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 07 October 1996 to 03 July 1997 (NODC Accession 0000271)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geochemical behaviour of the top 70 cm of permeable reef flat sediments on Checker Reef, Oahu, Hawaii was examined using spatial and temporal changes in pore water...

  19. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin.

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  1. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  2. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  3. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  4. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  5. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  6. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  7. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  8. Hemoglobin Wayne Trait with Incidental Polycythemia.

    Ambelil, Manju; Nguyen, Nghia; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon; Wahed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, caused by mutations in the globin genes, are one of the most common inherited disorders. Many of the hemoglobin variants can be identified by hemoglobin analysis using conventional electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography; however hemoglobin DNA analysis may be necessary in other cases for confirmation. Here, we report a case of a rare alpha chain hemoglobin variant, hemoglobin Wayne, in a 47-year-old man who presented with secondary polycythemia. Capillary zone electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography revealed a significant amount of a hemoglobin variant, which was further confirmed by hemoglobin DNA sequencing as hemoglobin Wayne. Since the patient was not homozygous for hemoglobin Wayne, which is associated with secondary polycythemia, the laboratory diagnosis in this case was critical in ruling out hemoglobinopathy as the etiology of his polycythemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Puffed and bothered: Personality, performance, and the effects of stress on checkered pufferfish.

    Pleizier, Naomi; Wilson, Alexander D M; Shultz, Aaron D; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Although consistent individual-level differences in behaviour are widespread and potentially important in evolutionary and ecological processes, relatively few studies focus on the physiological mechanisms that might underlie and regulate these individual-level differences in wild populations. We conducted experiments to determine whether checkered pufferfish (Sphoeroides testudineus), which were collected from a dynamic (in terms of depth and water temperature) tidal mangrove creek environment in The Bahamas, have consistent individual-level differences in locomotor activity and the response to a simulated predator threat, as well as swimming performance and puffing in response to stressors. The relationships between personality and performance traits were evaluated to determine whether they represented stress-coping styles or syndromes. Subsequently, a displacement study was conducted to determine how personality and performance in the laboratory compared to movements in the field. In addition, we tested whether a physiological dose of the stress hormone cortisol would alter individual consistency in behavioural and performance traits. We found that pufferfish exhibited consistent individual differences in personality traits over time (e.g., activity and the duration of a response to a threat) and that performance was consistent between the lab and the natural enclosure. Locomotor activity and the duration of startled behaviour were not associated with swimming and puffing performance. Locomotor activity, puffing performance, and swimming performance were not related to whether fish returned to the tidal creek of capture after displacement. Similarly, a cortisol treatment did not modify behaviour or performance in the laboratory. The results reveal that consistent individual-level differences in behaviour and performance were present in a population from a fluctuating and physiologically challenging environment but that such traits are not necessarily correlated

  10. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    ... Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may ...

  11. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  12. Puff and bite: the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and anti-predator performance in checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus).

    Cull, Felicia; O'Connor, Constance M; Suski, Cory D; Shultz, Aaron D; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Individual variation in the endocrine stress response has been linked to survival and performance in a variety of species. Here, we evaluate the relationship between the endocrine stress response and anti-predator behaviors in wild checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) captured at Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. The checkered puffer has a unique and easily measurable predator avoidance strategy, which is to inflate or 'puff' to deter potential predators. In this study, we measured baseline and stress-induced circulating glucocorticoid levels, as well as bite force, a performance measure that is relevant to both feeding and predator defence, and 'puff' performance. We found that puff performance and bite force were consistent within individuals, but generally decreased following a standardized stressor. Larger puffers were able to generate a higher bite force, and larger puffers were able to maintain a more robust puff performance following a standardized stressor relative to smaller puffers. In terms of the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and performance metrics, we found no relationship between post-stress glucocorticoid levels and either puff performance or bite force. However, we did find that baseline glucocorticoid levels predicted the ability of a puffer to maintain a robust puff response following a repeated stressor, and this relationship was more pronounced in larger individuals. Our work provides a novel example of how baseline glucocorticoids can predict a fitness-related anti-predator behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobintest.html Hemoglobin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hemoglobin Test? A hemoglobin test measures the levels of hemoglobin ...

  14. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  15. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  16. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1947-01-01

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  17. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  18. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  19. Revaluation of biological variation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) using an accurately designed protocol and an assay traceable to the IFCC reference system.

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Montagnana, Martina; Pagani, Franca; Paleari, Renata; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2011-07-15

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a key role for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring glycemic state. As recently reviewed, available data on HbA(1c) biological variation show marked heterogeneity. Here we experimentally revaluated these data using a well designed protocol. We took five EDTA whole blood specimens from 18 apparently healthy subjects on the same day, every two weeks for two months. Samples were stored at -80°C until analysis and assayed in duplicate in a single run by Roche Tina-quant® Gen.2 immunoassay. Data were analyzed by the ANOVA. To assess the assay traceability to the IFCC reference method, we preliminarily carried out a correlation experiment. The bias (mean±SD) of the Roche immunoassay was 0.3%±0.7%, confirming the traceability of the employed assay. No difference was found in HbA(1c) values between men and women. Within- and between-subject CV were 2.5% and 7.1%, respectively. Derived desirable analytical goals for imprecision, bias, and total error resulted 1.3%, 1.9%, and 3.9%, respectively. HbA(1c) had marked individuality, limiting the use of population-based reference limits for test interpretation. The estimated critical difference was ~10%. For the first time we defined biological variation and derived indices for the clinical application of HbA(1c) measurements using an accurately designed protocol and an assay standardized according to the IFCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...

  1. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  2. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalência de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes em pacientes portadores de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Prevalence of thalassemias and variant hemoglobins in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Frank S. Castro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES é uma doença tipicamente multigênica e multifatorial, com grande complexidade clínica e fisiopatológica. As causas do LES não são totalmente conhecidas, mas sabe-se que fatores ambientais e genéticos estão envolvidos. Dentre as várias manifestações clínicas observadas em pacientes com LES, as anemias chamam a atenção principalmente quando se observa nesse estudo uma prevalência de 52,5% dos pacientes com índices hematimétricos sugestivos de anemias. Embora a anemia geralmente já seja observada em pacientes com LES, estudos sobre a prevalência de anemias hereditárias, especialmente as hemoglobinopatias na população com LES, não têm sido conduzidos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o de avaliar a prevalência das hemoglobinopatias e talassemia em pacientes portadores de LES. Para isso, foram estudadas 80 amostras de sangue de pacientes portadores de lúpus atendidos no ambulatório do Hospital das Clínicas de Goiânia. Foram utilizados testes laboratoriais não moleculares para a detecção das hemoglobinopatias. A freqüência das alterações da hemoglobina foi de 10,0%, encontradas em oito pacientes. Dessas alterações, a mais prevalente foi a talassemia alfa, encontrada em quatro pacientes, correspondendo a uma freqüência de 5,0% da população estudada. Depois, foi o heterozigoto para a hemoglobina S, encontrada em dois pacientes, correspondendo a 2,5% da população, e também outro heterozigoto para a hemoglobina C, encontrada em um paciente, correspondendo a 1,25%, e um paciente com beta talassemia menor, correspondendo a 1,25%. Nenhum caso de homozigose foi encontrado no presente estudo. Este trabalho demonstrou que não houve diferença na prevalência dos distúrbios da hemoglobina entre a população em geral e os portadores de LES.Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a typically multigenic and multifatorial disease with remarkable clinical and pathogenic complexities. The

  4. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  5. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  6. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  7. TRUNCATED OR 2/2 HEMOGLOBINS : A NEW CLASS OF GLOBINS WITH NOVEL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Amit Kumar

    2013-06-01

    ligand binding involving tunnel system and operated by “gate” mechanism of conserved residues. These hemoglobins seem to act as good detoxificant or scavenger of poisonous gases to protect the harbouring organism in adverse environmental condition. This mechanism might help pathogens harbouring these globins to evade host defence mechanism during infection. The current review summarizes these findings with regard to truncated hemoglobins in a comprehensive manner providing insight into structure and function relationship of this novel hemoglobin family.

  8. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  9. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  10. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  11. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation.

    Naderi, G H; Dinani, Narges J; Asgary, S; Taher, M; Nikkhoo, N; Boshtam, M

    2014-01-01

    Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.

  12. Comparison of the BioRad Variant and Primus Ultra2 high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) instruments for the detection of variant hemoglobins.

    Gosselin, R C; Carlin, A C; Dwyre, D M

    2011-04-01

    Hemoglobin variants are a result of genetic changes resulting in abnormal or dys-synchronous hemoglobin chain production (thalassemia) or the generation of hemoglobin chain variants such as hemoglobin S. Automated high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems have become the method of choice for the evaluation of patients suspected with hemoglobinopathies. In this study, we evaluated the performance of two HPLC methods used in the detection of common hemoglobin variants: Variant and Ultra2. There were 377 samples tested, 26% (99/377) with HbS, 8.5% (32/377) with HbC, 20.7% (78/377) with other hemoglobin variant or thalassemia, and 2.9% with increased hemoglobin A(1) c. The interpretations of each chromatograph were compared. There were no differences noted for hemoglobins A(0), S, or C. There were significant differences between HPLC methods for hemoglobins F, A(2), and A(1) c. However, there was good concordance between normal and abnormal interpretations (97.9% and 96.2%, respectively). Both Variant and Ultra2 HPLC methods were able to detect most common hemoglobin variants. There was better discrimination for fast hemoglobins, between hemoglobins E and A(2), and between hemoglobins S and F using the Ultra2 HPLC method. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Nikita Taparia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  14. The relationship between Type D Personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure

    Kupper, N.; Pelle, A.J.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore,

  15. Detection of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin in Haiti by Genotyping and Hemoglobin Solubility Tests

    Carter, Tamar E.; von Fricken, Michael; Romain, Jean R.; Memnon, Gladys; St. Victor, Yves; Schick, Laura; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a growing global health concern because infants born with the disorder in developing countries are now surviving longer with little access to diagnostic and management options. In Haiti, the current state of sickle cell disease/trait in the population is unclear. To inform future screening efforts in Haiti, we assayed sickle hemoglobin mutations using traditional hemoglobin solubility tests (HST) and add-on techniques, which incorporated spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation. We also generated genotype data as a metric for HST performance. We found 19 of 202 individuals screened with HST were positive for sickle hemoglobin, five of whom did not carry the HbS allele. We show that spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation add-on techniques could resolve false positives associated with the traditional HST approach, with some limitations. We also discuss the incorporation of insoluble hemoglobin separation observation with HST in suboptimal screening settings like Haiti. PMID:24957539

  16. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  17. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  18. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  19. Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show that portable deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences incorporated into host cells make them produce hemoglobins - oxygen-binding proteins essential to function of red blood cells. Method useful in several biotechnological applications. One, enhancement of growth of cells at higher densities. Another, production of hemoglobin to enhance supplies of oxygen in cells, for use in chemical reactions requiring oxygen, as additive to serum to increase transport of oxygen, and for binding and separating oxygen from mixtures of gases.

  20. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  1. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum-free Erythroid Differentiation for Efficient Genetic Modification and High-Level Adult Hemoglobin Production.

    Uchida, Naoya; Demirci, Selami; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Raines, Lydia N; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2018-06-15

    In vitro erythroid differentiation from primary human cells is valuable to develop genetic strategies for hemoglobin disorders. However, current erythroid differentiation methods are encumbered by modest transduction rates and high baseline fetal hemoglobin production. In this study, we sought to improve both genetic modification and hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells in vitro . To model therapeutic strategies, we transduced human CD34 + cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lentiviral vectors and compared erythropoietin-based erythroid differentiation using fetal-bovine-serum-containing media and serum-free media. We observed more efficient transduction (85%-93%) in serum-free media than serum-containing media (20%-69%), whereas the addition of knockout serum replacement (KSR) was required for serum-free media to promote efficient erythroid differentiation (96%). High-level adult hemoglobin production detectable by electrophoresis was achieved using serum-free media similar to serum-containing media. Importantly, low fetal hemoglobin production was observed in the optimized serum-free media. Using KSR-containing, serum-free erythroid differentiation media, therapeutic adult hemoglobin production was detected at protein levels with β-globin lentiviral transduction in both CD34 + cells and PBMCs from sickle cell disease subjects. Our in vitro erythroid differentiation system provides a practical evaluation platform for adult hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells following genetic manipulation.

  3. HMM_Model-Checker pour la vérification probabiliste HMM_Model ...

    ASSIA

    probabiliste –Télescope Hubble. Abstract. Probabilistic verification for embedded systems continues to attract more and more followers in the research community. Given a probabilistic model, a formula of temporal logic, describing a property of a system and an exploration algorithm to check whether the property is satisfied ...

  4. An efficient symbolic model checker | Ferdenache | Synthèse: Revue ...

    The main of this paper is to design and implement a powerful new tool to check important properties in critical systems based on the concept of symbolic state and DBM data structures (Difference Bound Matrices). The specifications are expressed using timed automata system and realtime logic for properties. The obtained ...

  5. Fasting for 21days leads to changes in adipose tissue and liver physiology in juvenile checkered garter snakes (Thamnophis marcianus).

    Davis, Mary; Jessee, Renee; Close, Matthew; Fu, Xiangping; Settlage, Robert; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Snakes often undergo periods of prolonged fasting and, under certain conditions, can survive years without food. Despite this unique phenomenon, there are relatively few reports of the physiological adaptations to fasting in snakes. At post-prandial day 1 (fed) or 21 (fasting), brain, liver, and adipose tissues were collected from juvenile checkered garter snakes (Thamnophis marcianus). There was greater glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH)-specific activity in the liver of fasted than fed snakes (P=0.01). The mRNA abundance of various fat metabolism-associated factors was measured in brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA was greater in fasted than fed snakes in the brain (P=0.04). Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL; P=0.006) mRNA was greater in the liver of fasted than fed snakes. In adipose tissue, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ (P=0.01), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (P=0.03) was greater in fed than fasted snakes. Analysis of adipocyte morphology revealed that cross-sectional area (P=0.095) and diameter (P=0.27) were not significantly different between fed and fasted snakes. Results suggest that mean adipocyte area can be preserved during fasting by dampening lipid biosynthesis while not changing rates of lipid hydrolysis. In the liver, however, extensive lipid remodeling may provide energy and lipoproteins to maintain lipid structural integrity during energy restriction. Because the duration of fasting was not sufficient to change adipocyte size, results suggest that the liver is important as a short-term provider of energy in the snake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  7. Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.

    Lin, Hsin-I; Wu, Ching-Chu; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Shiesh, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-21

    Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.

  8. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  9. The relationship between Type D personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure.

    Nina Kupper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore, psychological distress characterized by such alterations may adversely affect hemoglobin in HF. The association between hemoglobin and Type D personality and affective symptomatology in the context of HF is poorly understood. AIM: To examine the relationship between Type D personality and affective symptomatology with hemoglobin levels at inclusion and 12-month follow-up, controlling for relevant clinical factors. METHODS: Plasma levels of hemoglobin and creatinine were assessed in 264 HF patients at inclusion and at 12-month follow-up. Type D personality and affective symptomatology were assessed at inclusion. RESULTS: At inclusion, hemoglobin levels were similar for Type D and non-Type D HF patients (p = .23, and were moderately associated with affective symptomatology (r = -.14, p = .02. Multivariable regression showed that Type D personality (β = -.15; p = .02, was independently associated with future hemoglobin levels, while controlling for renal dysfunction, gender, NYHA class, time since diagnosis, BMI, the use of angiotensin-related medication, and levels of affective symptomatology. Change in renal function was associated with Type D personality (β = .20 and hemoglobin at 12 months (β = -.25. Sobel mediation analysis showed significant partial mediation of the Type D - hemoglobin association by renal function deterioration (p = .01. Anemia prevalence increased over time, especially in Type D patients. Female gender, poorer baseline renal function, deterioration of renal function and a longer HF history predicted the observed increase in anemia prevalence over time, while higher baseline hemoglobin was protective

  10. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    with CO (1.5 mL kg-1) was added to the circuit. Two NIRS systems (NIRO-200NX and INVOS-5100) assessed ScO2 as the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin, while venous blood samples were analyzed for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After CO/O2 rebreathing COHb increased to 8.7% (IQR; 7.9-9.4; p = .004...... to normoxia (68.9 ± 6.9%; p hemoglobin decreased (by 19.7 μM (median; IQR 2.8-34.8; p = .016) and 37.3 μM (30.8-46.6; p = .004), respectively) during inhalation of CO/O2 compared...... to inhalation of O2. Therefore, NIRO-200NX determined 'total' hemoglobin (sum of O2Hb and HHb) decreased (by 62.1 μM; 44.5-78.2; p = .001). In conclusion, exposure to CO did not increase MCAVmean, and neither NIRO-200NX nor INVOS-5100 detected a change in ScO2 when CO was added to inhalation of oxygen...

  11. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  12. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  13. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  14. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  15. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  16. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  17. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  18. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas sumber daya manusia dipengaruhi oleh inteligensi anak. Skor kecerdasan intelektual yang tidak menetap pada usia tertentu dapat berubah karena faktor genetik, gizi, dan lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual anak. Penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang ini dilakukan pada populasi siswa kelas VI Sekolah Dasar Negeri Giwangan Yogyakarta, tahun 2013. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling terhadap 37 sampel siswa. Instrumen untuk mengukur kecerdasan intelektual dengan Cultural Fair Intelligence Quotient Test yang dirancang untuk meminimalkan pengaruh kultural dengan memperhatikan prosedur evaluasi, instruksi, konten isi, dan respons peserta. Tes dilakukan oleh Biro Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, kadar hemoglobin diukur menggunakan Portable Hemoglobin Digital Analyzer Easy Touch secara digital.Variabel luar indeks massa tubuh diukur langsung menggunakan parameter tinggi badan dan berat badan. Analisis menggunakan uji regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks massa tubuh tidak berhubungan dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,052. Anemia berhubungan cukup dengan kecerdasan anak (r = 0,491 dan berpola positif, semakin tinggi kadar hemoglobin semakin tinggi kecerdasan intelektual anak. Nilai koefisien determinasi 0,241 menerangkan bahwa 24,1% variasi anemia cukup baik untuk menjelaskan variabel kecerdasan intelektual. Ada hubungan antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,002. Quality of human resources is influenced by the child’s intelligent. Intelligence Quotient (IQ score will not settle at a certain age and can change due to genetic factors, nutrition, and the environment. The objective is known relationship of anemia with IQ to child. Method of observational study with cross sectional design. Population are students of class VI elementary school of Giwangan Yogyakarta in

  19. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  20. Nuclear Checker Board Model

    Lach, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    The Checkerboard model of the Nucleus has been in the public domain for over 20 years. Over those years it has been described by nuclear and particle physicists as; cute, ``the Bohr model of the nucleus'' and ``reminiscent of the Eightfold Way''. It has also been ridiculed as numerology, laughed at, and even worse. In 2000 the theory was taken to the next level by attempting to explain why the mass of the ``up'' and ``dn'' quarks were significantly heavier than the SM ``u'' and ``d'' quarks. This resulted in a paper published on arXiv.nucl-th/0008026 in 2000, predicting 5 generations of quarks, each quark and negative lepton particle related to each other by a simple geometric mean. The CBM predicts that the radii of the elementary particles are proportional to the cube root of their masses. This was realized Pythagorean musical intervals (octave, perfect 5th, perfect 4th plus two others). Therefore each generation can be explained by a simple right triangle and the height of the hypotenuse. Notice that the height of a right triangle breaks the hypotenuse into two line segments. The geometric mean of those two segments equals the length of the height of this characteristic triangle. Therefore the CBM theory now predicts that all the elementary particles mass are proportion to the cube of their radii. Therefore the mass density of all elementary particles (and perhaps black holes too) are a constant of nature.

  1. Throat Problems (Symptom Checker)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  2. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  3. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  4. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  5. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  6. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles from hemoglobin and myoglobin

    Sayyad, Arshad S; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ci, Lijie; Kabbani, Ahmad T; Vajtai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Stable iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from naturally occurring and abundant Fe-containing bio-precursors, namely hemoglobin and myoglobin. The formation of stable iron nanoparticles was achieved through a one-pot, single-phase chemical reduction approach. The reduction of iron ions present in the bio-precursors was carried out at room temperature and avoids the use of harsh chemical reagents. The size distribution of the product falls into the narrow 2–5 nm range and the particles were found to be crystalline. This method can be a valuable synthetic approach for producing bio-conjugated nanoparticle systems for biological applications. (paper)

  7. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting.

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Idriss, Ali; May, Juergen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2011-04-21

    In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no

  8. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The autocatalytic reaction between nitrite and the oxy form of globins involves free radicals. For myoglobin (Mb), an initial binding of nitrite to the iron-coordinated oxygen molecule was proposed; the resulting ferrous-peroxynitrate species was not detected, but its decay product, the high...... to a simple kinetic model involving a transient met-aqua form, in contrast to the ferryl detected in the case of Mb in a similar reaction sequence. These data are in line with a previous observation of a transient accumulation of ferryl Hb under auto-catalytic conditions at much lower concentrations......-peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...

  9. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  10. Radio-ligand immunoassay for human hemoglobin variants

    Javid, J.; Pettis, P.K.; Miller, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the individual assay of human hemoglobin variants occurring singly or in mixture. The hemoglobin to be assayed is bound to specific antibody; the immune complex is attached to protein A-containing S. aureus and removed from the mixture. The hemoglobin thus isolated is quantified by its ability to bind radiolabeled haptoglobin. The technique is accurate and distinguishes among the 4 hemoglobins tested, namely Hb A, S, C and F. It has the advantage over conventional radioimmunoassay that a single probe, radiolabeled haptoglobin, is needed for the specific assay of any hemoglobin. (Auth.)

  11. Removal of cellular-type hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemoglobin-vesicles) from blood using centrifugation and ultrafiltration.

    Sakai, Hiromi; Sou, Keitaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Tsuchida, Eishun; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The hemoglobin-vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a concentrated hemoglobin solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). During or after transporting oxygen, macrophages capture HbVs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with an approximate circulation half-life of 3 days. Animal studies show transient splenohepatomegaly after large doses, but HbVs were completely degraded, and the components were excreted in a few weeks. If a blood substitute is used for emergency use until red blood cell transfusion becomes available or for temporary use such as a priming fluid for an extracorporeal circuit, then one option would be to remove HbVs from the circulating blood without waiting a few weeks for removal by the RES. Using a mixture of beagle dog whole blood and HbV, we tested the separation of HbV using a centrifugal Fresenius cell separator and an ultrafiltration system. The cell separator system separated the layers of blood cell components from the HbV-containing plasma layer by centrifugal force, and then the HbV was removed from plasma phase by the ultrafiltration system. The HbVs (250-280 nm) are larger than plasma proteins (blood cell components (> 3 µm). The size of HbVs is advantageous to be separated from the original blood components, and the separated blood components can be returned to circulation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  13. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  14. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  15. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting

    Idriss Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. Method EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Results Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p Conclusion Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.

  16. Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report

    Khorshidi Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (α75Asp→His is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity. The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC at codon 75 in the α-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional α-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region.

  17. FIA-FAAS method for tannin determination based on a precipitation reaction with hemoglobin

    Ferreira Edilene C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-FAAS, was developed for tannin determination in pigeon pea samples, exploring the precipitation reaction between tannins and proteins. Sample extracts obtained by sonication with a 50% (v/v methanol solution were introduced into the system and induced to react with a hemoglobin solution. The precipitate produced was retained on a filter located in the analytical flow. A reversed flow of 1% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate solution was used for solubilization of the precipitate from the filter and to conduct the tannin-hemoglobin complex to the FAAS, to quantify the iron ions present in the hemoglobin structure. A tannic acid solution was used to prepare the analytical curve. The proposed method allowed determination of 30 samples per hour, a standard deviation of 9.7% (n=10, and a quantification limit of 0.27 mg L-1 for tannic acid.

  18. Formal verification of automated teller machine systems using SPIN

    Iqbal, Ikhwan Mohammad; Adzkiya, Dieky; Mukhlash, Imam

    2017-08-01

    Formal verification is a technique for ensuring the correctness of systems. This work focuses on verifying a model of the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) system against some specifications. We construct the model as a state transition diagram that is suitable for verification. The specifications are expressed as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulas. We use Simple Promela Interpreter (SPIN) model checker to check whether the model satisfies the formula. This model checker accepts models written in Process Meta Language (PROMELA), and its specifications are specified in LTL formulas.

  19. System programming languages

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  20. Molecular Mechanism of AHSP-Mediated Stabilization of Alpha-Hemoglobin

    Feng,L.; Gell, D.; Zhou, S.; Gu, L.; Kong, Y.; Li, J.; Hu, M.; Yan, N.; Lee, C.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A (HbA), the oxygen delivery system in humans, comprises two alpha and two beta subunits. Free alpha-hemoglobin (alphaHb) is unstable, and its precipitation contributes to the pathophysiology of beta thalassemia. In erythrocytes, the alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) binds alphaHb and inhibits its precipitation. The crystal structure of AHSP bound to Fe(II)-alphaHb reveals that AHSP specifically recognizes the G and H helices of alphaHb through a hydrophobic interface that largely recapitulates the alpha1-beta1 interface of hemoglobin. The AHSP-alphaHb interactions are extensive but suboptimal, explaining why beta-hemoglobin can competitively displace AHSP to form HbA. Remarkably, the Fe(II)-heme group in AHSP bound alphaHb is coordinated by the distal but not the proximal histidine. Importantly, binding to AHSP facilitates the conversion of oxy-alphaHb to a deoxygenated, oxidized [Fe(III)], nonreactive form in which all six coordinate positions are occupied. These observations reveal the molecular mechanisms by which AHSP stabilizes free alphaHb.

