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Sample records for hemlock looper lambdina

  1. Western false hemlock looper in British Columbia, 1947-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Compilation and summary of published and unpublished data on western false hemlock looper in British Columbia since its discovery near Chase in 1942. Information is based on file reports of the Insect and Disease Survey for Pacific and Yukon Regions. The report describes biology, methods of detection, tree mortality and incremental loss, and controls, including insect parasites, bacterial and viral disease, predators, and chemical insecticides.

  2. NCRN Hemlock Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — ​Data associated with the 2015 hemlock inventory project in NCR. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a coniferous tree native to the NE and Appalachian regions of...

  3. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    2005-01-01

    Native to Asia, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is a small, aphidlike insect that threatens the health and sustainability of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) in the Eastern United States. Hemlock woolly adelgid was fi rst reported in the Eastern United...

  4. Overview of hemlock health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Souto; Kathleen S. Shields

    2000-01-01

    Although many insects and diseases are associated with hemlock, we will, ironically, draw our first conclusion, that hemlocks are very sensitive to the stress of insect defoliation, from a tale of gypsy moth defoliation. The unprecedented gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) outbreak of 1981, when nearly 13 million acres were defoliated in the Northeast...

  5. Maintenance of eastern hemlock forests: Factors associated with hemlock vulnerability to hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Petra. Bohall Wood

    2010-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.]) is the most shade-tolerant and long-lived tree species in eastern North America. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA), is a nonnative invasive insect that feeds on eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). HWA currently is established in...

  6. Eastern hemlock: a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Howard; Paul Sendak; Claudia Codrescu

    2000-01-01

    Although it is an important component of the northern forest, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is a secondary species in its regions' markets. In this paper, we examine the markets for hemlock, analyze price trends for stumpage, and suggest implications of market forces for management of forests containing hemlock. The...

  7. Impacts of hemlock decline and ecological considerations for hemlock stand restoration following hemlock woolly adelgid outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Z. Jonas; Weimin Xi; John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson

    2012-01-01

    We present a synthesis of current knowledge and information of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) impact on hemlock forests and conceptual framework of restoring damaged hemlock stands by HWA infestation. Native to Asia, HWA has been thriving in the eastern United States since the early 1950s and has become a serious pathological agent of both eastern...

  8. Biology and control of hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Ligia C. Vieira; Scott M. Salom

    2014-01-01

    This publication is a substantial revision of FHTET 2001-03, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, which was published in 2001. This publication contains information on the native range of hemlock and range of hemlock woolly adelgid, the importance of hemlocks in eastern forest ecosystems, and on hosts, life cycle, control, and population trends of the hemlock woolly adelgid.

  9. Suppression of hop looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Gent, D H

    2014-04-01

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.

  10. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its hemlock hosts: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Melody. Keena

    2011-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hempitera: Adelgidae), threatens the health and sustainability of the native eastern North American hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and T. caroliniana Engelman. The lineage of HWA that was introduced to the eastern United States came from Japan...

  11. Spatial distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid induced hemlock mortality in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuula Kantola; Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa; Robert N. Coulson; Sheryl Strauch; Maria D. Tchakerian; Markus Holopainen; Hannu Saarenmaa; Douglas A. Streett

    2014-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, HWA) outbreaks are posing a major threat to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.) forest landscapes in the eastern USA. As foundation species, hemlocks play a variety of functional roles in forest landscapes....

  12. Dynamics of Connecticut hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; David M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The stand dynamics and production of two one-acre plots of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L) in Connecticut have been followed for more than six decades. Data were recorded for all individual trees. One plot (Saltonstall) was established in 1924 after the removal of a hardwood overstory. This stand had a nearly pure, almost fully closed understory...

  13. Using dendrochronology to model hemlock woolly adelgid effects on eastern hemlock growth and vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Rentch; Mary Ann Fajvan; Richard Evans; Brad. Onken

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) crown condition and changes in radial growth associated with infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Tree-ring chronologies of eastern hemlock were used to develop a binomial decline index based on...

  14. Evaluating Southern Appalachian forest dynamics without eastern hemlock: consequences of herbivory by the hemlock wooly adelgid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew G. Birt; Yu Zeng; Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; John Waldron; Weimin Xi; Szu-Hung Chen; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriére) and the Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann) are ecologically important tree species in eastern North America forests that are currently threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Adelgidae). HWA has spread rapidly from...

  15. Hemlock declines rapidly with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation: impacts on the carbon cycle of the Southern Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    April E. Nuckolls; Nina Wurzburger; Chelcy R. Ford; Ronald L. Hendrick; James M. Vose; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2008-01-01

    The recent infestation of southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is expected to have dramatic and lasting effects on forest structure and function. We studied the short-term changes to the carbon cycle in a mixed stand of hemlock and hardwoods, where hemlock was declining due to either girdling or HWA infestation. We expected that...

  16. Development of Heterodera glycines on Soybean Damaged by Soybean Looper and Stem Canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, J S; Layton, M B; Boethel, D J; McGawley, E C; Snow, J P; Berggren, G T

    1989-01-01

    Short-term greenhouse studies with soybean (Glycine max cv. Bragg) were used to examine interactions between the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and two other common pests of soybean, the stem canker fungus (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora) and the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), a lepidopterous defoliator. Numbers of cyst nematode juveniles in roots and numbers of cysts in soil and roots were reduced on plants with stem cankers. Defoliation by soybean looper larvae had the opposite effect; defoliation levels of 22 and 64% caused stepwise increases in numbers of juveniles and cysts in both roots and soil, whereas numbers of females in roots decreased. In two experiments, stem canker length was reduced 40 and 45% when root systems were colonized by the soybean cyst nematode. The absence of significant interactions among these pests indicates that the effects of soybean cyst nematode, stem canker, and soybean looper on plant growth and each other primarily were additive.

  17. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  18. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  19. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poi...

  20. The effects of shade, fertilizer, and pruning on eastern hemlock trees and hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas McAvoy; Ryan Mays; Nels Johnson; Scott Salom

    2017-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, an invasive insect native to the Pacific Northwest and Asia, is responsible for widespread health decline and mortality of native hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in the eastern United States. Shading and fertilizer has been found to affect the survival and health of both HWA and...

  1. A comparison of strategies for experimentally inoculating eastern hemlock with the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Butin; Evan Preisser; Joseph Elkinton

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the importance of several factors potentially affecting the settlement rate of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, on uninfested foliage of the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. We conducted our experiments in Massachusetts (USA) with overwintering sistens adelgids, and applied standard densities of...

  2. An exotic pest threat to eastern hemlock: an initiative for management of hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Robert Bridges; Kathleen S. Shields

    2003-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is the greatest threat to the health and sustainability of hemlock in eastern North America. The potential ecological impacts of this exotic insect pest can be compared to those of gypsy moth, Dutch elm disease, and chestnut blight. The USDA Forest Service, with the support and cooperation of the National Association of State Foresters and...

  3. Development of a rain down technique to artificially infest hemlocks with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Jetton; Albert E. Mayfield; Zaidee L. Powers

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a non-native invasive pest that has caused widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Pinales: Pinaceae)) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana Engelm.) in the eastern United States. Our preliminary...

  4. Thinning effects on foliar elements in eastern hemlock: implications for managing the spread of the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Ann Fajvan; Richard M. Turcotte

    2017-01-01

    Stand thinning is being tested as a means to limit the impacts of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand) on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere). The efficacy of this strategy may be reduced if thinning increases hemlock foliar nutrients because HWA densities are correlated with foliar...

  5. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  6. Product Recovery From Hemlock "Pulpwood" From Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Fahey

    1983-01-01

    A total of 363 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) logs from Alaska were sawn to compare recovery at a stud mill and at a dimension mill. Recovery at both mills varied by log diameters and by log scaling system. Lumber grade recovery was primarily in Stud grade at the stud mill and in Standard and Construction grade at the dimension...

  7. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  8. Comparative impact of Scymnus ningshanensis and Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Butin; Joseph Elkinton; Nathan Havill; Michael Montgomery

    2003-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is an introduced pest thought to be native to Asia. Damage to eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock can be serious (Salom et al. 1996), but western and Asian hemlocks are seldom damaged. Potential biological control agents have been observed in Japan and China (Sasaji and McClure 1997, Yu et al. 2000...

  9. Prioritizing conservation seed banking locations for imperiled hemlock species using multi-attribute frontier mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Hastings; Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch; Mark Megalos; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (HWA) is an invasive forest insect sweeping across the native range of eastern (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.) and Carolina (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.) hemlocks, threatening to severely reduce eastern hemlock extent and to push Carolina hemlock to extirpation. HWA poses a significant threat to these eastern US natives, now...

  10. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians: Control strategies, ecological impacts, and potential management responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; David N. Wear; Albert E. Mayfield; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annad; or HWA) is a non-native invasive pest that attacks and kills eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). Hemlock is a ‘‘foundation species’’ due to its strong influence on ecosystem structure and function,...

  11. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Chinese hemlocks infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouyue Yu; Michael E. Montgomery; Defu Yao

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-four species of lady beetles were collected from three Chinese hemlock species, Tsuga dumosa (D. Don) Eichler, T. forrestii Downie and T. chinensis (Franchet) Pritzel, in Yunnan, Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces of China as part of a search for natural enemies of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. Twenty new species are described: Clitostethus...

  12. Hemlock woolly adelgid phenology and predacious beetle community on Japanese hemlocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Michael Montgomery; Ashley. Lamb

    2008-01-01

    Monthly samples of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae, and predatory beetles were taken from Tsuga sieboldii near the border of Osaka and Kyoto prefectures. The beetles were collected by sweeping the canopy up to 5 meters height with nets. The phenology of HWA life stages were monitored by collecting branches and...

  13. A landscape-scale remote sensing/GIS tool to assess eastern hemlock vulnerability to hemlock woolly adelgid-induced decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett; Mary Martin; Lucie. Plourde

    2010-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (HWA) is an invasive insect pest that is causing widespread mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.). However, some stands remain living more than a decade after infestation. The ability to target management efforts in locations where hemlock is most likely to...

  14. A comprehensive DNA barcode library for the looper moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWaard, Jeremy R; Hebert, Paul D N; Humble, Leland M

    2011-03-28

    The construction of comprehensive reference libraries is essential to foster the development of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring biodiversity and detecting invasive species. The looper moths of British Columbia (BC), Canada present a challenging case for species discrimination via DNA barcoding due to their considerable diversity and limited taxonomic maturity. By analyzing specimens held in national and regional natural history collections, we assemble barcode records from representatives of 400 species from BC and surrounding provinces, territories and states. Sequence variation in the barcode region unambiguously discriminates over 93% of these 400 geometrid species. However, a final estimate of resolution success awaits detailed taxonomic analysis of 48 species where patterns of barcode variation suggest cases of cryptic species, unrecognized synonymy as well as young species. A catalog of these taxa meriting further taxonomic investigation is presented as well as the supplemental information needed to facilitate these investigations.

  15. A comprehensive DNA barcode library for the looper moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae of British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R deWaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The construction of comprehensive reference libraries is essential to foster the development of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring biodiversity and detecting invasive species. The looper moths of British Columbia (BC, Canada present a challenging case for species discrimination via DNA barcoding due to their considerable diversity and limited taxonomic maturity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By analyzing specimens held in national and regional natural history collections, we assemble barcode records from representatives of 400 species from BC and surrounding provinces, territories and states. Sequence variation in the barcode region unambiguously discriminates over 93% of these 400 geometrid species. However, a final estimate of resolution success awaits detailed taxonomic analysis of 48 species where patterns of barcode variation suggest cases of cryptic species, unrecognized synonymy as well as young species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A catalog of these taxa meriting further taxonomic investigation is presented as well as the supplemental information needed to facilitate these investigations.

  16. Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

  17. Identification of unique pheromone components for soybean looper mothPseudoplusia includens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, C E; Du, J; Hammond, A; Roelofs, W L

    1987-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone glands from individual female soybean looper moths showed that in addition to the previously identified main component (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, the compounds dodecyl acetate, 11-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl propionate, and (Z)-7-dodecenyl butanoate were also produced. Two of the components, 12∶OAc and 11-12∶OAc, were not detected in a single analysis of female effluvium. Flight-tunnel tests showed that the five-component and three-component blends were equal to each other and to a female extract (> 80% source contacts) and that the mixtures were superior toZ7-12∶OAc alone. Field tests indicated that the five-component blend was significantly more attractive thanZ7-12∶OAc alone at a dosage of 1 mg, but that the blend was only slightly better at 3 mg.

  18. Host plant driven transcriptome plasticity in the salivary glands of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Galbraith, David A; Grozinger, Christina M; Felton, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Generalist herbivores feed on a wide array of plants and need to adapt to varying host qualities and defenses. One of the first insect derived secretions to come in contact with the plant is the saliva. Insect saliva is potentially involved in both the pre-digestion of the host plant as well as induction/suppression of plant defenses, yet how the salivary glands respond to changes in host plant at the transcriptional level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how the labial salivary gland transcriptome varies according to the host plant on which the insect is feeding. In order to determine this, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae were reared on cabbage, tomato, and pinto bean artificial diet. Labial glands were dissected from fifth instar larvae and used to extract RNA for RNASeq analysis. Assembly of the resulting sequencing reads resulted in a transcriptome library for T. ni salivary glands consisting of 14,037 expressed genes. Feeding on different host plant diets resulted in substantial remodeling of the gland transcriptomes, with 4,501 transcripts significantly differentially expressed across the three treatment groups. Gene expression profiles were most similar between cabbage and artificial diet, which corresponded to the two diets on which larvae perform best. Expression of several transcripts involved in detoxification processes were differentially expressed, and transcripts involved in the spliceosome pathway were significantly downregulated in tomato-reared larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates that the transcriptomes of the salivary glands of the cabbage looper are strongly responsive to diet. It also provides a foundation for future functional studies that can help us understand the role of saliva of chewing insects in plant-herbivore interactions.

  19. Development of diagnostic concentrations for insecticide resistance monitoring in soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae using an artificial diet overlay bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, R N; Boethel, D J

    2000-06-01

    Diagnostic concentrations for several standard and experimental insecticides were determined for a laboratory reference strain of soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), using an insecticide diet overlay bioassay to evaluate the relative susceptibility of field (P) and F1 generations of four field-collected strains of third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar soybean loopers in 1996 and 1997. Diagnostic concentrations were defined as concentrations that killed 90-95% of the susceptible individuals and were 5 ppm for permethrin, 1,300 ppm for thiodicarb, 60 ppm for chlorfenapyr, 5 ppm for emamectin benzoate, and 60 ppm for spinosad. Field strains exhibited significantly greater percentage survival than the laboratory reference strain in the permethrin bioassays in 1996 and 1997 in both the P and F1 generation bioassays and in the thiodicarb bioassays in 1997. Larvae exposed to diagnostic concentrations of the experimental insecticides chlorfenapyr, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad usually did not exhibit significantly higher percentage survival than the reference strain.

  20. Impact of Imidacloprid for control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate asseblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa Churchel; James Hanula; C. Wayne Berisford; James Vose; Mark Dalusky

    2011-01-01

    Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide that acts on the nervous system, is currently being used to control hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is damaging hemlock trees. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil injection with imidacloprid for hemlock woolly adelgid control near streams adversely affects aquatic invertebrates. Eastern...

  1. Classification and spatial analysis of eastern hemlock health using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent R. Bonneau; Kathleen S. Shields; Daniel L. Civco; David R. Mikus

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade hemlock stands in southern Connecticut have undergone significant decline coincident with the arrival in 1985 of an exotic insect pest, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). The objective of this study was to evaluate image enhancement techniques for rating the health of hemlocks at the landscape level using...

  2. Distribution and Abundance of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Within Hemlock Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.V. Joseph; J.L. Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2011-01-01

    We studied the distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), within hemlock trees for three summer (progrediens) and two winter (sistens) generations in northern Georgia. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrie` re, trees were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g of imidacloprid per 2.5 cm of tree diameter at breast height...

  3. Allozyme Variation in Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. S& #225; nchez; M.A. Keena; M.A. Keena

    2009-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a major introduced pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the United States is anholocyclic and an obligate parthenogen, because no suitable primary host (on which sexual reproduction occurs in Asia) is...

  4. Insertion site selection and feeding of the hemlock woolly adelgid: implications for host-plant resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L.F. Oten; A.C. Cohen; F.P. Hain

    2012-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an invasive forest pest that threatens the existence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana Engelm.) in the eastern United States. It is a small, aphid like insect with piercing-sucking...

  5. Composition, structure, and sustainability of hemlock ecosystems in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    Across its natural range in North America, eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carriere) is an important resource for people and wildlife, but it is seriously threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand). From 10 to 20 percent of the hemlock resource is found in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick,...

  6. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  7. Discriminating Tsuga canadensis Hemlock Forest Defoliation Using Remotely Sensed Change Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, D D; Lathrop, R G

    2002-09-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) is declining in health and vigor in eastern North America due to infestation by an introduced insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges isugue). Adelgid feeding activity results in the defoliation of hemlock forest canopy over several years. We investigated the application of Landsat satellite imagery and change-detection techniques to monitor the health of hemlock forest stands in northern New Jersey. We described methods used to correct effects due to atmospheric conditions and monitor the health status of hemlock stands over time. As hemlocks defoliate, changes occur in the spectral reflectance of the canopy in near infrared and red wavelengths-changes captured in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. By relating the differences in this index over time to hemlock defoliation on the ground, four classes of hemlock forest health were predicted across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with 82% accuracy. Using a time series of images, we are investigating temporal and spatial patterns in hemlock defoliation across the study area over the past decade. Based on the success of this methodology, we are no expanding out study to monitor hemlock health across the entire Mid-Atlantic region.

  8. Carrageenans, sulphated polysaccharides of red seaweeds, differentially affect Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S Sangha

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ι-, κ- and λ-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ι- and κ-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with λ- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ι- and κ- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by λ-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ι-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but κ- and λ-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ι-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect.