  1. Closing open SDL-systems for model checking with DTSpin

    N. Ioustinova (Natalia); N. Sidorova; M. Steffen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractModel checkers like Spin can handle closed reactive systems, only. Thus to handle open systems, in particular when using assume-guarantee reasoning, we need to be able to close (sub-)systems, which is commonly done by adding an environment process. For models with asynchronous

  2. Multiwavelength pulse oximetry in the measurement of hemoglobin fractions

    Manzke, Bernd; Schwider, Johannes; Lutter, Norbert O.; Engelhardt, Kai; Stork, Wilhelm

    1996-04-01

    The two wavelength design of the majority of pulse oximeters assumes only two absorbing hemoglobin fractions, oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb), and reduced hemoglobin (HHb) irrespective of the presence of methemoglobin (MetHb) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). If MetHb or COHb is present, it contributes to the pulse-added absorbance signal and will be interpreted as either HHb or O2Hb or some combination of the two. In this paper we describe a noninvasive multi-wavelength pulse oximeter measuring O2Hb, HHb, MetHb, and COHb at a specified accuracy of 1.0%. The system was designed with respect to the results of numerical simulations. It consists of 9 laserdiodes (LDs) and 7 light emitting diodes (LEDs), a 16-bit analog-digital converter (ADC) and has a sampling rate of 16 kHz. The laser didoes and LEDs were coupled into multi-mode fibers and led with a liquid lightguide to the finger clip and then the photodiode. It also presents the results of a clinical study, including a setup with a quartz tungsten halogen lamp (with fiber output) and a diode array spectrometer, a standard pulse oximeter and two in-vitro oximeters (radiometer OSM3 and radiometer ABL 520) as references.

  3. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  4. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-08-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to manipulate water content. Hydration properties are probed using the water-sensitive fluorescence from Hb bound pyranine and covalently attached Badan. Protein dynamics are probed through ligand recombination traces derived from photodissociated carbonmonoxy hemoglobin on a log scale that exposes the potential role of both α and β solvent fluctuations in modulating protein dynamics. The results open the possibility of probing hydration level phenomena in this system using a combination of NMR and optical probes.

  5. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  6. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (<150 g/L baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (<138 g/L baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations.

  7. Interaction of thyroid hormone and hemoglobin: nature of the interaction and effect of hemoglobin on thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    Davis, P.J.; Yoshida, K.; Schoenl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Gel filtration of human erythrocyte (RBC) lysate incubated with labeled thyroxine (Tu) or triiodothyronine (Tt) revealed co-elution of a major iodothyronine-binding fraction (R-2) and hemoglobin. Solutions of purified human hemoglobin and Tt also showed co-elution of hormone and hemoglobin. Because hematin and protoporphyrin were shown to bind labeled Tt, the oxygen-binding site on hemoglobin was excluded as the site of iodothyronine-hemoglobin interaction. Analysis of hormone binding by heme and globin moieties showed Tt binding to be limited to the heme fraction. Addition of excess unlabeled Tt to hemoglobin or heme incubated with labeled Tt indicated 75% to 90% of hormone binding was poorly dissociable. These observations suggested that the presence of hemoglobin in RBC lysate or in serum could influence the measurement of Tu and Tt by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Subsequent studies of the addition to serum of human hemoglobin revealed a significant reduction in Tt and Tu detectable by RIA in the presence of this protein. The effect was influenced by the concentration of hemoglobin and by duration and temperature of incubations of hemoglobin and serum prior to RIA

  8. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Mahmood, Faiza; Aandahl, Astrid; Knutsen, Teresa Risopatron; Llohn, Abid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF) elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females) who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations. PMID:26380265

  9. Porphyromonas endodontalis binds, reduces and grows on human hemoglobin.

    Zerr, M; Drake, D; Johnson, W; Cox, C D

    2001-08-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis is a black-pigmented, obligate anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium implicated as playing a major role in endodontic infections. We have previously shown that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin nucleus, preferably supplied as hemoglobin, as a growth supplement. The bacteria also actively transport free iron, although this activity does not support growth in the absence of a porphyrin source. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the binding and subsequent utilization of human hemoglobin by P. endodontalis. P. endodontalis binds hemoglobin and reduces the Fe(III) porphyrin, resulting in a steady accumulation of ferrous hemoglobin. Reduction of methemoglobin was similar to the extracellular reduction of nitrobluetetrazolium in the presence of oxidizable substrate. Turbidimetric and viable cell determinations showed that P. endodontalis grew when supplied only hemoglobin. Therefore, we conclude that hemoglobin appears to serve as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, and that these bacteria reduce extracellular compounds at the expense of oxidized substrates.

  10. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  11. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. The haptoglobin-CD163-heme oxygenase-1 pathway for hemoglobin scavenging

    Thomsen, Jens Haugbølle; Etzerodt, Anders; Svendsen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The haptoglobin- (Hp-) CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb)/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex...

  13. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    Mohsen Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein, red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS: This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS: There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028 significantly inhibited (P < 0.050 this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION: According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes.   

  14. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...... a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the alpha- and beta-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression......-translational modifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need...

  15. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  16. A thermodynamical measure of cooperativity: application to hemoglobin

    Jacchieri, S.G.; Ferreira, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the heat requirements for dioxygen exchange is made for hemoglobin and myoglobin, the latter taken as the prototype of the vertebrate hemoglobin's ancestor. it is shown that cooperativity manifests itself also in terms of energy utilization. (Author) [pt

  17. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  18. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of

  19. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  20. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  3. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    Croci, S.; Achterhold, K.; Ortalli, I.; Parak, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers (ΔG). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  4. Radiation - induced changes in the optical properties of hemoglobin molecule

    Selim, N.S; El-Marakby, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adult male albino rats were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from Cs-137 source. Hemoglobin samples were analyzed 24 hrs after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of hemoglobin molecule was measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The overall spectrum of the hemoglobin molecule showed hypochromicity that increased with dose increase. To investigate the effect of radiation on the hemoglobin molecule, different parameters of the spectrum were calculated: molar absorption coefficient, absorption cross section, transition dipole moment , dipole length, the optical energy gap and activation energy for each characteristic peak. The obtained results revealed that the radiation effect can induce rearrangement of the transition dipole moments and change molecular energy levels of the hemoglobin molecule

  5. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  6. Modelling a Java Ring based implementation of an N-Count payment system

    Revill, J.D.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    N-Count is a system for offline value transfer. A prototype of an N-Count payment system has been designed, and it has been implemented in Java. We have used the Java Ring with the Java Card API as a secure device. The system has also been modelled using the Spin model checker. The combined

  7. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Popp, R.A.; Stratton, L.P.; Hawley, D.K.; Effron, K.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F 1 offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of α-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient α-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an α-thalassemia similar to human α-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with α-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining β-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 β-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC β-chain gene. (author)

  8. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Popp, R A; Stratton, L P; Hawley, D K; Effron, K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-01-15

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F/sub 1/ offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of ..cap alpha..-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia similar to human ..cap alpha..-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with ..cap alpha..-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining ..beta..-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 ..beta..-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC ..beta..-chain gene.

  9. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  10. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  11. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  12. Pathophysiological consequences of hemolysis. Role of cell-free hemoglobin

    Tomasz Misztal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abundant hemolysis is associated with a number of inherent and acquired diseases including sickle-cell disease (SCD, polycythemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH and drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Despite different etiopathology of hemolytic diseases, many concomitant symptoms are comparable and include e.g. hypertension, hemoglobinuria and hypercoagulation state. Studies in the last years have shown a growing list of mechanisms lying at the basis of those symptoms, in particular irreversible reaction between cell-free hemoglobin (Hb and nitric oxide (NO – endogenous vasorelaxant and anti-thrombotic agent. Saturation of protective physiological cell-free Hb-scavenging mechanisms results in accumulation of Hb in plasma and hemoglobinemia. Extensive hemoglobinemia subsequently leads to hemoglobinuria, which may cause kidney damage and development of Fanconi syndrome. A severe problem in patients with SCD and PNH is pulmonary and systemic hypertension. It may lead to circulation failure, including stroke, and it is related to abolition of NO bioavailability for vascular smooth muscle cells. Thrombotic events are the major cause of death in SCD and PNH. It ensues from lack of platelet inhibition evoked by Hb-mediated NO scavenging. A serious complication that affects patients with excessive hemolysis is erectile dysfunction. Also direct cytotoxic, prooxidant and proinflammatory effects of cell-free hemoglobin and heme compose the clinical picture of hemolytic diseases. The pathophysiological role of plasma Hb, mechanisms of its elimination, and direct and indirect (via NO scavenging deleterious effects of cell-free Hb are presented in detail in this review. Understanding the critical role of hemolysis and cell-free Hb is important in the perspective of treating patients with hemolytic diseases and to design new effective therapies in future.

  13. Assessment of Occlusal Function in a Patient with an Angle Class I Spaced Dental Arch with Periodontal Disease Using a Brux Checker

    Ayako Taira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive and appropriate occlusion reconstruction therapy is necessary for orthodontic treatment of adult patients with malocclusion with periodontal disease associated with occlusal trauma. We report the case of a patient with extensive moderate chronic periodontitis associated with occlusal trauma. The patient was diagnosed with extensive moderate chronic periodontitis associated with occlusal trauma and underwent thorough treatment for periodontal disease, oral management, and 20 months of orthodontic therapy. Moreover, reconstructed occlusion was performed to evaluate occlusal trauma for visualization using Brux Checker (BC analysis before and after active orthodontic treatment. The patient acquired stable anterior guidance and a functional occlusal relationship. BC findings revealed weakening of the functional contact between the lateral occlusal force of the dentition and the front teeth and alveolar bone regeneration. The laminar dura became clearer, and the periodontal tissue improved. Our results suggest that assessment of occlusion function using BC analysis and periodontal examination was effective in enabling occlusal treatment goal clarification through orthodontic treatment in case of periodontal disease associated with occlusal trauma.

  14. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  15. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  16. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  17. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  18. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  19. Two-photon excited fluorescence emission from hemoglobin

    Sun, Qiqi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin, one of the most important proteins in blood, is responsible for oxygen transportation in almost all vertebrates. Recently, we discovered two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence and achieved label-free microvascular imaging based on the hemoglobin fluorescence. However, the mechanism of its fluorescence emission still remains unknown. In this work, we studied the two-photon excited fluorescence properties of the hemoglobin subunits, heme/hemin (iron (II)/(III) protoporphyrin IX) and globin. We first studied the properties of heme and the similar spectral and temporal characteristics of heme and hemoglobin fluorescence provide strong evidence that heme is the fluorophore in hemoglobin. Then we studied the fluorescence properties of hemin, globin and methemoglobin, and found that the hemin may have the main effect on the methemoglobin fluorescence and that globin has tryptophan fluorescence like other proteins. Finally, since heme is a centrosymmetric molecule, that the Soret band fluorescence of heme and hemoglobin was not observed in the single photon process in the previous study may be due to the parity selection rule. The discovery of heme two-photon excited fluorescence may open a new window for heme biology research, since heme as a cofactor of hemoprotein has many functions, including chemical catalysis, electron transfer and diatomic gases transportation.

  20. Quantifying risk of penile prosthesis infection with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Wilson, S K; Carson, C C; Cleves, M A; Delk, J R

    1998-05-01

    Elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin above levels of 11.5 mg.% has been considered a contraindication to penile prosthesis implantation in diabetic patients. We determine the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in penile prosthesis infections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients to confirm or deny this prevalent opinion. We conducted a 2-year prospective study of 389 patients, including 114 diabetics, who underwent 3-piece penile prosthesis implantation. All patients had similar preoperative preparation without regard to diabetic status, control or glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level. Risk of infection was statistically analyzed for diabetics versus nondiabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values above and below 11.5 mg.%, insulin dependent versus oral medication diabetics, and fasting blood sugars above and below 180 mg.%. Prosthesis infections developed in 10 diabetics (8.7%) and 11 nondiabetics (4.0%). No increased infection rate was observed in diabetics with high fasting sugars or diabetics on insulin. There was no statistically significant increased infection risk with increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C among all patients or among only the diabetics. In fact, there was no meaningful difference in the median or mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in the infected and noninfected patients regardless of diabetes. Use of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values to identify and exclude surgical candidates with increased risk of infections is not proved by this study. Elevation of fasting sugar or insulin dependence also does not increase risk of infection in diabetics undergoing prosthesis implantation.

  1. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  2. Using the MWC model to describe heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin

    Rapp, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a classical model allosteric protein. Research on hemoglobin parallels the development of key cooperativity and allostery concepts, such as the ‘all-or-none’ Hill formalism, the stepwise Adair binding formulation and the concerted Monod-Wymann-Changuex (MWC) allosteric model. While it is clear that the MWC model adequately describes the cooperative binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, rationalizing the effects of H+, CO2 or organophosphate ligands on hemoglobin-oxygen saturation using the same model remains controversial. According to the MWC model, allosteric ligands exert their effect on protein function by modulating the quaternary conformational transition of the protein. However, data fitting analysis of hemoglobin oxygen saturation curves in the presence or absence of inhibitory ligands persistently revealed effects on both relative oxygen affinity (c) and conformational changes (L), elementary MWC parameters. The recent realization that data fitting analysis using the traditional MWC model equation may not provide reliable estimates for L and c thus calls for a re-examination of previous data using alternative fitting strategies. In the current manuscript, we present two simple strategies for obtaining reliable estimates for MWC mechanistic parameters of hemoglobin steady-state saturation curves in cases of both evolutionary and physiological variations. Our results suggest that the simple MWC model provides a reasonable description that can also account for heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin. The results, moreover, offer a general roadmap for successful data fitting analysis using the MWC model. PMID:28793329

  3. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients.

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  4. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  5. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  6. Co-Simulation of Hybrid Systems with SpaceEx and Uppaal

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Greitschus, Marius; Jensen, Peter Gjøl

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) is an industry standard which enables co-simulation of complex heterogeneous systems using multiple simulation engines. In this paper, we show how to use FMI in order to co-simulate hybrid systems modeled in the model checkers SPACEEX and UPPAAL. We show how...

  7. Evans Syndrome Complicated by Intratubular Hemoglobin Cast Nephropathy

    Iván González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose exact pathophysiology is unknown. It is characterized by the simultaneous or subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Intravascular hemolysis, with hemoglobinemia, is known to produce acute kidney injury; however, the development of intratubular hemoglobin casts (hemoglobin cast nephropathy in the setting of acute hemolysis is uncommon. Likewise, the association of ES and acute renal failure is equally uncommon. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with ES who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of intravascular hemolysis and had widespread intratubular hemoglobin casts.

  8. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  9. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  10. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Silvia Vanni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD subjects and age-matched controls.Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD (n = 20, iCJD (n = 11, sCJD (n = 23, gPrD (n = 30, and AD (n = 14 patients and age-matched controls (n = 30. RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis.Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level.Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue—together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease—seem to dictate the peculiar

  11. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Vanni, Silvia; Zattoni, Marco; Moda, Fabio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Haïk, Stéphane; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Ironside, James W; Carmona, Margarita; Ferrer, Isidre; Kovacs, Gabor G; Legname, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively) and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD) in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects and age-matched controls. Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD ( n = 20), iCJD ( n = 11), sCJD ( n = 23), gPrD ( n = 30), and AD ( n = 14) patients and age-matched controls ( n = 30). RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis. Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level. Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue)-together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease-seem to dictate the peculiar hemoglobin

  12. A nanocluster-based fluorescent sensor for sensitive hemoglobin detection.

    Yang, Dongqin; Meng, Huijie; Tu, Yifeng; Yan, Jilin

    2017-08-01

    In this report, a fluorescence sensor for sensitive detection of hemoglobin was developed. Gold nanoclusters were first synthesized with bovine serum albumin. It was found that both hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin could weakly quench the fluorescence from the gold nanoclusters, but when these two were applied onto the nanolcusters simultaneously, a much improved quenching was resulted. This enhancing effect was proved to come from the catalytic generation of hydroxyl radical by hemoglobin. Under an optimized condition, the quenching linearly related to the concentration of hemoglobin in the range of 1-250nM, and a limit of detection as low as 0.36nM could be obtained. This provided a sensitive means for the quantification of Hb. The sensor was then successfully applied for blood analyses with simple sample pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  14. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients. ... Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2011 ..... This study was designed to determine the relationship .... mobiles and devices.

  15. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  16. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  17. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  18. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Administrator

    28. Li et al used single- walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and 1-hexyl-3- ... Electrochemistry of dextran/hemoglobin/carbon ionic liquid electrode. 273. 2.4 Procedures ..... used for the construction of H2O2 biosensor. Acknowledgement.

  19. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... (logP(50) vs 1/T) of D. mawsoni hemoglobin indicates that the enthalpy of oxygenation (slope of the plot) is temperature dependent and that at high temperatures oxygen-binding becomes less exothermic. Nearly linear relationships were found in the hemoglobins of the other two species. The data were...... oxygen binding. The degree of the temperature dependence of the heat of oxygenation observed in these hemoglobins seems to reflect the differences in their allosteric effects rather than a specific molecular adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, this study indicates that the disagreement between...

  20. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  1. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça; Lilian Ferreira Muniz; Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda; Alcides da Silva Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels cons...

  3. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  4. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  5. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  6. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  7. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  8. Maternal hemoglobin in Peru: regional differences and its association with adverse perinatal outcomes

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina.; Tapia, Vilma; Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Obstetríz.; Gasco, Manuel; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Carrillo, Carlos; Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate hemoglobin (Hb) levels in pregnant women from different geographical regions from Peru; to establish anemia and erythrocytocis rates and to establish the role of Hb on adverse perinatal outcomes using the Perinatal Information System (PIS) database of Peruvian Ministry of Health. Materials and methods. Data were obtained from 379,816 births of 43 maternity care units between 2000 and 2010. Anemia and erythrocytocis rates were determined in each geographical region as w...

  9. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  10. Raman Tweezers as a Diagnostic Tool of Hemoglobin-Related Blood Disorders

    Giulia Rusciano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in the field of biomedicine. Herein a Raman Tweezers system has been applied to investigate the effects of thalassemia, a blood disease quite diffuse in the Mediterranean Sea region. By resonant excitation of hemoglobin Raman bands, we examined the oxygenation capability of normal, alpha- and beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. A reduction of this fundamental red blood cell function, particularly severe for beta-thalassemia, has been found. Raman spectroscopy was also used to draw hemoglobin distribution inside single erythrocytes; the results confirmed the characteristic anomaly (target shape, occurring in thalassemia and some other blood disorders. The success of resonance Raman spectroscopy for thalassemia detection reported in this review provide an interesting starting point to explore the application of a Raman Tweezers system in the analysis of several blood disorders.

  11. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  12. Horn Clauses for Communicating Timed Systems

    Hossein Hojjat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages based on the theory of timed automata are a well established approach for modelling and analysing real-time systems, with many applications both in industrial and academic context. Model checking for timed automata has been studied extensively during the last two decades; however, even now industrial-grade model checkers are available only for few timed automata dialects (in particular Uppaal timed automata, exhibit limited scalability for systems with large discrete state space, or cannot handle parametrised systems. We explore the use of Horn constraints and off-the-shelf model checkers for analysis of networks of timed automata. The resulting analysis method is fully symbolic and applicable to systems with large or infinite discrete state space, and can be extended to include various language features, for instance Uppaal-style communication/broadcast channels and BIP-style interactions, and systems with infinite parallelism. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  13. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  14. Propanil-induced methemoglobinemia and hemoglobin binding in the rat

    McMillan, D.C.; McRae, T.A.; Hinson, J.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1990-09-15

    Administration of (ring-U-14C)propanil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) to male Sprague-Dawley rats (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, ip) increased the formation of methemoglobin at the two highest doses. Following a propanil dose of 100 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 5% by 1.5 hr and declined to normal levels (approximately 2.5%) by 12 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 50 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Following a propanil dose of 300 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 24% by 4.5 hr, and declined to a level of 5% by 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 425 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding was also detected at the lowest propanil dose (10 pmol/mg protein) even though methemoglobin formation was not observed. HPLC analysis of alkaline-treated hemoglobin from propanil-treated rats indicated the presence of one radiolabeled compound with the same HPLC retention time as 3,4-dichloraniline. These data are consistent with the concept that propanil is converted to N-hydroxy-3,4-dichloroaniline in the liver. Subsequently, this metabolite enters the erythrocyte and is oxidized by hemoglobin to 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene with concomitant conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. The 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene binds to cysteine residues on hemoglobin as the corresponding sulfinic acid amide adduct. These data suggest that human exposure to propanil may be monitored in the absence of observable toxicity by the analysis of propanil metabolites bound to hemoglobin.

  15. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  16. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs.

    Aristos Ioannou

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb and Myoglobin (Mb at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  17. Extracellular hemoglobin: the case of a friend turned foe

    Quaye, Isaac K.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a highly conserved molecule present in all life forms and functionally tied to the complexity of aerobic organisms on earth in utilizing oxygen from the atmosphere and delivering to cells and tissues. This primary function sustains the energy requirements of cells and maintains cellular homeostasis. Decades of intensive research has presented a paradigm shift that shows how the molecule also functions to facilitate smooth oxygen delivery through the cardiovascular system for cellular bioenergetic homeostasis and signaling for cell function and defense. These roles are particularly highlighted in the binding of Hb to gaseous molecules carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), while also serving indirectly or directly as sources of these signaling molecules. The functional activities impacted by Hb outside of bioenergetics homeostasis, include fertilization, signaling functions, modulation of inflammatory responses for defense and cell viability. These activities are efficiently executed while Hb is sequestered safely within the confines of the red blood cell (rbc). Outside of rbc confines, Hb disaggregates and becomes a danger molecule to cell survival. In these perpectives, Hb function is broadly dichotomous, either a friend in its natural environment providing and facilitating the means for cell function or foe when dislocated from its habitat under stress or pathological condition disrupting cell function. The review presents insights into how this dichotomy in function manifests. PMID:25941490

  18. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs).

    Ioannou, Aristos; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs) formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb) and Myoglobin (Mb) at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  19. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice

    Rousdhy, H.; Pierotti, T.; Polverelli, M.

    1969-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [fr

  1. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  2. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  3. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  4. The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range

    Zhernovaya, O; Tuchin, V; Sydoruk, O; Douplik, A

    2011-01-01

    Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l -1 . This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l -1 . The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

  5. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  6. Post-transfusion hemoglobin values and patient blood management

    Moerman, Jan; Vermeulen, Edith; Van Mullem, Mia

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the added value of communicating post-transfusion hemoglobin values to clinicians as a strategy to improve RBC utilization in a 500-bed hospital. Methods: The total number of RBC transfusions, the mean number of RBC units...... transfused per patient, the mean pre- and post-transfusion hemoglobin values, the ratio of patients transfused and the ratio of patients with a post-transfusion hemoglobin > 10.5 g/dL were calculated per service and per department for six months. The data were reported to each service and compared...... with the data of the department as peer group. The impact of this communication strategy was evaluated in the following six months. Results: In the six months pre-intervention, the mean post-transfusion hemoglobin value was 9.2 g/dL. Post-transfusion hemoglobin was > 10.5 g/dL in 13.4% of patients (112...

  7. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  8. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  9. An Atomistic View on Human Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide Migration Processes

    Lucas, M. Fátima; Guallar, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    A significant amount of work has been devoted to obtaining a detailed atomistic knowledge of the human hemoglobin mechanism. Despite this impressive research, to date, the ligand diffusion processes remain unclear and controversial. Using recently developed computational techniques, PELE, we are capable of addressing the ligand migration processes. First, the methodology was tested on myoglobin's CO migration, and the results were compared with the wealth of theoretical and experimental studies. Then, we explored both hemoglobin tense and relaxed states and identified the differences between the α-and β-subunits. Our results indicate that the proximal site, equivalent to the Xe1 cavity in myoglobin, is never visited. Furthermore, strategically positioned residues alter the diffusion processes within hemoglobin's subunits and suggest that multiple pathways exist, especially diversified in the α-globins. A significant dependency of the ligand dynamics on the tertiary structure is also observed. PMID:22385860

  10. (Pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution as blood substitute for normothermic whole body rinse-out.

    Agishi, T; Funakoshi, Y; Honda, H; Yamagata, K; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate a new possibility for artificial blood with oxygen-carrying capability to be applied to other than mere supplementation, normothermic whole body rinse-out in which artificial blood deriving from perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20% (Green Cross Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) or stabilized hemoglobin solution, (pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution (Ajinomoto Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were used as rinsing fluid for a blood purification experiment. Replacement either with approximately 150 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA or stabilized hemoglobin solution showed effective removal of digoxin at a reduction rate of 96.3% or 92.2%, respectively. However, when Fluosol-DA was used, a certain amount of perfluorochemical should be retrieved by centrifugation to avoid a possible toxic effect on the reticulo-endothelial system. Even though 3 out of 6, and 3 out of 8 dogs, respectively, survived for a long period after the procedure, the experimental dogs were very susceptible to infection.

  11. A relay network of extracellular heme-binding proteins drives C. albicans iron acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Kuznets, Galit; Vigonsky, Elena; Weissman, Ziva; Lalli, Daniela; Gildor, Tsvia; Kauffman, Sarah J; Turano, Paola; Becker, Jeffrey; Lewinson, Oded; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Iron scavenging constitutes a crucial challenge for survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the iron-poor host environment. Candida albicans, like many microbial pathogens, is able to utilize iron from hemoglobin, the largest iron pool in the host's body. Rbt5 is an extracellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored heme-binding protein of the CFEM family that facilitates heme-iron uptake by an unknown mechanism. Here, we characterize an additional C. albicans CFEM protein gene, PGA7, deletion of which elicits a more severe heme-iron utilization phenotype than deletion of RBT5. The virulence of the pga7-/- mutant is reduced in a mouse model of systemic infection, consistent with a requirement for heme-iron utilization for C. albicans pathogenicity. The Pga7 and Rbt5 proteins exhibit distinct cell wall attachment, and discrete localization within the cell envelope, with Rbt5 being more exposed than Pga7. Both proteins are shown here to efficiently extract heme from hemoglobin. Surprisingly, while Pga7 has a higher affinity for heme in vitro, we find that heme transfer can occur bi-directionally between Pga7 and Rbt5, supporting a model in which they cooperate in a heme-acquisition relay. Together, our data delineate the roles of Pga7 and Rbt5 in a cell surface protein network that transfers heme from extracellular hemoglobin to the endocytic pathway, and provide a paradigm for how receptors embedded in the cell wall matrix can mediate nutrient uptake across the fungal cell envelope.

  12. Fetal hemoglobin, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin are potential predictive first trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia.

    Anderson, Ulrik Dolberg; Gram, Magnus; Ranstam, Jonas; Thilaganathan, Basky; Kerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the preeclamptic placenta has been recently implicated as a new etiological factor of preeclampsia. In this study, maternal serum levels of HbF and the endogenous hemoglobin/heme scavenging systems were evaluated as predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia in combination with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Case-control study including 433 women in early pregnancy (mean 13.7weeks of gestation) of which 86 subsequently developed preeclampsia. The serum concentrations of HbF, total cell-free hemoglobin, hemopexin, haptoglobin and α1-microglobulin were measured in maternal serum. All patients were examined with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Logistic regression models were developed, which included the biomarkers, ultrasound indices, and maternal risk factors. There were significantly higher serum concentrations of HbF and α1-microglobulin and significantly lower serum concentrations of hemopexin in patients who later developed preeclampsia. The uterine artery Doppler ultrasound results showed significantly higher pulsatility index values in the preeclampsia group. The optimal prediction model was obtained by combining HbF, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin in combination with the maternal characteristics parity, diabetes and pre-pregnancy hypertension. The optimal sensitivity for all preeclampsia was 60% at 95% specificity. Overproduction of placentally derived HbF and depletion of hemoglobin/heme scavenging mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The combination of HbF and α1-microglobulin and/or hemopexin may serve as a prediction model for preeclampsia in combination with maternal risk factors and/or uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  14. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli.

    Chandrasekhar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the α- and β-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression of wildtype and mutant Hbs of other species.As a test case for our expression system, we produced recombinant Hbs of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a species that has been the subject of research on mechanisms of Hb adaptation to hypoxia. By experimentally assessing the combined effects of induction temperature, induction time and E. coli expression strain on the solubility of recombinant deer mouse Hbs, we identified combinations of expression conditions that greatly enhanced the yield of recombinant protein and which also increased the efficiency of post-translational modifications.Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need for additional reconstitution or heme-incorporation steps. Moreover, our plasmid construct contains a combination of unique restriction sites that allows us to produce recombinant Hbs with different α- and β-chain subunit combinations by means of cassette mutagenesis.

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli.

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E; Moriyama, Hideaki; Storz, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the α- and β-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression of wildtype and mutant Hbs of other species. As a test case for our expression system, we produced recombinant Hbs of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a species that has been the subject of research on mechanisms of Hb adaptation to hypoxia. By experimentally assessing the combined effects of induction temperature, induction time and E. coli expression strain on the solubility of recombinant deer mouse Hbs, we identified combinations of expression conditions that greatly enhanced the yield of recombinant protein and which also increased the efficiency of post-translational modifications. Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need for additional reconstitution or heme-incorporation steps. Moreover, our plasmid construct contains a combination of unique restriction sites that allows us to produce recombinant Hbs with different α- and β-chain subunit combinations by means of cassette mutagenesis.

  16. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Yang, S.Y. [MagQu Co. Ltd., Sindian City, Taipei County 231, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: phyfv001@scc.ntnu.edu.tw; Hong, Chin-Yih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, Nantau County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cyhong@nkut.edu.tw; Yang, H.C. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcyang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Lai, Y.K. [College of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S. [Apex Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  17. Dichloromethane as an antisickling agent in sickle cell hemoglobin

    Schoenborn, B.P.; North, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Observations are reported that show that dichloromethane (DCM) does have a significant effect on the oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin. At DCM pressures high enough to prevent or reverse sickling, DCM would lower the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, therefore reducing oxygen transport at low oxygen pressure. This decrease in oxygen affinity might, however, increase the oxygen availability to tissue as long as a sufficiently large lung P/sub O/sub 2// is maintained. Crystallographic studies show that site D4 has a much lower affinity for DCM than site D3 while sites D1 and D2 show a higher affinity.

  18. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Yang, S.Y.; Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H.; Horng, H.E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H.C.; Lai, Y.K.; Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  19. Why are there two kinds of chain in tetrameric hemoglobins

    Ferreira, R.; Jacchieri, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The homeotropic allosteric interactions responsible for the sigmoidal oxygen saturation curves of α 2 β 2 hemoglobins are shown to be larger than those of hypothetical hemoglobins obeying identical curves and built from equivalent chains, γ 4 . It is also shown that this ensures for the α 2 β 2 species a more dependable cooperativity, through a biologically significative temperature range. On the basis of these findings it is argued that the existence of two different globin chains is advantageous in an evolutionary sense. (Author) [pt

  20. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  1. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  2. Is Routine Ordering of Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Justifiable?

    Addison, David J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to assess the value of routine simultaneous hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, paired determinations in the following groups were studied: (1) 360 consecutive pairs from the hematology laboratory, (2) 95 pairs on general medical patients, (3) 43 pairs on 10 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and (4) 62 pairs on 10 patients with burns. These values were plotted on scatter diagrams. In the 560 pairs only three disparate determinations were found. It is concluded that, in most clinical situations, determination of the hemoglobin or the hematocrit as a screening procedure provides as much useful information as the simultaneous determination of both. PMID:5296947

  3. Shoulder Problems: Symptom Checker Flowchart

    ... in adults, often causing severe pain, discomfort and immobility. Follow this chart to help you talk to ... Start OverDiagnosisYou may have BURSITIS or ROTATOR CUFF SYNDROME. Self CareUse an anti-inflammatory medicine, such as ...

  4. The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis

    Lipinski, S

    1972-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis was studied and its effect on the quality of protein was discovered. The biological effects due to the changes in the structure of protein were also observed. The results of the experiments are presented.

  5. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    , the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...

  6. Relationship of Hemoglobin to Arterial Oxygen Desaturation during Aeromedical Evacuation

    2015-04-02

    2. REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2012 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Relationship of Hemoglobin to...pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants. Orthopedics. 2012; 35(7):e1046-e1050. 11. Burns TC

  7. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silence...... suggests that 3-on-3 hemoglobins apart from a role in hypoxic stress play a general role under non-stressed conditions where they are essential for normal development by controlling the level of NO which tends to accumulate in floral buds and leaf hydathodes of plants......In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...

  8. Site-specific semisynthetic variant of human hemoglobin

    Hefta, S.A.; Lyle, S.B.; Busch, M.R.; Harris, D.E.; Matthew, J.B.; Gurd, F.R.N.

    1988-01-01

    A single round of Edman degradation was employed to remove the NH 2 -terminal valine from isolated α chains of human hemoglobin. Reconstitution of normal β chains with truncated or substituted α chains was used to form truncated (des-Val 1 -α1) and substituted ([[1- 13 C]Gly 1 ]α1) tetrameric hemoglobin analogs. Structural homology of the analogs with untreated native hemoglobin was established by using several spectroscopic and physical methods. Functional studies indicate that the reconstituted tetrameric protein containing des-Val 1 -α chains has a higher affinity for oxygen, is less influenced by chloride ions or 2,3-biphosphoglycerate, and shows lower cooperativity than native hemoglobin. These results confirm the key functional role of the α-chain NH 2 terminus in mediating cooperative oxygen binding across the dimer interface. The NH 2 -terminal pK/sub 1/2/ value was determined for the [ 13 C]glycine-substituted analog to be 7.46 +/- 0.09 at 15 0 C in the carbon monoxide-liganded form. This value, measured directly by 13 C NMR, agrees with the determination made by the less-direct 13 CO 2 method and confirms the role of this residue as a contributor to the alkaline Bohr effect; however, it is consistent with the presence of an NH 2 -terminal salt bridge to the carboxylate of Arg-141 of the α chain in the liganded form

  9. A Review on hematology and hemoglobin of fish

    Ebru YILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hematological parameters of fish living in natüre helps to recognize population and to determinate of pollutants in the aquatic environment. In this review, hematological parameters of fish, fish hemoglobin and the Bohr effect were given information.

  10. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  11. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of c...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section 864.7470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7470...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section 864.7500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7500 Whole...

  15. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the ...

  16. A Microplate Assay for the Determination of Hemoglobin Concentration

    Frenchik, Michael D; McFaul, Steve J; Tsonev, Latchezar I

    2004-01-01

    ... (NaOH), and converts all hemoglobin species, including COHb, to AHD within 5 min. Both protocols are carried out in cuvettes, and are, therefore, time intensive and difficult to manage when many samples are quantified. This impedes acquisition of triplicate values for each sample necessary to improve accuracy and determine statistical significance.

  17. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced...

  18. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  19. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human hemoglobin at multiple sites

    Shapiro, R.; McManus, M.; Garrick, L.; McDonald, M.J.; Bunn, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    The most abundant minor hemoglobin component of human hemolysate is Hb A1c, which has glucose bound to the N-terminus of the beta chain by a ketoamine linkage. Hb A1c is formed slowly and continuously throughout the 120 day lifespan of the red cell. It can be synthesized in vitro by incubating purified hemoglobin with 14C-glucose. Other minor components, Hb A1a1 and Hb A1a2 are adducts of sugar phosphates at the N-terminus of the beta chain. Hb A1b contains an unidentified nonphosphorylated sugar at the beta N-terminus. In addition, a significant portion of the major hemoglobin component (Hb Ao) is also glycosylated by a glucose ketoamine linkage at other sites on the molecule, including the N-terminus of the alpha chain and the epsilon-amino group of several lysine residues on both the alpha and the beta chains. The results indicate that the interaction of glucose and hemoglobin is rather nonspecific and suggests that other proteins are modified in a similar fashion

  20. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  1. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  2. Relationships between hemoglobin A1c and spot glucose ...

    Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia. Objective: To determine the ...

  3. Routine hemoglobin electrophoresis for pediatric surgery day case ...

    Background: Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HBE) is a part of the preoperative routine requested by anesthetists. However, the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in the population is low. This study aims to determine the clinical risk factors for hemoglobinopathies and propose clinical guidelines for preoperative screening of ...

  4. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  5. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  6. The Relationship Between Hemoglobin Level and Intellectual Function.

    Munro, Nancy

    In a study to learn whether or not poor nutrition, as indicated by low hemoglobin levels, affects intelligence and behavior, 113 Head Start children in Missoula, Montana took part. Group testing with the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and individual testing with the Wechsler and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  7. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  8. The subunit structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Arndt, Marcio H.L.; Naves, Cristiani F.; Xavier, Luciana P.; Santoro, Marcelo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by a two step purification protocol using a gel filtration column (Superose 6 HR/Pharmacia ) followed by an anion exchange chromatography (MONO-Q Sepharose/Pharmacia). The dissociation products were analysed by a 5 - 15 % Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 K Daltons and a band of 180 K Daltons after reduction with β-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5 % Agarose gel electrophoresis containing SDS (SDS-AGE) showing additional bands of higher molecular weight. These bands were proposed to be monomers, dimers and trimers and, after reduction in a Bidimensional SDS-AGE, the proposed monomers and dimers were decomposed in two and four bands that were interpreted as 1 - 4 chains. The hemoglobin was digested by four different proteases ( Thrombin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Subtilisin ) showing several equivalent fragments with molecular weights multiples of its minimum molecular weight ( 17.7 K Daltons). The circular dichroism spectrum of the protein showed a characteristic high α-helix content. We proposed that this hemoglobin is a pentamer of approx. 360 K Daltons subunits each formed by two 180 K Daltons chains linked in pairs by disulfide bridges and each of these chains comprises ten Heme binding domains. These data were compared to other Planorbidae extracellular hemoglobins. Up to now, the quaternary structure of this hemoglobin (shape and disposition of the subunits) is unknown. It is intended to elucidate its structure by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS). (author)

  9. Hemoglobin Kinetics and Long-term Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    Díez-López, Carles; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Zamora, Elisabet; Domingo, Mar; Santesmases, Javier; Troya, Maria-Isabel; Boldó, Maria; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The influence of hemoglobin kinetics on outcomes in heart failure has been incompletely established. Hemoglobin was determined at the first visit and at 6 months. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin < 13g/dL for men and hemoglobin < 12g/dL for women). Patients were classified relative to their hemoglobin values as nonanemic (both measurements normal), transiently anemic (anemic at the first visit but not at 6 months), newly anemic (nonanemic initially but anemic at 6 months), or permanently anemic (anemic in both measurements). A total of 1173 consecutive patients (71.9% men, mean age 66.8±12.2 years) were included in the study. In all, 476 patients (40.6%) were considered nonanemic, 170 (14.5%) had transient anemia, 147 (12.5%) developed new-onset anemia, and 380 (32.4%) were persistently anemic. During a follow-up of 3.7±2.8 years after the 6-month visit, 494 patients died. On comprehensive multivariable analyses, anemia (P < .001) and the type of anemia (P < .001) remained as independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Compared with patients without anemia, patients with persistent anemia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.30-2.03; P < .001) and new-onset anemia (HR = 1.39; 95%CI, 1.04-1.87, P = .03) had higher mortality, and even transient anemia showed a similar trend, although without reaching statistical significance (HR = 1.31; 95%CI, 0.97-1.77, P = .075). Anemia, especially persistent and of new-onset, and to a lesser degree, transient anemia, is deleterious in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Anemia and hemoglobin levels among Indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil.

    Ferreira, Aline Alves; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Souza, July Anne Mendonça de; Welch, James R; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of anemia, mean hemoglobin levels, and the main nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors among Xavante children in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A survey was conducted with children under 10 years of age in two indigenous Xavante communities within the Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve. Hemoglobin concentration levels, anthropometric measurements, and socioeconomic/demographic data were collected by means of clinical measurements and structured interviews. The cut-off points recommended by the World Health Organization were used for anemia classification. Linear regression analyses with hemoglobin as the outcome and Poisson regression with robust variance and with the presence or absence of anemia as outcomes were performed (95%CI). Lower mean hemoglobin values were observed in children under 2 years of age, without a significant difference between sexes. Anemia was observed among 50.8% of children overall, with the highest prevalence among children under 2 years of age (77.8%). Age of the child was inversely associated with the occurrence of anemia (adjusted PR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.38-0.95) and mean hemoglobin values increased significantly with age. Greater height-for-age z-score values reduced the probability of having anemia by 1.8 times (adjusted PR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.34-1.00). Presence of another child with anemia within the household increased the probability of the occurrence of anemia by 52.9% (adjusted PR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.16-3.09). Elevated levels of anemia among Xavante children reveal a disparity between this Indigenous population and the national Brazilian population. Results suggest that anemia is determined by complex and variable relationships between socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and biological factors.

  11. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Devlin, Angela M; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is common in Cambodian women. Potential causes include micronutrient deficiencies, genetic hemoglobin disorders, inflammation, and disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with anemia (low hemoglobin concentration) in rural Cambodian women (18-45 y) and to investigate the relations between hemoglobin disorders and other iron biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained from 450 women. A complete blood count was conducted, and serum and plasma were analyzed for ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B-12, retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). Hemoglobin electrophoresis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence and type of genetic hemoglobin disorders. Overall, 54% of women had a genetic hemoglobin disorder, which included 25 different genotypes (most commonly, hemoglobin E variants and α(3.7)-thalassemia). Of the 420 nonpregnant women, 29.5% had anemia (hemoglobin 8.3 mg/L), hemoglobin disorders, respectively. There was no biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency (RBP 5 mg/L) and 26% (AGP >1 g/L) of nonpregnant women, respectively. By using an adjusted linear regression model, the strongest predictors of hemoglobin concentration were hemoglobin E homozygous disorder and pregnancy status. Other predictors were 2 other heterozygous traits (hemoglobin E and Constant Spring), parity, RBP, log ferritin, and vitamin B-12. Multiple biomarkers for anemia and iron deficiency were significantly influenced by the presence of hemoglobin disorders, hence reducing their diagnostic sensitivity. Further investigation of the unexpectedly low prevalence of IDA in Cambodian women is warranted. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging

  13. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  14. Crystal structure of hemoglobin from the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) using synchrotron radiation.

    Fadel, Valmir; Canduri, Fernanda; Olivieri, Johnny R; Smarra, André L S; Colombo, Marcio F; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2003-12-01

    Crystal structure of hemoglobin isolated from the Brazilian maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was determined using standard molecular replacement technique and refined using maximum-likelihood and simulated annealing protocols to 1.87A resolution. Structural and functional comparisons between hemoglobins from the Chrysocyon brachyurus and Homo sapiens are discussed, in order to provide further insights in the comparative biochemistry of vertebrate hemoglobins.

  15. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures ...

  16. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  17. Normalization of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier-201 induced vasoconstriction: targeting nitric oxide and endothelin.

    Taverne, Yannick J; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne; Te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Dubé, Gregory P; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2017-05-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 is a cell-free modified hemoglobin solution potentially facilitating oxygen uptake and delivery in cardiovascular disorders and hemorrhagic shock. Clinical use has been hampered by vasoconstriction in the systemic and pulmonary beds. Therefore, we aimed to 1 ) determine the possibility of counteracting HBOC-201-induced pressor effects with either adenosine (ADO) or nitroglycerin (NTG); 2 ) assess the potential roles of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and endothelin (ET) in mediating the observed vasoconstriction; and 3 ) compare these effects in resting and exercising swine. Chronically instrumented swine were studied at rest and during exercise after administration of HBOC-201 alone or in combination with ADO. The role of NO was assessed by supplementation with NTG or administration of the eNOS inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine. Alternative vasoactive pathways were investigated via intravenous administration of the ET A /ET B receptor blocker tezosentan or a mixture of ROS scavengers. The systemic and to a lesser extent the pulmonary pressor effects of HBOC-201 could be counteracted by ADO; however, dosage titration was very important to avoid systemic hypotension. Similarly, supplementation of NO with NTG negated the pressor effects but also required titration of the dose. The pressor response to HBOC-201 was reduced after eNOS inhibition and abolished by simultaneous ET A /ET B receptor blockade, while ROS scavenging had no effect. In conclusion, the pressor response to HBOC-201 is mediated by vasoconstriction due to NO scavenging and production of ET. Further research should explore the effect of longer-acting ET receptor blockers to counteract the side effect of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 can disrupt hemodynamic homeostasis, mimicking some aspects of endothelial dysfunction, resulting in elevated systemic and pulmonary blood

  18. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  19. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  20. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics

    Arunpreet Singh Kahlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3% had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came

  1. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics.

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Pathak, Rambha

    2011-07-01

    Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3%) had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came out to be .311. This correlation was found to be statistically

  2. Determination of the thermodynamic state of concentrated hemoglobin solutions by means of small angle X-ray scattering

    Zinke, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exemplified by hemoglobin, the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of the dissolved macromolecular system could be determined solely from the small angle X-ray scattering of concentrated macromolecular solutions via the intermolecular structure of the dissolved macromolecules and their intermolecular potentials. From the scattering experiment on concentrated Hb solutions the concentration dependence of the following properties of the dissolved Hb system were determined: fluctuation, isothermic compressibility, internal energy, surface tension, and osmotic pressure. (author)

  3. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  4. Engineering Runtime Requirements-Monitoring Systems Using MDA Technologies

    Skene, James; Emmerich, Wolfgang

    The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technology toolset includes a language for describing the structure of meta-data, the MOF, and a language for describing consistency properties that data must exhibit, the OCL. Off-the-shelf tools can generate meta-data repositories and perform consistency checking over the data they contain. In this paper we describe how these tools can be used to implement runtime requirements monitoring of systems by modelling the required behaviour of the system, implementing a meta-data repository to collect system data, and consistency checking the repository to discover violations. We evaluate the approach by implementing a contract checker for the SLAng service-level agreement language, a language defined using a MOF meta-model, and integrating the checker into an Enterprise JavaBeans application. We discuss scalability issues resulting from immaturities in the applied technologies, leading to recommendations for their future development.

  5. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  6. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels considered as mild anemia (9 g/dL 0.05, nor with socioeconomic or demographic characteristics (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of anemia was low and classified as a mild health problem, preventive nutrition education involving the dissemination of healthy eating habits in schools and encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods are strongly recommended.

  7. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Erythropoietin Cause Hemoglobin Variability- Is It ‘Normal’?

    Gupta, Ashwani K; David, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobin variability (Hb-var) in patients with chronic kidney disease has been stipulated to be a result of exogenous treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and has been related to mortality in dialysis patients. We hypothesized the existence of Hb-var independent of ESA administration and compared it to that in healthy adults using data from the Scripps-Kaiser and NHANES III databases. We studied the Hb-var in 1571 peritoneal dialysis patients which included 116 patients no...

  9. Optical Spectra of Hemoglobin Taken from Alcohol Dependent Humans

    Dudok K.; Dudok T.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2005-01-01

    Optical spectra of CNMetHb and CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250, taken from the blood of humans with alcohol dependence, are studied in the spectral range of 450–750nm. The shifts in the spectral absorption maxima of CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250 complexes are observed for the diseased persons with alcohol dependence. The obtained results show that the hemoglobin structure of alcohol dependent humans is changed.

  10. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking fo...... isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform....

  11. The Determinants of Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    Tomanoski Vasilije; Gjorgjievska Gordana; Zvezdakovska Jasminka; Krecova Vasiliki; Andonoski Aleksandar; Nakovska Margarita; Muharemi Serjat; Kliseski Tode; Janakievska Pavlina; Ristoska Katerina; Veliu Ramazan; Vasileva Liljana; Jovanov Toni; Mehmedi-Veseli Kaltrina; Ferati Beane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Factors that have been reported to affect erythropoietin (EPO) responsiveness in hemodialysis (HD) patients include iron deficiency, chronic inflammation, secondary hyperparathyroidism, malnutrition and inadequate HD dose. The aim of the study was to analyze the deteminants of hemoglobin variability in HD patients. Methods. The study encompassed 526 patients (197 F and 329 M). According to HD vintage at the beginning of the study the patients were divided into two groups: group-...

  12. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  13. A retrospective study on fourteen year hemoglobin genotype ...

    This suggests the possibility of many other residents in the capital city of Ondo state carrying the abnormal forms of hemoglobin genotype, and calling for more efforts in the area of genetic counseling. The gene frequencies of A, S, and C were 0.91, 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. The prevalence of HbAA in this study has been ...

  14. Improvements in or relating to antibodies active against human hemoglobin Asub(1C)

    Javid, J.; Cerami, A.; Koenig, R.J.; Pettis, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for preparing an antibody against human hemoglobin Asub(1c) which is substantially free of cross-reactivity against the human hemoglobins A 0 , Asub(1a) and Asub(1b). The antibodies are collected from cats, goats or sheep following injections of purified hemoglobin Asub(1c) antigen since these animals do not naturally produce hemoglobin Asub(1c). A radioimmunoassay method is also described whereby these antibodies are used to determine the quantity of hemoglobin Asub(1c) in blood samples. This is a useful technique in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. (U.K.)

  15. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of ethanol of the radiation sensitivity of human hemoglobin

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of oxy-, deoxy-, and methemoglobin (HbOs, Hbbj, and MetHb) in water solutions containing 0.2 M ethanol and in ethanol-free solutions was compared. Radiation sensitivity was estimated on the basis of changes in absorbance at the Soret band (a = 430 nm for deoxyhemoglobin), changes in the absorbance ration Avqv/Avwt determined after conversion of irradiated preparations to methemoglobin, and changes in the value of parameters describing the reaction of hemoglobin oxygenation. The protection coefficient p of hemoglobin by ethanol (ratio of a change in the absence of ethanol to that in its presence) calculated from changes in absorbance at the Soret band equaled about 1.5 at a 4-Mrad dose in all bases except MetHb irradiated in air for which p was much higher (about 3.2). The protection coefficient p' calculated from Dtx values for changes in Avchemically bondv/Avwt equaled 2.2 for HbOs, and 2.8 for MetHb for preparations irradiated in air; p' = 1.7 for Hbbj and 1.8 for MetHb for preparations irradiated under argon. On the basis of these results, the role of /sup ./OH radicals and oxygen in the radiation damage of hemoglobin is discussed

  17. Hydrogen-tritium exchange survey of allosteric effects in hemoglobin

    Englander, J.J.; Englander, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The oxy and deoxy forms of hemoglobin display major differences in H-exchange behavior. Hydrogen-tritium exchange experiments on hemoglobin were performed in the low-resolution mode to observe the dependence of these differences on pH (Bohr effect), organic phosphates, and salt. Unlike a prior report, increasing pH was found to decrease the oxy-deoxy difference monotonically, in general accordance with the alkaline Bohr effect. A prior report that the H-exchange difference between oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin vanishes at pH 9, and thus appears to reflect the Bohr effect alone, was found to be due to the borate buffer used, which at high pH tends to abolish the oxy-deoxy difference in a limited region of the H-exchange curve. Effects on hemoglobin H exchange due to organic phosphates parallel the differential binding of these agents (inositol hexaphosphate more than diphosphoglycerate, deoxy more than oxy, at low pH more than at high pH). Added salt slows H exchange of deoxyhemoglobin and has no effect on the oxy form. These results display the sensitivity of simple H-exchange measurements for finding and characterizing effects on structure and dynamics that may occur anywhere in the protein and help to define conditions for higher resolution approaches that can localize the changes observed

  18. Pitfalls in the biological diagnosis of common hemoglobin disorders.

    Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    In West-European countries, hemoglobin disorders are no more rare diseases. Programs for diagnosis of heterozygous carriers have been established to prevent cases with major sickle cell disease or thalassemias. These studies have been done essentially by high performance liquid chromatography on cation-exchange columns and electrophoresis (mostly capillary electrophoresis). They have been done through systematic population studies or premarital diagnosis. We describe in this work the frequent or rare pitfalls encountered, which led to false negative or positive diagnosis both in the field of sickle cell disease and thalassemias. In the absence of a well identified hemoglobin disorder in the proband's family, it is a rule that the use of a single test is insufficient to identify formally HbS. The presence of HbS could also be masked by another hemoglobin abnormality. The sole measurement of HbA2 level is insufficient to characterize a thalassemic trait: this level needs always to be interpreted considering RBC parameters and iron metabolic status. In difficult cases, the definitive answer may require a family study and/or a molecular genetic characterization.