  9. Assessing Common Bean Cultivars for Resistance to the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, R; Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Lourenção, A L

    2017-10-01

    The soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is known as an important pest of leguminous plants worldwide. In Brazil, this pest species is gaining importance to producers of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) because it limits field production of the crop. Chemical control is still the primary method of insect control. However, due to the possible harmful effects of pesticides to humans and the environment, alternative and less aggressive practices are being investigated. For this reason, the use of resistant plant genotypes represents a valuable tool in insect control. This study evaluated the biological aspects of larvae of C. includens confined to 14 bean genotypes under laboratory conditions (26 ± 2°C; 65 ± 10% RH; photoperiod of 14 h L:10 h D). The duration of the instars, total duration of the larval phase, consumption while in the larval phase, weight of the fifth instar larvae, larval viability, duration of the pre-pupal and pupal phases, pupal weight, pupal viability, pupal deformity, caterpillar-to-adult cycle, duration of the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, and total number of viable eggs per female were evaluated. The genotypes "IAC Boreal," "IAC Harmonia," and "IAC Formoso" expressed antibiosis, prolonging the caterpillar-to-adult cycle and reducing the larval viability; however, each of these genotypes also experienced high leaf consumption. "IAC Jabola" expressed moderate levels of antibiosis and/or antixenosis (feeding), while the genotype "BRS Horizonte" expressed antixenosis (feeding). The data obtained with IAC Boreal, IAC Harmonia, IAC Formoso, IAC Jabola, and BRS Horizonte are promising and may help with the improvement of programs aimed at managing C. includens damage to this leguminous agricultural crop.

  10. Plant association and management guide for the western hemlock zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Topik; Nancy M. Halverson; Dale G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    This guide presents the plant association classification for the western hemlock zone of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The bulk of the forest below about 3000 feet in elevation is included in this zone, comprising about one half of the entire landbase. Much of this area is blanketed with productive stands of Douglas-fir.

  11. Grading options for western hemlock "pulpwood" logs from southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald; John. Dramm; Kenneth. Kilborn

    Properties and grade yield are estimated for structural lumber produced from No. 3, No. 4, and low-end No. 2 grade western hemlock logs of the type previously used primarily for the production of pulp chips. Estimates are given for production in the Structural Framing, Machine Stress Rating, and Laminating Stock grading systems. The information shows that significant...

  12. Site classification for even-aged stands of western hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Barnes

    1949-01-01

    In 1937 normal yield tables were compiled by Meyer for even-aged stands of Sitka spruce and Western hemlock. The basic data from which the tables were compiled were collected over the entire coastal range of the species, extending from southern Oregon through Washington end British Columbia to southeastern Alaska. Data were obtained from temporary sample plots...

  13. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  14. Laricobius osakensis, a hemlock wooly adelgid predator from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery; Ligia Cota Viera; Shigehiko Shiyake; Scott. Salom

    2011-01-01

    The approach for the biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, has been to release multiple species of host-specific predators in order to reduce HWA populations below damaging thresholds. Beetles in the genus Laricobius prey excusively on adelgids and have life histories matched closely to that of...

  15. Activity of rubidium and cesium in soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): insect feeding on cotton and soybean measured by elemental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Douglas J; Pitre, Henry N

    2002-04-01

    Uptake and translocation of the elemental markers rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) within adult soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the laboratory in various feeding and mating treatments. Neonates were tested to determine marker transfer from male and female adults fed rubidium chloride (RbCl)-treated artificial nectar, cesium chloride (CsCI)-treated artificial nectar, or both. All females contained detectable levels of Rb, Cs, or both, which were obtained either through direct feeding or via spermatophores. Rubidium was present in females at significantly greater levels than Cs. No significant differences in Rb levels were observed between feeding or spermatophore acquisitions. Most neonates had significantly higher levels of Rb than Cs. In a field cage study to evaluate adult feeding and oviposition behavior on blooming cotton and blooming soybean treated with RbCl and CsCl, respectively, more eggs contained Rb than Cs, indicating greater feeding on cotton nectar than soybean nectar, regardless of the host plant upon which eggs were laid. Females laid more eggs on blooming soybean than on blooming cotton. Higher levels of Rb in cotton than Cs in soybean were recorded and may be attributed to initial elemental marker quantities available to the insects. This study provides the support for the generalized observations that soybean looper infestations in soybean can be related to feeding activities by adults in cotton.

  16. Feeding and maturation by soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Russin, John S; Boethel, David J; Griffin, James L; McGawley, Eduward C

    2004-02-01

    Feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'Davis' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rybd. ex. A. W. Hill, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth and insect feeding and maturation. When fed foliage from soybean stressed by hemp sesbania, soybean looper larvae remained longer in feeding stages, consumed more foliage, and showed altered weight gain compared with larvae fed control foliage. Results suggest that nutrient (s) critical for proper development of larvae may have been limited in weed-stressed soybean foliage. Less dramatic results were observed when larvae fed on foliage from soybean with roots colonized by the charcoal rot fungus. Such larvae consumed more foliage, weighed more, and showed a slight increase in larval feeding period, but only in 1 yr of the study. Colonization of soybean roots by the root-knot nematode had no consistent effects on either the soybean host or insect.

  17. Cross-resistance and resistance longevity as induced by bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens herbivory on soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srinivas

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cross-resistance, and longevity of resistance, induced by the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, was studied IN the soybean PI 227687 that exhibited induced response in earlier studies. Bean leaf beetle adults and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens, larvae were used to induce resistance and to determine beetle feeding preference. Beetles were collected from soybean fields 2 to 5 days prior to the feeding preference test. The level of cross-resistance induced by soybean looper herbivory to subsequent bean leaf beetle feeding was higher when compared to cross-resistance induced by bean leaf beetle herbivory against subsequent feeding by soybean looper. Further, herbivory by the bean leaf beetle also induced resistance against soybean looper feeding. In the longevity study, leaflets from treated plants were collected 5, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20 and 25 days after initiation of feeding. Pairwise comparisons of leaflets from plants treated by bean leaf beetle herbivory with untreated plants revealed that induced responses were highest 14 and lowest 25 days after initiation of feeding. On other sampling days, levels of induced response varied with the sampling day.

  18. Cross-resistance and resistance longevity as induced by bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens herbivory on soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, P; Danielson, S D; Smith, C M; Foster, J E

    2001-01-01

    Cross-resistance, and longevity of resistance, induced by the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, was studied IN the soybean PI 227687 that exhibited induced response in earlier studies. Bean leaf beetle adults and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens, larvae were used to induce resistance and to determine beetle feeding preference. Beetles were collected from soybean fields 2 to 5 days prior to the feeding preference test. The level of cross-resistance induced by soybean looper herbivory to subsequent bean leaf beetle feeding was higher when compared to cross-resistance induced by bean leaf beetle herbivory against subsequent feeding by soybean looper. Further, herbivory by the bean leaf beetle also induced resistance against soybean looper feeding. In the longevity study, leaflets from treated plants were collected 5, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20 and 25 days after initiation of feeding. Pairwise comparisons of leaflets from plants treated by bean leaf beetle herbivory with untreated plants revealed that induced responses were highest 14 and lowest 25 days after initiation of feeding. On other sampling days, levels of induced response varied with the sampling day.

  19. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; S.E. Bentz; Richard T. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of the native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.)...

  20. The effects of site factors on the rate of hemlock decline: a case study in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denise Royle; Richard Lathrop

    2000-01-01

    The rate of decline of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) appears to be highly variable and site dependent. Rates of hemlock forest decline have not been quantified at the landscape scale and reasons for observed variations in the rate of decline remain unknown. Others have...

  1. Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizae in 40- and 400-year-old stands: mycobiont availability to late successional western hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. R. Horton; R. Molina; K. Hood

    2005-01-01

    We investigated ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in forest stands containing both early successional Douglas-fir and late successional western hemlock at two points in the typical stand development by identifying EM fungi from roots of Douglas-fir and western hemlock in mixed stands. Tn an early seral stage forest, EM roots of western hemlock seedlings and intermingling 40-...

  2. Using climate and genetic diversity data to prioritize conservation seed banking for imperiled hemlock species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hastings; K.M. Potter; F.H. Koch; M.A. Megalos; R.M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) is an invasive forest insect that has caused mortality of eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana) at an alarming rate. Now infesting 19 states and over 400 counties of the eastern United States, HWA poses a significant threat to native host species. The current biological and chemical methods for...

  3. Phenology of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Northern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimar V. Joseph; Albert E. Mayfield; Mark J. Dalusky; Christopher Asaro; C. Wayne. Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal phenology of an insect pest in a specific geographic region is essential for optimizing the timing of management actions or research activities. We examined the phenology of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, near the southern limit of the range of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, in the Appalachians of northern...

  4. The range and response of Neonicotinoids on hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimat V. Joseph; S. Kristine Braman; Jim Quick; James L. Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand is a serious pest of eastern and Carolina hemlock in the eastern United States. A series of experiments compared commercially available and experimental insecticides, rates, application methods and timing for HWA control in Georgia and North Carolina. Safari 20 SG (dinotefuran) provided an average of 79 to 87%...

  5. Chinese Coccinellidae for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid: description of native habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Defu Yao; Hongbin Wang

    2000-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is generally believed to be native to Asia and is known to occur in India, Japan, and China. In China, there are approximately four species of hemlock that grow in 14 provinces. We explored regions of the Southwestern Plateau in Yunnan, Sichuan, and Shaanxi Provinces for the adelgid and its natural...

  6. Xylem transport models optimize effectiveness of systemic insecticide applications for controlling hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Barbara C. Reynolds; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) is causing widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock trees (Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carr.). Stem injection of insecticide is widely used as a control measure, but its effectiveness depends on individual tree hydraulic characteristics. Recent work has shown that eastern...

  7. Use of satellite image data to identify changes in hemlock health over space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent R. Bonneau; Kathleen S. Shields; Daniel L. Civco; David R. Mikus

    2000-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere), is an important component of ecosystems in the northeastern United States and is the primary coniferous species in southern Connecticut. Hemlocks play a unique role in the region by providing spatial and structural habitat diversity that supports many wildlife and fish populations. Widespread damage...

  8. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  9. The role of site conditions in survival of hemlocks infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid: amelioration through the use of organic biostimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj Sivaramakrishnan; Graeme P. Berlyn

    2000-01-01

    Both greenhouse and field studies have shown that it is the combined stress of drought and infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid that causes death in eastern hemlocks. In three separate greenhouse studies it was found that the presence of adelgids alone did not cause the death of the plants over a period of 1, 2 or 5 years respectively, if they were well watered...

  10. Influence of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestation Levels on Water Stress in Eastern Hemlocks within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Coots

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L. Carrière, resulting from infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae, has occurred throughout the eastern United States. Although imidacloprid treatment can reduce tree mortality, its effectiveness can be influenced by several factors including tree water stress. The relationship between water stress and infestation rates is unknown, and an understanding of these could greatly increase the efficiency of management for this invasive insect. The primary objective of this study was to assess water stress at three levels of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. Water stress was measured monthly for 13 months in eastern hemlocks classified as <25%, 25%–75%, and >75% infested. The highest level of water stress was found in those trees with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation levels greater than 75%. The lowest level of water stress was found in those trees with less than 25% hemlock woolly adelgid infestation levels. Knowledge of these effects can contribute to development of more effective chemical management strategies.

  11. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Efficacy of Cry1Ac:Cry1F proteins in cotton leaf tissue against fall armyworm, beet armyworm, and soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, K V; Siebert, M Willrich; Leonard, B R; All, J; Haile, F J

    2009-08-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) were evaluated against selected lepidopteran pests including fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker). Studies were conducted in a range of environments, challenging various cotton tissue types from several varieties containing a combination of Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins. In fresh tissue bioassays of mature leaves and squares (flower buds) and in artificial field infestations of white flowers, plants containing Cry1Ac:Cry1F significantly reduced levels of damage (leaf defoliation, bract feeding, penetrated squares and bolls, and boll abscission) and induced significantly greater mortality (90-100%) of fall armyworm compared with that on non-Bt cotton plants. Plants containing Cry1Ac:Cry1F conferred high levels (100%) of soybean looper mortality and low levels (0.2%) of leaf defoliation compared with non-Bt cotton. Beet armyworm was relatively less sensitive to Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton plants compared with fall armyworm and soybean looper. However, beet armyworm larval development was delayed 21 d after infestation (DAI), and ingestion of plant tissue was inhibited (14 and 21 DAI) on the Cry1Ac:Cry1F plants compared with that on non-Bt cotton plants. These results show Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton varieties can be an effective component in a management program for these lepidopteran pest species. Differential susceptibility of fall armyworm, beet armyworm, and soybean looper larvae to Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton reinforces the need to sample during plant development and respond with a foliar insecticide if local action thresholds are exceeded.

  13. Host range specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Katie Cassidy; Melody Keena; Patrick Tobin; Kelli Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is...

  14. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  15. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological... hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and...

  16. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  17. Colored and white sectors from star-patterned petunia flowers display differential resistance to corn earworm and cabbage looper larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T; Berhow, Mark A; Dowd, Patrick F

    2008-06-01

    Anthocyanins are likely a visual aid that attract pollinators. However, there is also the possibility that anthocyanins are present in some flowers as defensive molecules that protect them from excess light, pathogens, or herbivores. In this study, resistance due to anthocyanins from commercial petunia flowers (Petunia hybrida) was examined for insecticide/antifeedant activity against corn earworm (CEW, Helicoverpa zea) and cabbage looper (CL, Trichoplusia ni). The petunia flowers studied contained a star pattern, with colored and white sectors. CEW larvae ate significantly less colored sectors than white sectors in no-choice bioassays in most cases. All CEW larvae feeding on blue sectors weighed significantly less after 2 days than larvae feeding on white sectors, which was negatively correlated with total anthocyanin levels. CL larvae ate less of blue sectors than white sectors, and blue sectors from one petunia cultivar caused significantly higher CL mortality than white sectors. Partially purified anthocyanin mixtures isolated from petunia flowers, when added to insect diet discs at approximately natural concentrations, reduced both CEW and CL larva weights compared to the controls. These studies demonstrate that the colored sectors of these petunia cultivars slow the development of these lepidopteran larvae and indicate that anthocyanins play some part in flower defense in petunia.

  18. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  19. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  20. Soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) oviposition on cotton and soybean of different growth stages: influence of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Douglas J; Pitre, Henry N

    2002-04-01

    Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), oviposition in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., of various stages of plant phenological development was evaluated in field cages in 1994, 1995, and 1996. Overall, females preferred to oviposit on soybean over cotton when both crops were compared in vegetative or prebloom stages, when both crops were blooming, and when soybean was blooming or in early pod stage compared with prebloom cotton. Females preferred to deposit eggs on the lower leaf surface in the upper two-thirds of the plant canopy in cotton and soybean. Oviposition in upper and middle canopy levels varied with plant growth stage. Females tended to lay more eggs in the upper canopy compared with the middle canopy in prebloom cotton and vegetative soybean; more eggs were laid in the middle canopy of blooming cotton and reproductive stages of soybean. Females responded to both cotton and soybean volatiles in an olfactometer. There was no significant difference in response to the two sources of volatiles.

  1. Factors Influencing Pyrethroid Resistance in a Permethrin-Selected Strain of the Soybean Looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas; Ottea; Boethel; Ibrahim

    1996-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxgenase activity toward p-nitroanisole was measured in larvae of three strains of soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), including a laboratory susceptible (S) strain, a resistant (R) strain selected for several generations with permethrin, and a nonselected (NS) strain from the same field collections as the R strain. Activity was significantly higher in R strain larvae than in the S and NS strains (1.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively), and there was no significant difference between activity in the S and NS strains. Resistance to the alpha-cyano pyrethroids deltamethrin and cypermethrin was similar to or higher than that observed with permethrin (RR = 70.0, 62.4, 145.3 and 12.1, 32.3, and 27.0 for permethrin, deltamethrin, and cypermethrin in R and NS strains, respectively). The R strain was less resistant (RR = 4.3) to tefluthrin, a pyrethroid with a fluorinated-phenyl alcohol moiety, and a nonester (ether) pyrethroid, BRC 429 (RR = 17.7). Piperonyl butoxide (PB) significantly increased the toxicity of each insecticide tested in the R and NS strains. In addition, penetration of 14C-cypermethrin was decreased significantly at 24 hr after treatment when R strain larvae were pretreated with PB, with 21.1% of the applied dose unpenetrated in PB-treated larvae and 7.6% unpenetrated in larvae not treated with PB.

  2. Annona crassiflora Mart. (Annonaceae: effect of crude extract of seeds on larvae of soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Massarolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of a crude extract of Annona crassiflora was evaluated on larvae of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in different stages of larval development. The extract was prepared with seeds of A. crassiflora fruits collected in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The extract was diluted in water and solubilizer agent at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0%; it was tested by ingestion of treated leaves and contact. The mortality rate of topically treated caterpillars of first, third, and fifth instars was significantly higher than that of the control group. For first instar caterpillars, mortality was observed within the first 24 h after application, while, for the remaining instars, it was significant after 72 h. For caterpillars fed treated leaves, no differences in mortality rates were observed within the first 120 h. These caterpillars were monitored until the end of the larval stage, during which mortality rates increased for first and third instar caterpillars. The mortality rate of fifth instar larvae was not significantly different between treatments. The treatment by ingestion was not efficient over a short period of time, but reduced the number of caterpillars that completed their development, decreasing the number of insects in the following generation. We concluded that the crude extract of A. crassiflora affected the development of C. includens and is a promising compound for the control of this pest.

  3. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  4. Response of Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus to Changes in Hemlock Forest Soil Driven by Invasive Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges Tsugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Ochs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemlock forests of the northeastern United States are declining due to the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA (Adelges tsugae. Hardwood species replace these forests, which affects soil properties that may influence other communities, such as red-backed salamanders (red-backs (Plethodon cinereus. This study examined the effects of HWA invasion on soil properties and how this affects red-backs at the Hemlock Removal Experiment at Harvard Forest, which consists of eight 0.8 ha plots treated with girdling to simulate HWA invasion, logging to simulate common management practices, or hemlock- or hardwood-dominated controls. Coverboard surveys were used to determine the relative abundance of red-backs between plots during June and July 2014 and soil cores were collected from which the bulk density, moisture, pH, temperature, leaf litter, and carbon-nitrogen ratio were measured. Ordination provided a soil quality index based on temperature, pH, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, which was significantly different between plot treatments (p < 0.05 and showed a significant negative correlation with the red-back relative abundance (p < 0.05. The findings support the hypothesis that red-backs are affected by soil quality, which is affected by plot treatment and thus HWA invasion. Further studies should explore how salamanders react in the long term towards changing environments and consider the use of red-backs as indicator species.