  19. Characterization of trypsin-derived peptides acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin

    Springer, D.L.; Goheen, S.C.; Edmonds, C.G.; McCulloch, M.; Sylvester, D.M.; Sander, C.; Bull, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Even though there are a number of sources for human exposure to acrylamide, reliable biomarkers of exposure are not available. In an effort to develop such a biomarker, the authors are characterizing peptides derived from trypsin digests of acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin. For this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with purified human hemoglobin (Ao) and decomposition products removed by dialysis. When the adducted hemoglobin was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, radioactivity eluted with the α and β subunits, suggesting covalent binding. Digestion of individual subunits with trypsin followed by reverse phase HPLC, indicated that most of the radioactivity associated with the α subunit co-eluted with a single peptide. Similar results were observed for the β subunit except that significant amounts of radioactivity eluted with the solvent front, suggesting that radioactivity was released by trypsin digestion. Currently, these preparation are under further characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This approach will aid in the identification of the adducted will aid in the identification of the adducted peptide and subsequent preparation of an acrylamide-specific antibody

  20. Structural and functional properties of hemoglobins from unicellular organisms as revealed by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobins have been discovered in organisms from virtually all kingdoms. Their presence in unicellular organisms suggests that the gene for hemoglobin is very ancient and that the hemoglobins must have functions other than oxygen transport, in view of the fact that O2 delivery is a diffusion-controlled process in these organisms. Based on sequence alignment, three groups of hemoglobins have been characterized in unicellular organisms. The group-one hemoglobins, termed truncated hemoglobins, consist of proteins with 110-140 amino acid residues and a novel two-over-two alpha-helical sandwich motif. The group-two hemoglobins, termed flavohemoglobins, consist of a hemoglobin domain, with a classical three-over-three alpha-helical sandwich motif, and a flavin-containing reductase domain that is covalently attached to it. The group-three hemoglobins consist of myoglobin-like proteins that have high sequence homology and structural similarity to the hemoglobin domain of flavohemoglobins. In this review, recent resonance Raman studies of each group of these proteins are presented. Their implications are discussed in the context of the structural and functional properties of these novel hemoglobins.

  1. Evaluation of three methods for hemoglobin measurement in a blood donor setting

    Jacob Rosenblit

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The hemoglobin (Hb level is the most-used parameter for screening blood donors for the presence of anemia, one of the most-used methods for measuring Hb levels is based on photometric detection of cyanmetahemoglobin, as an alternative to this technology, HemoCue has developed a photometric method based on the determination of azide metahemoglobin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of three methods for hemoglobin (Hb determination in a blood bank setting. DESIGN: Prospective study utilizing blood samples to compare methods for Hb determination. SETTING: Hemotherapy Service of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, a private institution in the tertiary health care system. SAMPLE: Serial blood samples were collected from 259 individuals during the period from March to June 1996. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Test performances and their comparisons were assessed by the analysis of coefficients of variation (CV, linear regression and mean differences. RESULTS: The CV for the three methods were: Coulter 0.68%, Cobas 0.82% and HemoCue 0.69%. There was no difference between the mean Hb determination for the three methods (p>0.05. The Coulter and Cobas methods showed the best agreement and the HemoCue method gave a lower Hb determination when compared to both the Coulter and Cobas methods. However, pairs of methods involving the HemoCue seem to have narrower limits of agreement (± 0.78 and ± 1.02 than the Coulter and Cobas combination (± 1.13. CONCLUSION: The three methods provide good agreement for hemoglobin determination.

  2. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive

  3. Modeling hemoglobin and hemoglobin:haptoglobin complex clearance in a non-rodent species–pharmacokinetic and therapeutic implications

    Boretti, Felicitas S.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Palmer, Andre F.; Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haptoglobin (Hp) prevents hemoglobin (Hb) extravasation and attenuates Hb induced tissue oxidation and vasoconstriction. Small animal models such as mouse, rat and guinea pig appear to demonstrate proof-of-concept for Hb neutralization by Hp in diverse pre-clinical conditions. However, these species differ significantly from humans in the clearance of Hb:Hp and demonstrate long persistence of circulating Hb:Hp complexes. Objective: The focus of this study is to understand Hb:Hp...

  4. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    Mueser, Timothy C., E-mail: timothy.mueser@utoledo.edu; Griffith, Wendell P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kovalevsky, Andrey Y. [Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Langan, Paul [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  5. Spectral filtering modulation method for estimation of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation based on a single fluorescence emission spectrum in tissue phantoms.

    Liu, Quan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-10-01

    to the scattering property of the tissue model for the chosen probe geometry. A simple two-step ratiometric method based on the SFM of fluorescence spectra is proposed to estimate the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in a tissue model using only a single fluorescence emission spectrum. This method is immune to the variation in system throughput caused by inconsistent optical coupling because of its ratiometric nature. Calibration curves are insensitive to the scattering coefficient for the chosen probe geometry. Moreover, since only fluorescence intensities at a few wavelengths in a single fluorescence emission spectrum are needed in this method, the SFM method minimizes the amount of required data and reduces the data acquisition time. Finally, since this method does not use nonlinear regression, it can dramatically save computation time in data processing. The high sensitivity of the proposed method to superficial tissue volumes makes it ideal for fluorescence based oximetry and medical diagnostics in applications such as early epithelial cancer diagnosis or wherever the measured tissue volume is exposed to the outside such as in open surgery.

  6. Determining total hemoglobin mass by means of {sup 13}CO breath analysis

    Sowa, Marcus; Hering, Peter [Institut fuer Lasermedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our investigations is the development of a non-invasive method for the determination of the total hemoglobin mass in the human body by means of Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy (CALOS). The mentioned CALOS system utilizes a CO gas laser in the mid infrared region around 5{mu}m. This system allows isotopologue selective online measurements of {sup 13}CO with a sensitivity of 7 ppb.Hz{sup -1/2}. {sup 13}CO is a non radioactive isotopologue occurring in a ratio of about 1.1 % of the natural CO composition. CO is commonly known as a highly toxic gas but it is also endogenously produced during heme degradation. About 80 % of this CO is exhaled yielding to CO concentrations between 1 ppm to 4 ppm in healthy humans. Transportation of CO through the body is established by hemoglobin which has a high affinity towards CO. Because of this fact inhaled CO is taken up by the blood until equilibrium between the alveolar air and the blood is reached. By determining the exhaled CO concentrations before and after the inhalation of a certain amount of CO a measure for the t-Hb mass can be calculated. The enormous advantage of the isotopologue measurement is the very small amount of {sup 13}CO which can be used for harmless CO inhalation. All data necessary for calculating the t-Hb mass are obtained from breath measurements making this method non invasive.

  7. Association between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin and post-operative infections after non-emergent surgery

    Blankush, Joseph M.; Leitman, I. Michael; Soleiman, Aron; Tran, Trung

    2016-01-01

    Background: A chronic state of impaired glucose metabolism affects multiple components of the immune system, possibly leading to an increased incidence of post-operative infections. Such infections increase morbidity, length of stay, and overall cost. This study evaluates the correlation between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and post-operative infections. Study design: Adult patients undergoing non-emergent procedures across all surgical subspecialties from January...

  8. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  9. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  10. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  11. A theoretical model for the effects of reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity on tumor oxygenation

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Hsu, Richard; Lin, P.-S.; Venitz, Jurgen; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a theoretical model for oxygen delivery to tumors, and to use the model to simulate the effects of changing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen on tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Hemoglobin affinity is expressed in terms of P 50 , the partial pressure of oxygen (Po 2 ) at half saturation. Effects of changing P 50 on arterial Po 2 are predicted using an effective vessel approach to describe diffusive oxygen transport in the lungs, assuming fixed systemic oxygen demand and fixed blood flow rate. The decline in oxygen content of blood as it flows through normal tissue before entering the tumor region is assumed fixed. The hypoxic fraction of the tumor region is predicted using a three-dimensional simulation of diffusion from a network of vessels whose geometry is derived from observations of tumor microvasculature in the rat. Results: In air-breathing rats, predicted hypoxic fraction decreases with moderate increases in P 50 , but increases with further increases of P 50 , in agreement with previous experimental results. In rats breathing hyperoxic gases, and in humans breathing either normoxic or hyperoxic gases, increased P 50 is predicted to improve tumor oxygenation. Conclusions: The results support the administration of synthetic agents to increase P 50 during radiation treatment of tumors

  12. Distribution of hemoglobin phenotypes in four different districts of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil.

    Andrade-Casseb, A; Krauze, A; Lafontaine, R M; Tada, M S; Silva, W A; Simões, A L; Engracia, V

    2008-10-01

    Hemoglobin profile studies have been carried out in four samples from different districts of Porto Velho (Rondônia State) in the western Amazonian region of Brazil: Candelária, Bate Estaca, Hemeron (at the State Blood Bank), and São Carlos. Samples from 337 unrelated individuals were collected during medical and paramedical team visits by professionals from the Instituto de Pesquisa em Patologia Tropical and the Centro de Pesquisa em Patologias Tropicais (both research institutes in tropical diseases). The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of alleles in the hemoglobin system, mainly alleles HB*A, *S, and *E. The overall phenotype frequencies were HB A,S = 0.025, HB A,E = 0.006, and HB A,A = 0.969. Samples from the blood bank subjects and samples from the homogeneous areas of São Carlos and Candelária plus Bate Estaca have a chi-square of heterogeneity of 6.383 (p = 0.041) and 8.406 (p = 0.015), respectively. The allele frequencies (HB*A = 0.984, HB*S = 0.012, and HB*E = 0.003) do not significantly differ from frequencies found in other Brazilian regions.

  13. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-02-01

    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spectroscopic markers of the TR quaternary transition in human hemoglobin.

    Schirò, Giorgio; Cammarata, Marco; Levantino, Matteo; Cupane, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    In this work, we use a sol-gel protocol to trap and compare the R and T quaternary states of both the deoxygenated (deoxyHb) and carbonmonoxide (HbCO) derivatives of human hemoglobin. The near infrared optical absorption band III and the infrared CO stretching band are used to detect the effect of quaternary structure on the spectral properties of deoxyHb and HbCO; comparison with myoglobin allows for an assessment of tertiary and quaternary contributions to the measured band shifts. The RT transition is shown to cause a blue shift of the band III by approximately 35 cm(-1) for deoxyHb and a red shift of the CO stretching band by only approximately 0.3 cm(-1) for HbCO. This clearly shows that quaternary structure changes are transmitted to the heme pocket and that effects on deoxyHb are much larger than on HbCO, at least as far as the band energies are concerned. Experiments performed in the ample temperature interval of 300-10K show that the above quaternary structure effects are "static" and do not influence the dynamic properties of the heme pocket, at least as probed by the temperature dependence of band III and of the CO stretching band. The availability of quaternary structure sensitive spectroscopic markers and the quantitative measurement of the quaternary structure contribution to band shifts will be of considerable help in the analysis of flash-photolysis experiments on hemoglobin. Moreover, it will enable one to characterize the dynamic properties of functionally relevant hemoglobin intermediates and to study the kinetics of both the T-->R and R-->T quaternary transitions through time-resolved spectroscopy.

  15. The Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c to Blood Glucose

    Sikaris, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The understanding that hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) represents the average blood glucose level of patients over the previous 120 days underlies the current management of diabetes. Even in making such a statement, we speak of “average blood glucose” as though “blood glucose” were itself a simple idea. When we consider all the blood glucose forms—arterial versus venous versus capillary, whole blood versus serum versus fluoride-preserved plasma, fasting versus nonfasting—we can start to see that this ...

  16. Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study

    Petrova, Irina Y.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Brecht, Hans-Peter F.; Svensen, Christer H.; Olsson, Joel; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2005-07-01

    The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.

  17. Moessbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    Zhang Xiufang; Shen Linming; Chen Songsen; Ao Zhaohui; Liu Yuanyuan; Gao Naifei; Zheng Yuanming; Shong Liangquan

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra ''a'' and ''b'', corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum ''c'' was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra ''c1'' in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed. (orig.)

  18. Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    Xiufang, Zhang; Linming, Shen; Songsen, Chen; Yuanyuan, Liu; Naifei, Gao; Yuanming, Zheng; Zhaohui, Ao; Liangquan, Shong

    1990-07-01

    The Mössbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra “a” and “b”, corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum “c” was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra “cl” in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed.

  19. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of hemoglobin SC disease.

    Bunn, H F; Noguchi, C T; Hofrichter, J; Schechter, G P; Schechter, A N; Eaton, W A

    1982-01-01

    Solution and cell studies were performed to ascertain why individuals with hemoglobin (Hb) SC have disease whereas those with Hb AS do not. The polymerization of deoxygenated mixtures containing sickle cell Hb (Hb S; alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Val) and Hb C (alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Lys) was investigated by measurements of delay times and solubilities. In mixtures containing more than 40% Hb S, polymerization takes place by the same mechanism as in solutions of Hb S alone, with no evi...

  20. Within-host evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals adaptation toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær; Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    the within-host evolution of the transmissible P. aeruginosa DK2 lineage. We found positive selection for promoter mutations leading to increased expression of the phu system. By mimicking conditions of the CF airways in vitro, we experimentally demonstrate that increased expression of phuR confers a growth...... advantage in the presence of hemoglobin, thus suggesting that P. aeruginosa evolves toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin. To rule out that this adaptive trait is specific to the DK2 lineage, we inspected the genomes of additional P. aeruginosa lineages isolated from CF airways and found similar adaptive...... might therefore be a promising strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients. IMPORTANCE Most bacterial pathogens depend on scavenging iron within their hosts, which makes the battle for iron between pathogens and hosts a hallmark of infection. Accordingly, the ability...

  1. FET immunosensor for hemoglobin A1c using a gold nanofilm grown by a seed-mediated technique and covered with mixed self-assembled monolayers

    Xue, Q.; Bian, C.; Tong, J.; Sun, J.; Zhang, H.; Xia, S.

    2012-01-01

    A micro FET-based immunosensor was developed for the determination of hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c). The HbA1c/hemoglobin ratio is an important index in diabetes control. The sensor was fabricated by Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor (CMOS) and Micro Electronic Mechanical System (MEMS) techniques. The antibodies were immobilized via mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold nanofilm. The nanofilm was deposited on a gold electrode by seed-mediated growth and gave a uniform and well distributed coverage. Nonspecific sites and interferences by noise were eliminated by covering the AuNPs with mixed SAMs. Compared to the immunosensor fabricated via the mixed SAMs method without gold nanofilm, the immunosensor displays a more than 2-fold sensitivity. The immunosensor is capable of detecting HbA1c and hemoglobin in hemolyzed and diluted whole blood, and results showed good agreement with the established clinical method. (author)

  2. Hubungan antara Fatigue, Jumlah CD4, dan Kadar Hemoglobin pada Pasien yang Terinfeksi Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV

    Kusman Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV di dalam tubuh secara terus menerus menyebabkan gangguan pada hampir semua sistem tubuh yang berdampak pada munculnya gejala kelelahan (fatigue. Fatigue banyak dilaporkan pada penderita HIV/AIDS dengan prevalensi berkisar antara 20% sampai 60%. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji hubungan antara fatigue dengan jumlah CD4 dan kadar Hb pada pasien HIV/AIDS. Sebanyak 77 responden direkrut secara purposif di sebuah Klinik Rawat Jalan Rumah Sakit di Kota Bandung. Fatigue diukur menggunakan kuesioner HIV Related Fatigue Score (HRFS. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis menggunakan uji pearson correlation. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara fatigue dengan jumlah CD4 dalam darah (r = -.289, p< 0.05 dan kadar Hb (r = -.349, p< 0.05. Selain itu, kadar Hb memiliki hubungan yang bermakna dengan jumlah CD4 pada pasien HIV/AIDS (r = .360, p < .01. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan perlunya monitoring kadar CD4 dan Hb secara berkala dan melakukan intervensi untuk mengatasi penurunan Hb dan CD4 sesegera mungkin sehingga dapat mencegah agar fatigue tidak berkelanjutan. Kata kunci: CD4, fatigue, hemoglobin, HIV/AIDS.   The Correlation of Between Fatigue, CD4 Cell Count, and Hemoglobin Level among HIV/AIDS Patients Abstract The existence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in the body continuously causes disruption in almost all body systems that impact on the emergence of symptoms of fatigue. Fatigue was widely reported in HIV/AIDS patients with prevalence ranging from 20% to 60%. This study examined the relationship between fatigue and CD4 cell count and hemoglobin levels in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 77 respondents were recruited purposively in Outpatient Clinic, General Hospital Bandung City. Fatigue was measured using the HIV Related Fatigue Score (HRFS questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using pearson correlation product moment. The results showed there were significant

  3. Modeling hemoglobin at optical frequency using the unconditionally stable fundamental ADI-FDTD method.

    Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong

    2011-04-12

    This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.

  4. Heterozygote Hemoglobin G-Coushatta as the Cause of a Falsely Decreased Hemoglobin A1C in an Ion-Exchange HPLC Method

    Kurtoğlu Ayşegül Uğur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is used for the assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA1c measurement. Here, we report two cases of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta (HBB:c.68A>C variant that interferes in the measurement of HbA1c by a cation-exchange HPLC (CE-HPLC method. HbA1c was measured by a CE-HPLC method in a Tosoh HLC-723 G7 instrument. The HbA1c levels were 2.9% and 4%. These results alerted us to a possible presence of hemoglobinopathy. In the hemoglobin variant analysis, HbA2 levels were detected as 78.3% and 40.7% by HPLC using the short program for the Biorad Variant II. HbA1c levels were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a Siemens Dimension instrument. HbA1c levels were reported as 5.5% and 5.3%. DNA mutation analysis was performed to detect the abnormal hemoglobin variant. Presence of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta variant was detected in the patients. The Hb G-Coushatta variants have an impact on the determination of glycated hemoglobin levels using CEHPLC resulting in a false low value. Therefore, it is necessary to use another measurement method.

  5. Genetic and developmental variation of hemoglobin in the deermouse, Peromyscus maniculatus.

    Maybank, K M; Dawson, W D

    1976-04-01

    A genetic investigation of electrophoretic hemoglobin variants of the deermouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, shows three alleles, Hblf, Hblr, and Hblo, at a duplicated site controlling the six adult phenotypes. The Hblf allele has not been described previously. The hemoglobin locus is not closely linked to the albino locus. Fetal hemoglobin is distinct from any of the adult components and has a slower electrophoretic mobility. The fetal phenotype changes to the adult type between the days 15 and 18 of prenatal life.

  6. Quantitative analysis of composition, structure and features of hemoglobin under the influence of radiation in vivo

    Kurbanov, F.F.; Mamedov, T.G.; Abdullaev, Kh.D.; Akhmedov, N.A.; Manojlov, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The literature data on the changes in composition, structure and properties of hemoglobin under the influence of ionizing radiation in vivo are reviewed. The algorithm of calculation of damaged hemoglobin molecule percentage is proposed. Four main realizations of radiation-chemical damage are considered. By the algorithm the estimation of the damaged molecules percentage resulted from the exposure to 10 Gy is given. Hemoglobin radiation damage is considered as one of the most important mechanisms triggering radiation sickness. 11 refs

  7. Structure of Greyhound hemoglobin: origin of high oxygen affinity.

    Bhatt, Veer S; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Harris, David R; Couto, C Guillermo; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of Greyhound hemoglobin (GrHb) determined to 1.9 Å resolution. GrHb was found to crystallize with an α₁β₁ dimer in the asymmetric unit and belongs to the R2 state. Oxygen-affinity measurements combined with the fact that GrHb crystallizes in the R2 state despite the high-salt conditions used for crystallization strongly indicate that GrHb can serve as a model high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) for higher mammals, especially humans. Structural analysis of GrHb and its comparison with the R2-state of human Hb revealed several regions that can potentially contribute to the high oxygen affinity of GrHb and serve to rationalize the additional stability of the R2-state of GrHb. A previously well studied hydrophobic cluster of bar-headed goose Hb near α119 was also incorporated in the comparison between GrHb and human Hb. Finally, a structural comparison with generic dog Hb and maned wolf Hb was conducted, revealing that in contrast to GrHb these structures belong to the R state of Hb and raising the intriguing possibility of an additional allosteric factor co-purifying with GrHb that can modulate its quaternary structure.

  8. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  9. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica Abnormal hemoglobins

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Brasil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96% apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%, 5 Hb AC (0,98%, 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%, 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48% e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%, que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50% são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%, sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população.The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown

  10. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  11. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  12. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%), heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%), heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%), double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%), and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%). The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors. PMID:25050123

  13. Infant Responsiveness, Alertness, Hemoglobin and Growth in Rural Sidama, Ethiopia

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Thomas, David G.; Kennedy, Tay S.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition (e.g. Dempsey 2008, Wachs et al 2005) in addition to investigating infant behavior within the context of changes in iron status over time (e.g. Black et al. 2004, Murray-Kolb & Beard 2009). Existing research is typically limited to investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behavior and nutritional status may be bidirectional (Hulthén 2003). The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, hemoglobin, the frequency of alertness, and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month hemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared to responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, though weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery [Lab-TAB]) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352

  14. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of hemoglobin and its isolated subunits

    Hoy, G.R.; Cook, D.C.; Berger, R.L.; Friedman, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of 90% enriched 57Fe hemoglobin and its isolated subunits have been prepared. Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements have been made on three such samples. Sample one contained contributions of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and carbonmonoxyhemoglobin. This sample was studied from a temperature of 90 K down to 230 mK. Measurements were also made at 4.2 K using a small applied magnetic field of 1.0 T. In general, the measured quadrupole splittings and isomer shifts for each component agreed with previous measurements on single component samples in the literature, and thus demonstrated that chemically enriched hemoglobin has not been altered. The second and third samples were isolated alpha and beta subunits, respectively. We have found measurable Moessbauer spectral differences between the HbO 2 sites in the alpha subunit sample and the beta subunit sample. The measured Moessbauer spectral areas indicate that the iron ion has the largest mean-square displacement at the deoxy Hb sites as compared to that at the oxy- and carbonmonoxy Hb sites. The mean-square displacement at the HbO 2 sites is the smallest

  15. Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and the role of free fetal hemoglobin

    Stefan Rocco Hansson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of pregnancy complications and affects 3–7 % of pregnant women. This review summarizes the current knowledge of a new potential etiology of the disease, with a special focus on hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, we also suggest hemoglobin as a potential target for therapy. Gene and protein profiling studies have shown increased expression and accumulation of free fetal hemoglobin in the preeclamptic placenta. Predominantly due to oxidative damage to the placental barrier, fetal hemoglobin leaks over to the maternal circulation. Free hemoglobin and its metabolites are toxic in several ways; a ferrous hemoglobin (Fe2+ binds strongly to the vasodilator nitric oxide and reduces the availability of free nitric oxide, which results in vasoconstriction, b hemoglobin (Fe2+ with bound oxygen spontaneously generates free oxygen radicals and c the heme groups create an inflammatory response by inducing activation of neutrophils and cytokine production. The endogenous protein α1-microglobulin, with radical and heme binding properties, has shown both ex vivo and in vivo to have the ability to counteract free hemoglobin-induced placental and kidney damage. Oxidative stress in general, and more specifically fetal hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress, could play a key role in the pathology of preeclampsia seen both in the placenta and ultimately in the maternal endothelium.

  16. In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-04-01

    We developed dual-modality microscope integrating photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) to noninvasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO₂) and oxygen partial pressure (pO₂) in vivo in single blood vessels with high spatial resolution. While PAM measures sO₂ by imaging hemoglobin optical absorption at two wavelengths, FCM quantifies pO₂ using phosphorescence quenching. The variations of sO₂ and pO₂ values in multiple orders of vessel branches under hyperoxic (100% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions correlate well with the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, the total concentration of hemoglobin is imaged by PAM at an isosbestic wavelength.

  17. Purification, characterization and sequence analyses of the extracellular giant hemoglobin from Oligobrachia mashikoi

    Nakagawa, Taro; Onoda, Seiko; Kanemori, Masaaki; Sasayama, Yuichi; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We purified an extracellular hemoglobin with the molecular mass of ca. 440 kDa from the whole homogenates of Oligobrachia mashikoi (phylum Pogonophora) by a one-step gel-filtration. The preparation was pure to be crystallized. The P50 values of the hemoglobin and the fresh blood prepared from O. mashikoi were about 0.82 Torr and 0.9 Torr, respectively, which were much lower than the P50 value of human hemoglobin. However, the n values of the hemoglobin and the blood were about 1.2 and 1.1, re...

  18. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur.

    Nagra, Navraj S; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored perioperatively. Analysis found a statistically and clinically significant mean drop in hemoglobin of 31.1 g/L over time from pre-operatively (D0) to day-5 post-operatively (p hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p = 0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-h post-operative period (D0 to day-1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at day-2. Relying on the day-1 hemoglobin could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused, and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring. Level IV Prognostic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivation of fetal hemoglobin in thalassemia and sickle cell disease

    Sandro Eridani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been recently devoted to mechanisms involved in the perinatal hemoglobin switch, as it was long ago established that the survival of fetal hemoglobin (HbF production in significant amount can reduce the severity of the clinical course in severe disorders like β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD. For instance, when β-thalassemia is associated with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH the disease takes a mild course, labeled as thalassemia intermedia. The same clinical amelioration occurs for the association between HPFH and SCD. As for the mechanism of this effect, some information has been obtained from the study of natural mutations at the human β-globin locus in patients with increased HbF, like the Corfu thalassemia mutations. Important evidence came from the discovery that drugs capable of improving the clinical picture of SCD, like decitabine ad hydroxycarbamide, are acting through the reactivation, to some extent, of HbF synthesis. The study of the mechanism of action of these compounds was followed by the identification of some genetic determinants, which promote this event. In particular, among a few genetic factors involved in this process, the most relevant appears the BCL11A gene, which is now credited to be able to silence γ-globin genes in the perinatal period by interaction with several erythroid-specific transcription factors and is actually considered as a barrier to HbF reactivation by known HbF inducing agents. Epigenetics is also a player in the process, mainly through DNA demethylation. This is certified by the recent demonstration that hypomethylating agents such as 5-azacytidine and decitabine, the first compounds used for HbF induction by pharmacology, act as irreversible inhibitors of demethyltransferase enzymes. Great interest has also been raised by the finding that several micro-RNAs, which act as negative regulators of gene expression, have been implicated in the

  20. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  1. Hair cortisol concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African American adults.

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calorimetric and spectroscopic properties of small globular proteins (bovine serum albumin, hemoglobin) after free radical generation

    Farkas, N.; Belagyi, J.; Lorinczy, D.

    2003-01-01

    Mild oxidation of -SH-containing proteins (serum albumin, hemoglobin) by Ce(IV)-ions in the presence of the spin trap phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) resulted in the appearance of strongly immobilized nitroxide free radicals which evidences the formation of thiyl radicals on the thiol site of the proteins. In hydroxyl free radical generating system a fraction of strongly immobilized nitroxide radicals was also detected in these proteins, which implies that the oxidation of a fraction of the thiol groups was also involved in the free radical reaction. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments the melting processes of the proteins were calorimetrically irreversible, therefore the two-state kinetic model was used to evaluate the experiments. The results support the view that site-specific interaction of SH-containing proteins with hydroxyl and thiyl free radicals is able to modify the internal dynamics of proteins and affect the conformation of large molecules

  3. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case

    Guang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM and Protein Contact Network (PCN are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology.

  4. Fetal to adult transplant in sheep: a model for study of hemoglobin switching

    Zanjani, E.D.; McGlave, P.B.; Stamatoyannopoulus, G.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have employed the sheep as an animal model for the study of conditions favoring successful engraftment of fetal hematopoietic stem cells into the adult. The results of the studies demonstrated that fetal stem cells can repopulate the hematopoietic system in the total body-irradiated adult sheep; successful reconstruction occurred with a mixture of fetal hematopoietic cells (liver and marrow) composed of at least 20% bone marrow-derived cells. Engraftment did not occur when liver cells alone were used. This was independent of cell dose and gestational age of the donor animal. The findings are also informative with regard to factors which are involved in the regulation of fetal to adult hemoglobin switching. (Auth.)

  5. Moessbauer studies of hemoglobin in erythrocytes exposed to neutron radiation

    Niemiec, Katarzyna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Buczkowski, Mateusz [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland); Fornal, Maria [Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology (Poland); Pohorecki, Wladyslaw [AGH University, Faculty of Energy and Fuels (Poland); Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Jozef [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Solid State Physics (Poland); Grodzicki, Tomasz [Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology (Poland); Burda, Kvetoslava, E-mail: kvetoslava.burda@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland)

    2012-03-15

    We studied radiation effects on the stability of various states of hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBC) irradiated with a very low dose of neutron rays, 50 {mu}Gy. We investigated RBCs isolated from blood of healthy donors. Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to monitor different forms of Hb. Our results show, for the first time, that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) are two Hb forms sensitive to such a low neutron radiation. Both Hbs change into a new Hb form (Hb{sub irr}). Additionally, OxyHb transfers into HbOH/H{sub 2}O, which under our experimental conditions is resistant to the action of neutron rays.

  6. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  7. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Frankia. Both the nonsymbiotic and symbiotic genes retained their specific patterns of expression when introduced into the legume Lotus corniculatus. We interpret this finding to mean that the controls of expression of the symbiotic gene in Casuarina must be similar to the controls of expression...... of the leghemoglobin genes that operate in nodules formed during the interaction between rhizobia and legumes. Deletion analyses of the promoters of the Casuarina symbiotic genes delineated a region that contains nodulin motifs identified in legumes; this region is critical for the controlled expression...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  9. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  10. Picosecond transient absorption study of photodissociated carboxy hemoglobin and myoglobin

    Janes, S.M.; Dalickas, G.A.; Eaton, W.A.; Hochstrasser, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The optical transient absorption spectra at 30 ps and 6.5 ns after photolysis are compared for both carboxy hemoglobin (HbCO) and carboxy myoglobin (MbCO). Both 355- and 532-nm excitation pulses were used. In all cases the shapes of the optical difference spectra thus generated are stationary over the complete time-scale studied. The photolysis spectra for MbCO are not significantly different from the equilibrium difference spectra generated on the same picosecond spectrometer when measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.5 nm. In addition, spectral parameters for delegated HbCO generated on the same spectrometer but detected by two different techniques, either by a Vidicon detector or point by point with photomultiplier tubes, are reported; the results are different from some of the previously reported picosecond experiments

  11. Free hemoglobin enhances tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in isolated human monocytes.

    Carrillo, Eddy H; Gordon, Laura E; Richardson, J David; Polk, Hiram C

    2002-03-01

    A systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is seen in approximately 75% of patients with complex blunt liver injuries treated nonoperatively. Many feel this response is caused by blood, bile, and necrotic tissue accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. Our current treatment for these patients is a delayed laparoscopic washout of the peritoneal cavity, resulting in a dramatic resolution of the SIR. Spectrophotometric analysis of the intraperitoneal fluid has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of free hemoglobin (Hb). We hypothesize that free Hb enhances the local peritoneal response by increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by monocytes, contributing to the local inflammatory response and SIR. Monocytes from five healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured in RPMI-1640 for 24 hours. Treatment groups included saline controls, lipopolysaccharide ([LPS], 10 ng/mL, from Escherichia coli), human Hb (25 microg/mL), and Hb + LPS. Supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test with Mann-Whitney posttest was used for statistical analysis with p < or = 0.05 considered significant. Free Hb significantly increased TNF-alpha production 915 +/- 223 pg/mL versus saline (p = 0.02). LPS and Hb + LPS further increased TNF-alpha production (2294 pg/mL and 2501 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.001) compared with saline controls. These data confirm that free Hb is a proinflammatory mediator resulting in the production of significant amounts of TNF-alpha. These in vitro findings support our clinical data in which timely removal of intraperitoneal free hemoglobin helps prevent its deleterious local and systemic inflammatory effects in patients with complex liver injuries managed nonoperatively.

  12. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  13. Hemoglobin genetics: recent contributions of GWAS and gene editing

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2016-01-01

    The β-hemoglobinopathies are inherited disorders resulting from altered coding potential or expression of the adult β-globin gene. Impaired expression of β-globin reduces adult hemoglobin (α2β2) production, the hallmark of β-thalassemia. A single-base mutation at codon 6 leads to formation of HbS (α2βS2) and sickle cell disease. While the basis of these diseases is known, therapy remains largely supportive. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy. Patients with elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) as adults exhibit reduced symptoms and enhanced survival. The β-globin gene locus is a paradigm of cell- and developmental stage-specific regulation. Although the principal erythroid cell transcription factors are known, mechanisms responsible for silencing of the γ-globin gene were obscure until application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we review findings in the field. GWAS identified BCL11A as a candidate negative regulator of γ-globin expression. Subsequent studies have established BCL11A as a quantitative repressor. GWAS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms lie within an essential erythroid enhancer of the BCL11A gene. Disruption of a discrete region within the enhancer reduces BCL11A expression and induces HbF expression, providing the basis for gene therapy using gene editing tools. A recently identified, second silencing factor, leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/Pokemon, shares features with BCL11A, including interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase repressive complex. These findings suggest involvement of a common pathway for HbF silencing. In addition, we discuss other factors that may be involved in γ-globin gene silencing and their potential manipulation for therapeutic benefit in treating the β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27340226

  14. Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Jeffrey Nadelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study is to determine if HbA1c levels are a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. 200 unique patients referred for liver transplantation at University of Tennessee/Methodist University Transplant Institute with a HbA1c result were included. Three glucose levels prior to the “measured” A1c (MA1c were input into an HbA1c calculator from the American Diabetes Association website to determine the “calculated” A1c (CA1c. The differences between MA1c and CA1c levels were computed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, difference of 1.5. Results. 97 (49% patients had hemoglobin A1c of less than 5%. Discordance between calculated and measured HbA1c of >0.5% was seen in 47% (n=94. Higher level of discordance of greater than >1.5 was in 12% of patients (n=24. Hemoglobin was an independent predictor for higher discordance (odds ratio 0.77 95%, CI 0.60–0.99, and p value 0.04. HbA1c was an independent predictor of occurrence of HCC (OR 2.69 955, CI 1.38–5.43, and p value 0.008. Conclusion. HbA1c is not a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, especially in those with severe anemia.

  15. The Determinants of Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    Tomanoski Vasilije

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Factors that have been reported to affect erythropoietin (EPO responsiveness in hemodialysis (HD patients include iron deficiency, chronic inflammation, secondary hyperparathyroidism, malnutrition and inadequate HD dose. The aim of the study was to analyze the deteminants of hemoglobin variability in HD patients. Methods. The study encompassed 526 patients (197 F and 329 M. According to HD vintage at the beginning of the study the patients were divided into two groups: group-1 encompassed 153 patients with HD vintage bellow 24 months, and group-2 encompassed 329 patients with HD vintage over 24 months. Over a period of 21 months after admission the following parameters were analyzed: hemoglobin (Hb, EPO dose, iron dose, HD dose (eKT/V, transferrin saturation (TSAT, C-reactive protein (CRP, ferritin and serum albumin at 3 months and parathyroid hormone (PTH at 6 months. Results. The percentage of patients with Hb>=105g/L significantly improved, and the average Hb level significantly increased in both groups over a period of 21 months. The average EPO and iron dose significantly decreased, but TSAT and ferritin levels significantly increased over a period of 21 months. The average eKT/V and s-albumin values significantly increased, but the average CRP and PTH levels significantly decresead over a period of 21 months. In group-1 EPO dose and CRP, but in group-2 EPO dose, ferritin, HD vintage, and iron dose were statistically significant predictors of the Hb level 9 months after admission. Conclusions. Insufficient EPO therapy, iron deficiency and chronic inflammation were the main factors of inadequate correction of anemia in HD patients before admission.

  16. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  17. Correlation of Oxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration and Psychophysical Amount on Speech Recognition

    Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    The subjective understanding on oral language understanding task is quantitatively evaluated by the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by the near-infrared spectroscopy. The English listening comprehension test wihch consists of two difficulty level was executed by 4 subjects during the measurement. A significant correlation was found between the subjective understanding and the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration.

  18. The impact of hemoglobin levels on patient and graft survival in renal transplant recipients.

    Moore, Jason

    2008-08-27

    It remains unclear whether low hemoglobin levels are associated with increased mortality or graft loss after renal transplantation. This study assessed the relationship of hemoglobin levels with patient and graft survival in 3859 patients with functioning renal transplants more than 6-months posttransplantation.

  19. Possible heterogeneity of centres of binding 1,8-ANS in molecules of oxygenated hemoglobin

    Parul', D.A.; Bokut', S.B.; Milyutin, A.A.; Petrov, E.P.; Nemkovich, N.A.; Sobchuk, A.N.; Dzhagarov, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Forming of oxygenated hemoglobin is one of effects of ionizing radiation action on organism. It was revealed heterogeneity of centers of binding of 1,8-ANS in intact molecule of oxygenated hemoglobin. Two types of binding centers possible reflect the existence of two regions in protein molecule with different accessibility to molecules of water

  20. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  1. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    2011-08-17

    ...] Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact on donor safety and blood availability, and potential...

  2. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  3. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder which is divided into two groups: alpha and beta. HBA1 and HBA2 are the two genes associated with alpha thalassemia. The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal hemoglobin variants of alpha globin gene in healthy abnormal hemoglobin carrying individuals with intact beta ...

  4. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  5. Hemoglobin levels and new-onset heart failure in the community

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Postmus, Douwe; Voors, Adriaan A.; Brouwers, Frank P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Hillege, Hans L.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    Background In established cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), low hemoglobin levels are associated with unfavorable outcome. Whether hemoglobin levels are associated with the development of new-onset HF in the population is unclear. This study sought to investigate the relationship

  6. Effect of laser radiation on physicochemical and functional properties of human hemoglobin in vitro

    Irzhak, LI; Zotova, EA; Mamaeva, SA

    Exposure to laser radiation increases pH and isoelectric point of human hemoglobin solution, improves the acid-base properties, increases affinity for oxygen, and decreases the Bohr effect in comparison with intact hemoglobin. The mechanisms underlying these changes are discussed.

  7. Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke

    R. Saxena (Ruchi); A.D. Wijnhoud (Annemarie); H. Carton; W. Hacke (Werner); M. Kaste; R.J. Przybelski; K.N. Stern; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in

  8. The interaction of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate with various human hemoglobins

    Bunn, H. Franklin; Briehl, Robin W.

    1970-01-01

    Oxygen equilibria were measured on a number of human hemoglobins, which had been “stripped” of organic phosphates and isolated by column chromatography. In the presence of 2 × 10-4 M 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the P50 of hemoglobins A, A2, S, and C increased about twofold, signifying a substantial and equal decrease in oxygen affinity. Furthermore, hemoglobins Chesapeake and MMilwaukee-1 which have intrinsically high and low oxygen affinities, respectively, also showed a twofold increase in P50 in the presence of 2 × 10-4 M 2,3-DPG. In comparison to these, hemoglobins AIC and F were less reactive with 2,3-DPG while hemoglobin FI showed virtually no reactivity. The N-terminal amino of each β-chain of hemoglobin AIC is linked to a hexose. In hemoglobin FI the N-terminal amino of each γ-chain is acetylated. These results suggest that the N-terminal amino groups of the non-α-chains are involved in the binding of 2,3-DPG to hemoglobin. PMID:5422014

  9. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  10. Hemoglobin in samples with leukocytosis can be measured on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers

    Scharnhorst, V.; Laar, van der P.D.; Vader, H.

    2003-01-01

    To compare lactate, bilirubin and Hemoglobin F concentrations obtained on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers with those from laboratory methods. Pooled neonatal plasma, cord blood and adult plasma samples were used for comparison of bilirubin, hemoglobin F and lactate concentrations respectively.

  11. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin in a Caco-2 cell culture model

    Maize is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. We hypothesize that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioav...

  12. Hemoglobin as an important prognostic factor in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    Toma, Takashi; Nagai, Yutaka; Moromizato, Hidehiko; Toita, Takafumi; Murayama, Sadayuki; Kanazawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of hemoglobin with clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Seventy-five patients with Stage IB to IVA disease who were treated with CCRT were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age was 49.8 years. In the treatment, standard radiotherapy was performed accompanied by concomitant chemotherapy using cisplatin. Pre-treatment hemoglobin was defined as the earliest hemoglobin level prior to the initiation of treatment. Weekly nadir hemoglobin levels throughout treatment were averaged and used as average weekly nadir hemoglobin during treatment (AWNHg). The mean follow-up time was 28.6 months. The mean pre-treatment hemoglobin of 11.6 g/dL was significantly reduced to the mean AWNHg of 9.9 g/dL. The levels of pre-treatment hemoglobin and AWNHg were significantly associated with tumor response to treatment. The 5-year cumulative disease-free survival and overall survival rates for all 75 patients were 67.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that AWNHg (≥9.0 versus <9.0 g/dL) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.038), but pre-treatment hemoglobin was not a significant factor. AWNHg was one of the most powerful independent predictors of overall survival in patients undergoing CCRT for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  13. Using the Cascade Model to Improve Antenatal Screening for the Hemoglobin Disorders

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The inherited hemoglobin disorders constitute a major public health problem. Facilitators (experienced hemoglobin counselors) were trained to deliver knowledge and skills to "frontline" practitioners to enable them to support parents during antenatal screening via a cascade (train-the-trainer) model. Objectives of…

  14. Aspartic protease activities of schistosomes cleave mammalian hemoglobins in a host-specific manner

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency of digestion of hemoglobin from four mammalian species, human, cow, sheep, and horse by acidic extracts of mixed sex adults of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Activity ascribable to aspartic protease(s from S. japonicum and S. mansoni cleaved human hemoglobin. In addition, aspartic protease activities from S. japonicum cleaved hemoglobin from bovine, sheep, and horse blood more efficiently than did the activity from extracts of S. mansoni. These findings support the hypothesis that substrate specificity of hemoglobin-degrading proteases employed by blood feeding helminth parasites influences parasite host species range; differences in amino acid sequences in key sites of the parasite proteases interact less or more efficiently with the hemoglobins of permissive or non-permissive hosts.

  15. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors involved in renal clearance of hemoglobin

    Gburek, Jakub; Verroust, Pierre J; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    -Sepharose affinity chromatography of solubilized renal brush-border membranes. Apparent dissociation constants of 1.7 microM for megalin and 4.1 microM for cubilin were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The binding was calcium dependent in both cases. Uptake of fluorescence-labeled hemoglobin by BN......The kidney is the main site of hemoglobin clearance and degradation in conditions of severe hemolysis. Herein it is reported that megalin and cubilin, two epithelial endocytic receptors, mediate the uptake of hemoglobin in renal proximal tubules. Both receptors were purified by use of hemoglobin...... not affect the uptake. By use of immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that uptake of hemoglobin in proximal tubules of rat, mouse, and dog kidneys occurs under physiologic conditions. Studies on normal and megalin knockout mouse kidney sections showed that megalin is responsible for physiologic...

  16. γ irradiation of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin in atmospheres of air and argon

    Puchala, M.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Leyko, W.

    1979-01-01

    In this study, the degrees of destruction of hemoglobin irradiated in atmospheres of air and argon were compared. Hemoglobin preparations were irradiated in the forms: oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) deoxyhemoglobin (Hb 2+ ) and methemoglobin (MetHb) applying doses of 0.5 to 5 Mrad. The degree of hemoglobin destruction was estimate on the basis of changes in the values of the absorption coefficient at the Soret band, the absorption ratio A 505 /A 563 determined after conversion of irradiated preparations into MetHb, absorption coefficinets for pyridine hemochromogen obtained from irradiated preparations, and changes in parameters characterizing the hemoglobin oxygenation reaction (log p/sub 1/2/O 2 and the Hill n coefficient). The calculated oxygen enhancement ratios S were generally higher than 1 for the parameters estimated. This indicates that the presence of oxygen during irradiation enhances hemoglobin destruction

  17. Is a blood sample for hemoglobins in the transfusional range reliable?

    López, A; Gómez, L; Petinal, G; Adán, N; Alvarado, S; Carballo, N

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the correlation and agreement in our unit and population of hemoglobin in gasometry versus hematology analyzer, to evaluate errors in transfusion or lack thereof. strong association between Point-of-care (POC) and hematimetry, with P<.001, with a coefficient of determination r 2 of 0.56, an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.63 and a Lin's concordance correlation coefficient of 0.65. For hemoglobins less than 7g/dL, a success rate of 29.41% was obtained. Low-moderate agreement of POC hemoglobin with standard haemothymetry. High probability of errors in the indication of transfusion based on gasometer hemoglobins, especially in low hemoglobins. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A new polyethyleneglycol-derivatized hemoglobin derivative with decreased oxygen affinity and limited toxicity.

    Zolog, Oana; Mot, Augustin; Deac, Florina; Roman, Alina; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol is described for derivatization of hemoglobin with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via reaction of the unmodified native hemoglobin with an activated amine-reacting polyethylene glycol derivative which, unlike protocols previously described, leads to formation of a peptide bond between hemoglobin and PEG. Dioxygen binding and peroxide reactivities of the derivatized hemoglobin are examined, and found to be within reasonable limits, with the particular observation that, unlike with a few other derivatization protocols, the dioxygen affinity is slightly lower than that of native Hb. In cell culture tests (human umbilical vein epithelial cells, HUVEC), the derivatization protocol induces no toxic effect. These results show promise towards applicability for production of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

  19. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin protein entrapped in graphene and chitosan composite film.

    Xu, Huifeng; Dai, Hong; Chen, Guonan

    2010-04-15

    A novel, biocompatible sensing strategy based on graphene and chitosan composite film for immobilizing the hemoglobin protein was firstly adopted. The direct electron transfer and bioelectrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin after incorporation into the composite film were investigated. A pair of reversible redox waves of hemoglobin was appeared, and hemoglobin could exhibit its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward H(2)O(2) in a long term. Such results indicated that graphene and chitosan composite could be a friendly biocompatible interface for immobilizing biomolecules and keeping their native structure. Furthermore, the appearance of graphene in the composite film could facilitate the electron transfer between matrix and the electroactive center of hemoglobin. Hence, this graphene and chitosan based protocol would be a promising platform for protein immobilization and biosensor preparation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

    Vanuxem, D.; Weiller, P.J.; Guillot, C.; Grimaud, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen by measuring P50 in whole blood and in stripped hemoglobin before and after exposition of blood samples from heavy smokers and polycythemic patients with high levels of HbCO to hyperbaric oxygen (2.2 ata). The concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was normal although P50 was significantly lowered, not only in whole blood but also in stripped hemoglobin. Hyperbaric oxygen normalized P50 by removing CO radicals from stripped hemoglobin. This may indicate that CO radicals exert a direct action on the hemoglobin molecule, at least at the HbCO levels studied in this work.

  1. Identification of hemoglobin variants by top-down mass spectrometry using selected diagnostic product ions.

    Coelho Graça, Didia; Hartmer, Ralf; Jabs, Wolfgang; Beris, Photis; Clerici, Lorella; Stoermer, Carsten; Samii, Kaveh; Hochstrasser, Denis; Tsybin, Yury O; Scherl, Alexander; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Hemoglobin disorder diagnosis is a complex procedure combining several analytical steps. Due to the lack of specificity of the currently used protein analysis methods, the identification of uncommon hemoglobin variants (proteoforms) can become a hard task to accomplish. The aim of this work was to develop a mass spectrometry-based approach to quickly identify mutated protein sequences within globin chain variants. To reach this goal, a top-down electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry method was developed for hemoglobin β chain analysis. A diagnostic product ion list was established with a color code strategy allowing to quickly and specifically localize a mutation in the hemoglobin β chain sequence. The method was applied to the analysis of rare hemoglobin β chain variants and an (A)γ-β fusion protein. The results showed that the developed data analysis process allows fast and reliable interpretation of top-down electron transfer dissociation mass spectra by nonexpert users in the clinical area.

  2. Simultaneous estimation of transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Nishidate, Izumi; Abdul, Wares MD.; Ohtsu, Mizuki; Nakano, Kazuya; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    We propose a method to estimate transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the proposed method, the Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for an absorbance spectrum in the visible wavelength region (460-590 nm) is used to specify the concentrations of bilirubin (Cbil), oxygenated hemoglobin (Coh), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Cdh), and melanin (Cm). Using the absorbance spectrum calculated from the measured diffuse reflectance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Total hemoglobin concentration (Cth) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are simply calculated from the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo animal experiments with bile duct ligation in rats demonstrated that the estimated Cbil is increased after ligation of bile duct and reaches to around 20 mg/dl at 72 h after the onset of the ligation, which corresponds to the reference value of Cbil measured by a commercially available transcutaneous bilirubin meter. We also performed in vivo experiments with rats while varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Coh and Cdh decreased and increased, respectively, as FiO2 decreased. Consequently, StO2 was dramatically decreased. The results in this study indicate potential of the method for simultaneous evaluation of multiple chromophores in skin tissue.

  3. Hot atom labeling of myoglobin and hemoglobin and biophysical studies of oxygen and CO binding to carp hemoglobin

    Astatke, M.

    1992-01-01

    Human Hb, the monomeric Hb of Glycera dibranchiata and horse Mb were modified by replacement of the protoheme with 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme. Following neutron capture by 79 Br and 81 Br, the locations of radioactive Br were determined. Although human Hb had approximately four times the mass and volume of the other proteins, about 9% of the activated Br was inserted into each of the three globins. These results suggest that the insertion is short-range (within 15 angstrom) and that this method could be used to label target sites in various proteins and other biological structures. Carp Hb's containing proto-, meso-, deutero- and dibromoheme were prepared. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for oxygen and CO binding were determined at Ph 6 (+IHP) (T-state, low-affinity protein) and Ph 9 (R-state, high-affinity protein). Parameters for the binding of oxygen and CO were related to the properties of the four hemes to estimate the inductive and steric factors in the ligation process. The results suggest that the steric factors are more important for the T-state than for the R-state. The T-state carp Hbs were very readily oxidized. Two new procedures were developed for the rapid determination of oxygen equilibrium isotherms for the T-state carp Hbs. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for ligation of oxygen and CO with the isolated carp α-chains were determined. Carp α-chains are the only hemoglobin chains isolated to date that can be classified as T-state. The secondary thermodynamic parameter (δH degrees) was found to be essential for classifying hemoglobins as T- or R-state

  4. A Discrete Event System Approach to Online Testing of Speed Independent Circuits

    P. K. Biswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in soft failures in deep submicron ICs, online testing is becoming an integral part of design for testability. Some techniques for online testing of asynchronous circuits are proposed in the literature, which involves development of a checker that verifies the correctness of the protocol. This checker involves Mutex blocks making its area overhead quite high. In this paper, we have adapted the Theory of Fault Detection and Diagnosis available in the literature on Discrete Event Systems to online testing of speed independent asynchronous circuits. The scheme involves development of a state based model of the circuit, under normal and various stuck-at fault conditions, and finally designing state estimators termed as detectors. The detectors monitor the circuit online and determine whether it is functioning in normal/failure mode. The main advantages are nonintrusiveness and low area overheads compared to similar schemes reported in the literature.

  5. Hemoglobin Rahere, a human hemoglobin variant with amino acid substitution at the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site. Functional consequences of the alteration and effects of bezafibrate on the oxygen bindings.

    Sugihara, J; Imamura, T; Nagafuchi, S; Bonaventura, J; Bonaventura, C; Cashon, R

    1985-01-01

    We encountered an abnormal hemoglobin (Rahere), with a threonine residue replacing the beta 82 (EF6) lysine residue at the binding site of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which was responsible for overt erythrocytosis in two individuals of a Japanese family. Hemoglobin Rahere shows a lower oxygen affinity on the binding of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or chloride ions than hemoglobin A. Although a decrease in the positive charge density at the binding sites of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in hemoglobin Rahere ap...