  5. Multivariate statistical analysis of hemlock (Tsuga) volatiles by SPME/GC/MS: insights into the phytochemistry of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Lagalante; Frank Calvosa; Michael Mirzabeigi; Vikram Iyengar; Michael Montgomery; Kathleen Shields

    2007-01-01

    A previously developed single-needle, SPME/GC/MS technique was used to measure the terpenoid content of T. canadensis growing in a hemlock forest at Lake Scranton, PA (Lagalante and Montgomery 2003). The volatile terpenoid composition was measured over a 1-year period from June 2003 to May 2004 to follow the annual cycle of foliage development from...

  6. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  7. Effects of fertilization of four hemlock species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) growth and feeding preference of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.V. Joseph; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera:Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to...

  8. Variation in winter survival of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) across the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Talbot, III Trotter; Kathleen S. Shields

    2009-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is a small, aphid-like insect native to East Asia and western North America. First documented in the eastern United States in Richmond, VA, in 1951, it has spread to at least 17 states, where it causes increased mortality among both eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis...

  9. An overview of lady beetles in relation to their potential as biological controls for hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouyue Yu; Michael E. Montgomery

    2008-01-01

    More than 63 species of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) have been collected in China from hemlock infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. The lady beetle species that seem most useful for biological control are in the genus/subgenus Scymnus (Neopullus), namely S. camptodromus, S....

  10. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  11. The role of volatile terpenoids in the relationship of the hemlock woolly adelgid and its host-plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Anthony F. Lagalante

    2008-01-01

    The terpenoid profiles in the needles of the hemlock species were found to be related to geographic distribution of the species and their presumed ancestry. Although a definitive association of individual terpenoids with resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, was not identified, isobornyl acetate and α-...

  12. Phytochemistry of plants associated with a 400-year-old stand of hemlock at Clear Lake Reserve, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. Zobel; K. Glowniak; J. E. Lynch; S. Dudka; A. Alliota

    2000-01-01

    Several species of higher plants and mushrooms have been surveyed growing under the canopy of old stands of hemlock surrounding Clear Lake near Minden, Ontario. Some of the hemlock seedlings growing on fallen trunks together with debris in which they were growing were brought to a greenhouse in pots, and some of them were transferred into sandy soil. The conditions of...

  13. Volume recovery, grade yield, and properties of lumber from young-growth sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Kent R. Julin; Robert J. Ross; Susan. Willits

    2002-01-01

    Wood volume recovery, lumber grade yield, and mechanical properties of young-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyla (Raf.) Sarg.)were examined. The sample included trees from commercially thinned and unthinned stands and fluted western hemlock logs obtained from a sort yard....

  14. Field cage evaluations of the lady beetle Scymnus sinuanodulus for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Montgomery; Carole A. S-J. Cheah; Christopher Asaro

    2007-01-01

    Biological control has been a major focus of efforts to reduce the impact of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) on hemlocks in the eastern United States. The lady beetle Scymnus sinuanodulus Yu et Yao, one of the most abundant predators of HWA in China, was first imported in 1996. Subsequently its biology and host range were evaluated in quarantine and...

  15. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurring birch and hemlock seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanovic, Sarah K; Lilleskov, Erik A; Webster, Christopher R

    2015-02-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF)and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediated effects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominated stands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt) seedling pairs growing on CWD. Seedling foliage and CWD were analyzed chemically, and seedling growth, canopy cover, and canopy species determined. Thirteen fungal taxa, 12 associated with birch, and 6 with hemlock, were identified based on morphology and ITS sequencing. Five species were shared by co-occurring birch and hemlock, representing 75% of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Rarified ECMF taxon richness per seedling was higher on birch than hemlock. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed significant correlations between ordination axes, the mutually exclusive ECMF Tomentella and Lactarius spp., foliar N and K, CWD pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Seedlings colonized by Lactarius and T. sublilacina differed significantly in foliar K and N, and CWD differed in exchangeable Ca and Mg. CWD pH and nutrient concentrations were low but foliar macro-nutrient concentrations were not. We hypothesize that the dominant ECMF are adapted to low root carbohydrate availability typical in shaded environments but differ in their relative supply of different nutrients.

  16. Large wood dynamics in central Appalachian hemlock headwater ravines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, K. H.; Soltesz, P.; Jaeger, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Large wood (LW) is a critical component to forested mountain headwater streams contributing significantly to geomorphic and ecological processes. The character of LW is a function of valley recruitment processes that influence LW entering the channel and instream retention processes that influence LW transport through the channel reach. In the central Appalachian Mountains, US, LW dynamics in eastern hemlock-dominated ravines may change due to the invasive insect Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA). However, quantitative LW studies are lacking for this region, which are necessary for effective management of projected HWA-associated change. We examined LW dynamics across central Appalachian headwater streams to identify 1) the current state of LW load, 2) the relative environmental factors that influence LW load, 3) potential signs of HWA impact on LW dynamics, and 4) functional grouping patterns of LW pieces in these systems. In a field study that included 24 sites in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia, mean wood density was 36 pieces/100m ± 21 and mean wood volume was 5.6 m3/100m ± 3.5. Most pieces were less than bankfull width suggesting high transportability, but large pieces (>10m) contributed significantly to wood volume, jam formation, and geomorphic function. Central Appalachian LW load was on the lower end of mountain headwater streams, but comparable to the northeastern US. A mixture of recruitment and retention processes influence wood dynamics, but channel retention processes better explain jam dynamics. Specifically, higher wood load was associated with lower forest basal area, smaller channel dimensions, and lower hydraulic driving forces, which is consistent with other studies. We did not detect a significant influence on wood load as a result of HWA infestation of ~20 years, which may reflect a lag period between tree mortality, toppling, and LW load. Pieces clustered in three functional groups of 1) larger, stable pieces that store sediment, stabilize the

  17. Assessment of Imidacloprid and Its Metabolites in Foliage of Eastern Hemlock Multiple Years Following Treatment for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in Forested Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E P; Grant, J F; Webster, R J; Nichols, R J; Cowles, R S; Lagalante, A F; Coots, C I

    2015-12-01

    Widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, have been caused by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (HWA) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The current study is a retrospective analysis conducted in collaboration with Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) to determine longevity of imidacloprid and its insecticidal metabolites (imidacloprid olefin, 5-hydroxy, and dihydroxy) in GRSM's HWA integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliage samples were collected from three canopy strata of hemlocks that were given imidacloprid basal drench treatments 4-7 yr prior to sampling. Foliage was analyzed to assess concentrations in parts per billion (ppb) of imidacloprid and its metabolites. Imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite were present in most, 95 and 65%, respectively, branchlets 4-7 yr post-treatment, but the 5-hydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites were present in only 1.3 and 11.7%, respectively, of the branchlets. Imidacloprid and olefin concentrations significantly decreased between 4 and 7 yr post-treatment. Concentrations of both imidacloprid and olefin were below the LC50 for HWA 5-7 yr post-treatment. Knowledge of the longevity of imidacloprid treatments and its metabolite olefin can help maximize the use of imidacloprid in HWA IPM programs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of prestain on the release rate of copper, chromium, and arsenic from western hemlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; James W. Evans

    1999-01-01

    To enhance appearance, stains are often sprayed onto western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) lumber prior to treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C). Recently, concerns have increased that prestaining may affect the rate of leaching of CCA-C components from the treated wood and that leaching data generated with prestained material may not reflect...

  19. Status of Hemlock in the Eastern United States.e-Science Update SRS–038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Sonja N. Oswalt; Robert T. Trotter, III; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    This science update provides an overview of the status and extent of the hemlock resource in the Eastern United States. The overview is based on inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Programs at the Northern and Southern Research Stations, research conducted by scientists at the Northern Research Station, and pest surveys conducted by the...

  20. Comparison of fecundity and survival of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in northern and southern populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemis Roehrig; Joseph. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced species first reported in the eastern United States in 1951. The infestation has since spread in all directions from its initial sighting in Virginia, to its current range from northern Georgia, to southern Maine, and westward into Tennessee, causing...

  1. Molecular ecology of hemlock woolly adelgid, its hosts, and its natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Robert. Foottit

    2008-01-01

    Molecular analyses show that the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) has distinct native lineages in western North America, Japan, China, and Taiwan, while in eastern North America, HWA is not native and was introduced from Japan some time before 1951 (Havill et al. 2006 and 2007). The typical holocyclic lifecycle in the family Adelgidae involves primary hosts in the genus...

  2. Assessing hemlock decline using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy: indices comparison and algorithm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Jennifer; Hallett, Richard; Martin, Mary

    2005-06-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated for its effectiveness at predicting pre-visual decline in eastern hemlock trees. An ASD FieldSpec Pro FR field spectroradiometer measuring 2100 contiguous 1-nm-wide channels from 350 nm to 2500 nm was used to collect spectra from fresh hemlock foliage. Full spectrum partial least squares (PLS) regression equations and reduced stepwise linear regression equations were compared. The best decline predictive model was a 6-term linear regression equation (R2= 0.71, RMSE = 0.591) based on: Carter Miller Stress Index (R694/R760), Derivative Chlorophyll Index (FD705/FD723), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ((R800 - R680)/(R800 + R680)), R950, R1922, and FD1388. Accuracy assessment showed that this equation predicted an 11-class decline rating with a 1-class tolerance accuracy of 96% and differentiated healthy trees from those in very early decline with 72% accuracy. These results indicate that narrow-band sensors could be developed to detect very early stages of hemlock decline, before visual symptoms are apparent. This capability would enable land managers to identify early hemlock woolly adelgid infestations and monitor forest health over large areas of the landscape.

  3. Predicting regeneration in the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Albert R. Stage; Raymond J. Boyd

    1986-01-01

    Conifer establishment following regeneration treatments can be predicted in the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the northern Rocky Mountains. Alternative treatments can be evaluated by a model that represents regeneration establishment and early development. This model is designed to be used with the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station's...

  4. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  5. Enhancement of foreign collection and quarantine evaluation of hemlock woolly adelgid natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Montgomery; Roy Van Driesche; Scott Salom; Wenhua Lu; Guoyue Yu; Jianhua Zhou; Li Li; Shigehiko Shiyake

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this newly funded Forest Service activity are to promote the biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) by (1) hiring an entomologist to work in Asia; (2) revisit known collecting sites and find promising new ones; (3) study the life history and phenology of HWA and its predators; (4) establish protocols...

  6. Characterization of wood strands from young, small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell; Christopher E. Langum

    2012-01-01

    Tensile properties of strands processed from small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees grown on the Washington coast were analyzed and effects of location within the tree on properties was examined. Reduction factors for strand properties relative to small, clear solid wood specimen properties were determined by correlating strand properties to previously...

  7. Induction of cold hardiness in an invasive herbivore: The case of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph S. Elkinton; Jeffrey A. Lombardo; Artemis D. Roehrig; Thomas J. McAvoy; Albert Mayfield; Mark Whitmore

    2017-01-01

    As a measure of cold hardiness, we tested the supercooling points or freezing temperatures of individual hemlock woolly adelgids (Adelges tsugae Annand) collected from 15 locations across the north to south range of the adelgid in eastern North America at different times during two winters. Adelgids from the northern interior locations with USDA hardiness zones of 5B–...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Imidacloprid Within the Crown of Eastern Hemlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Richard M.; Lagalante, Anthony; Jones, Jonathan; Cook, Frank; Elliott, Thomas; Billings, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide to control the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriére in the United States. This study was conducted to 1) determine the effect of treatment timing (spring vs. fall) and application method (trunk injection vs. soil injection) on the spatial and temporal distribution of imidacloprid within the crown of A. tsugae-free eastern hemlock using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 2) compare ELISA to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of imidacloprid in xylem fluid, and 3) determine the concentration of imidacloprid in leaf tissue using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) detection methods. Xylem fluid concentrations of imidacloprid were found to be significantly higher for spring applications than for fall applications and for trunk injections than soil injections in the first year posttreatment. A total of 69% of samples analyzed by ELISA gave 1.8 times higher concentrations of imidacloprid than those found by GC/MS, leading to evidence of a matrix effect and overestimation of imidacloprid in xylem fluid by ELISA. A comparison of the presence of imidacloprid with xylem fluid and in leaf tissue on the same branch showed significant differences, suggesting that imidacloprid moved intermittently within the crown of eastern hemlock. PMID:28130463

  9. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  10. Aerial application of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium in a microfactory formulation for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Costa; Karen Felton; Bradley Onken; Richard Reardon; Rusty. Rhea

    2011-01-01

    Forest populations of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were reduced using an operational formulation of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium when it was supported by microfactory formulation technology.

  11. A 4-year record of sitka spruce and western hemlock seed fall on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1955-01-01

    Four years' measurement of seed fall in the spruce-hemlock type on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest indicates that an ample supply of seed is distributed over clear-cut areas under staggered-setting cutting. The largest tract sampled was 81 acres; in spite of a seed crop failure in 1950, it received an average of 243,000 viable spruce and hemlock seeds per...

  12. A Little Bug with a Big Bite: Impact of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations on Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern USA and Potential Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letheren, Amanda; Hill, Stephanie; Salie, Jeanmarie; Parkman, James; Chen, Jiangang

    2017-04-19

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, HWA) remains the single greatest threat to the health and sustainability of hemlock in the eastern USA. The loss of hemlock trees leads to further negative impacts on the diversity and stability of ecosystems in the eastern part of North America. It is, therefore, urgent to develop effective control measures to reduce HWA populations and promote overall hemlock health. Currently available individual and integrated approaches should continue to be evaluated in the laboratory and in the field along with the development of other new and innovative methods.

  13. Water hemlock poisoning in cattle: Ingestion of immature Cicuta maculata seed as the probable cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Welch, Kevin D; Holstege, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    It is well understood that water hemlock tubers are highly toxic to animals and to humans. However, this is the first time that immature seed from (Cicuta maculata) has been implicated in livestock poisoning. Nine mature Hereford cows from a herd of 81 died in northwestern Utah after ingesting immature seed heads of water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) in late summer. No obvious signs of poisoning were reported as all nine were found dead near the banks of the stream where water hemlock was found. Upon discovery of the dead cows, the remaining 72 cows were immediately removed from the pasture and no further losses occurred. Field necropsy of 3 of the dead cows and follow-up serology and histopathological examination of selected tissues did not identify any bacterial or viral causes. History of ingestion of large quantities of water hemlock seed, the acute nature of the deaths, chemical comparison of seed with toxic tubers and follow-up mouse bioassay testing supported the diagnosis of water hemlock poisoning. Seed heads collected from the neighboring pasture upstream and across the fence from the poisoned cattle and tubers collected from grazed plants were chemically analyzed and found to contain cicutoxin, and high levels of two cicutol-like derivatives (cicutol-#1 and #2) as well as other unidentified polyacetylene compounds. Seeds and tubers from suspected plants were semi-quantified and compared to archive samples of highly toxic tubers used in previous experiments. The immature hemlock seed contained less cicutoxin (0.01 times), but 9.5 and 22.5 times more cicutol-#1 and cicutol-#2 respectively, compared to the archive sample. Tubers from the grazed plants contained 4.6 times more cicutoxin and 9.8 and 18.8 times more cicutol-#1 and cicutol-#2 respectively, compared to the archive sample. Mouse bioassays with water extracts of immature seed and tubers from grazed plants demonstrated both were highly toxic and of greater toxicity when compared to archived sample

  14. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  15. Ancient and modern colonization of North America by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an invasive insect from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Shigehiko Shiyake; Ashley Lamb Galloway; Robert G. Foottit; Guoyue Yu; Annie Paradis; Joseph Elkinton; Michael E. Montgomery; Masakazu Sano; Adalgisa Caccone

    2016-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America. We used 14 microsatellites and mitochondrial COI sequences to assess its worldwide genetic structure and reconstruct its colonization history. The resulting information about its life cycle, biogeography and host...

  16. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seed yield of near-isogenic soybean lines with introgressed quantitative trait loci conditioning resistance to corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from PI 229358.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, C V; Zhu, S; Parrott, W A; All, J N; Boerma, H R

    2008-08-01

    The development of superior soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars exhibiting resistance to insects has been hindered due to linkage drag, a common phenomenon when introgressing alleles from exotic germplasm. Simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used previously to map soybean insect resistance (SIR) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a'Cobb' X PI 229358 population, and subsequently used to create near-isogenic lines (NILs) with SIR QTL i n a 'Benning' genetic background. SIR QTLs were mapped on linkage groups (LGs) M (SIRQTL-M), G (SIRQTL-G), and H (SIRQTL-H). The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate linkage drag for seed yield by using Benning-derived NILs selected for SIRQTL-M, SIRQTL-H, and SIRQTL-G; 2) assess the amount of PI 229358 genome surrounding the SIR QTL in each Benning NIL; and 3) evaluate the individual effects these three QTLs on antibiosis and antixenosis to corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker). Yield data collected in five environments indicated that a significant yield reduction is associated with SIRQTL-G compared with NILs without SIR QTL. Overall, there was no yield reduction associated with SIRQTL-M or SIRQTL-H. A significant antixenosis and antibiosis effect was detected for SIRQTL-M in insect feeding assays, with no effect detected in antixenosis or antibiosis assays for SIRQTL-G or SIRQTL-H without the presence of PI 229358 alleles at SIRQTL-M. These results support recent findings concerning these loci.

  18. Plant growth regulator-mediated anti-herbivore responses of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) against cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Samara, R; Renaud, J B; Sumarah, M W

    2017-09-01

    Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses. The objective of this study was to determine whether insects feeding on Brassica crops might be negatively affected by SA inducible defenses combined with an inhibitor of detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes that regulate the insect response to the plant's defenses. The relative growth rate of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed induced cabbage Brassica oleraceae leaves with the inhibitor, quercetin, was significantly less than those fed control cabbage with and without the inhibitor. The reduced growth was related to the reduction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by the combination of quercetin and increased levels of indole glucosinolates in the cabbage treated with BTH at 2.6× the recommended application rate. These findings may offer a novel combination of elicitor and synergist that can provide protection from plant disease and herbivores in cabbage and other Brassica crops. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Heiko

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni. We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13 and in recognition and metabolism (16. 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also

  20. Hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic capacity as constraints on release from suppression in Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger H.J.; Meinzer F.C.; B.L. Gartner

    2006-01-01

    We compared hydraulic architecture, photosynthesis, and growth in Douglas-fir with that of a shade-tolerant western hemlock. The study was conducted in a site that had been thinned to release suppressed trees, and one that remained unthinned. Release seemed to be constrained initially by photosynthetic capacity in both species. After released trees increased their...