  6. Molecular characterization of hemoglobin D Punjab traits and clinical-hematological profile of the patients

    Sanjay Pandey

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hemoglobin (Hb D hemoglobinopathies are widespread diseases in northwestern India and usually present with mild hemolytic anemia and mild to moderate splenomegaly. The heterozygous form of Hb D is clinically silent, but coinheritance of Hb D with Hb S or beta-thalassemia produces clinically significant conditions like thalassemia intermedia of moderate severity. Under heterozygous conditions with coinheritance of alpha and beta-thalassemia, patients show a degree of clinical variability. Thus, our aim was to molecularly characterize the Hb D trait among individuals who were clinically symptomatic because of co-inheritance of alpha deletions or any beta-globin gene mutations. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in an autonomous tertiary-care hospital. METHODS: Complete blood count and red cell indices were measured using an automated cell analyzer. Quantitative assessment of hemoglobin Hb F, Hb A, Hb A2 and Hb D was performed by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. DNA extraction was done using the phenol-chloroform method. Molecular analyses on common alpha deletions and common beta mutations were done using the Gap polymerase chain reaction and Amplification Refractory Mutation System, respectively. RESULTS: We evaluated 30 patients and found clinical variation in the behavior of Hb D traits. In six patients, the Hb D traits were clinically symptomatic and behaved like those of thalassemia intermedia. Molecular characterization showed that three out of these six were IVS-1-5 positive. CONCLUSIONS: HPLC may not be the gold standard for diagnosing symptomatic Hb D Punjab traits. Hence, standard confirmation should include molecular studies.

  7. Trend of glycated hemoglobin testing in diabetic patients: to assess compliance with clinical practice guidelines

    Ghayur, S.; Tariq, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine appropriate use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) testing in accordance with current recommended guidelines. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Chemical Pathology Department Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from Oct 2011 to Oct 2012. Material and Methods: We randomly selected 170 known diabetic patients' data from our Laboratory Information System (LIS) who were retrospective analyzed for HbA1c to check for intervals and test frequency for each patient in one year. Patients with follow-up for at least one year at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad and having their routine investigations in our chemical pathology laboratory were included. The concentrations of HbA1c for all the specimens were measured immunoturbidimetrically using a microparticle agglutination inhibition method. Four guidelines namely World Health Organization (WHO), American Diabetic Association (ADA), Canadian Diabetic Association (CDA) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) about HbA1c testing were utilized for data interpretation. All tests ordered within a 2 months period or more than 6 months following the previous order were labeled as inappropriate. Results: Only 35.8% of the patients were being properly monitored as per guidelines. Out of 64% patients who were inappropriately monitored, 12.9% had repeat orders within 2 months while 51.1% of patients were being monitored at longer interval against recommended guidelines. Conclusions: Glycated hemoglobin is a useful tool to objectively assess the prior glycemic control of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The study highlights that in large proportion of diabetic patients, HbA1c is not utilized properly as a tool to assess the risk of diabetic complications but in a small proportion is also tested unnecessarily which adds to avoidable health expenditure. (author)

  8. Hemoglobin Levels Across the Pediatric Critical Care Spectrum: A Point Prevalence Study.

    Hassan, Nabil E; Reischman, Diann E; Fitzgerald, Robert K; Faustino, Edward Vincent S

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevailing hemoglobin levels in PICU patients, and any potential correlates. Post hoc analysis of prospective multicenter observational data. Fifty-nine PICUs in seven countries. PICU patients on four specific days in 2012. None. Patients' hemoglobin and other clinical and institutional data. Two thousand three hundred eighty-nine patients with median age of 1.9 years (interquartile range, 0.3-9.8 yr), weight 11.5 kg (interquartile range, 5.4-29.6 kg), and preceding PICU stay of 4.0 days (interquartile range, 1.0-13.0 d). Their median hemoglobin was 11.0 g/dL (interquartile range, 9.6-12.5 g/dL). The prevalence of transfusion in the 24 hours preceding data collection was 14.2%. Neonates had the highest hemoglobin at 13.1 g/dL (interquartile range, 11.2-15.0 g/dL) compared with other age groups (p < 0.001). The percentage of 31.3 of the patients had hemoglobin of greater than or equal to 12 g/dL, and 1.1% had hemoglobin of less than 7 g/dL. Blacks had lower median hemoglobin (10.5; interquartile range, 9.3-12.1 g/dL) compared with whites (median, 11.1; interquartile range, 9.0-12.6; p < 0.001). Patients in Spain and Portugal had the highest median hemoglobin (11.4; interquartile range, 10.0-12.6) compared with other regions outside of the United States (p < 0.001), and the highest proportion (31.3%) of transfused patients compared with all regions (p < 0.001). Patients in cardiac PICUs had higher median hemoglobin than those in mixed PICUs or noncardiac PICUs (12.3, 11.0, and 10.6 g/dL, respectively; p < 0.001). Cyanotic heart disease patients had the highest median hemoglobin (12.6 g/dL; interquartile range, 11.1-14.5). Multivariable regression analysis within diagnosis groups revealed that hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with the geographic location and history of complex cardiac disease in most of the models. In children with cancer, none of the variables tested correlated with patients' hemoglobin levels

  9. Young Investigator Program (8.5): Preventing Complex Failures of Human Interactive Systems with Erroneous Behavior Generation and Robust Human Task Behavior Patterns

    2017-11-13

    Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Conmittee on Energy and Commerce , House of Representatives. Technical Report GAO/OSI-93-4, 1993...Bolton & E . J. Bass. Formally verifying human-automation interaction as part of a system model: Limitations and tradeoffs. Innovations in Systems and...Software Engineering: A NASA Journal, 6(3):219–231, 2010. [5] M. L. Bolton & E . J. Bass. Using task analytic models to visualize model checker

  10. An Innovative Simple Technique of Blood Conservation in Adult Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot and Severely Raised Hemoglobin

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients...

  11. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in second hemoglobin measurement in nonanemic women at first booking: effect of altitude of residence in peru.

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma; Fort, Alfredo L

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine changes in hemoglobin concentration at second measurements after a normal hemoglobin concentration was detected at first booking during pregnancy at low and at high altitudes. Methods. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System in Peru which includes 379,816 pregnant women and their babies from 43 maternity units in Peru. Results. Most women remained with normal hemoglobin values at second measurement (75.1%). However, 21.4% of women became anemic at the second measurement. In all, 2.8% resulted with moderate/severe anemia and 3.5% with erythrocytosis (Hb>14.5 g/dL). In all cases Hb was higher as altitude increased. Risk for moderate/severe anemia increased associated with higher gestational age at second measurement of hemoglobin, BMI anemia was observed with normal high Hb level at first booking living at moderate and high altitude, and high BMI. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia increases as pregnancy progress, and that a normal value at first booking may not be considered sufficient as Hb values should be observed throughout pregnancy. BMI was a risk for anemia in a second measurement.

  12. [Levels of anemia and hemoglobin in pregnant adolescents who attended health care facilities of Ministry of Health of Peru, 2009-2012].

    Munares-García, Oscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To determine hemoglobin levels and anemia in pregnant adolescents who attended the health care facilities of the Ministry of Health of Peru between the years 2009 and 2012. Cross-sectional study of secondary data analysis using the Information System of the Nutritional Status of Children and Pregnant Women (SIEN). 265,788 records of pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years were reviewed. Hemoglobin levels (g/dL) and the percentage of anemia in the first, second and third trimesters were measured. Descriptive statistics with confidence intervals at 95% were applied. 3.4% of pregnant women were aged 10 to 14 years (early adolescence), 21.6% between 15 to 16 years (middle adolescence) and 75% between 17 to 19 years (late adolescence). Hemoglobin levels in pregnant adolescents were 11.6 ± 1.3 g/dL in 2009 and 11.5 ± 1.3 g/dL during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. The overall incidence of anemia for 2009 was 25.1% (95% CI 24.4-25.8); for 2010 was 26.0% (95% CI 25.3-26.6) for 2011 was 26.4% (95% CI 25.8-27.1) and 25.2% for 2012 (95% CI 24.6-25.9). Hemoglobin levels were on average lower for pregnant residents in high Andean areas. About a quarter of pregnant adolescents in our sample had anemia.

  13. Specific ability of sulfur-ligands on removal of 203Hg-labeled organomercury from hemoglobin in comparison with nitrogen-ligands

    Hojo, Yasuji; Sugiura, Yukio; Tanaka, Hisashi

    1975-01-01

    Removal of 203 Hg-labeled organomercurials, bound to sulfhydryl groups of hemoglobin, by various chelating agents was investigated by the use of equilibrium dialysis. Organomercurials employed were chlormerodrin, methylmercury, ethylmercury and phenylmercury compounds. Higher and more specific effects of the sulfur-ligands, such as penicillamine and glutathione, on removal of organomercurial were found as compared with those of the nitrogen-ligands such as EDTA, glycine and polymethylenediamines. Linear correlation was observed between the degree of organomercury elimination from hemoglobin and the stability constant (log K 1 ) of 1:1 organomercury complex in both the sulfur- and nitrogen-ligand systems and at the same value of log K 1 , the elimination-effect of sulfur-ligands was extremely greater than that of the nitrogen-ligands. The relationship between the average percentage of removal and the Taft's polar substituent constant of organic moiety of the metal was also linear among the organomercury compounds other than chlormerodrin. The average removal percentage by sulfur-ligands increased in the order, ethylmercury>methylmercury>phenylmercury, while that of the nitrogen-ligands was not different among the organomercurials investigated. In addition, direct ligand-exchange reaction between hemoglobin-SH and the ligand coordinating-atom (S or N) against organomercurials rather than Ssub(N2) reaction via the ternary complex, hemoglobin-S-RHg-ligand, is postulated. (auth.)

  14. Influence of Endurance Training During Childhood on Total Hemoglobin Mass.

    Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2018-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.

  15. Candidate Sequence Variants and Fetal Hemoglobin in Children with Sickle Cell Disease Treated with Hydroxyurea

    Green, Nancy S.; Ender, Katherine L.; Pashankar, Farzana; Driscoll, Catherine; Giardina, Patricia J.; Mullen, Craig A.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Manwani, Deepa; Crotty, Jennifer; Kisselev, Sergey; Neville, Kathleen A.; Hoppe, Carolyn; Barral, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Background Fetal hemoglobin level is a heritable complex trait that strongly correlates swith the clinical severity of sickle cell disease. Only few genetic loci have been identified as robustly associated with fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease, primarily adults. The sole approved pharmacologic therapy for this disease is hydroxyurea, with effects largely attributable to induction of fetal hemoglobin. Methodology/Principal Findings In a multi-site observational analysis of children with sickle cell disease, candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with baseline fetal hemoglobin levels in adult sickle cell disease were examined in children at baseline and induced by hydroxyurea therapy. For baseline levels, single marker analysis demonstrated significant association with BCL11A and the beta and epsilon globin loci (HBB and HBE, respectively), with an additive attributable variance from these loci of 23%. Among a subset of children on hydroxyurea, baseline fetal hemoglobin levels explained 33% of the variance in induced levels. The variant in HBE accounted for an additional 13% of the variance in induced levels, while variants in the HBB and BCL11A loci did not contribute beyond baseline levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings clarify the overlap between baseline and hydroxyurea-induced fetal hemoglobin levels in pediatric disease. Studies assessing influences of specific sequence variants in these and other genetic loci in larger populations and in unusual hydroxyurea responders are needed to further understand the maintenance and therapeutic induction of fetal hemoglobin in pediatric sickle cell disease. PMID:23409025

  16. Role of Reversible Histidine Coordination in Hydroxylamine Reduction by Plant Hemoglobins (Phytoglobins).

    Athwal, Navjot Singh; Alagurajan, Jagannathan; Andreotti, Amy H; Hargrove, Mark S

    2016-10-18

    Reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonium by phytoglobin, a plant hexacoordinate hemoglobin, is much faster than that of other hexacoordinate hemoglobins or pentacoordinate hemoglobins such as myoglobin, leghemoglobin, and red blood cell hemoglobin. The reason for differences in reactivity is not known but could be intermolecular electron transfer between protein molecules in support of the required two-electron reduction, hydroxylamine binding, or active site architecture favoring the reaction. Experiments were conducted with phytoglobins from rice, tomato, and soybean along with human neuroglobin and soybean leghemoglobin that reveal hydroxylamine binding as the rate-limiting step. For hexacoordinate hemoglobins, binding is limited by the dissociation rate constant for the distal histidine, while leghemoglobin is limited by an intrinsically low affinity for hydroxylamine. When the distal histidine is removed from rice phytoglobin, a hydroxylamine-bound intermediate is formed and the reaction rate is diminished, indicating that the distal histidine imidazole side chain is critical for the reaction, albeit not for electron transfer but rather for direct interaction with the substrate. Together, these results demonstrate that phytoglobins are superior at hydroxylamine reduction because they have distal histidine coordination affinity constants near 1, and facile rate constants for binding and dissociation of the histidine side chain. Hexacoordinate hemoglobins such as neuroglobin are limited by tighter histidine coordination that blocks hydroxylamine binding, and pentacoordinate hemoglobins have intrinsically lower hydroxylamine affinities.

  17. The impact of hemoglobin on the efficacy of phototherapy in hyperbilirubinemic infants

    Donneborg, Mette L; Vandborg, Pernille K; Hansen, Bo M

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundPhototherapy is the routine treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Absorption of light in the skin transforms the native Z,Z-bilirubin to photobilirubins. This study investigates whether the hemoglobin concentration has an impact on efficacy of phototherapy, expressed by the decline...... decrease in TsB after 24 h was 121 (57-199) μmol/l; the median hemoglobin was 12.0 (7.0-14.7) mmol/l. There was a significant effect of hemoglobin concentration on the decrease in TsB of -3.61 μmol/mmol hemoglobin (P=0.022), after adjusting for initial TsB and postnatal age. That is, assuming the same...... initial TsB and postnatal age, for each mmol/l increase in hemoglobin, the decrease in TsB was 3.61 μmol/l smaller. In our hemoglobin range, the decrease in TsB is reduced by 28 μmol/l (23%).ConclusionIncreasing hemoglobin levels led to a decrease in the efficacy of phototherapy. Our data provide...

  18. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  19. Expert system validation in prolog

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  20. Development of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin (LEH) and Studies of Hemorrhagic Shock by Use of Imaging Studies with Oxygen-15 and Other Radiotracers

    Phillips, William T; Goins, Beth; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2004-01-01

    .... Encapsulating hemoglobin inside a protective lipid membrane, which mimics a red blood cell, has the advantages of decreasing the toxicity of the free hemoglobin, increasing its circulation time...

  1. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  2. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Hemoglobin Expression in Nonerythroid Cells: Novel or Ubiquitous?

    Debarchana Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2. Red blood cells (RBCs contain maximum amount of Hb and because of their unique structure and plasticity they transport O2 to various tissues of the body at an optimal concentration. Recently, it has been reported that, apart from RBCs, Hb is also expressed by nonerythroid cells such as epithelial cells of different origin. The cells expressing Hb are from the tissues where maintenance of O2 homeostasis is of paramount importance. Hb expression has been observed in the epithelial cells from human tissues including lungs, neurons, retina, and endometrium. Our group has recently demonstrated that Hb is expressed by the cervicovaginal epithelial cells. We further showed that, apart from maintaining O2 homeostasis, Hb and the peptides derived from it play an indispensable role in the protection of vaginal epithelium by exhibiting antimicrobial activity. In this review, we discuss the significance of Hb expression in vaginal epithelial cells and its role in the recognition of pathogens thereby reducing the risk and/or severity of inflammation and/or infections and the possible mechanism by which Hb exhibits antimicrobial and antioxidative functions.

  4. Does erythropoietin cause hemoglobin variability--is it 'normal'?

    Ashwani K Gupta

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin variability (Hb-var in patients with chronic kidney disease has been stipulated to be a result of exogenous treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA and has been related to mortality in dialysis patients. We hypothesized the existence of Hb-var independent of ESA administration and compared it to that in healthy adults using data from the Scripps-Kaiser and NHANES III databases. We studied the Hb-var in 1571 peritoneal dialysis patients which included 116 patients not requiring treatment with erythropoietin. We systematically studied the differences between the groups that needed ESA therapy and those who did not. White race and male sex were significant predictors of need for erythropoietin therapy. We found peritoneal dialysis patients to exhibit significantly increased Hb-var independent of treatment with exogenous erythropoietin (0.99 gm/dL vs. 1.17 gm/dL, p-value60 years peritoneal dialysis patients was similar to that seen in healthy elders, suggesting similarity with anemia of aging. We conclude that exogenous ESA administration does not explain Hb-var entirely but may enhance it. Intrinsic factors affecting erythropoiesis including age may be the major determinants of Hb-var.

  5. Hemoglobin A1C: Past, present and future

    Aldasouqi, Saleh A.; Gossain, Ved V.

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) has been used for decades to monitor the controlof glycemia in diabetes. Although HbA1Cis currently undergoing a reassessmentand major developments have been underway in recent years, HbA1C is notrecommended at present for diabetes screening or diagnosis. The object ofthis review is to summarize the recent developments and to review a potentialdiagnostic role for HbA1C .Implementation of changes in HbA1C results andunits of measurements have been suggested for the purpose of teststandardization. These include lower reference ranges (by about 1.5-2 points)and measurement units expressed in percentage (%), as mg/dL (mmol/L) ormmol/mol (or a combination of these units). In diabetes screening anddiagnosis, the current diagnostic guidelines use measurement of plasmaglucose either fasting or after glucose load. These diagnostic methods haveshortcomings warranting a potential diagnostic role for HbA1C. While recentdevelopments in HbA1C methodologies are acknowledged, it is not yet knownwhich changes will be implemented and how soon. Given the recent literaturesupporting HbA1C diagnostic abilities and given the shortcomings of thecurrent guidelines, globally. Very recently, the first of suchrecommendations has been proposed by an expert panel as announced by the USEndocrine Society. (author)

  6. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S.; Panicker, Lata; Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta; Mukhopadhyaya, Rita; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2016-01-01

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  7. Hemoglobin detection using carbon dots as a fluorescence probe.

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2015-09-15

    Herein, we have described the application of high fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) without any surface modification as a simple and fast responding fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective determination of hemoglobin (Hb) in the presence of H2O2. Although Hb itself was able to quench the fluorescence of CDs, based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of the protein that affects both excitation and emission spectra of CDs, the presence of H2O2 resulted in further improvement of the sensitivity of Hb detection. The assay is based on the reaction of Hb with H2O2 that generates reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl (OH•) and superoxide (O2(•-)) radicals under heme degradation and/or iron release from Hb and the subsequent reaction of hydroxyl radicals, as strong oxidizing agents, with CDs resulting in high fluorescence quenching. The proposed probe was used for determination of Hb in concentration range of 1-100 nM with a detection limit of 0.4 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hb in human blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of glycated hemoglobin in patients with advanced liver disease

    Lahousen, Theresa; Hegenbarth, Karin; Ille, Rottraut; Lipp, Rainer W.; Krause, Robert; Little, Randie R.; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) determination methods and to determine fructosamine in patients with chronic hepatitis, compensated cirrhosis and in patients with chronic hepatitis treated with ribavirin. METHODS: HbA1c values were determined in 15 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis and in 20 patients with chronic hepatitis using the ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography and the immunoassay methods. Fructosamine was determined using nitroblue tetrazolium. RESULTS: Forty percent of patients with liver cirrhosis had HbA1c results below the non-diabetic reference range by at least one HbA1c method, while fructosamine results were either within the reference range or elevated. Twenty percent of patients with chronic hepatitis (hepatic fibrosis) had HbA1c results below the non -diabetic reference range by at least one HbA1c method. In patients with chronic hepatitis treated with ribavirin, 50% of HbA1c results were below the non-diabetic reference using at least one of the HbA1c methods. CONCLUSION: Only evaluated in context with all liver function parameters as well as a red blood count including reticulocytes, HbA 1c results should be used in patients with advanced liver disease. HbA 1c and fructosamine measurements should be used with caution when evaluating long-term glucose control in patients with hepatic cirrhosis or in patients with chronic hepatitis and ribavirin treatment. PMID:15259084

  9. Hemoglobin redox reactions and red blood cell aging.

    Rifkind, Joseph M; Nagababu, Enika

    2013-06-10

    The physiological mechanism(s) for recognition and removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from circulation after 120 days of its lifespan is not fully understood. Many of the processes thought to be associated with the removal of RBCs involve oxidative stress. We have focused on hemoglobin (Hb) redox reactions, which is the major source of RBC oxidative stress. The importance of Hb redox reactions have been shown to originate in large parts from the continuous slow autoxidation of Hb producing superoxide and its dramatic increase under hypoxic conditions. In addition, oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with redox reactions that originate from Hb reactions with nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) and the resultant formation of highly toxic peroxynitrite when NO reacts with superoxide released during Hb autoxidation. The interaction of Hb, particularly under hypoxic conditions with band 3 of the RBC membrane is critical for the generating the RBC membrane changes that trigger the removal of cells from circulation. These changes include exposure of antigenic sites, increased calcium leakage into the RBC, and the resultant leakage of potassium out of the RBC causing cell shrinkage and impaired deformability. The need to understand the oxidative damage to specific membrane proteins that result from redox reactions occurring when Hb is bound to the membrane. Proteomic studies that can pinpoint the specific proteins damaged under different conditions will help elucidate the cellular aging processes that result in cells being removed from circulation.

  10. Effects of rutin on the redox reactions of hemoglobin.

    Lu, Naihao; Ding, Yun; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Pingzhang

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are widely used to attenuate oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the influence of rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside) on hemoglobin (Hb)- dependent redox reactions, i.e. oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate. It was found that rutin induced generation of H2O2, which in turn oxidized Hb rapidly. Meanwhile, rutin exhibited anti-oxidant effect by effectively reducing ferryl intermediate back to ferric Hb at physiological pH. In comparison with quercetin, rutin had stronger capability on reducing ferryl species while lesser pro-oxidant effect on H2O2 generation, thus it exhibited more protective effect on H2O2-induced Hb oxidation. Circular dichroism spectrum showed no significant change in the secondary structure of Hb after flavonoid addition, while molecular docking revealed different binding modes of quercetin and rutin with Hb. These results might provide new insights into the potential nutritional and physiological implications of rutin and quercetin with redox active heme proteins regarding their ani- and pro-oxidant effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular controls of the oxygenation and redox reactions of hemoglobin.

    Bonaventura, Celia; Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2013-06-10

    The broad classes of O(2)-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O(2)-binding functions. The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes.

  12. Hemoglobin structural dynamics as monitored by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Spiro, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the heme group are now understood at a level sufficient to provide a useful monitor of several heme structural features. Some porphyrin vibrational frequencies are sensitive to Fe oxidation state, or π-electron distribution, and give insight into the electronic structure of O 2 , CO and NO hemes. Others are sensitive to Fe spin-state, via the associated geometry variation, and provide an accurate index of the porphyrin core size. When examined during the photolysis of CO-hemoglobin via short laser pulses, these frequencies indicate that conversion from low- to h+gh-spin Fe 11 takes place within 30 ps of photolysis, presumably via intersystem-crossing in the excited state, but that the subsequent relaxation of the Fe atom out of the heme plane takes longer than 20 ns, probably because of restraint by the protein. Axial ligand modes have been identified for several heme derivatives. The Fe-imidazole frequency in deoxyhemoglobin is appreciably lowered in the T quaternary structure, as determined in both static and kinetic experiments, suggesting molecular tension or proximal imidazole H-bond weakening in the T state. (author)

  13. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S. [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India); Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Panicker, Lata [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta [Bioinformatics Center, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Mukhopadhyaya, Rita [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@gmail.com [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2016-08-05

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  14. Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin

    Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

  15. Predictors of postoperative hemoglobin drop after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    Watrowski, Rafał; Jäger, Christoph; Forster, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) can be associated with significant bleeding. To identify factors influencing the postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) drop after LM. This is a retrospective, single-center study. We evaluated data of 150 consecutive patients undergoing LM due to intramural myomas between 2010 and 2015. The median age of the patients was 37 (23-53) years. The mean diameter of the largest myoma was 5.7 ±2.3 (1.5-12) cm. The mean surgical time was 83 ±38 (35-299) min. The median number of sutures was 3 (1-11). The mean postoperative Hb drop was 1.6 ±1.2 (0-6) g/dl, and the mean estimated blood loss was 261 ±159 (50-1700) ml. In the univariate analysis, the postoperative Hb drop correlated with the duration of surgery (p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma (p < 0.001), cumulative myoma weight (p < 0.001), and number of sutures (p < 0.001), but not with patients' age or number of intramural myomas. In the multivariable analysis, the surgical time ( β = 0.395, p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma ( β = 0.292, p = 0.03) and preoperative Hb concentration ( β = 0.299, p < 0.001) predicted the postoperative Hb change. Surgical time and dominant myoma diameter are independent predictors of the postoperative Hb drop after LM.

  16. A Moessbauer study of hemoglobin in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Zamorano-Ulloa, R.; Yee-Madeira, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Perez-Ramirez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) of normal subjects and six patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) were studied at 300deg K and 77 K. PNH is a very rate autoimmune hematological disease. The possibility of structural alterations of Hb induced by, or as part of the altered PNH-red cell membrane was the objective of this study. The Moessbauer parameters of the Hb of the normal subjects, both at 300 K and at 77 K, are identical to values previously reported. The PNH-Hb spectra show clear differences. They are wider and more asymmetric. At 77 K, an extra doublet grows in with an isomer shift of 0.425 mm/sec. and a quadrupolar splitting of 1.951 mm/sec. The other two doublets have δ's and ΔQ's slightly, but significantly, different from the corresponding values for normal Hb. These results are rationalized in terms of a population of Hb molecules with structures varying very slightly in a narrow range. The spread in structures manifests itself in a wider and more asymmetric Moessbauer spectrum. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between laparoscopic cholecystectomy operative time and carbonyl hemoglobin content

    ZHANG Qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate whether operative time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy impacts the carbonyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration in peripheral blood. MethodsForty patients with gallstones and indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the operative procedure. COHb concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy. The significance of changes in COHb concentration in relation to time of the operative procedure (rounded to the nearest minute was assessed by statistical correlation coefficient test. ResultsThe laparoscopic procedure was completed in 38 cases, and two patients required conversion to laparotomy. The content of COHb in peripheral venous blood had significantly increased during the laparoscopic operation (operation beginning: 11.07%±1.18% vs. operation end: 1.44%±0.26%, P<0.05. The change was positively correlated with operation time (r=0.85. ConclusionCarbon monoxide produced during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure can lead to an increase in peripheral venous blood COHb. The longer the operation lasts, the greater the increase in COHb.

  18. Recognizing brain motor imagery activities by identifying chaos properties of oxy-hemoglobin dynamics time series

    Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Yuichi, Nakamura; Masahiro, Nakagawa

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been introduced as a new neuroimaging modality with which to conduct functional brain-imaging studies. With its advanced features, NIRS signal processing has become a very attractive field in computational science. This work explores nonlinear physical aspects of cerebral hemodynamic changes over the time series of NIRS. Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem in studying the irregular or chaotic motion that is generated by nonlinear systems whose dynamical laws uniquely determine the time of evolution of a state of the system. The strategy results directly from the definition of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. The method is an application of the Rosenstein algorithm, an efficient method for calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent from an experimental time series. In the present paper, the authors focus mainly on the detection of chaos characteristics of the time series associated to hemoglobin dynamics. Furthermore, the chaos parameters obtained can be used to identify the active state period of the human brain.

  19. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children[U+05F3]s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear...... and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended. © 2014 Elsevier Inc....

  20. Fluorescent analysis of interaction of flavonols with hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin

    Sentchouk, V. V.; Bondaryuk, E. V.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the fluorescent properties of flavonols (quercetin, fisetin, morin, rutin) with the aim of studying possible interaction with hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA). We observed an increase in the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence for all the flavonols except rutin in the presence of BSA. From the changes in the fluorescence spectra, we concluded that tautomeric forms are formed on interaction with hemoglobin. We determined the interconnection between the structure of related flavonols and their fluorescent properties on interaction with proteins, and we determined the binding constants for binding with BSA and hemoglobin.

  1. Hemoglobin drop after anesthesia in craniosynstosis: Dilemma of operate or not to operate

    El-Ghandour, Nihal; Kassem, Salah; Al Sabbagh, Abdelrahman J.; Al-Banyan, Ayman; Shubbak, Firas A.; Hassib, Ahmad; Zaki, Hazem

    2011-01-01

    An infant with craniosynostosis for craniectomy and cranial-vault remodelling was detected to have very low hemoglobin (6.8 gm%) after induction of anesthesia. This posed a dilemma whether to proceed with or abandon the surgical procedure. The case was postponed and was rescheduled for surgery one week later with hope that his hemoglobin would rise during this period. However, even before second anesthesia his hemoglobin level was found to be unchanged. Meticulous anesthesia management resulted in uneventful surgical procedure. PMID:25885398

  2. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur

    Navraj S. Nagra; Dmitri van Popta; Sigrid Whiteside; Edward M. Holt

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored pe...

  3. 8-anilino-1-naphthaline sulfonate binds at the hemoglobin allosteric regulatory sites: inhibitory analyses

    Bokut', S.B.; Parul', D.A.; Yachnik, N.N.; Milyutin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study focused on the localization at least one of the ANS binding sites in the major form of human hemoglobin HbA. High-resolution docking predict ANS binding to the hemoglobin central cavity. Steady-state fluorescence titration data obtained in the absence/presence of natural effector inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) allowed to conclude that IHP competitively inhibited ANS binding to HbA. Thus, we must conclude that one of the ANS binding sites is central cavity, which makes it possible to monitor changes at this region upon ligation/deligation, effector binding and changes in hemoglobin structure

  4. Comparative analysis of three drug-drug interaction screening systems against probable clinically relevant drug-drug interactions: a prospective cohort study.

    Muhič, Neža; Mrhar, Ales; Brvar, Miran

    2017-07-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening systems report potential DDIs. This study aimed to find the prevalence of probable DDI-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and compare the clinical usefulness of different DDI screening systems to prevent or warn against these ADRs. A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients urgently admitted to medical departments. Potential DDIs were checked using Complete Drug Interaction®, Lexicomp® Online™, and Drug Interaction Checker®. The study team identified the patients with probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs on admission, the causality of which was assessed using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening systems to prevent or warn against probable DDI-related ADRs were evaluated. Overall, 50 probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs were found in 37 out of 795 included patients taking at least two drugs, most common of them were bleeding, hyperkalemia, digitalis toxicity, and hypotension. Complete Drug Interaction showed the best sensitivity (0.76) for actual DDI-related ADRs, followed by Lexicomp Online (0.50), and Drug Interaction Checker (0.40). Complete Drug Interaction and Drug Interaction Checker had positive predictive values of 0.07; Lexicomp Online had 0.04. We found no difference in specificity and negative predictive values among these systems. DDI screening systems differ significantly in their ability to detect probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value.

  5. [Hemoglobins, XXXII. Analysis of the primary structure of the monomeric hemoglobin CTT VIIA (erythrocruorin) or Chironomus thummi thummi, Diptera (author's transl)].

    Kleinschmidt, T; Braunitzer, G

    1980-01-01

    The dimeric hemoglobin CTT VIIA (erythrocruorin) was isolated from the hemolymph of the larva from Chironomus thummi thummi and purified by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptides obtained by limited tryptical digestion were sequenced by automatic Edman degradation. For the elucidation of the sequence in the C-terminal region of the chain, additional cleavages with proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus and chymotrypsin were necessary. CTT VIIA is compared with human beta-chains and other hemoglobins of Chironomus. The amino acid residues in the pocket are especially discussed. Most of them are invariant in all Chironomus hemoglobins, independent of the size of the heme pocket, which is normal in some components and enlarged in others.

  6. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice; Proprietes radioprotectrices de certains composes heterocycliques azotes sur les variations du taux d'hemoglobine et de la valeur hematocrite chez la souris irradiee

    Rousdhy, H; Pierotti, T; Polverelli, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [French] Les proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole et du benzimidazole ayant ete demontrees dans de precedents travaux, les auteurs se sont attaches a etudier l'action de ces produits sur le systeme hematopofetique en comparaison avec celle de la cysteamine, apres une irradiation a dose letale. A l'aide des criteres choisis, les resultats demontrent: qu'en dehors de certaines reactions apparentes, succedant a l'injection intraperitoneale des heterocycles azotes, les constantes hematologiques (taux d'hemoglobine et valeur hematocrite) ne sont que legerement modifiees; la superiorite du benzimidazole sur les autres produits utilises. Enfin, le vingt-cinquieme jour apres irradiation, les souris protegees par les heterocycles azotes ont un taux d'hemoglobine et une valeur hematocrite tout a fait normaux. (auteur)

  7. Packed red blood cell transfusion causes greater hemoglobin rise at a lower starting hemoglobin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Naidech, Andrew M; Kahn, Marc J; Soong, Wayne; Green, David; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Each unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is expected to raise circulating hemoglobin (HGB) by approximately 1 g/dL. There are few data on modifiers of this relationship other than gender and body mass index (BMI). We recorded HGB before and after PRBC transfusion in a retrospective cohort of 103 patients and a prospective cohort of 93 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the retrospective cohort, 48 of 103 patients were transfused, and in the prospective cohort, 56 of 93 patients were transfused. In both groups, lower pre-transfusion HGB was associated with a larger increase in HGB (P rise in HGB (P < 0.001) after correction for number of units of PRBCs given, gender, and BMI in repeated measures analysis. Pre-transfusion HGB explained an additional 12% of variance in the data (P < 0.001). In both cohorts, the magnitude of the effect was similar. In patients with SAH, transfusion at lower HGB leads to a greater increase in HGB. Transfusion at lower HGB may be relatively more cost-effective, and this should be balanced against any potential benefit from higher HGB in SAH. One rather than 2 units of PRBCs are likely to be sufficient for most HGB targets after SAH, especially in patients with more severe anemia.

  8. VHDL basics applied design by SIPAC qualification system

    Park, In Ha; Mun, Da Cheol; Lee, Gwang Yeob

    2005-12-01

    This book has six chapters, which are about Flowrian of SIPAC qualification system including internet CAD system and remote server service, logic circuit on design and qualification of device such as gate circuit, multiplex and decoder, order logic circuit with D type flip-flop design and qualification and Rom and RAM's design and qualification, finite state machine such as odd checker, sequence detector, test clock generator and traffic light controller, design and qualification about data path, design of application circuit. It has two appendixes on install and the way to use SIPAC qualification system and remote service for SIPAC qualification system.

  9. A study on the structures of hemoglobin of diabetic patients by EXAFS technique

    Wang Yinsong; Tan Mingguang; Zhang Guilin

    2001-01-01

    Hemoglobin was the carrier of oxygen in blood circulation. For the patients with diabetes mellitus the enhancement of glycidate hemoglobin in blood causes the decrease of oxygen transmission function. The local atomic structures of iron in hemoglobin were determined by EXAFS techniques. The relationship between diabetes mellitus and hemoglobin structures was observed. The blood samples were taken from normal people, slight and serious diabetic patients. The results show that the coordination number of iron atoms and Fe-O bond length were almost the same for the three samples. However, for the samples of serious diabetic patients the Fe-N bond length increases by about 0.002 nm, the possible reasons were the increase of deoxyhemoglobin contents in their blood

  10. Hemoglobin concentration determination based on near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method has been proved to be more effective than single point spectroscopy method in the experiment to predict the concentration of the Intralipid diluted solutions. However, Intralipid diluted solution is simple, cannot be the representative of turbid liquids. Blood is a natural and meaningful turbid liquid, more complicate. Hemoglobin is the major constituent of the whole blood. And hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose many diseases. In this paper, near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra (NIRSRTS) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were used to predict the hemoglobin concentration of human blood. The results showed the prediction ability for hemoglobin concentration of the proposed method is better than single point transmission spectroscopy method. This paper demonstrated the feasibility of the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for practical liquid composition analysis. This research provided a new thinking of practical turbid liquid composition analysis.

  11. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Pblood are seen regularly in normal...... (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8...

  12. Oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin from the white rhinoceros (beta 2-GLU) and the tapir.

    Baumann, R; Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-04-01

    The beta-chain of rhinoceros hemoglobin contains glutamic acid at position beta 2, and important site for the binding of organic phosphates. We have investigated the oxygen binding properties of this hemoglobin and its interaction with ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, CO2 and chloride. The results show that the presence of GLU at position beta 2 nearly abolishes the effect of organic phosphates and CO2, whereas the oxygen-linked binding of chloride is not affected. Thus rhinoceros hemoglobin has only protons and chloride anions as major allosteric effectors for the control of its oxygen affinity. From the results obtained with hemoglobin solutions it can be calculated that the blood oxygen affinity of the rhinoceros must be rather high with a P50 of about 20 torr at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, which conforms with observations obtained for other large mammals.

  13. Utility of noninvasive transcutaneous measurement of postoperative hemoglobin in total joint arthroplasty patients.

    Stoesz, Michael; Wood, Kristin; Clark, Wesley; Kwon, Young-Min; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2014-11-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the clinical utility of a noninvasive transcutaneous device for postoperative hemoglobin measurement in 100 total hip and knee arthroplasty patients. A protocol to measure hemoglobin noninvasively, prior to venipuncture, successfully avoided venipuncture in 73% of patients. In the remaining 27 patients, there were a total of 48 venipunctures performed during the postoperative hospitalization period due to reasons including transcutaneous hemoglobin measurement less than or equal to 9 g/dL (19), inability to obtain a transcutaneous hemoglobin measurement (8), clinical signs of anemia (3), and noncompliance with the study protocol (18). Such screening protocols may provide a convenient and cost-effective alternative to routine venipuncture for identifying patients at risk for blood transfusion after elective joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  15. COMPARISON OF FRUCTOSAMINE AND GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN IN A NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC POPULATION

    M. Amini

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the clinical value of frnctosamine assay for monitoring type II diabetic patients, correlation of frnctosamine with glycosylated hemoglobin was studied. 100 patients with type II diabetes mcllitus were compared with 100 normal subjects. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin and frnctosamine were measured in alt subjects. In the diabetic patients, a significant correlation was observed between fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (r = 0.64, p < 0.01 and scrum frnctosamine (r = 0.7, P < 0.01. Tlicrc was also a significant correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and scrum frtictosmine (r = .94, I'<0.01. Frnctosamine, assay can be used as an index of diabetes control.

  16. Expression of NO scavenging hemoglobin is involved in the timing of bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Jensen, Erik Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    -symbiotic hemoglobin gene, GLB2, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lines with GLB1 silencing had a significant delay of bolting and after bolting, shoots reverted to the rosette vegetative phase by formation of aerial rosettes at lateral meristems. Lines with overexpression of GLB1 or GLB2 bolted earlier than wild type plants....... By germinating the lines in a medium containing the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), it was demonstrated that both GLB1 and GLB2 promote bolting by antagonizing the effect of NO, suggesting that non-symbiotic plant hemoglobin controls bolting by scavenging the floral transition signal...... molecule, NO. So far, NO scavenging has only been demonstrated for class 1 non-symbiotic hemoglobins. A direct assay in Arabidopsis leaf cells shows that GLB1 as well as the class 2 non-symbiotic hemoglobin, GLB2, scavenge NO in vivo. NO has also been demonstrated to be a growth stimulating signal...

  17. The role of nitric oxide and hemoglobin in plant development and morphogenesis

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Shah, Jay K; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2013-01-01

    effects on control of plant growth and development, such as shoot and root architecture. All plants are able to express non-symbiotic hemoglobins at low concentration. Their function is generally not related to oxygen transport or storage; instead they effectively oxidize NO to NO3– and thereby control...... the local cellular NO concentration. In this review, we analyze available data on the role of NO and plant hemoglobins in morphogenetic processes in plants. The comparison of the data suggests that hemoglobin gene expression in plants modulates development and morphogenesis of organs, such as roots...... and shoots, through the localized control of NO, and that hemoglobin gene expression should always be considered a modulating factor in processes controlled directly or indirectly by NO in plants....

  18. Substitution of Fingertip Blood for Venous Blood in the Measurement of Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Following Exercise

    Fahey, Thomas D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results from comparative testing indicate that fingertip blood is a valid indicator of antecubital venous hematocrit (hct) and hemoglobin (hgb), and that hct ratios determined on the Coulter counter are comparable to those found by the microhematocrit method. (MB)

  19. Action of radiation on biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions

    Starodub, N.F.; Kriklivyj, I.A.; Shur'yan, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions in red cells of peripheral blood and spleen of irradiated (650 R) rats has been studied. Hemoglobin synthesis is found to be most drastically inhibited in the first and second fractions on the first and eighth days after irradiation and in the fifth and sixth fractions on the eighth day (less expressed). The synthesis is restored on the twelfth day, the process under study proceeding more slowly in the above-mentioned fractions than in others. In the course of radiation sickness, the biosynthesis of certain hemoglobin fractions varies differently in the hemoglobin-synthesizing cells of peripheral blood than in the cells of spleenic erythroid series

  20. Effect of water and ethanol radicals on the protein part of human hemoglobin

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the changes in the tryptophan fluorescence in human hemoglobin induced by ·OH, e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals. Measurements of irradiated hemoglobin performed in phosphate buffer, pH 7, indicate that the processes of unfolding a protein are induced with the highest efficiency by the ·OH radicals. A destructive action of e aq - is more evident in the absence of the ·OH radicals. Fluorescence measurements carried out after incubation of irradiated hemoglobin in Gdn·HCl solution reveal the tryptophan residues destruction, which is relatively small (at 2.5 kGy maximum fluorescence decrease was about 23%) and caused by the ·OH radicals. Within the dose range, the participation of the e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals in hemoglobin tryptophan residue destruction can be neglected. (author)

  1. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  2. Profile of hemoglobin D trait in West Bengal, India

    Tuphan K. Dolai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormal hemoglobinopathy worldwide. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the characteristic of Hb D Punjab trait in India. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of West Bengal state in eastern India. Complete blood count was done by Sysmax Automated Hematology Analyzer KX 21 (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan and thalassemia testing was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant TM - Bio-Rad Lab., Hercules, CA, USA. A total of 46,139 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. Hb D trait was found in 0.35%. Hypochromia rather than microcytosis is consistent finding in Hb D trait. Anisocytosis is absent in Hb D trait. In almost all (99.37% cases, Hb D is within 40% of total hemoglobin. This data is likely to be helpful for screening of hemoglobinopathy in resource poor setting.  血红蛋白(Hb D Punjab是全球最普遍的异常血红蛋白病之一。在印度,之前并没有研究D型特征血红蛋白病的大型出版物。本研究在印度东部的西孟加拉邦的农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。完整的血细胞计数由日本神户市Sysmex公司的KX21自动化血液分析仪完成,血液测试由美国加州赫拉克勒斯Variant-Bio-Rad实验室通过高效液相色谱法完成。总计46139人被筛查,D型特征血红蛋白病的发现率为0.35%。血红蛋白过少而非小红细胞症,是D型特征血红蛋白病的主要症状。红细胞大小不均没有在D型特征血红蛋白病中被检测出。在所有的情况中(99.37%),D型特征血红蛋白占所有血红蛋白总数的40%。这些数据有利于在资源匮乏地区对血红蛋白病的筛查。

  3. Relationship between Sucralose Consumption and Serum Concentration of Glycosylated Hemoglobin in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Complications

    María del Carmen Cortés-López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available People who live with diabetes consume sucralose to control their blood glucose, but there is a controversy about this topic. To evaluate the relationship between sucralose consumption and serum concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin in people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without complications. Cross-sectional study. Universe of 27 214 people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without complications, users of a primary care unit from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Simple probabilistic sample, n = 194 (p = 0,05. Propositive sampling. Selection criteria: adults of any gender and education level who agreed to participate. Variables: sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and dietary. Data collection instruments: Sociodemographic questionnaire, Tanita Fitscan© 585 scale, Tanita Fitscan© HR-200 stadiometer, Body Flex© tape-measure, Slim Guide© plicometer, Afinion© AS100 analyzer, and Frequency of Food Consumption Questionnaire. Information sources: clinical files and Mexican System of Equivalent Foods. Analysis: descriptive and inferential statistics (p ≤ 0,05. 194 people. Mean age 60,23 ± 11,16, interval 28-93 years. 56,2% females and 43,8% males. Difference between glycosilated hemoglobin means: sucralose consumers 7,5% ± 1,7%, no sucralose consumers 8,1% ± 2,1% (p < 0,01. Association force “sucralose consumption/high glycosilated hemoglobin concentration” OR = 1,42 (CI95% 0,63, 3,21. Lineal correlation “quarterly sucralose consumption/serum concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin” ρ = -0,754 (R2 = 0,0057, p = 0,333. This results were partially consistent to the pre-existing literature. Studies with representative stratified samples and control of dietary variables are required for better results.

  4. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  5. Clinical Course of Homozygous Hemoglobin Constant Spring in Pediatric Patients.

    Komvilaisak, Patcharee; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Komwilaisak, Ratana; Jirapradittha, Junya; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan

    2018-04-17

    Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-globin gene variant due to a mutation of the stop codon resulting in the elongation of the encoded polypeptide from 141 to 172 amino acid residues. Patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring are usually mildly anemic. We retrospectively describe clinical manifestations, diagnosis, laboratory investigations, treatment, and associated findings in pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring followed-up at Srinagarind Hospital. Sixteen pediatric cases (5 males and 11 females) were diagnosed in utero (N=6) or postnatal (n=10). Eleven cases were diagnosed with homozygous Hb Constant Spring, 4 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with heterozygous Hb E, and 1 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with homozygous Hb E. Three cases were delivered preterm. Six patients had low birth weights. Clinical manifestations included fetal anemia in 6 cases, hepatomegaly in 1 case, hepatosplenomegaly in 2 cases, splenomegaly in 1 case. Twelve cases exhibited early neonatal jaundice, 9 of which required phototherapy. Six cases received red cell transfusions; 1 (3), >1 (3). After the first few months of life, almost all patients had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and an increased reticulocyte count with a wide red cell distribution (RDW), but no longer required red cell transfusion. At 1 to 2 years of age, some patients still had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and some had normocytic hypochromic anemia with Hb around 10 g/dL, increased reticulocyte count and wide RDW. Associated findings included hypothyroidism (2), congenital heart diseases (4), genitourinary abnormalities (3), gastrointestinal abnormalities (2), and developmental delay (1). Pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring developed severe anemia in utero and up to the age of 2 to 3 months postnatal, requiring blood transfusions. Subsequently, their anemia was mild with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly. Their Hb level was above 9 g/dL with hypochromic

  6. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic en...... the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein....

  8. Hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion in patients with sepsis in Internal Medicine Departments.

    Muady, Gassan Fuad; Bitterman, Haim; Laor, Arie; Vardi, Moshe; Urin, Vitally; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2016-10-13

    Acute reduction in hemoglobin levels is frequently seen during sepsis. Previous studies have focused on the management of anemia in patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care units (ICU's), including aggressive blood transfusion aiming to enhance tissue oxygenation. To study the changes in hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis in the setting of Internal Medicine (IM) units, and their correlation to survival. Observational prospective study. We recorded hemoglobin values upon admission and throughout the first week of hospital stay in a consecutive cohort of septic patients admitted to IM units at a community hospital, the patients were enrolled into a prospective registry. Data on blood transfusions was also collected, we examined the correlation between hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis and survival, the effect of blood transfusion was also assessed. Eight hundred and fifteen patients (815) with sepsis were enrolled between February 2008 to January 2009. More than 20 % of them had hemoglobin levels less than 10g/dL on admission, a rate that was doubled during the first week of sepsis. Overall, 68 (8.3 %) received blood transfusions, 14 of them (20.6 %) due to bleeding. Typically, blood transfusion was given to older patients with a higher rate of malignancy and lower hemoglobin levels. While hemoglobin concentration on admission had strong correlation with in-hospital mortality (O.R-0.83 [95 % C.I. 0.74-0.92], blood transfusion was not found to be an independent predicting factor for mortality. Anemia is very common in sepsis. While hemoglobin level on admission exhibit independent correlation with survival, blood transfusion do not.

  9. Analysis of the electronic structure of human hemoglobin from soft X-ray emission

    Soldatov, A.V.; Kravtsova, A.N.; Fedorovich, E.N.; Ankudinov, A.; Moewes, A.; Kurmaev, E.Z.

    2005-01-01

    We present X-ray emission spectra (XES) of human hemoglobin excited near the iron L 2,3 threshold and the nitrogen and carbon K-edges. The experiment is compared with our calculations of the corresponding spectra and gives good agreement. We find that the Fe L 3 emission is affected by the nearest nitrogen atoms located in the heme plane around the central iron atom. The distribution of the partial electronic densities of states of hemoglobin is determined

  10. Moessbauer and positron annihilation studies of structural modifications of hemoglobin in solution

    Oshtrakh, M.I.; Kopelyan, E.A.; Semionkin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Structural modifications of human adult oxyhemoglobin in concentrated solution were studied by Moessbauer and positron life-time spectroscopies. The effects of non-sterile degradation and irradiation by γ-rays were compared by both techniques. It was found that positron annihilation parameters were sensitive to the structural modifications of hemoglobin molecules in solution and could be related with the conformational states of hemoglobin. (author)15 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Hemoglobin E in Northeast India: A review on its origin, distribution, migration and health implication

    Sikdar Mithun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of the studies on hemoglobin E in Northeast India has been carried out to understand the magnitude of research undertaken on this aspect during the last seven decades. Owing to the high prevalence of hemoglobin E in this part of India different authors have studied this hemoglobin from different perspectives and found conflicting results. However a systematic review of such studies is lacking from a holistic point of view. Most of the epidemiological, in vitro as well as in vivo studies show signatures of selection with this hemoglobin locus. However, how this polymorphism is maintained at different rates at different geographical region is still a matter of contention. This review will fill the gap from all perspectives starting from the frequency distribution of hemoglobin E and its spread in different parts of Northeast India, its relationship with malaria hypothesis, the population migration, population affinity and most importantly the health implication arising out of it. A probable origin of hemoglobin E among an Austroasiatic population of Northeast India has been postulated with the help of advance molecular anthropological knowledge like the deep rooted markers of mt DNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes.

  12. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  13. Optical wavelength selection for portable hemoglobin determination by near-infrared spectroscopy method

    Tian, Han; Li, Ming; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Dinggao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Linna

    2017-11-01

    Hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose anemia, identify bleeding, and manage red blood cell transfusions. The golden standard method for determining hemoglobin concentration in blood requires reagent. Spectral methods were advantageous at fast and non-reagent measurement. However, model calibration with full spectrum is time-consuming. Moreover, it is necessary to use a few variables considering size and cost of instrumentation, especially for a portable biomedical instrument. This study presents different wavelength selection methods for optical wavelengths for total hemoglobin concentration determination in whole blood. The results showed that modelling using only two wavelengths combination (1143 nm, 1298 nm) can keep on the fine predictability with full spectrum. It appears that the proper selection of optical wavelengths can be more effective than using the whole spectra for determination hemoglobin in whole blood. We also discussed the influence of water absorptivity on the wavelength selection. This research provides valuable references for designing portable NIR instruments determining hemoglobin concentration, and may provide some experience for noninvasive hemoglobin measurement by NIR methods.

  14. Hemoglobin cleavage site-specificity of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3.

    Shoba Subramanian

    Full Text Available The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 degrade host hemoglobin to provide free amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. Hemoglobin hydrolysis has been described as an ordered process initiated by aspartic proteases, but cysteine protease inhibitors completely block the process, suggesting that cysteine proteases can also initiate hemoglobin hydrolysis. To characterize the specific roles of falcipains, we used three approaches. First, using random P(1 - P(4 amino acid substrate libraries, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 demonstrated strong preference for cleavage sites with Leu at the P(2 position. Second, with overlapping peptides spanning alpha and beta globin and proteolysis-dependent (18O labeling, hydrolysis was seen at many cleavage sites. Third, with intact hemoglobin, numerous cleavage products were identified. Our results suggest that hemoglobin hydrolysis by malaria parasites is not a highly ordered process, but rather proceeds with rapid cleavage by falcipains at multiple sites. However, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 show strong specificity for P(2 Leu in small peptide substrates, in agreement with the specificity in optimized small molecule inhibitors that was identified previously. These results are consistent with a principal role of falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 in the hydrolysis of hemoglobin by P. falciparum and with the possibility of developing small molecule inhibitors with optimized specificity as antimalarial agents.