  1. Measurement of imidacloprid in xylem fluid from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) by derivitization/GC/MS and ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Lagalante; Peter Greenbacker; Jonathan Jones; Richard Turcotte; Bradley Onken

    2007-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a nonvolatile insecticide and its direct quantification is not possible by gas chromatography. In order to ascertain imidacloprid levels in soil and trunk injection treated trees, a sensitive and selective method has been developed using GC/MS to measure the imidacloprid levels in xylem fluid exudates. In May 2005, a stand of hemlock trees in West...

  2. The density and distribution of Sitka spruce and western hemlock seedling banks in partially harvested stands in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise S.Y. Levy; Robert L. Deal; John C. Tappeiner

    2010-01-01

    This study’s objective was to document and describe the current seedling bank of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in southeast Alaska that were partially cut between 1900 and 1984. We investigated the following: (1) What are seedling bank densities? (2)...

  3. Contamination delays the release of Laricobius osakensis for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid: cryptic diversity in Japanese Laricobius spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Nathan P. Havill; Carrie S. Jubb; Sean W. Prosser; Brent D. Opell; Scott M. Salom; Loke T. Kok

    2014-01-01

    Laricobius osakensis (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) was imported from Japan to the United States in 2006 for study in quarantine facilities as a potential biological control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Laricobius osakensis was released from quarantine in 2010, but it was soon discovered that the colony also contained a cryptic species...

  4. Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by Adelges tsugae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony F. Lagalante; Nyssa Lewis; Michael E. Montgomery; Kathleen S. Shields

    2006-01-01

    The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season. The objective was to determine if variation in terpenoid composition is linked with spatial and temporal feeding preferences of...

  5. Prediction of transverse shrinkages of young-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with ultrasonic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker Dundar; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of acoustic measurement as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of young-growth Sitka spruce and western hemlock. Ultrasonic velocity, peak energy, specific gravity, and radial and tangential shrinkages were measured on twenty-four 25- x

  6. Wood density of young-growth western hemlock: relation to ring age, radial growth, stand density, and site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Ryan Singleton; Barbara L. Gartner; David D. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Breast-high stem sections were sampled from 56 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) trees growing in 15 plots representing a wide range of tree and site conditions in northwestern Oregon. Growth and wood density traits of individual rings were measured via X-ray densitometry, and relationships of ring density and its components to age...

  7. Field evaluation of soybean engineered with a synthetic cry1Ac transgene for resistance to corn earworm, soybean looper, velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and lesser cornstalk borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D R; All, J N; McPherson, R M; Boerma, H R; Parrott, W A

    2000-06-01

    A transgenic line of the soybean 'Jack', Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Jack-Bt), was evaluated for resistance to four lepidopteran pests in the field. Jack-Bt and genotypes serving as susceptible and resistant controls were planted in field cages and artificially infested with larvae of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), in 1996, 1997, and 1998, and also with soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), in 1996. Susceptible controls included Jack (1996-1998), 'Cobb' (1996), and Jack-HPH (1996). GatIR 81-296 was used as the resistant control in all 3 yr. Compared with untransformed Jack, Jack-Bt showed three to five times less defoliation from corn earworm and eight to nine times less damage from velvetbean caterpillar. Defoliation of GatIR 81-296 was intermediate between that of Jack and Jack-Bt for corn earworm, and similar to that of Jack for velveltbean caterpillar. Jack-Bt exhibited significant, but lower resistance to soybean looper. Jack-Bt also showed four times greater resistance than Jack to natural infestations of lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), in conventional field plots at two locations in 1998. Data from these experiments suggest that expression of this cry1Ac construct in soybean should provide adequate levels of resistance to several lepidopteran pests under field conditions.

  8. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P. Poudel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg. and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong. trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DBH and height was also fitted. The predicted total biomass was then apportioned to different components according to the predicted proportions from beta, Dirichlet, and multinomial log-linear regressions. Accuracy of these methods differed between species with higher root mean squared error (RMSE being produced in red alder trees. Within species, the accuracy of the equation for bole biomass was better than the equations for other components. None of these methods stood out as a clear winner, but the multinomial log-linear regression produced marginally better results compared to other methods in terms of RMSE, except for Western hemlock bark biomass and red alder bole and branch biomass. The equations based on a seemingly unrelated regression provided lower RMSEs for those species-component combinations.

  9. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  10. Experiments Are Revealing a Foundation Species: A Case Study of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundation species are species that create and define particular ecosystems; control in large measure the distribution and abundance of associated flora and fauna; and modulate core ecosystem processes, such as energy flux and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether a particular species plays a foundational role in a system is not simply asserted. Rather, it is a hypothesis to be tested, and such tests are best done with large-scale, long-term manipulative experiments. The utility of such experiments is illustrated through a review of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE, a multidecadal, multihectare experiment designed to test the foundational role of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, in eastern North American forests. Experimental removal of T. canadensis has revealed that after 10 years, this species has pronounced, long-term effects on associated flora and fauna, but shorter-term effects on energy flux and nutrient cycles. We hypothesize that on century-long scales, slower changes in soil microbial associates will further alter ecosystem processes in T. canadensis stands. HF-HeRE may indeed continue for >100 years, but at such time scales, episodic disturbances and changes in regional climate and land cover can be expected to interact in novel ways with these forests and their foundation species.

  11. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  12. Density-Dependent Recruitment and Diapause in the Spring-Feeding Generation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Aaron S; Elkinton, Joseph S; Lany, Nina K

    2016-12-01

    Insect populations are affected by density-dependent and density-independent factors, and knowing how these factors affect long-term population growth is critical to pest management. In this study, we experimentally manipulated densities of the hemlock woolly adelgid on eastern and western hemlock trees in the western USA to evaluate the effects of density and host species on hemlock woolly adelgid crawler colonization. We then followed development of hemlock woolly adelgid on each hemlock species. Settlement of crawlers was strongly density-dependent and consistent between host species. In addition, a period of hot days that coincided with the settlement of hemlock woolly adelgid crawlers put our experimental and naturally occurring populations into diapause during April. Diapause resulted in one generation that yr in our experimental population. Analyses of long-term air temperature records indicated that diapause-inducing temperatures in April similar to those observed in our experiment have occurred rarely since 1909 and the frequency of these events has not changed over time. Prior work suggests that hemlock woolly adelgid completes two generations per yr in the western USA with a diapause occurring in the summer. This typical life history reflects the long-term influence of regional average seasonal temperature patterns on development and the timing of diapause-inducing temperatures. However, the timing of unseasonal weather, such as the hot days observed in our experiment, occasionally changes life history trajectories from this normal pattern. Our results show that density-dependent and density-independent factors have strong effects on generational mortality and life history of hemlock woolly adelgid that are important to its population dynamics and management. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  14. Diurnal changes in the dielectric properties and water status of eastern hemlock and red spruce from Howland, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, W. A.; Ranson, K. J.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    The diurnal characteristics of microwave dielectric properties and water potential of two conifer species were investigated in July and September, 1990. P-band and C-band radial dielectric profiles of hemlock and red spruce, as well as hemlock diurnal water potential and dielectric profiles, are presented. The resulting radial dielectric profiles matched the regions of the functional sapwood (water transport component of the active xylem) in both species such that the sapwood was characterized by a higher dielectric than the bark and heartwood tissues. This is probably due to characteristic differences in the water content of each tissue. As the hemlocks progressed through their diurnal water potential pattern, the dielectric profile remained static until mid-afternoon. As the tension in the water column relaxed (2 to 3 bars) the dielectric constant decreased by 30 to 40 percent. There are several possible explanations for this phenomenon, and these may relate to the dependency of the dielectric measurements on temperature, salinity, and volumetric water content.

  15. Effect of the habitat on the mass and germinative capacity of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L. achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L. is a overwintering annual or biennial herb, which propagates only generatively. We estimated the germinative capacity and weight of its achenes harvested on different habitats. The territory where achenes were picked up is situated in the municipality Holice near Olomouc, Czech Republic (altitude of 220–235 m. Material was collected in the years 2002 and 2003 on two different habitats. The first one was on a field after sugar beet and maize as preceding crops, the second one was an adjacent balk. The mass of seeds was estimated in ten replications (100 achenes each. Thereafter the achenes were weighed on an analytical scales. The germinative capacity was assessed under different conditions of germination. Altogether there were 8 variants of germination conditions in 10 replications (20 achenes each. The first and the last evaluation were performed on the 9th and 30th day of the experiment, respectively. The total average mass of 100 achenes originating from all habitats and both experimental years was 0.23 g. The total average germinative capacity of poison hemlock achenes was 53%. The mass of achenes from the balk site was significantly higher than those from the field but the difference in their germinative capacity was statistically insignificant. It was concluded that the hemlock can be considered as a negatively photoblastic plant. Its achenes which become ripe in the proximity of fields can show an important effect on their weed infestation.

  16. Loss of Homeostatic Gas Exchange in Eastern Hemlock in Response to Pollution and Rising CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayback, S. A.; Gagen, M. H.; Lini, A.; Cogbill, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    In eastern North American, multiple environmental effects, natural and anthropogenic, may impinge upon tree-ring based stable carbon isotope ratios when examined over long time periods. Investigation of relationships between a Vermont (USA) eastern hemlock δ¹³C (1849-2010) chronology and local and regional climate variables, as well as a regional sulfur dioxide time series revealed the decoupling of δ¹³C from significant climate drivers such as May-August maximum temperature (r=0.50, pwater use efficiency (iWUE) showed homeostatic maintenance of ci levels against ca until 1965 and rising iWUE. Then, ci increased proportional (1965-2000) and later at the same rate as ca (2001-2010) and iWUE leveled off indicating a potential loss of sensitivity to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. This more recent passive response may be an indication of a loss of homeostatic maintenance of stomatal control and/or may be linked to changing climate in the region (e.g., wetter conditions).

  17. Variation of the Nuclear, Subnuclear and Chromosomal Flavanol Deposition in Hemlock and Rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Polster

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclei of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis and Tsuga canadensis var. nana wereinvestigated for the presence of flavanols. Histochemical staining with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde proved to be a highly valuable method yielding a brightblue flavanol coloration for nuclei. There was a significant variation in flavanol deposition(1 among nuclei, (2 at the subnuclear level and also (3 along the chromosomes duringmitosis. The presence of flavanols in nucleoli could not be established probably becausethey were too small, measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. In contrast to Tsuga, the cellsand nuclei of rootlets from rye (Secale cereale were totally devoid of natural flavanols.However, externally added flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, were bound to the ryenuclei, while the rather large nucleoli failed to associate with the flavanols. The strong sinkactivity of nucleoplasm and chromosomes for flavanols in Tsuga and Secale indicates aprocess which is apparently widespread even in distantly related plant species. Variationsin chromatin-associated flavanols could to some extent be induced byacetylation/deacetylation of histones, as confirmed in the present study by means of UV-VIS spectroscopic titrations of histone sulphate and chemically acetylated histone sulphate.

  18. Variation of the Nuclear, Subnuclear and Chromosomal Flavanol Deposition in Hemlock and Rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Walter; Dithmar, Heike; Polster, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Nuclei of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis and Tsuga canadensis var. nana) were investigated for the presence of flavanols. Histochemical staining with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde proved to be a highly valuable method yielding a bright blue flavanol coloration for nuclei. There was a significant variation in flavanol deposition (1) among nuclei, (2) at the subnuclear level and also (3) along the chromosomes during mitosis. The presence of flavanols in nucleoli could not be established probably because they were too small, measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. In contrast to Tsuga, the cells and nuclei of rootlets from rye (Secale cereale) were totally devoid of natural flavanols. However, externally added flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, were bound to the rye nuclei, while the rather large nucleoli failed to associate with the flavanols. The strong sink activity of nucleoplasm and chromosomes for flavanols in Tsuga and Secale indicates a process which is apparently widespread even in distantly related plant species. Variations in chromatin-associated flavanols could to some extent be induced by acetylation/deacetylation of histones, as confirmed in the present study by means of UVVIS spectroscopic titrations of histone sulphate and chemically acetylated histone sulphate.

  19. Fungi associated with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and assessment of entomopathogenic isolates for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, W R; Parker, B L; Gouli, S Y; Skinner, M; Gouli, V V; Teillon, H B

    2010-01-01

    Fungi associated with the hemlock wooly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were collected throughout the eastern USA and southern China. Twenty fungal genera were identified, as were 79 entomopathogenic isolates, including: Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) (Hypocreales: Insertae sedis), Isaria farinosa (Holm: Fries.) (Cordycipitaceae), Beauveria bassiana (Balasamo) (Hyphomycetes), and Fusarium spp (Nectriaceae). The remaining fungal genera associated with insect cadavers were similar for both the USA and China collections, although the abundance of Acremonium (Hypocreaceae) was greater in China. The entomopathogenic isolates were assayed for efficacy against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and yielded mortality ranging from 3 to 92%. Ten isolates demonstrating the highest efficacy were further assessed for efficacy against field-collected A. tsugae under laboratory conditions. Overall, two B. bassiana, one L. lecanii, and a strain of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), demonstrated significantly higher efficacy against A. tsugae than the others. Isolates were further evaluated for conidial production, germination rate and colony growth at four temperatures representative of field conditions. All isolates were determined to be mesophiles with optimal temperature between 25-30 degrees C. In general, conidial production increased with temperature, though two I. farinosa produced significantly more conidia at cooler temperatures. When efficacy values were compared with conidial production and temperature tolerances, Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF) 1080, 5170, and 5798 had characteristics comparable to the industrial B. bassiana strain GHA.

  20. Variance in response of pole-size trees and seedlings of Douglas-fir and western hemlock to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; J.S. Shumway; D.S. Debell; J.M. Kraft

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of N and P fertilizers on growth and levels of plant-tissue nutrients of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Both pole-size trees in closed-canopy stands and potted seedlings were use d . Soil series were...

  1. The big chill: quantifying the effect of the 2014 North American cold wave on hemlock woolly adelgid populations in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Richard M. Turcotte; Laura M. Blackburn; John A. Juracko; Brian T. Simpson

    2017-01-01

    The ability to survive winter temperatures is a key determinant of insect distributional ranges and population dynamics in temperate ecosystems. Although many insects overwinter in a state of diapause, the hemlock woolly adelgid [Adelges tsugae (Annand)] is an exception and instead develops during winter. We studied a low density population of

  2. Assessment of the potential for hybridisation between Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Laricobius osakensis, predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Carlyle C. Brewster; Nathan P. Havill; Scott M. Salom; Loke T. Kok

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Laricobius nigrinus Fender was introduced into the eastern United States as a biological control agent of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Following its release, it was discovered that L. nigrinus was hybridising and producing viable progeny with Laricobius rubidus...

  3. Macro-scale assessment of demographic and environmental variation within genetically derived evolutionary lineages of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an imperiled conifer of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad; Kevin M. Potter

    2017-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) occupies a large swath of eastern North America and has historically undergone range expansion and contraction resulting in several genetically separate lineages. This conifer is currently experiencing mortality across most of its range following infestation of a non-native insect. With the goal of better...

  4. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  5. Growth and yield of all-aged Douglas-fir -- western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buonglorno; Robert A. Monserud

    2005-01-01

    A density-dependent matrix model was developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) -- western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest stands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The model predicted the number and volume of trees for 4 species groups and 19 diameter classes. The parameters...

  6. The effects of moose (Alces alces L.) on hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) seedling establishment in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Vasiliauskas; L. W. Aarssen

    2000-01-01

    The effects of moose on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) natural seedling establishment in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, were examined. Two thousand seedlings were tagged on 56 sites in 1992 and monitored for six years. Initial data collected included seedling height, browsing history and percent crown closure. At the end of the growing...

  7. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Larval Development and Predation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Keena, Melody A; Long, David; Ostiguy, Nancy; Hoover, Kelli

    2015-02-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for A. tsugae. This beetle has been approved for removal from quarantine but has not yet been field released. We observed that temperature had significant effects on the predator's life history. The larvae tended to develop faster and consume more eggs of A. tsugae per day as rearing temperature increased. Mean egg consumption per day of A. tsugae was less at 15°C than at 20°C. However, as larvae took longer to develop at the lower temperature, the total number of eggs consumed per instar during larval development did not differ significantly between the two temperatures. The lower temperature threshold for predator larval development was estimated to be 5°C, which closely matches the developmental threshold of A. tsugae progrediens. Accumulated degree-days for 50% of the predator neonates to reach adulthood was estimated to be 424. Although temperature had a significant effect on larval development and predation, it did not impact survival, size, or sex ratio of the predator at 15 and 20°C. Furthermore, no remarkable distinctions were observed among different geographical populations of the predator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Integrating spatial modeling, climate change scenarios, invasive species risk, and public perceptions to inform sustainable management in mixed hemlock-hardwood forests in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunckel, Kathleen Lois

    Introduced invasive pests and climate change are perhaps the most important and persistent catalyst for changes in forest composition. Infestation and outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) along the eastern coast of the USA, has led to widespread loss of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), and a shift in tree species composition towards hardwood stands. Maine's forest dominated landscape and position at the leading edge of the HWA invasion provides an excellent opportunity to inform sustainable forest management (SFM) practices by using spatially explicit models to predict current tree species distribution, future range shifts, and solicit broad based feedback from Maine residents about forest management goals and preferences. This paper describes an interdisciplinary study of the ecological and social implications of changes in mixed northern hardwood forests due to disturbance. A two stage mapping approach was used where presence/absence of eastern hemlock is predicted with an overall accuracy of 85% and the continuous distribution (% basal area) was predicted with an accuracy of 83%. Given the importance of climate variables in predicting eastern hemlock, forecasts of future range shifts are possible using data generated through climate scenarios. The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30) dataset was used to model future shifts in the geographic range of eastern hemlock throughout the state of Maine. The results clearly describe a significant shift in eastern hemlock range with gains in total geographic area that is suitable habitat. Sustaining forest systems across the landscape requires not only ecological knowledge, but also the integration of multiple socio-economic criteria as well, including data obtained through broad-based public participation approaches. Here, 3000 Maine residents were surveyed and asked how they: (1) value local forests; (2) view forest management goals and threats to forest

  9. WestProPlus: a stochastic spreadsheet program for the management of all-aged Douglas-fir–hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buongiorno; Robert A. Monserud

    2006-01-01

    WestProPlus is an add-in program developed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth and management of all-aged Douglas-fir–western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco–Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in Oregon and Washington. Its built-in growth model was calibrated from 2,706 permanent plots in the...

  10. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the Douglas fir-hemlock type and the coastal Douglas-fir-hardwood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. SANDBERG; Franklin R. Ward

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Coastal Douglas-fir—Hemlock Type, Coastal Douglas-fir—Hardwood Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-051....

  11. Predators collected from balsam woolly adelgid and Cooley spruce gall adelgid in western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., with reference to biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Glenn R. Kohler; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2017-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive study to survey predators associated with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, 1928 in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), U.S.A. (Kohler et al. 2008), predators of balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg, 1844) and Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Adelges cooleyi (Gillette...

  12. Distribution of nitrogen-15 tracers applied to the canopy of a mature spruce-hemlock stand, Howland, Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, David Bryan; Hollinger, David Y; Davidson, Eric A; Fernandez, Ivan; Sievering, Herman C; Scott, Neal A; Gaige, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    In N-limited ecosystems, fertilization by N deposition may enhance plant growth and thus impact C sequestration. In many N deposition-C sequestration experiments, N is added directly to the soil, bypassing canopy processes and potentially favoring N immobilization by the soil. To understand the impact of enhanced N deposition on a low fertility unmanaged forest and better emulate natural N deposition processes, we added 18 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) as dissolved NH(4)NO(3) directly to the canopy of 21 ha of spruce-hemlock forest. In two 0.3-ha subplots, the added N was isotopically labeled as (15)NH(4) (+) or (15)NO(3) (-) (1% final enrichment). Among ecosystem pools, we recovered 38 and 67% of the (15)N added as (15)NH(4) (+) and (15)NO(3) (-), respectively. Of (15)N recoverable in plant biomass, only 3-6% was recovered in live foliage and bole wood. Tree twigs, branches, and bark constituted the most important plant sinks for both NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+), together accounting for 25-50% of (15)N recovery for these ions, respectively. Forest floor and soil (15)N retention was small compared to previous studies; the litter layer and well-humified O horizon were important sinks for NH(4) (+) (9%) and NO(3) (-) (7%). Retention by canopy elements (surfaces of branches and boles) provided a substantial sink for N that may have been through physico-chemical processes rather than by N assimilation as indicated by poor recoveries in wood tissues. Canopy retention of precipitation-borne N added in this particular manner may thus not become plant-available N for several years. Despite a large canopy N retention potential in this forest, C sequestration into new wood growth as a result of the N addition was only ~16 g C m(-2) year(-1) or about 10% above the current net annual C sequestration for this site.

  13. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry D. Woods

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer

  14. Growth and Its Relationship to Individual Genetic Diversity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana at Alpine Treeline in Alaska: Combining Dendrochronology and Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, alpine treelines are characterized as temperature-limited environments with strong controls on tree growth. However, at local scales spatially heterogeneous environments generally have more variable impacts on individual patterns of tree growth. In addition to the landscape spatial heterogeneity there is local variability in individual tree genetic diversity (level of individual heterozygosity. It has been hypothesized that higher individual heterozygosity will result in more consistent patterns of growth. In this article, we combine genomics and dendrochronology to explore the relationship between individual genetic diversity and tree growth at a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana Bong. Carr alpine treeline on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA. We correlated average observed individual heterozygosity with average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width within individuals to test the hypothesis that trees with higher individual heterozygosity will also have more consistent growth patterns, suggesting that they may be more resilient to climate and environmental fluctuations at the alpine treeline. Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between tree growth and individual heterozygosity. However, there was a significant positive relationship between average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width implying that overall, fast growing trees in stressful environments, such as the alpine treeline, grow unstably regardless of the level of individual heterozygosity.

  15. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1994. Technical note No. 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches` broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  16. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1993. Technical note No. 296

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches' broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  17. Fitness of Bt-resistant cabbage loopers on Bt cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Development of resistance to the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insects is the major threat to the continued success of transgenic Bt crops in agriculture. The fitness of Bt-resistant insects on Bt and non-Bt plants is a key parameter that determines the development of Bt resistance in insect populations. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the fitness of Bt-resistant Trichoplusia ni strains on Bt cotton leaves was conducted. The Bt-resistant T. ni strains carried two genetically independent mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The effects of the two resistance mechanisms, individually and in combination, on the fitness of the T. ni strains on conventional non-Bt cotton and on transgenic Bt cotton leaves expressing a single-toxin Cry1Ac (Bollgard I) or two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) were examined. The presence of Bt toxins in plants reduced the fitness of resistant insects, indicated by decreased net reproductive rate (R0 ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The reduction in fitness in resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was greater than that on Bollgard I leaves. A 12.4-day asynchrony of adult emergence between the susceptible T. ni grown on non-Bt cotton leaves and the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was observed. Therefore, multitoxin Bt plants not only reduce the probability for T. ni to develop resistance but also strongly reduce the fitness of resistant insects feeding on the plants. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Natural resistance of soybean cultivars to the soybean looper larva Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Bruna Angelina; Wille, Cleiton Luiz; Restelatto, Samanta Souza; Boff, Mari Inês Carissimi; Franco, Cláudio Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the natural resistance of soybean cultivars to Chrysodeixis includens. For this, four commercial soybean cultivars recommended for the Southern region of Brazil were used: BR 36, NA 5909 RG, BMX Turbo RR, and Benso 1RR. In the laboratory, larvae were subjected to the antixenosis feeding assay, in which they were free or not to choose among old leaves, new leaves, and pods. Neonate larvae were subjected to two antibiosis tests: in the first ...

  19. Climatic change and indigenous and non-indigenous ravagers : a new reality?; Changements climatiques et les ravageurs indigenes et exotiques : une nouvelle realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniere, J.; Cooke, B.; Logan, J.A.; Carroll, A.; Safranyik, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service

    2005-07-01

    The impact that climate change may have on ecological diversity was discussed with particular reference to the movement of indigenous and non-indigenous insects that are harmful to trees. Insects in particular, are more likely to evolve rapidly and adapt to ecological change. Those with a high rate of reproduction and which can move long distances will colonize new habitats and survive a wide range of bio-physical conditions. This PowerPoint presentation included a series of graphs, tables and charts to illustrate the increased presence of various harmful insects in northern forests, including the balsam twig aphid, balsam gall midge, gypsy moth, hemlock looper, western spruce budworm, and forest tent caterpillar. It was shown that large changes in ecosystems are expected to occur at northern latitudes and higher altitudes. tabs., figs.

  20. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner de Souza Tavares; Yasmin Akhtar; Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves; José Cola Zanuncio; Murray B Isman

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under lab...

  1. Volatiles mediating plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions: Electroantennogram responses of soybean looper,Pseudoplusia includens, and a parasitoid,Microplitis demolitor, to green leaf volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R; Norris, D M

    1991-08-01

    Electroantennograms were recorded from an herbivore,Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and a parasitoid,Microplitis demolitor (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), exposed to 5-through 12-carbon aliphatic compounds of several chemical classes. The response of the herbivore was higher for the 6- and/or 7-carbon hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones. The response of the parasitoid was higher for the 7- and 8-carbon hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and ketones. Responses of the herbivore and the parasitoid to alcohols were similar. Both the herbivore and the parasitoid were most sensitive to aldehydes and ketones, and least sensitive to alcohols and hydrocarbons. Responses of the parasitoid to hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and ketones were numerically higher than those of the herbivore. The adaptive significance of differential olfactory sensitivity between the herbivore and the natural enemy is discussed in relation to tri-trophic interactions among plants, herbivores, and natural enemies.

  2. The future of bioethics: three dogmas and a cup of hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus

    2010-06-01

    In this paper I argue that bioethics is in crisis and that it will not have a future unless it begins to embrace a more Socratic approach to its leading assumptions. The absence of a critical and sceptical spirit has resulted in little more than a dominant ideology. I focus on three key issues. First, that too often bioethics collapses into medical ethics. Second, that medical ethics itself is beset by a lack of self-reflection that I characterize here as a commitment to three dogmas. Third, I offer a more positive perspective by suggesting how bioethics may benefit from looking towards public health ethics as a new source of inspiration and direction.

  3. Journeying into the Anthropocene - Scots pine and eastern hemlock over the next 400 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan Stone

    2014-01-01

    Our native trees are much loved and valued components of our forests and fields, towns and cities. For a host of reasons - conservation, landscape, shade, and their sheer visual glory, we want our trees to grow big and old. But it takes time - often several centuries - from planting a tree to the desired outcome. This means that we need to choose trees today, which can...

  4. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce...

  5. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and hemlock under dense shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Davis; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    The cutting practices commonly recommended for spruce-fir stands in the Northeast involve uneven-aged management. The success of this type of management is predicated upon stand structures that have a range of size classes from seedlings to mature trees in intimate mixture. This kind of stand structure requires a continuous supply of reproduction of desirable species....

  6. Dynamics of understory biomass in Sitka spruce-western hemlock forests of southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several understory communities display successional stages during the first 200 years after logging or fire disturbance in the Coastal Picea-Tsuga forests of...

  7. Some results of chemical debarking on sitka spruce, western hemlock, and red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl M. Berntsen

    1954-01-01

    Chemical treatment of standing trees to facilitate bark removal has received a great deal of attention in Eastern United States and Canada during the past decade. The potential advantages of removing bark or extending easy peeling throughout we year have stimulated tests of many chemicals and methods of application.

  8. Wood density-moisture profiles in old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.Y. Pong; Dale R. Waddell; Lambert Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the weight of each load of logs is necessary for safe and efficient aerial logging operations. The prediction of green density (lb/ft3) as a function of height is a critical element in the accurate estimation of tree bole and log weights. Two sampling methods, disk and increment core (Bergstrom xylodensimeter), were used to measure the density-...

  9. Role of female-produced sex pheromone in behavioral reproductive isolation betweenTrichoplusia ni (Hübner) andPseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, plusiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Heath, R R

    1987-05-01

    In laboratory flight tunnel bioassays, response rates of male cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to female soybean looper,Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were similar to response rates of maleT. ni to conspecific females for plume tracking and source contact. Male soybean loopers, however, exhibited a greatly reduced response to female cabbage loopers compared to conspecific females. Similar differences were observed in male responses to extracts of female abdominal tips. Studies of flight tunnel responses of male soybean loopers to the different chemicals known to be components of the female cabbage looper sex pheromone indicated that the reduction in response was due to inhibitory effects of (Z)-5-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, when added singly to (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate (major component of both species) at release rates and at ratios close to those observed in female cabbage loopers.

  10. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose

    2007-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers...

  11. Species-specific partitioning of soil water resources in an old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.M. Warren; J.R. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla forest. Mean root area in the upper 60 cm of soil was significantly greater in the vicinity of T. heterophylla trees. However, seasonal water extraction on a root area basis was significantly...

  12. Cooperative advanced-generation breeding and testing of coastal Douglas-fir and western hemlock—strategy and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J.S. Jayawickrama; G.R. Johnson; T. Ye

    2005-01-01

    As in many temperate regions of the world, forest tree improvement got underway in the Pacific Northwest of the USA in the 1950s, with a number of companies and agencies starting independent tree improvement programs. Booth-Kelly Lumber Co., Crown Zellerbach Corp., the Industrial Forestry Association, Port Blakely Mill Co., Simpson Timber Co., Timber Service Co., the...

  13. Early lessons from commercial thinning in a 30-year-old Sitka Spruce-Western Hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; William H. Emmingham

    1986-01-01

    A commercial thinning study was undertaken in a 30-year-old stand, pre-commercially thinned at 15 years of age, at Cascade Head Experimental Forest on the Oregon coast. Measurements obtained after three different thinning treatments are presented and include stand volume, basal area, current growth rate, scar damage, crown ratio, and sapwood radius. Method of...

  14. Long-term change and spatial pattern in a late-successional hemlock-northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry D. Woods

    2000-01-01

    When unlogged, mesic forest of the Great lakes region of North America are "slow systems' dominant trees can live for over 300 years and canopy-residence times range from 100 to over 200 years (frelich & Lorimer 1991: Frelich & Graumlich 1994: parshall 1995: Dahir & Lorimer 1996: Woods 2000). Catastrophic wind-throw caused by tornadoes and derecho...

  15. Testing Methods for Challenging the National Wetland Plant List: Using Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Eastern Hemlock) as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    granit.sr.unh.edu USA Topographic Basemap 2009 Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) http://www.esri.com Vermont Public/Conserved Lands...observation inflated wetland frequency to 67% and a rating of FACW or possibly FAC, given the 5% margin of error. Sample size for NWPL chal- lenges also

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of young-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock from western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Langum; Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell

    2009-01-01

    Diversity in land management objectives has led to changes in the character of raw material available to the forest products industries in the US Pacific Northwest. Increasing numbers of logs from small-diameter trees, both plantation grown and those from suppressed or young stands, now constitute a large proportion of logs coming into the mill yard. Wood coming from...

  17. Effects of partial harvest on the carbon stores in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Harmon; Adam Moreno; James B. Domingo

    2009-01-01

    The STANDCARB 2.0 model was used to examine the effects of partial harvest of trees within stands on forest-related carbon (C) stores in a typical Pacific Northwest Pseudotsuga/Tsuga forest. For harvest rotation intervals of 20 to 250 years the effect of completely dispersed (that is, a checkerboard) versus completely aggregated cutting patterns (...

  18. Annualized diameter and height growth equations for Pacific Northwest plantation-grown Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; S.M. Garber; G.P. Johnson; D.A. Maguire; R.A. Monserud

    2007-01-01

    Simulating the influence of intensive management and annual weather fluctuations on tree growth requires a shorter time step than currently employed by most regional growth models. High-quality data sets are available for several plantation species in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, but the growth periods ranged from 2 to 12 years. Measurement...

  19. Seasonal changes in chemical composition and nutritive value of native forages in a spruce-hemlock forest, southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Jay D. McKendrick

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-two forages from Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska, were monitored bimonthly for one year to assess seasonal changes in their chemical composition: neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, lignin/cutin, invitro dry-matter digestibility, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc....

  20. Evaluation of the Japanese Laricobius sp. n. and other natural enemies of hemlock woolly adelgid in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Lamb; Shigehiko Shiyake; Scott Salom; Michael Montgomery; Loke. Kok

    2008-01-01

    Since the initial importation of the Japanese Laricobius (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) to Virginia in 2006, we have studied the development of the predator at two different temperatures, measured feeding and oviposition rates, conducted preliminary host-range testing, and reared two generations. During this time, we have learned this predator differs...

  1. Why cage a tree? Use of whole-tree enclosures to assess introduced predators of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome F. Grant; James Rusty Rhea; Paris Lambdin; Greg Wiggins; Abdul Hakeem

    2009-01-01

    While commonly used approaches (petri dishes, small arenas, growth chambers, greenhouse studies, sleeve cages, etc.) for evaluation of natural enemies provide important information, does the small size of these arenas limit their...

  2. Foundation Species Loss and Biodiversity of the Herbaceous Layer in New England Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis is a foundation species in eastern North American forests. Because eastern hemlock is a foundation species, it often is assumed that the diversity of associated species is high. However, the herbaceous layer of eastern hemlock stands generally is sparse, species-poor, and lacks unique species or floristic assemblages. The rapidly spreading, nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tusgae is causing widespread death of eastern hemlock. Loss of individual hemlock trees or whole stands rapidly leads to increases in species richness and cover of shrubs, herbs, graminoids, ferns, and fern-allies. Naively, one could conclude that the loss of eastern hemlock has a net positive effect on biodiversity. What is lost besides hemlock, however, is landscape-scale variability in the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer. In the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment, removal of hemlock by either girdling (simulating adelgid infestation or logging led to a proliferation of early-successional and disturbance-dependent understory species. In other declining hemlock stands, nonnative plant species expand and homogenize the flora. While local richness increases in former eastern hemlock stands, between-site and regional species diversity will be further diminished as this iconic foundation species of eastern North America succumbs to hemlock woolly adelgid.

  3. Intraspecific variation in Tsuga canadensis foliar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Ingwell; Joseph Brady; Matthew Fitzpatrick; Brian Maynard; Richard Casagrande; Evan Preisser

    2009-01-01

    Three groups of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carr.) trees were analyzed to compare their chemical composition and the potential for naturally occurring resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsguae...

  4. Timber productivity of seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1988-01-01

    Observations of growth on Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) on seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska...

  5. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of Imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. V. Joseph; James Hanula; S. K. Braman; F. J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji&McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees...

  6. Fruiting body and soil rDNA sampling detects complementary assemblage of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Teresita M; Skillman, Jane E; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    This is the first study to assess the diversity and community structure of the Agaricomycotina in an ectotrophic forest using above-ground fruiting body surveys as well as soil rDNA sampling. We recovered 132 molecular operational taxonomic units, or 'species', from fruiting bodies and 66 from soil, with little overlap. Fruiting body sampling primarily recovered fungi from the Agaricales, Russulales, Boletales and Cantharellales. Many of these species are ectomycorrhizal and form large fruiting bodies. Soil rDNA sampling recovered fungi from these groups in addition to taxa overlooked during the fruiting body survey from the Atheliales, Trechisporales and Sebacinales. Species from these groups form inconspicuous, resupinate and corticioid fruiting bodies. Soil sampling also detected fungi from the Hysterangiales that form fruiting bodies underground. Generally, fruiting body and soil rDNA samples recover a largely different assemblage of fungi at the species level; however, both methods identify the same dominant fungi at the genus-order level and ectomycorrhizal fungi as the prevailing type. Richness, abundance, and phylogenetic diversity (PD) identify the Agaricales as the dominant fungal group above- and below-ground; however, we find that molecularly highly divergent lineages may account for a greater proportion of total diversity using the PD measure compared with richness and abundance. Unless an exhaustive inventory is required, the rapidity and versatility of DNA-based sampling may be sufficient for a first assessment of the dominant taxonomic and ecological groups of fungi in forest soil.