  15. Three-state combinatorial switch models as applied to the binding of oxygen by human hemoglobin.

    Straume, M; Johnson, M L

    1988-02-23

    We have generated a series of all 6561 unique, discrete three-state combinatorial switch models to describe the partitioning of the cooperative oxygen-binding free change among the 10 variously ligated forms of human hemoglobin tetramers. These models were inspired by the experimental observation of Smith and Ackers that the cooperative free energy of the intersubunit contact regions of the 10 possible ligated forms of human hemoglobin tetramers can be represented by a particular distribution of three distinct energy levels [Smith, F. R., & Ackers, G. K. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 5347-5351]. A statistical thermodynamic formulation accounting for both dimer-tetramer equilibria and ligand binding properties of hemoglobin solutions as a function of oxygen and protein concentrations was utilized to exhaustively test these thermodynamic models. In this series of models each of the 10 ligated forms of the hemoglobin tetramer can exist in one, and only one, of three possible energy levels; i.e., each ligated form was assumed to be associated with a discrete energy state. This series of models includes all possible ways that the 10 ligation states of hemoglobin can be distributed into three distinct cooperative energy levels. The mathematical models, as presented here, do not permit equilibria between energy states to exist for any of the 10 unique ligated forms of hemoglobin tetramers. These models were analyzed by nonlinear least-squares estimation of the free energy parameters characteristic of this statistical thermodynamic development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Point-of-care hemoglobin testing for postmortem diagnosis of anemia.

    Na, Joo-Young; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Ha; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-03-01

    An autopsy involves examination of a body using invasive methods such as dissection, and includes various tests using samples procured during dissection. During medicolegal autopsies, the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration is commonly measured using the AVOXimeter® 4000 as a point-of-care test. When evaluating the body following hypovolemic shock, characteristics such as reduced livor mortis or an anemic appearance of the viscera can be identified, but these observations arequite subjective. Thus, a more objective test is required for the postmortem diagnosis of anemia. In the present study, the AVOXimeter® 4000 was used to investigate the utility of point-of-care hemoglobin testing. Hemoglobin tests were performed in 93 autopsy cases. The AVOXimeter® 4000 and the BC-2800 Auto Hematology Analyzer were used to test identical samples in 29 of these cases. The results of hemoglobin tests performed with these two devices were statistically similar (r = 0.969). The results of hemoglobin tests using postmortem blood were compared with antemortem test results from medical records from 31 cases, and these results were similar. In 13 of 17 cases of death from internal hemorrhage, hemoglobin levels were lower in the cardiac blood than in blood from the affected body cavity, likely due to compensatory changes induced by antemortem hemorrhage. It is concluded that blood hemoglobin testing may be useful as a point-of-care test for diagnosing postmortem anemia.

  17. Effect of hemolysis and free hemoglobin on optical hematocrit measurements in the extracorporeal circulation.

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kellner, Josef; Elshehabi, Morad; Schneditz, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Clinically significant hemolysis is a rare but serious problem in dialysis. Because hemolysis affects red blood cell count and optical density of plasma it has been speculated whether techniques used for online blood volume monitoring would be useful to detect hemolysis. In this study the influence of free hemoglobin on hematocrit and relative blood volume changes measured by optical means (CritLine, HemaMetrics, Kaysville, UT) were examined using an in vitro model with bovine blood. Free hemoglobin solutions were added in steps to circulating whole blood at baseline hematocrits covering a range from 30% to 60% and at blood flows of approximately 200 and 400 ml/min. The free hemoglobin concentration reached was in the range of 2 to 3 g/dl. The presence of free hemoglobin led to a relative increase in hematocrit in the range of 0.3% per 0.1 g of free hemoglobin per dl (+3% dl/g). As an increase in hematocrit is interpreted as a decrease in blood volume, this change referred to an apparent decrease in relative blood volume in the same order of magnitude (-3% dl/g). Effects were more pronounced at low baseline hematocrit. Thus, although optical hematocrit readings are affected by the presence of free hemoglobin the changes at levels associated with clinical symptoms appear to be too small to be accurately detected in the in vivo situation where the hematocrit and the resulting optical signal is affected by various physiological processes and therefore much noisier.

  18. A spectroscopic study on the interaction between gold nanoparticles and hemoglobin

    Garabagiu, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The interaction was studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. ► Gold nanoparticles quench the fluorescence emission of hemoglobin solution. ► The binding and thermodynamic constants were calculated. ► Major impact: electrochemical applications of the complex onto a substrate. -- Abstract: The interaction between horse hemoglobin and gold nanoparticles was studied using optical spectroscopy. UV–vis and fluorescence spectra show that a spontaneous binding process occurred between hemoglobin and gold nanoparticles. The Soret band of hemoglobin in the presence of gold nanoparticles does not show significant changes, which proves that the protein retained its biological function. A shift to longer wavelengths appears in the plasmonic band of gold nanoparticles upon the attachment of hemoglobin molecules. Gold nanoparticles quench the fluorescence emission of tryptophan residues in the structure of hemoglobin. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant, the binding constant and the number of binding sites were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the binding was mainly due to hydrophobic interactions.

  19. Bohr effect of human hemoglobin: Separation of tertiary and quaternary contributions based on the Wyman equation.

    Okonjo, Kehinde Onwochei

    2017-09-01

    As a prelude to separating tertiary from quaternary structure contributions to the Bohr effect, we employed the Wyman equation to analyze Bohr data for human hemoglobin to which 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 2,3-BPG, is bound. Changes in the pK a s of the histidine Bohr groups result in a net reduction of their contributions to the Bohr effect at pH 7.4 compared to their contributions in stripped hemoglobin. The non-histidine 2,3-BPG binding groups - the β-chain terminal amino group and Lys82β - make negative and positive contributions, respectively, to the Bohr effect. The final result is that the Bohr effect at physiological pH is higher for 2,3-BPG bound compared to stripped hemoglobin. Contributions linked to His2β, His77β and His143β enable us to separate tertiary from quaternary Bohr contributions in stripped and in 2,3-BPG bound hemoglobin. Both contributions serve to make the Bohr effect for 2,3-BPG bound hemoglobin higher than for stripped hemoglobin at physiological pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

    Jens Haugbølle Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The haptoglobin- (Hp- CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6, but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the anti-inflammatory response.

  1. Interactions of hemin with bovine serum albumin and human hemoglobin: A fluorescence quenching study

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    The binding interactions between hemin (Hmi) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human hemoglobin (HHb), respectively, have been examined in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, applying UV-vis absorption, as well as steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative results received for both BSA and HHb intrinsic fluorescence proceeding from the interactions with hemin suggest the formation of stacking non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in both the Hmi-BSA and Hmi-HHb systems, with highly possible concurrent formation of a coordinate bond between a group on the protein surface and the metal in Hmi molecule. All the values of calculated parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants point to the involvement of static quenching in both the systems studied. The blue shift in the synchronous fluorescence spectra imply the participation of both tryptophan and tyrosine residues in quenching of BSA and HHb intrinsic fluorescence. Depicted outcomes suggest that hemin is supposedly able to influence the physiological functions of BSA and HHb, the most important blood proteins, particularly in case of its overuse.

  2. Characterization of a large deletion in the {beta}-globin gene cluster in a newborn with hemoglobin FE

    Louie, E.; Dietz, L.; Shafer, F. [Children`s Hosptial, Oakland, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A sample on a newborn with hemoglobin FE screen results was obtained to investigate whether E/E or B/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia was present using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. The newborn appeared homozygous for the hemoglobin E mutation in our initial study, but the parents` genotypes did not support this diagnosis. The father is homozygous for the absence of the hemoglobin E mutation (non E/non E) and the mother is heterozygous (E/non E) for this mutation. The limitation of PCR analysis is an assumption that the amplification of the two {beta}-globin alleles is equivalent. A large deletion on one {beta}-globin gene, which would produce E/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia, would be missed if it included part or the entire region subjected to amplification. The family results were consistent with either non-paternity, sample mix-up or such a deletion of the {beta}-globin gene in the father and child. To rule out the possibility of non-paternity, two polymorphic loci (HLA on chromosome 6 and a VNTR system of chromosome 17) that are outside of the {beta}-globin gene were analyzed and show that inheritance is consistent and the likelihood of a sample mix-up is then reduced. We therefore believe there is a gene deletion in this family. At the present time, analyses of the RFLPs that are 5{prime} of the {beta}-globin gene cluster show that the polymorphisms most distal from the 5{prime} {beta}-globin gene are not being inherited as expected. These results support our interpretation that a deletion exists in the father and was inherited by the child. The father`s clinical picture of possible HPFH (the father has 12% hemoglobin F) also supports the interpretation of a deletion in this family. Deletions of the {beta}-globin gene within this ethnic group are rare. Currently, Southern blots on the family are being probed to determine the extent of the putative deletion.

  3. Parallel verification of dynamic systems with rich configurations

    Pessoa, Eduardo José Dias

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Informática (área de especialização em Informática) Model checking is a technique used to automatically verify a model which represents the specification of some system. To ensure the correctness of the system the verification of both static and dynamic properties is often needed. The specification of a system is made through modeling languages, while the respective verification is made by its model-checker. Most modeling frameworks are not...

  4. Structural characterization of hemoglobins from Monilifera and Frenulata tubeworms (Siboglinids): first discovery of giant hexagonal-bilayer hemoglobin in the former "Pogonophora" group.

    Meunier, Cédric; Andersen, Ann C; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Le Guen, Dominique; Terrier, Peran; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Zal, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Siboglinids are symbiotic polychete annelids having hemoglobins as essential oxygen- and sulfide-carriers for their endosymbiotic bacteria. We analyzed the structure of the hemoglobins from two species of siboglinids: the monilifera Sclerolinum contortum and the frenulata Oligobrachia webbi (i.e. haakonmosbiensis) from Norwegian cold seeps. Measured by Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS), Sclerolinum shows a 3190+/-50 kDa hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb) and a 461+/-46 kDa ring-Hb, just as vestimentifera, whereas Oligobrachia has a 409+/-3.7 kDa ring-Hb only. Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed Sclerolinum HBL-Hb composed of seven monomeric globins (15-16 kDa), three disulfide-bonded globin heterodimers and three linkers. The heterodimers always contain globin-b (15814.4+/-1.5 Da). Sclerolinum ring-Hb is composed of globins and dimers with identical masses as its HBL-Hb, but lacks linkers. Oligobrachia ring-Hb has three globin monomers (14-15 kDa) only, with no disulfide-bonded dimers. Comparison of Sclerolinum hemoglobins between Storegga and Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, using the normalized height of deconvoluted ESI-MS peaks, shows differences in globin monomers abundances that could reflect genetic differences or differential gene expression between distinct seep populations. The discovery of HBL-Hb in Sclerolinum is a new element supporting the hypothesis of monilifera being phylogenetically more closely related to vestimentifera, than to frenulata.

  5. Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study.

    Wittenmeier, Eva; Bellosevich, Sophia; Mauff, Susanne; Schmidtmann, Irene; Eli, Michael; Pestel, Gunther; Noppens, Ruediger R

    2015-10-01

    Collecting a blood sample is usually necessary to measure hemoglobin levels in children. Especially in small children, noninvasively measuring the hemoglobin level could be extraordinarily helpful, but its precision and accuracy in the clinical environment remain unclear. In this study, noninvasive hemoglobin measurement and blood gas analysis were compared to hemoglobin measurement in a clinical laboratory. In 60 healthy preoperative children (0.2-7.6 years old), hemoglobin was measured using a noninvasive method (SpHb; Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter), a blood gas analyzer (clinical standard, BGAHb; ABL 800 Flex), and a laboratory hematology analyzer (reference method, labHb; Siemens Advia). Agreement between the results was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and by determining the percentage of outliers. Sixty SpHb measurements, 60 labHb measurements, and 59 BGAHb measurements were evaluated. In 38% of the children, the location of the SpHb sensor had to be changed more than twice for the signal quality to be sufficient. The bias/limits of agreement between SpHb and labHb were -0.65/-3.4 to 2.1 g·dl(-1) . Forty-four percent of the SpHb values differed from the reference value by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . Age, difficulty of measurement, and the perfusion index (PI) had no influence on the accuracy of SpHb. The bias/limits of agreement between BGAHb and labHb were 1.14/-1.6 to 3.9 g·dl(-1) . Furthermore, 66% of the BGAHb values differed from the reference values by more than 1 g·dl(-1) . The absolute mean difference between SpHb and labHb (1.1 g·dl(-1) ) was smaller than the absolute mean difference between BGAHb and labHb (1.5 g·dl(-1) /P = 0.024). Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and glycated hemoglobin under compression and shear exhibit an anisotropic mechanical behavior.

    Yesudasan, Sumith; Wang, Xianqiao; Averett, Rodney D

    2018-05-01

    We developed a new mechanical model for determining the compression and shear mechanical behavior of four different hemoglobin structures. Previous studies on hemoglobin structures have focused primarily on overall mechanical behavior; however, this study investigates the mechanical behavior of hemoglobin, a major constituent of red blood cells, using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to obtain anisotropic mechanical behavior under compression and shear loading conditions. Four different configurations of hemoglobin molecules were considered: deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ). The SMD simulations were performed on the hemoglobin variants to estimate their unidirectional stiffness and shear stiffness. Although hemoglobin is structurally denoted as a globular protein due to its spherical shape and secondary structure, our simulation results show a significant variation in the mechanical strength in different directions (anisotropy) and also a strength variation among the four different hemoglobin configurations studied. The glycated hemoglobin molecule possesses an overall higher compressive mechanical stiffness and shear stiffness when compared to deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin molecules. Further results from the models indicate that the hemoglobin structures studied possess a soft outer shell and a stiff core based on stiffness.

  7. Inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by ferryl derivatives of human hemoglobin.

    Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Puchała, Mieczysław; Wesołowska, Katarzyna; Serafin, Eligiusz

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by products of reactions of H2O2 with metHb has been studied. Inactivation of the enzyme was studied in two systems corresponding to two kinetic stages of the reaction. In the first system H2O2 was added to the mixture of metHb and ADH [the (metHb+ADH)+H2O2] system (ADH was present in the system since the moment of addition of H2O2 i. e. since the very beginning of the reaction of metHb with H2O2). In the second system ADH was added to the system 5 min after the initiation of the reaction of H2O2 with metHb [the (metHb+H2O2)5 min+ADH] system. In the first case all the products of reaction of H2O2 with metHb (non-peroxyl and peroxyl radicals and non-radical products, viz. hydroperoxides and *HbFe(IV)=O) could react with the enzyme causing its inactivation. In the second system, enzyme reacted almost exclusively with non-radical products (though a small contribution of reactions with peroxyl radicals cannot be excluded). ADH inactivation was observed in both system. Hydrogen peroxide alone did not inactivate ADH at the concentrations employed evidencing that enzyme inactivation was due exclusively to products of reaction of H2O2 with metHb. The rate and extent of ADH inactivation were much higher in the first than in the second system. The dependence of ADH activity on the time of incubation with ferryl derivatives of Hb can be described by a sum of three exponentials in the first system and two exponentials in the second system. Reactions of appropriate forms of the ferryl derivatives of hemoglobin have been tentatively ascribed to these exponentials. The extent of the enzyme inactivation in the second system was dependent on the proton concentration, being at the highest at pH 7.4 and negligible at pH 6.0. The reaction of H2O2 with metHb resulted in the formation of cross-links of Hb subunits (dimers and trimers). The amount of the dimers formed was much lower in the first system i. e. when the radical

  8. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  9. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  10. Optical noninvasive calculation of hemoglobin components concentrations and fractional oxygen saturation using a ring-scattering pulse oximeter

    Abdallah, Omar; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    The deficiencies of the currently used pulse oximeter are discussed in diverse literature. A hazardous pitfalls of this method is that the pulse oximeter will not detect carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (metHb) concentrations. This leads to incorrect measurement of oxygen saturation by carbon monoxide poisoning and methemoglobinemia. Also the total hemoglobin concentration will not be considered and can only be measured in-vitro up to now. A second pitfall of the standard pulse oximetry is that it will not be able to show a result by low perfusion of tissues. This case is available inter alia when the patient is under shock or has a low blood pressure. The new non-invasive system we designed measures the actual (fractional) oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It will enable us also to measure COHb and metHb. The measurement can be applied at better perfused body central parts. Four or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) and five photodiodes (PDs) are used. The reflected light signal detected by photodiodes is processed using a modified Lambert-Beer law (I=I0×e-α.d ). According to this law, when a non scattering probe is irradiated with light having the incident intensity I0, the intensity of transmitted light I decays exponentially with the absorption coefficient a of that probe and its thickness d. Modifications of this law have been performed following the theoretical developed models in literature, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement.

  11. Capillary versus Venous Hemoglobin Determination in the Assessment of Healthy Blood Donors

    Patel, Abhilasha J.; Wesley, Robert; Leitman, Susan F.; Bryant, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives To determine the accuracy of fingerstick hemoglobin assessment in blood donors, the performance of a portable hemoglobinometer (HemoCue Hb 201+) was prospectively compared with that of an automated hematology analyzer (Cell-Dyn 4000). Hemoglobin values obtained by the latter were used as the “true” result. Material and Methods Capillary fingerstick samples were assayed by HemoCue in 150 donors. Fingerstick samples from two sites, one on each hand, were obtained from a subset of 50 subjects. Concurrent venous samples were tested using both HemoCue and Cell-Dyn devices. Results Capillary hemoglobin values (HemoCue) were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values (HemoCue), which in turn were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values by Cell-Dyn (mean ± SD: 14.05 ± 1.51, 13.89 ± 1.31, 13.62 ± 1.23, respectively; phemoglobin screening criteria (≥12.5 g/dL) by capillary HemoCue, but were deferred by Cell-Dyn values (false-pass). Five donors (3%) were deferred by capillary sampling, but passed by Cell-Dyn (false-fail). Substantial variability in repeated fingerstick HemoCue results was seen (mean hemoglobin 13.72 vs. 13.70 g/dL, absolute mean difference between paired samples 0.76 g/dL). Hand dominance was not a factor. Conclusions Capillary samples assessed via a portable device yielded higher hemoglobin values than venous samples assessed on an automated analyzer. False-pass and false-fail rates were low and acceptable in the donor screening setting, with “true” values not differing by a clinically significant degree from threshold values used to assess acceptability for blood donation. PMID:23294266

  12. The Relationship Between Preoperative Hemoglobin Concentration, Use of Hospital Resources, and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery.

    Hallward, George; Balani, Nikhail; McCorkell, Stuart; Roxburgh, James; Cornelius, Victoria

    2016-08-01

    Preoperative anemia is an established risk factor associated with adverse perioperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. However, limited information exists regarding the relationship between preoperative hemoglobin concentration and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate how outcomes are affected by preoperative hemoglobin concentration in a cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A retrospective, observational cohort study. A single-center tertiary referral hospital. The study comprised 1,972 adult patients undergoing elective and nonelective cardiac surgery. The independent relationship of preoperative hemoglobin concentration was explored on blood transfusion rates, return to the operating room for bleeding and/or cardiac tamponade, postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay, and mortality. The overall prevalence of anemia was 32% (629/1,972 patients). For every 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), blood transfusion requirements were reduced by 11%, 8%, and 3% for red blood cell units, platelet pools, and fresh frozen plasma units, respectively (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.87-0.91], 0.92 [0.88-0.97], and 0.97 [0.96-0.99]). For each 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), the probability (over time) of discharge from the ICU and hospital increased (adjusted hazard ratio estimates 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and 1.12 [1.12-1.16], respectively). A lower preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased use of hospital resources after cardiac surgery. Each g/dL unit fall in preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased blood transfusion requirements and increased postoperative ICU and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  14. Hemoglobin Rahere, a human hemoglobin variant with amino acid substitution at the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site. Functional consequences of the alteration and effects of bezafibrate on the oxygen bindings.

    Sugihara, J; Imamura, T; Nagafuchi, S; Bonaventura, J; Bonaventura, C; Cashon, R

    1985-09-01

    We encountered an abnormal hemoglobin (Rahere), with a threonine residue replacing the beta 82 (EF6) lysine residue at the binding site of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which was responsible for overt erythrocytosis in two individuals of a Japanese family. Hemoglobin Rahere shows a lower oxygen affinity on the binding of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or chloride ions than hemoglobin A. Although a decrease in the positive charge density at the binding sites of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in hemoglobin Rahere apparently shifts the allosteric equilibrium toward the low affinity state, it greatly diminishes the cofactor effects by anions. The oxygen affinity of the patient's erythrocytes is substantially lowered by the presence of bezafibrate, which combines with sites different from those of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in either hemoglobin Rahere or hemoglobin A.

  15. The effects of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass in swimmers.

    Wachsmuth, N B; Völzke, C; Prommer, N; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Frese, F; Spahl, O; Eastwood, A; Stray-Gundersen, J; Schmidt, W

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the influence of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass (Hb-mass) in elite swimmers under the following aspects: (1) normal oscillation of Hb-mass at sea level; (2) time course of adaptation and de-adaptation; (3) sex influences; (4) influences of illness and injury; (5) interaction of Hb-mass and competition performance. Hb-mass of 45 top swimmers (male 24; female 21) was repeatedly measured (~6 times) over the course of 2 years using the optimized CO-rebreathing method. Twenty-five athletes trained between one and three times for 3-4 weeks at altitude training camps (ATCs) at 2,320 m (3 ATCs) and 1,360 m (1 ATC). Performance was determined by analyzing 726 competitions according to the German point system. The variation of Hb-mass without hypoxic influence was 3.0 % (m) and 2.7 % (f). At altitude, Hb-mass increased by 7.2 ± 3.3 % (p altitude. In conclusion, the altitude (2,320 m) effect on Hb-mass is still present 3 weeks after return, it decisively depends on the health status, but is not influenced by sex. In healthy subjects it exceeds by far the oscillation occurring at sea level. After return from altitude performance increases after a delay of 3 weeks.

  16. [Maternal hemoglobin in Peru: regional differences and its association with adverse perinatal outcomes].

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma; Gasco, Manuel; Carrillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate hemoglobin (Hb) levels in pregnant women from different geographical regions from Peru; to establish anemia and erythrocytocis rates and to establish the role of Hb on adverse perinatal outcomes using the Perinatal Information System (PIS) database of Peruvian Ministry of Health. Data were obtained from 379,816 births of 43 maternity care units between 2000 and 2010. Anemia and erythrocytocis rates were determined in each geographical region as well as rates of adverse perinatal outcomes. To analyze data the STATA program (versión 10.0,Texas, USA) was used. The results were considered significant at panemia rate was higher in the coast (25.8%) and low forest (26.2%). Moderate/severe anemia rate in low forest was 2.6% and at the coast was 1.0%. In the highland, the highest rate of moderate/severe anemia was in the southern highlands (0.6%). The highest rate of erythrocytocis was found in the central highland (23.7%), 11.9% in the southern highland and 9.5% in the north highland. Severe anemia and erythrocytocis were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. There are differences by Peruvian geographical region in anemia rates. In the central highlands were found the highest rates of erythrocytocis due to hypoxia effect in the high altitudes; however in the southern highlands, erythrocytocis was lower. Severe anemia and erythrocytosis were associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes.

  17. Interaction of promethazine and adiphenine to human hemoglobin: A comparative spectroscopic and computational analysis

    Maurya, Neha; ud din Parray, Mehraj; Maurya, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Patel, Rajan

    2018-06-01

    The binding nature of amphiphilic drugs viz. promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) and adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP), with human hemoglobin (Hb) was unraveled by fluorescence, absorbance, time resolved fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques in combination with molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation methods. The steady state fluorescence spectra indicated that both PMT and ADP quenches the fluorescence of Hb through static quenching mechanism which was further confirmed by time resolved fluorescence spectra. The UV-Vis spectroscopy suggested ground state complex formation. The activation energy (Ea) was observed more in the case of Hb-ADP than Hb-PMT interaction system. The FRET result indicates the high probability of energy transfer from β Trp37 residue of Hb to the PMT (r = 2.02 nm) and ADP (r = 2.33 nm). The thermodynamic data reveal that binding of PMT with Hb are exothermic in nature involving hydrogen bonding and van der Waal interaction whereas in the case of ADP hydrophobic forces play the major role and binding process is endothermic in nature. The CD results show that both PMT and ADP, induced secondary structural changes of Hb and unfold the protein by losing a large helical content while the effect is more pronounced with ADP. Additionally, we also utilized computational approaches for deep insight into the binding of these drugs with Hb and the results are well matched with our experimental results.

  18. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  19. Repeated elevational transitions in hemoglobin function during the evolution of Andean hummingbirds.

    Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Cheviron, Zachary A; Dudley, Robert; McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Storz, Jay F

    2013-12-17

    Animals that sustain high levels of aerobic activity under hypoxic conditions (e.g., birds that fly at high altitude) face the physiological challenge of jointly optimizing blood-O2 affinity for O2 loading in the pulmonary circulation and O2 unloading in the systemic circulation. At high altitude, this challenge is especially acute for small endotherms like hummingbirds that have exceedingly high mass-specific metabolic rates. Here we report an experimental analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) function in South American hummingbirds that revealed a positive correlation between Hb-O2 affinity and native elevation. Protein engineering experiments and ancestral-state reconstructions revealed that this correlation is attributable to derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity in highland lineages, as well as derived reductions in Hb-O2 affinity in lowland lineages. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that repeated evolutionary transitions in biochemical phenotype are mainly attributable to repeated amino acid replacements at two epistatically interacting sites that alter the allosteric regulation of Hb-O2 affinity. These results demonstrate that repeated changes in biochemical phenotype involve parallelism at the molecular level, and that mutations with indirect, second-order effects on Hb allostery play key roles in biochemical adaptation.

  20. An innovative simple technique of blood conservation in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot and severely raised hemoglobin.

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-12-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients because of the fear of possible hemodynamic instability, and hypoxemic spell. We describe an innovative, simple technique of blood conservation for adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot with severely raised hemoglobin. With this technique, hemoglobin can be normalized on CPB; moreover, there is no fear of hypoxemic spell or hemodynamic instability. Furthermore, the blood conserved is readily available for transfusion in the perioperative period, if needed.