  7. Emergence, seasonality, and hybridization of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), an introduced predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the Tennessee Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory J. Wiggins; Jerome F. Grant; Rusty Rhea; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Abdul Hakeem; Paris L. Lambdin; A. B. Lamb Galloway

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 through 2013, adult emergence and seasonality of Laricobius nigrinus Fender, an introduced predatoryspecies native to western North America, as well as hybridization with the native species Laricobius rubidus(LeConte), were evaluated using emergence traps and beat-sheet sampling in areas of...

  8. Development over 25 years of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar planted at various spacings on a very good site in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema; J. Harry G. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Results of five spacing trials on the University of British Columbia Research Forest, covering a range of plantation spacings from 1 to 5 meters, showed that choice of initial spacing is among the most important factors influencing bole and crown development and stand growth and yield. The trials include Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi), western...

  9. Scymnus (Pullus) suturalis Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): New locality records and a report on feeding on hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Lyon; M.E. Montgomery

    1995-01-01

    Scymnus (Pullus) suturalis Thunberg is a Palearctic species that occurs on conifers, where it is reported to feed on aphids (I. Hodek. 1973. Biology of Coccinellidae. Academia, Czechoslovak Academy of Science. Prague). The occurrence of S. suturalis in North America was first reported by R.D. Gordon (1982. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash...

  10. Examining Wetland Frequency Discrepancies Produced by Data Collected at Wetland Boundaries and across the Landscape: Using Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Eastern Hemlock) as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    2012b_Lichvar_et_al.pdf ( accessed 19 July 2017). Magee, D. W., and H. E. Ahles. 2007. Flora of the Northeast: A Manual of Vascular Flora of New England and...data are difficult to access from both reg- ulatory agencies and public sector environmental consulting firms. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this...sampled varied based on park size, terrain features, heterogeneity of vegetation types, logistics and cost to access , and safety considerations (NC

  11. The summer drought related hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) decline in eastern North America 5,700 to 5,100 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Nicolas Haas; John H. McAndrews

    2000-01-01

    High resolution paleoecological analyses from Shepherd Lake, Ontario, Canada, show that 10 to 100 year lake level fluctuations due to climatic change were responsible for alterations in the aquatic biodiversity 5,700 to 5,100 years ago. Thermophilic aquatics such as the Bushy pondweed Najas flexilis, charophyte algae and aquatic invertebrates...

  12. Ambulatory responses of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a hemlock woolly adelgid predator, to odors from prey, host foliage, and feeding conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arielle Arsenault; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Kimberly Wallin

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral interactions between insects and their environments are often mediated by volatile cues. Plant-produced chemical cues induced by herbivore activity are often more effective at attracting predators than are cues produced by the herbivore alone (Dicke and van Loon 2000). The presence of herbivore-induced plant volatiles makes foraging by predators more...

  13. 16 CFR 303.45 - Exclusions from the act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required or non-required) individually and in rolls, looper clips intended for handicraft purposes, book cloth, artists' canvases, tapestry cloth, and shoe laces. (3) All textile fiber products manufactured by...

  14. Field-cage evaluation of the survival, feeding and reproduction of Laricobius osakensis (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predator of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.C. Viera; S.M. Salom; M.E. Montgomery; L.T. Kok

    2013-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is a serious, non-native pest of hemlock in eastern North America. Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake was identified as a key predator in Japan, where A. tsugae is native. Performance of adult and immature stages of L. osakensis was...

  15. Comparative biology of three Scymnus lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): predators of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhua Lu; Michael E. Montgomery

    2000-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu et Yao, S. (N.) camptodromusYu et Liu, and Scymnus (Neopullus) n. sp. (in press) were collected in the People's Republic of China from hemlocks infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. To date, 3 of the 14 provinces in China where...

  16. Emergence of Laricobius nigrinus (Fender) (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) in the North Georgia mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.E. Jones; James Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2014-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is currently found throughout most of the range of eastern hemlock, Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carriere. Biological control agents have been released in attempts to control this pest, but how different climates influence the efficacy and survival of these agents has not been studied.

  17. 78 FR 14509 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly... biological control agent into the eastern United States. \\1\\ To view the notice, EA, and FONSI go to http...

  18. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) infestations... release of this biological control agent into the continental United States. \\1\\ To view the notice, EA...

  19. Host suitability and preference of Laricobius nigrinus (Fender) (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): a predatory beetle for potential biological control of Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriella Zilahi-Balogh; Scott M. Salom; L. T. Kok

    2000-01-01

    Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) is being evaluated as a potential biological control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae) Annand in eastern North America. HWA is not considered a pest on western species of hemlock (McClure et al. 1996). A combination of natural enemies and host...

  20. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim. Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  1. National Dam Inspection Program. Lower Hemlock Dam (NDI-ID Number PA-00756, DER-ID Number 52-117) Delaware River Basin, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    profile (Plate A-II, Appendix A) indicates that the crest of the dam is in a sag , with only a short low area. The downsteam slope is very irregular due...NORMAL POOL ELEVATION: 1432 (estimated) AT TIME OF INSPECTION: BREAST ELEVATION: 1435.25 (design) POOL ELEVATION: 1432.2 SPILLWAY ELEVATION: 1432.0

  2. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie2, Cry2Ac7, and Cry7Ab3 proteins against Anticarsia gemmatalis, Chrysodeixis includens and Ceratoma trifurcata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic soybeans producing the Cry1Ac insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (or “Bt”) are currently used to control larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) and the soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)]. The main threat to the sustain...

  3. Population Propensity Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    positive propensity rapidly declines. This suggests that the 16 to 18 year-old group is possibly the best group at which recruiting efforts should be...Prior Service Market Analysis. AFMPXOA, Pentagon, Washington, DC. Saving, T.R., Stone, B.M., Looper, L.T., and TayloT , J.N., (1985). Retention of Air

  4. Doppler weather radar detects emigratory flights of noctuids during a major pest outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    An outbreak of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)), cabbage looper, (Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)), and other lepidopteran pests devastated cotton production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley TX, in 1995. Major infestations occurred later in the year several hundred kilometers away in other cotton ...

  5. Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab does not harm two parasitoids, Cotesia marginiventris and Copidosoma floridanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, is an agricultural pest that feeds on >160 plant species in 36 families and is an important lepidopteran pest on many vegetable and greenhouse crops and some field crops. Although there are no commercial Bt vegetable or greenhouse crops, T. ni is a target of Bollgard...

  6. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Tóth, Miklós; Meagher, Robert L; Szarukán, István

    2013-02-01

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more powerful insect lures. Acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde presented together in traps made a stronger lure than either chemical alone for moths of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) and the armyworm Spodoptera albula (Walker). However, this combination of chemicals reduced captures of the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), the silver Y moth Autographa gamma (L.), MacDunnoughia confusa (Stephens) and the soybean looper moth Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) by comparison with phenylacetaldehyde alone. These results indicate both positive and negative interactions of acetic acid, a sugar fermentation odor cue, and phenylacetaldehyde, a floral scent cue, in eliciting orientation responses of moths. This research provides a new two-component lure for the alfalfa looper A. californica and for the armyworm S. albula for potential use in pest management. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Costs and benefits of jasmonic acid induced responses in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accamando, A K; Cronin, J T

    2012-06-01

    In response to herbivory, plants have evolved defense strategies to reduce herbivore preference and performance. A strategy whereby defenses are induced only upon herbivory can mitigate costs of defense when herbivores are scarce. Although costs and benefits of induced responses are generally assumed, empirical evidence for many species is lacking. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has emerged as a model species with which to address questions about induced responses. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the fitness costs and benefits of jasmonic acid-induced responses by soybean in the absence and presence of soybean loopers (Chrysodeix includens Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a greenhouse experiment we demonstrated that soybean induction was costly. Induced plants produced 10.1% fewer seeds that were 9.0% lighter, and had 19.2% lower germination rates than noninduced plants. However, induction provided only modest benefits to soybeans. In a choice experiment, soybean loopers significantly preferred leaves from noninduced plants, consuming 62% more tissue than from induced plants. Soybean loopers that fed on plants that were previously subjected to treatment with jasmonic acid matured at the same rate and to the same size as those that fed on control plants. However, at high conspecific density, soybean looper survivorship was reduced by 44% on previously induced relative to control plants. Reduced soybean looper preference and survivorship did not translate into fitness benefits for soybeans. Our findings support theoretical predictions of costly induced defenses and highlight the importance of considering the environmental context in studies of plant defense.

  8. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  9. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Liquidambar styraciflua) are common forest species across the reference domain (Strausbaugh and Core 1978; USDA 2009). Common shrub species associated with...canadensis eastern hemlock Juglans nigra black walnut Ulmus americana American elm Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum Ulmus parvifolia Chinese elm

  10. Responses of southeast Alaska understory species to variation in light and soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Bernard T. Bormann; Jeffrey C. Barnard; S. Mark. Nay

    2014-01-01

    Aboveground growth rates of seedlings of bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), oval-leaf blueberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm.), salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis Pursh), devilsclub (Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) were...

  11. Napa River Salt Marsh Restoration Project. Volume 1: Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    a.t... ..stef- ehi.en. ;, and sedges (Carex spp.). Normative pepperweed ( Lepidium latifolium ), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), and fennel... Lepidium latipes var. heckardil (SLC) Manin knotweed, Polygonum marinense (SLC) Mason’s lilaeopsis, Lilaeopsis masonil (SC) Northern California

  12. Reconstruction of Past Climatic Proxy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-29

    zones, herb pollen, such as Artemisia and Chenopodeaceae are dominant (6e). Deciduous arboreal pollen is restricted to the mixed forest zone (6f... reproduction and an increase in the longer lived species such as hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and spruce (Picea, sp.) which can reproduce in the absence of fire...are only temporary during the 1450-1850 A.D. interval since it is later replaced by hemlock. White pine also requires fire for good reproduction

  13. Functional Development of the Octenol Response in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    pheromone in the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 3, 161–171. Lu, T., Qiu, Y. T., Wang, G., Kwon, J. Y., Rutzler...Jonathan D. Bohbot 1, Nicolas F. Durand 1†, BryanT. Vinyard 2 and Joseph C. Dickens1* 1 Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Henry A...of Arizona, USA Ulrich Theopold, Stockholm University, Sweden *Correspondence: Joseph C. Dickens, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory

  14. Influence of ozone on induced resistance in soybean to the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hengchen; Kogan, M. (Univ. of Illinois, Champaign (USA)); Endress, A.G. (Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The influence of ozone (O{sub 3}) on induced resistance in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cv. Williams 82, was investigated. Feeding by larval soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), was used to induce resistance, and the feeding preference of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivetis Mulsant, was used to indicate induced resistance. Greenhouse grown soybean plants at the V9 growth stage (eight open trifoliolates) were used in all experiments. One day following feeding injury by the soybean looper, the injured plants and the uninjured controls were exposed to three concentrations of ozone in transparent mylar chambers; level in ambient air (about 0.025 ppm), 0.06 ppm, or 0.1 ppm. Plants were exposed for 5 h a day for a period of 2-4 d. Ozone exposure at the levels used in this study produced no visible injuries to leaves. Low doses (up to 4-d-exposure to 0.06 ppm or 2-d exposure to 0.1 ppm) of ozone overrode the resistance in soybean that had been induced by the feeding of soybean looper larvae. Higher doses (3- or 4-d exposure to 0.1 ppm) of ozone actually resulted in a greater acceptability by the Mexican bean beetle of plants injured by the soybean looper than of uninjured plants. Doses of ozone used in these experiments did not significantly alter the feeding preference of the Mexican bean beetle for the uninjured plants. Because ozone pollution and herbivore injury are commonly experienced by plants in nature, the results of this study add another perspective to insect-plant interactions.

  15. Can Hedgerows Attract Beneficial Insects and Improve Pest Control? A Study of Hedgerows on Central Coast Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani Gareau, Tara; Shennan, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study, conducted from 2005 to 2007, were (1) to assess the habitat quality of different hedgerow plants for insect natural enemies and pests, (2) to track the movement of insects from hedgerows into adjacent crop fields and (3) to test the effect of hedgerows on parasitism rates of an economically important pest, the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni). This study took place at four farms with hedgerows on the Central Coast of California.

  16. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important soybean defoliator in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Palma; Kevin Maebe; Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes; Guy Smagghe

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857), an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variabil...

  17. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  18. What killed Socrates? Toxicological considerations and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, A D

    2009-01-01

    The death of Socrates in 399 BCE, as reported by Plato in the Phaedo, is usually attributed to poisoning with common hemlock. His progressive centripetal paralysis is characteristic of that poison. Socrates is said to have had a prominent loss of sensation extending centrally from his legs, which is not a feature of hemlock poisoning, and he seems not to have had the unpleasant taste or common gastrointestinal effects of that poison. It is suggested that Plato gave a modified account of the death of Socrates for political and other reasons by describing a more "noble" death.

  19. Adoption of engineered wood products in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Indroneil Ganguly; Allen Brackley

    2009-01-01

    Based on an in-grade testing program, the Ketchikan Wood Technology Center has registered three proprietary grademarks for Alaska species of hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), and spruce (combined Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr...

  20. Voluntary Euthanasia and the Right to Die: A Dialogue with Derek Humphry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, E. Robert; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents interview with Derek Humphry, founder of the Hemlock Society (an international right-to-die organization), who shares his personal experiences, as well as his efforts to educate the public and stimulate legal reform. Notes Humphry has dedicated more than a decade to this highly charged universal problem. (Author/ABL)

  1. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  2. Comparison of Bt formulations against the spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew McCreery; Imants Millers; Dennis Souto; Bruce Francis

    1985-01-01

    The Passamaquoddy Indian Forestry Department treated 40,300 acres in Maine in 1983 using Bt to protect red spruce and eastern hemlock from spruce budworm damage. The post treatment evaluation indicated that the protection objectives were achieved. In cooperation between the Passamaquoddy Indian Forestry Department and two commercial Bt suppliers, Abbott Laboratories...

  3. Above ground performance of preservative-treated western wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Morrell; D.J. Miller; Stan T. Lebow

    2000-01-01

    Incised and non-incised Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and ponderosa pine L- joints were treated with ammoniacal-based pentachlorophenol, chromated zinc chloride, thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMBT) or TCMTB plus methylenebisthiocyanate or 3 iodo-2-propynyl carbamate with or without chlorpyrifos to retentions between 0.8 and 6.4 kg/m3 and exposed, uncoated, above...

  4. Germination and early growth of coastal tree species on organic seed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don. Minore

    1972-01-01

    Germination and early growth on rotten wood and duff under several shade levels were observed for Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce, western hemlock, western redcedar, lodgepole pine, Pacific silver fir, and red alder. Nutrients were more abundant in duff than in rotten wood. Seedlings usually were larger and more abundant on duff-covered rotten logs than on duff-covered...

  5. Treatability of underutilized northeastern species with CCA and alternative wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    Opportunities for use of northeastern species such as balsam fir, eastern spruce, eastern hemlock, and red maple could be improved if these species could be adequately penetrated with preservatives and subsequently shown to be durable in outdoor exposures. In this study, specimens cut from lumber of northeastern species were pressure-treated with either chromated...

  6. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne

    2004-01-01

    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  7. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 9. Timber inventory, harvesting, marketing, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Keith Hutchison; Vernon J. LaBau

    1975-01-01

    Southeast Alaska has 11.2 million acres of forest land, of which 4.9 million acres are considered commercial. This commercial acreage supports 166 billion board feet of sawtimber. These primarily old-growth stands of Sitka spruce and western hemlock are supporting a growing wood products industry that ranks first in the southeast economy and third in the State. This...

  8. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  9. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Wisconsin Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    caroliniana No common name Anemone muluifida No common name Arenaria macrophylla Lake Cress Armoracia aquatica Purple Milkweed Asciepias purpurascens...Fern Botrychium mormo Marsh Marigold Caitha natans Wild Hyacinth Camassia scilloides No common name Carex crus-corvi No common name Carex ...lupiliformis No common name Carex media Brook Grass Catabrosa aquatica Stoneroot Collinsonia canadensis Hemlock-parsley Conioselinum chinense Beak Grass

  10. Species of Concern (SOC) on Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    TEPHROSIA VIRGINIANA, CNIDOSCOLUS STIMULOSUS, ARENARIA CAROLINIANA* POOR QUALITY PINE SCRUB OAK SANDHILL WITH EXTENSIVE SOIL DISTURBANCE (RUTTING) AND...ADENOCAULON BICOLOR, PHACELIA NEMORALIS, CAREX HENDERSONII. CIRSIUM VULGARE COMMON WHERE DISTURBED.* Cedar-hemlock forest on lower slopes of logged...NEMOPHILA PARVIFLORA, CAREX HENDERSONII.* PSME OVERSTORY, GASH MAJOR SHRUB SPECIES. MOIST SITE. MID-SLOPE OF MODERATE SLOPE.* FAIRLY OPEN W/WIDLEY

  11. Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven T. Brantley; Chelcy Ford Miniat; Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie H. Laseter; James M. Vose

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how insect outbreaks affect landscape-level hydrologic processes. We report the hydrologic effects of the invasive, exotic hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) in a headwater catchment in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The study watershed experienced complete mortality of an evergreen tree species, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (...

  12. Establishment record for the Wellner Cliffs Research Natural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Arthur C. Zack

    2006-01-01

    This publication is the establishment report for Wellner Cliffs Research Natural Area (RNA), located on the Priest River Experimental Forest, Idaho Panhandle National Forests. The RNA features vegetation on dry cliffs that are embedded in mid-elevation moist western hemlock/western redcedar/grand fir forests. Immediately below the cliffs is riparian habitat that...

  13. Selected yield tables for plantations and natural stands in Inland Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner; Roger C. Chapman

    1988-01-01

    Yields arrayed by site index and age have been tabulated for plantations of 500 trees per acre, with five thinning regimes, for Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western larch. Yields were also tabulated for naturally regenerated stands of the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the Inland Empire. All yields were estimated with the Prognosis Model for Stand Development,...

  14. Ecological classification and management characteristics of montane forest land in southwestern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.G. Brockway; C. Topik

    1984-01-01

    Vegetation, soil, and site data werecollectedthroughout the forested portion of the Pacific silver fir and mountain hemlock zones of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest as part of the Forest Service program to develop anecoIogicallybasedplant association classification system for the Pacific Northwest Region. The major objective of sampling was to include a wide...

  15. 76 FR 81475 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78 Applications for Subzone Authority Dow Corning Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78 Applications for Subzone Authority Dow Corning... Dow Corning Corporation facility in Midland, Michigan (76 FR 63282-63283, 10/12/2011), the Hemlock...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF DATE PALM FRONDS AS A FUEL FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood (Acacia mangium). Rice husk. Rice straw. Wheat straw. Corn straw. Sesame stalk. Western hemlock. Coal. Bituminous coal. S.A. Sulaiman et al. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2016, 30(3) .2%. Bituminous coal had the highest value for the fixed carbon, which was ut 57%. Ajwah and sugar cane bagasse revealed very small ...

  17. 76 FR 55268 - Chromobacterium subtsugae Strain PRAA4-1T

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... that was isolated from soil under an eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in the Catoctin Mountain region... Zone Journal 7:97-111. 5. Aislabie J, Smith JJ, Fraser R, McLeod M. 2001. Leaching of bacterial indicators of faecal contamination through four New Zealand soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 39...

  18. Assessing the volume of wood products used to build and maintain recreational structures on the Tongass National Forest: potential opportunities for Alaska wood products substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall A. Cantrell

    2004-01-01

    Although the Tongass National Forest (TNF) possesses abundant stands of redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg), most of its buildings, bridges, and trails are constructed from...

  19. Recognition of imported lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini released in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu

    2002-01-01

    Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...

  20. Biology of Scymnus ningshanensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Montgomery; Hongbin Wang; Defu Yao; Wenhau Lu; Nathan Havill; Guangwu. Li

    2002-01-01

    Information is presented on the occurrence, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) ningshanensis Yu et Yao. Information on its biology was collected in the field and laboratory in China and in quarantine in the United States. This lady beetle was found in China only on hemlock infested with ...

  1. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Woolfolk. 2007. Microfungi from bark of healthy and damaged American beech, Fraser fir, and Eastern hemlock trees during an all taxa biodiversity ...Biocontrol Science and Technology 12:75-82. Charudattan, R. 2010. Microbial control of weeds. Symposium: Microbial biocontrol of arthropods, weeds and

  2. Some physical and psychological aspects of noise attenuation by vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Aylor

    1977-01-01

    The physical mechanisms governing sound attenuation by foliage, stems, and ground are reviewed. Reflection of sound energy is found to be the primary mechanism. In addition, new experimental results are discussed that help to quantify the psychological effect of a plant barrier on perceived noise level. Listeners judged the loudness of noise transmitted through hemlock...

  3. Pennsylvania boreal conifer forests and their bird communities: past, present, and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Pennsylvania spruce (Picea spp.)- and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)-dominated forests, found primarily on glaciated parts of the Allegheny Plateau, are relicts of boreal forest that covered the region following glacial retreat. The timber era of the late 1800s and early 1900s (as late as 1942) destroyed most of the boreal...

  4. DNA barcodes and molecular diagnostics to distinguish an introduced and native Laricobius (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) species in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.A. Davis; N.P. Havill; Z.N. Adelman; A. Caccone; L.T. Kok; S.M. Salom

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on DNA barcodes can be powerful identification tools in the absence of distinctive morphological characters for distinguishing between closely related species. A specific example is distinguishing the endemic species Laricobius rubidus from Laricobius nigrinus, a biological control agent of hemlock...

  5. Cost and productivity of new technology for harvesting and in-woods processing small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael B Lambert; James O. Howard

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the productivity and cost of an integrated harvesting and processing system operating in small-diameter timber (western hemlock-type) on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington. The system uses a new steep-slope fellerbuncher, a clam-bunk grapple-skidder (forwarder), a prototype chain-flail debarker delimber, a chipper, a conveyor system,...

  6. Highly stocked coniferous stands on the Olympic Peninsula: chemical composition and implications for harvest strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan N. Little; Dale R. Waddell

    1987-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of macronutrients and their distribution within highly stocked, stagnant stands of mixed conifers on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest, northwest Washington. These stands consisted of predominantly three species: western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), coast Douglas-fir (...

  7. Estimating tree bole and log weights from green densities measured with the Bergstrom Xylodensimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Waddell; Michael B. Lambert; W.Y. Pong

    1984-01-01

    The performance of the Bergstrom xylodensimeter, designed to measure the green density of wood, was investigated and compared with a technique that derived green densities from wood disk samples. In addition, log and bole weights of old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock were calculated by various formulas and compared with lifted weights measured with a load cell...

  8. Girdling as a means of removing undesirable tree species from the western white pine type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Brewster; Julius A. Larsen

    1925-01-01

    Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and white or grand fir (Abies grandis), two shade-tolerating species which are found in more or less abundance in the western white pine type in northern Idaho and northwestern Montana, must usually be classified as undesirable species silviculturally, and for several reasons. In both species the liability to infection by heart-rot...

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact: SLC-4 to SLC-6 Replacement Waterline Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-28

    marianum). stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ). poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). poison oak and introduced grasses dominate the understory. This site is...Hedge nettle * Toxicodendron diversi lobum Poison oak * * * Urtica dioica Stinging nettle * T’erbena californica California vervain * 1...Action. 2) the existing. environmental conditions. and 3) likely effects of the proposed and alternative actions on the natural and human environments

  10. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Passiflora incarnara No Camin N,-tn P. lutea Crossvixe Anisosticus capreolata Climbing hydrangea Decumaria barbara PJapanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica...Impatiens, Balsam Impatiens balsandina Curly Dock Rumex Plantain Plantago virginica Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Violet Viola floridana Ironweied Sida acuta

  11. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  12. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  13. 50 CFR 32.68 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... white-tailed deer, black bear, and turkey on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State... substance. 6. We prohibit the cutting and trimming of coniferous trees (balsam fir, red spruce, and hemlock... hunting for turkey with a rifle. You must use a shotgun or muzzleloader with a shot size of #4 or smaller...

  14. Physical and biological responses to an alternative removal strategy of a moderate-sized dam in Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon Claeson; B. Coffin

    2015-01-01

    Dam removal is an increasingly practised river restoration technique, and ecological responses vary with watershed, dam and reservoir properties, and removal strategies. Moderate-sized dams, like Hemlock Dam (7.9m tall and 56m wide), are large enough that removal effects could be significant, but small enough that mitigation may be possible through a modified dam...

  15. A 350-year reconstruction of the response of south Cascade Glacier to interannual and interdecadal climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailey W. Marcinkowski; David L. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Mountain hemlock growth chronologies were used to reconstruct the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier, an alpine glacier in the North Cascade Range of Washington State. The net balance reconstruction spans 350 years, from 1659 to 2009. Summer and winter balances were reconstructed for 1346–2009 and 1615–2009, respectively. Relationships between mass balance and...

  16. Potential Effects of Winter Navigation on Movements of Large Land Mammals in Eastern Lake Superior and Saint Mary’s River Area. Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Quercus rubra), hemlock and willow are also present; (4) Mixed deciduous-conifer- ingeneral, mixed stands including at least 25 percent of a deciduous...Balsam poplar Populus balsamifera Willow Salix spp. Tag alder Alnus rugosa Beaked hazel Cornus cornuta Rose Rosa spp. Staghorn sumac Rhus typhina Mountain

  17. Role of construction debris in release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from treated wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Jeffrey J. Morrell; John. Simonsen

    Recent research on the release of wood preservatives from treated wood used in sensitive environments has not considered the potential contribution from construction residues. This study sought to develop leaching rate data for small construction debris and compare those to the release rate from treated wood itself. Western hemlock boards were pressure treated with...

  18. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  19. Evaluating effects of thinning on wood quality in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis P. Dykstra; Robert A. Monserud

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of thinning on wood quality of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) located on Prince of Wales and Mitkof Islands in southeast Alaska. Sample trees came from paired plots (thinned versus unthinned) in eight naturally regenerated, mixed stands of young-growth western...

  20. Retinoylserine and retinoylalanine, natural products of the moth Trichoplusia ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Barbara; Itagaki, Yasuhiro; Fishkin, Nathan; Levi, Ester; Rühl, Ralph; Yi, San-San; Nakanishi, Koji; Hammerling, Ulrich

    2005-10-01

    Insect cells convert vitamin A into a number of retinoids that are evolutionarily conserved with those of mammalian cells. However, insect cells also produce additional natural retinoids. Namely, two retinoic acid peptides, N-trans-retinoylserine (1) and N-trans-retinoylalanine (2), have been isolated from a cell line of the common cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. These are the first examples of naturally occurring retinoic acid linked to amino acids through an amide bond; the amino acid moieties are depicted in the more common l-configuration, although the absolute configuration was not determined due to the minuscule sample amount.

  1. Retinoylserine and retinoylalanine, new natural products of the moth, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Barbara; Itagaki, Yasuhiro; Fishkin, Nathan; Levi, Ester; Rühl, Ralph; Yi, San-San; Nakanishi, Koji; Hammerling, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Insect cells convert vitamin A into a number of retinoids that are evolutionarily conserved with those of mammalian cells. However, insect cells also produce additional natural retinoids. Namely, two retinoic acid peptides, N-trans-retinoylserine (1) and N-trans-retinoylalanine (2) (Figure 1), have been isolated from a cell line of the common cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. These are the first examples of naturally occurring retinoic acid linked to amino acids through an amide bond; the amino acid moieties are depicted in the more common L-configuration although the absolute configuration was not determined due to the minuscule sample amount. PMID:16252921

  2. New Materials Based on Spider Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    five cells of the cabbage looper Trichopulsia ni. This cell line was chosen for their good propensity to secrete recombinant proteins. Secreted rADF-4...was soluble indicating that secretion, i.e. possible post-translational modifications, can modify its solubility. 5 A B Figure 1...collected 4 days post-infection with recombinant virus. Cells have been resuspended in lysis buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.4, 10 mM NaCl, 15 mM MgCl2, 1

  3. Effects of rosemary, thyme and lemongrass oils and their major constituents on detoxifying enzyme activity and insecticidal activity in Trichoplusia ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Jovel, Eduardo; Isman, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Although there have been many reports on the synergistic interactions among the major constituents of plant essential oils regarding insecticidal activity, their underlying mechanism of synergy is poorly understood. In our previous studies, we found each of the two most abundant constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) essential oils can be synergistic against the larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni at their natural proportion or equivalent blending ratios. In the present study, we investigated whether the enhanced toxicity between the major constituents could be the result of inhibited enzyme activity of cytochrome P450s, general esterases or glutathione S-transferases which are highly related to the development of insecticide resistance. Overall, although some combinations showed mild inhibitory activity, at least for these essential oils and their major constituents, inhibition of detoxication enzyme activity is unlikely to be a direct cause of increased toxicity in the cabbage looper. The results point to other factors, such as multiple modes-of-action or enhanced penetration through the cuticular layer, playing important roles in the elevated insecticidal activity. Moreover, application of enzyme inhibitors sometimes resulted in decreased activity when mixed with the target compounds, but these antagonistic interactions disappeared when they were applied separately, suggesting that the enzyme inhibitors can sometimes influence the penetrations of toxicants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of the lethal and behavioral effects of commercial insecticides on the parasitoid wasp Copidosoma truncatellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo S; de Araújo, Vitor C R; Pereira, Renata R; Martins, Júlio C; Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Silva, Ricardo S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-01

    Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%. In contrast, cartap, deltamethrin, and methomyl caused 100% mortality, and acephate and spinosad caused 76% and 78% mortality, respectively. At least one of the detoxifying enzymes (monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase, and/or esterases) may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the selectivity of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb for the parasitoid based on the results for the insecticide plus synergist treatment. Changes in the behavioral patterns (walking time and resting time) of the parasitoid were found with exposure to acephate, flubendiamide, indoxacarb and methomyl, but behavioral avoidance was not observed. Our results indicate that the insecticides chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr are the most suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for the control of C. includens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Twenty-Five Years of Flux Observations at the Harvard Forest; Mature Northeastern Forests are a Consistent Carbon Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. W.; Swofsy, S. C.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; David, O.; Barker Plotkin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Because trees grow slowly, long-term observations are essential for detecting responses to climate change and vegetation dynamics in forests. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, eddy-covariance fluxes have been measured since 1991 in a hardwood-dominated stand. Flux measurements commenced in 2004 for a hemlock-dominated stand. The oldest trees in the hardwood stand date to the early 1900's. The hemlock stand was never cleared and some existing trees approach 200 years old. Plot-based observations surrounding the towers provide complementary data on species composition woody biomass and litter production. Co-location at a Long-Term Ecological Research Site provides additional ecological context and detailed historical perspective.Over the measurement period above-ground biomass has increased more than 30%. Mean annual temperatures have been rising on average 0.3C per decade. The hardwood stand is a net carbon sink, with periods of increasing carbon uptake punctuated by downturns in response to combinations of unfavorable conditions. The hemlock stand has lower peak carbon uptake rates than the oak dominated hardwood stand, but because it is evergreen, carbon uptake starts early in the spring and continues until late fall if temperatures are above freezing. The resulting rates of woody biomass accumulation in the two stands are remarkably similar despite differences in age. Over the past 5 years an infestation by hemlock woolly adelgids (HWA) has led to a noticeable decline in CO2 uptake by the Hemlock stand, and steadily increasing tree mortality. HWA will ultimately kill all the hemlocks and they will be replaced by hardwoods (mostly black birch) that are sprouting under canopy gaps. A key observation from this work is that in the absence of severe disturbance or management activity, mature northeastern forests are consistent carbon sinks. Moderate disturbances by ice-storms, cold-cloudy springs, and summer droughts cause at most a reduction in carbon

  6. Radar modeling of a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Narinder S.; Lang, Roger H.; Ranson, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave modeling, ground truth, and SAR data are used to investigate the characteristics of forest stands. A mixed coniferous forest stand has been modeled at P, L, and C bands. Extensive measurements of ground truth and canopy geometry parameters were performed in a 200-m-square hemlock-dominated forest plot. About 10 percent of the trees were sampled to determine a distribution of diameter at breast height (DBH). Hemlock trees in the forest are modeled by characterizing tree trunks, branches, and needles as randomly oriented lossy dielectric cylinders whose area and orientation distributions are prescribed. The distorted Born approximation is used to compute the backscatter at P, L, and C bands. The theoretical results are found to be lower than the calibrated ground-truth data. The experiment and model results agree quite closely, however, when the ratios of VV to HH and HV to HH are compared.

  7. Maximum size-density relationships for mixed softwoods in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Solomon; Lianjun Zhang

    2002-01-01

    The maximum size-density relationships or self-thinning lines were developed for three mix .ed-softwood climax forest habitats (hemlock-red spruce, spruce-fir, and cedar-black spruce) in the northeastern USA. The plot data were collected from an extensive data base used in growth studies from 1950 to 1970, and represented a wide range of species compositions, sites,...

  8. Weed killers may be useful in reforesting old burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Hough

    1950-01-01

    More than 6 million acres in the 12 Northeastern and Middle Atlantic States need to be reforested, according to Forest Service estimates. Yet many of the sites that need planting are rocky and steep and hard to plant. In many places there is a dense cover of grasses, weeds, and shrubby growth. Old burns in the northern hardwood-hemlock forests and spruce-fir forests...

  9. Field-Cage Evaluation of Survival, Reproduction, and Feeding Behavior of Adult Scymnus coniferarum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, M N; McAvoy, T J; Brewster, C C; Salom, S M

    2016-12-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive pest of eastern (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann) forests in the eastern United States. Scymnus (Pullus) coniferarum Crotch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a lady beetle that preys on A. tsugae in the western United States, where A. tsugae infestations on western hemlocks are not lethal. It is thought that S. coniferarum could be an important predator that helps keep A. tsugae populations from reaching damaging levels in this region. This study assesses the potential of this predator as a biological control agent for A. tsugae in the eastern United States. S. coniferarum predation, reproductive potential, and survival were evaluated in field-cages on adelgid-infested T. canadensis at two sites in southwestern Virginia. Sampling was conducted between December 2012 and June 2014 to evaluate the impact of S. coniferarum on both generations of A. tsuage (sistens and progrediens). Adult S. coniferarum fed on both generations and all life stages of A. tsugae during both field trials at rates comparable to other adelgid-specific predators. Evidence of S. coniferarum oviposition was minimal, and may be attributed to low temperatures and prey availability. S. coniferarum mortality was greatest when exposed to winter temperatures at the higher elevation site in 2013, and least throughout the 2014 spring sample period. S. coniferarum demonstrated a high predation rate on A. tsugae and survived for extended periods of time at sites in southwest Virginia, indicating that this species could be an effective predator of hemlock woolly adelgid in similar climates. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Marine Riparian Vegetation Communities of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    sporadically. Both western white pine and shore pine occur on glacial drift in the Puget Sound area. Hardwoods, such as red alder and big leaf maple, are not...dar, and understory shrubs such as red huckleberry, Oregon grape, trailing blackberry , and salal (Kruckeberg 1991). Other common trees in this zone...include big leaf maple, vine maple, red alder, black cottonwood and madrone. A list of the most common plants of the Western Hemlock Zone, along

  11. Field performance of timber bridges. 9, Big Erick`s stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Kainz; J. P. Wacker; M. Nelson

    The Big Erickas bridge was constructed during September 1992 in Baraga County, Michigan. The bridge is 72 ft long, 16 ft wide, and consists of three simple spans: two stress-laminated deck approach spans and a stress-laminated box center span. The bridge is unique in that it is one of the first known stress-laminated timber bridge applications to use Eastern Hemlock...

  12. Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement for Navigation and Related Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    California Hibiscus and a Lilaeopsis that have been found adjacent to the ship channel. Also, the Anthicid Beetle is a proposed species and its...distributions in the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel area are: California hibiscus — Rio Vista vicinity; Lilaeopsis — Montezuma Hills...Costa wallflower4 Antioch Dunes evening primrose4 California hibiscus Lilaeopsis Suisun aster Delta tule pea Bolander water hemlock Gum plant

  13. Risk assessment of imidacloprid use in forest settings on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Elizabeth P; Grant, Jerome F; Nichols, Rebecca J; Webster, R Jesse; Schwartz, John S; Bailey, Joseph K

    2017-11-01

    The isolated effects of a single insecticide can be difficult to assess in natural settings because of the presence of numerous pollutants in many watersheds. Imidacloprid use for suppressing hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in forests offers a rare opportunity to assess potential impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in relatively pristine landscapes. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed in 9 streams in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (southern Appalachian Mountains, USA). The streams flow through hemlock conservation areas where imidacloprid soil drench treatments were applied for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression. Sites were located upstream and downstream of the imidacloprid treatments. Baseline species presence data (pre-imidacloprid treatment) were available from previous sample collections at downstream sites. Downstream and upstream sites did not vary in numerous community measures. Although comparisons of paired upstream and downstream sites showed differences in diversity in 7 streams, higher diversity was found more often in downstream sites. Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups and life habits were similar between downstream and upstream sites. Downstream and baseline stream samples were similar. While some functional feeding group and life habit species richness categories varied, variations did not indicate poorer quality downstream communities. Imidacloprid treatments applied according to US Environmental Protection Agency federal restrictions did not result in negative effects to aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, which indicates that risks of imidacloprid use in forest settings are low. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3108-3119. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Red Alder-Conifer Stands in Alaska: An Example of Mixed Species Management to Enhance Structural and Biological Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Deal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest in managing forests to improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An increasingly important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity and improve wildlife and aquatic habitat. Well-planned silvicultural systems containing a mixture of broadleaf-conifer species have potential to enhance stand diversity and provide other ecosystem services earlier than typical even-aged conifer plantations. Here, we use the example of mixed Sitka spruce/western hemlock and red alder in young, managed stands in southeast Alaska to achieve these goals. We briefly describe the silvics of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and red alder plantations as pure conifer stands or pure broadleaf stands. Then, we synthesize studies of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce/western hemlock stands in southeast Alaska and present their potential for improving stand structural complexity, biodiversity and other ecosystem services over pure conifer forests. Finally, we discuss some of the opportunities and potential tradeoffs for managing mixed broadleaf-conifer stands for providing a number of natural resources and the influence of these broadleaf-conifer forests on ecosystem linkages and processes.

  15. The killer of Socrates: Coniine and Related Alkaloids in the Plant Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotti, Hannu; Rischer, Heiko

    2017-11-14

    Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881), and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886). In plants, coniine and twelve closely related alkaloids are known from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.), and several Sarracenia and Aloe species. Recent work confirmed its biosynthetic polyketide origin. Biosynthesis commences by carbon backbone formation from butyryl-CoA and two malonyl-CoA building blocks catalyzed by polyketide synthase. A transamination reaction incorporates nitrogen from l-alanine and non-enzymatic cyclization leads to γ-coniceine, the first hemlock alkaloid in the pathway. Ultimately, reduction of γ-coniceine to coniine is facilitated by NADPH-dependent γ-coniceine reductase. Although coniine is notorious for its toxicity, there is no consensus on its ecological roles, especially in the carnivorous pitcher plants where it occurs. Lately there has been renewed interest in coniine's medical uses particularly for pain relief without an addictive side effect.

  16. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  17. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2016-07-15

    Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS) concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM) three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment) while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18), an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1), and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and ESM1) were

  18. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Mo Ku

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA. In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni, eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18, an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1, and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M,L,T dwarfs fundamental parameters and SEDs (Filippazzo+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippazzo, J. C.; Rice, E. L.; Faherty, J.; Cruz, K. L.; van, Gordon M. M.; Looper, D. L.

    2017-10-01

    The primary sources of optical, NIR, and MIR photometry were the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al. 2000AJ....120.1579Y), the 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233), and WISE (Cutri et al. 2012, Cat. II/311), respectively. Additional magnitudes came from the Looper Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS; Epchtein et al. 1997Msngr..87...27E; Cat. B/denis) and the literature using the Mauna Kea Observatory Near-Infrared (Simons & Tokunaga 2002PASP..114..169S; Tokunaga et al. 2002PASP..114..180T), Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and Johnson-Cousins V(RI)C filter sets. (9 data files).

  20. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  1. Studies towards the identification of the sex pheromone of Thyrinteina arnobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jardel A.; Neppe, Tiago; Paiva, Marcelo M. de; Deobald, Anna M.; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G.; Paixao, Marcio W.; Correa, Arlene G., E-mail: agcorrea@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-12-01

    The eucalyptus brown-looper Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered an important pest in Brazilian native plants, e.g. Psidium guajava, and exotic plants, such as Eucalyptus species. In this work we describe the isolation of the pheromone components of T. arnobia, using glands extract and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) of virgin females. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two reproducible electroantennographic responses were elicited in the male antenna of T. arnobia and one of them was identified as 3,4-epoxy-6,9-heneicosadiene by CG-MS. The racemic synthesis of this epoxydiene was carried out in 10 steps and 28% overall yield. The four stereoisomers of the epoxydiene were also synthesized employing the corresponding enantiomeric enriched epoxyalcohols. (author)

  2. [Performance of trichogrammatids as biocontrol agents of Pseudoplusia includens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Regiane C O F; Parra, José R P; de F Bueno, Adeney; Haddad, Marinéia L

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to point out the most suitable trichogrammatid strains to control the soybean looper Pseudoplusia includes Walker. Biological parameters and parasitism ratio of 11 Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, one Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and one Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis strains reared on P. includens eggs were evaluated. Among all tested strains/species, T. pretiosum strain RV, collected in Rio Verde, GO, had the fastest development cycle and the highest percentage of parasitism of P. includens eggs. There was no difference in the parasitism and in the number of parasitoid emerged per egg among the tested parasitoid species and strains. Accordingly to the cluster analysis, T. pretiosum strain RV reared on P. includens eggs had the best performance. Considering the higher parasitism rate, shorter biological cycle, higher survival and sex ratio, T. pretiosum strain RV is the most appropriated to be used in field releases aiming at P. includens control.

  3. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie2, Cry2Ac7, Vip3Aa11 and Cry7Ab3 proteins against Anticarsia gemmatalis, Chrysodeixis includens and Ceratoma trifurcata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Rubina; Behle, Robert; Liu, Rongmei; Niu, Lin; Song, Ping; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2017-11-01

    Transgenic soybean producing the Cry1Ac insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is used to control larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) and the soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)]. The main threat to the sustainability of this technology is the development of resistance, which could be delayed by using pyramiding of diverse Bt insecticidal genes. We report high activity of Cry2Ac7 and Vip3Aa11 but not Cry1Ie2 against larvae of A. gemmatalis and C. includens. In addition, we also report anti-feeding activity of Cry1Ie2 and Cry7Ab3 in adults of the bean leaf beetle [Ceratoma trifurcata (Foster)], an alternative pest of soybean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of ultraviolet light on aspects of DNA metabolism in cell lines derived from plodia interpunctella and Trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Insect cells are significantly more resistant to the lethal effects of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV) than mammalian cells. The predominant photoproduct produced by UV is the (5-6) cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. There is controversy whether this lesion, or another, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone, is responsible for the biological effects of UV. Insect cells contain a photolyase which selectively removes the (5-6), but not the (6-4) lesion, so that the relative roles of these lesions can be studied. Insect cell lines derived from the cabbage looper and the Indian meal moth were exposed to UV and analyzed for their ability to incorporate [sup 3]H-thymidine. After exposure, cells from the Indian meal moth exhibited a rapid and prolonged depression in the rate of thymidine incorporation, whereas cells from the cabbage looper showed only a slight drop in incorporation and a rapid recovery. The extent of depression in thymidine incorporation was not correlated to the amount of cell killing by UV in these cell lines. Blockage of fork progression was correlated to the depression in thymidine incorporation. Photoreactivation did not entirely relieve blockage, depression in thymidine incorporation or cell killing, indicating that although the (5-6) dimer appears to be the major lesion responsible for these effects, other lesions, such as the (6-4) photoproduct, may play a role. In addition, activation of alternative sites of replicon initiation appeared to correlate with the depression in thymidine incorporation and the excision capabilities in these cells. The resistance to UV in these insect cells compared to mammalian cells may be due to their ability to rapidly remove the (5-6) lesion, which is the critical lesion in these insect cells.

  5. Comparative activity of baculoviruses against the codling moth Cydia pomonella and three other tortricid pests of tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Vail, P V; Hoffmann, D F

    2002-05-01

    The granulovirus of Cydia pomonella (L.) (CpGV) offers potential for selective control of codling moth. Two major limitations of CpGV are its narrow host range and lack of persistence in the orchard agroecosystem. The nucleopolyhedroviruses of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) (AcMNPV) and those of the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) (AfMNPV) have broad host ranges. Comparative assays of CpGV, AcMNPV, and AfMNPV against codling moth neonate larvae revealed a 54-93-fold greater susceptibility of codling moth to the granulovirus than to the two nucleopolyhedroviruses based on the LC(50) values for each virus. The LC(50)s for CpGV, AfMNPV, and AcMNPV were 32.7 capsules/mm(2), 1.77 x 10(3) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mm(2), and 3.05 x 10(3)OBs/mm(2), respectively. The LT(50) determined for AfMNPV using an approximate LC(95) of the virus against neonate larvae was 3.6 days. Histological examination of tissues in moribund codling moth larvae that had been treated with AfMNPV revealed the presence of nonoccluded and unenveloped virus rods in midgut tissue. Neither OBs nor signs of infection were detected in other tissues. The activity of AfMNPV was also evaluated in three other tortricid apple pests (obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott; and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck)). Codling and Oriental fruit moths were significantly more susceptible to AfMNPV than were the two leafroller species.

  6. Larval mortality and development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on a transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis-cotton cultivar expressing CryIAc insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, M; Young, S Y; McNew, R W

    2001-10-01

    The effects of a transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-cotton cultivar (DPL 32) on three instars of the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were determined in laboratory studies. First, third, and fifth instars were fed field collected Bt-cotton leaves for 1, 2, four and 7 d or until pupation, and then transferred to artificial diet. Mortality during the larval stage increased linearly in response to an increase in the length of feeding time on Bt-cotton by first and third instars. The maximum mortality of about two out of three larvae occurred for first instars fed on Bt-cotton until pupation. For the fifth instar, there was no significant response to feeding time; however, most of these larvae reached pupation before 4 d of feeding on Bt-cotton. The length of the larval developmental period also increased linearly with an increase in feeding time on Bt-cotton in first and third instars; again, there was no significant response in the fifth instars. For both mortality and larval developmental time, the linear trend lines for the first and third instars were quite similar. Pupal weight declined linearly in the first and fifth instars in response to feeding time on Bt-cotton. Although pupal weight also declined for third instars, the response was not linear. The effect of Bt-cotton appears not to extend past pupation in that there were no significant responses in mortality and developmental time of pupae during the pupal stage. These data indicate that larvae surviving Bt-cotton are adversely affected in several ways, which should be considered in evaluating Bt-cotton suppression of soybean looper infestations.

  7. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Janine; Maebe, Kevin; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857), an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE) in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001). The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  8. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Palma

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857, an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001. The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  9. Invasive insect effects on nitrogen cycling and host physiology are not tightly linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Lucy; Charles, Sherley; Sirulnik, Abby G; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2015-02-01

    Invasive insects may dramatically alter resource cycling and productivity in forest ecosystems. Yet, although responses of individual trees should both reflect and affect ecosystem-scale responses, relationships between physiological- and ecosystem-scale responses to invasive insects have not been extensively studied. To address this issue, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) cycling, N uptake and allocation, and needle biochemistry and physiology in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr) saplings, associated with infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), an invasive insect causing widespread decline of eastern hemlock in the eastern USA. Compared with uninfested saplings, infested saplings had soils that exhibited faster nitrification rates, and more needle (15)N uptake, N and total protein concentrations. However, these variables did not clearly covary. Further, within infested saplings, needle N concentration did not vary with HWA density. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (Asat) declined by 42% as HWA density increased from 0 to 3 adelgids per needle, but did not vary with needle N concentration. Rather, Asat varied with stomatal conductance, which was highest at the lowest HWA density and accounted for 79% of the variation in Asat. Photosynthetic light response did not differ among HWA densities. Our results suggest that the effects of HWA infestation on soil N pools and fluxes, (15)N uptake, needle N and protein concentrations, and needle physiology may not be tightly coupled under at least some conditions. This pattern may reflect direct effects of the HWA on N uptake by host trees, as well as effects of other scale-dependent factors, such as tree hydrology, affected by HWA activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Acceleration of exotic plant invasion in a forested ecosystem by a generalist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2009-04-01

    The successful invasion of exotic plants is often attributed to the absence of coevolved enemies in the introduced range (i.e., the enemy release hypothesis). Nevertheless, several components of this hypothesis, including the role of generalist herbivores, remain relatively unexplored. We used repeated censuses of exclosures and paired controls to investigate the role of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), in the invasion of 3 exotic plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, and Berberis thunbergii) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (U.S.A.). This work was conducted in 10 eastern hemlock (T. canadensis) forests that spanned gradients in deer density and in the severity of canopy disturbance caused by an introduced insect pest, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). We used maximum likelihood estimation and information theoretics to quantify the strength of evidence for alternative models of the influence of deer density and its interaction with the severity of canopy disturbance on exotic plant abundance. Our results were consistent with the enemy release hypothesis in that exotic plants gained a competitive advantage in the presence of generalist herbivores in the introduced range. The abundance of all 3 exotic plants increased significantly more in the control plots than in the paired exclosures. For all species, the inclusion of canopy disturbance parameters resulted in models with substantially greater support than the deer density only models. Our results suggest that white-tailed deer herbivory can accelerate the invasion of exotic plants and that canopy disturbance can interact with herbivory to magnify the impact. In addition, our results provide compelling evidence of nonlinear relationships between deer density and the impact of herbivory on exotic species abundance. These findings highlight the important role of herbivore density in determining impacts on

  11. Professor Stewart's casebook of mathematical mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Like its wildly popular predecessors Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities and Hoard of Mathematical Treasures, Professor Stewart's brand-new book is a miscellany of over 150 mathematical curios and conundrums, packed with trademark humour and numerous illustrations. In addition to the fascinating formulae and thrilling theorems familiar to Professor Stewart's fans, the Casebook follows the adventures of the not-so-great detective Hemlock Soames and his sidekick Dr John Watsup (immortalised in the phrase 'Watsup, Doc?'). By a remarkable coincidence they live at 222B Baker Street, just a

  12. Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide; a social work update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, P R; Wodarski, J S

    1996-01-01

    Considering the recent actions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian, Dr. Timothy Quill and the Hemlock Society's initiatives for legalizing physician assisted suicide for special cases in the state of Washington, Oregon, and California, arguments for and against euthanasia and physician assisted suicide have grown into a substantial and impassioned debate. This paper outlines and analyzes salient issues within the controversy of legalizing physician assisted suicide for terminally ill patients. It highlights significant issues for state and federal policy formation and further suggests unique roles which medical social workers might play in developing and implementing a compassionate and reliable system for caring for the terminally ill.

  13. Operational experience at a `dog-hair` site. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, S.R.; Miller, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    The authors installed plots in a nine-year-old Douglas-fir plantation established after clearcutting a grossly overstocked stand. One plot sampled the slash-burned portion. In the nonburned portion, two plots were in areas thinned three years earlier by machete combined with pulling small seedlings, and four were in areas thinned by chainsaw. Stumps with sprouts averaged 5,665 per acre in saw-thinned plots and only 250 per acre in plots thinned by machete and pulling. Most seedlings and sprouts were western hemlock. Machete cutting and pulling proved more effective than chainsaws for reducing stem density. Slash burning destroyed most new seedlings.

  14. North Atlantic Regional Water Resources Study. Appendix O. Fish and Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    free—flowing streams and na tural lakes, (2) adequate control of polut ion a t its sources , (3) construction of upstream water—storage facilities , (4...re la t ively dense stands of conifers — prefe rab ly hemlock . Because of these hab i t a t requirements , hares are no t un if orm ly distributed...and south of Long Island , New York , they become more numerous . They are re la t ive ly abundant in Mary land and Virg inia where they have long

  15. Monoterpene emissions from a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest and impact on regional biogenic VOC emission estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Jack; Allwine, Eugene

    Measurements of natural hydrocarbon emission rates are reported for an old-growth Pacific Northwest coniferous forest. The emission data were collected for the two dominant species Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) during the growing season in 1997 and 1998 using branch enclosure techniques. Samples were collected at different heights from 13 to 51 m within the canopy using the Wind River Canopy Crane facility. The standard emission factor at a temperature of 30°C and the temperature coefficient for Douglas-fir is Es=0.39±0.14 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.14±0.05°C -1 and for western hemlock Es=0.95±0.17 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.06±0.02°C -1. There was considerable variability among all the emission factors due to seasonal and branch-to-branch variations. Within season emission factors appear to decline from May to September for the Douglas-fir, although there was no corresponding decrease for the western hemlock. There was no significant difference in standard emission factors ( Es) or temperature coefficients as a function of sunlit versus shady growth environment (different heights) for Douglas-fir, but western hemlock emission samples collected low in the canopy showed no exponential correlation with temperature. Applying the standard emission factors from this study to a Pacific Northwest domain and comparing the modified emission inventory to the current regulatory-based emission inventory yielded a net decrease of 19% in the domain wide monoterpene emissions. The relatively small difference in biogenic emissions is slightly misleading, as the difference in standard emission rates between this study and current regulatory rates is quite significant, and they offset each other when combined in this domain. When this inventory was input into a regional photochemical air quality simulation using the MM5/CMAQ system, the reduction in biogenic emissions resulted in an insignificant decrease of O 3 and a significant

  16. Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Edward G.; Silsbee, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October, and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas.

  17. Entomopathogenic Fungi Associated with Exotic Invasive Insect Pests in Northeastern Forests of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouli, Vladimir; Gouli, Svetlana; Marcelino, José A. P.; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycopathogens of economically important exotic invasive insects in forests of northeastern USA have been the subject of research at the Entomology Research Laboratory, University of Vermont, for the last 20 years. Elongate hemlock scale, European fruit lecanium, hemlock woolly adelgid and pear thrips were analyzed for the presence of mycopathogens, in order to consider the potential for managing these pests with biological control. Fungal cultures isolated from insects with signs of fungal infection were identified based on morphological characters and DNA profiling. Mycopathogens recovered from infected insects were subdivided into three groups, i.e., specialized entomopathogenic; facultative entomopathogens; ubiquitous opportunistic contaminants. Epizootics were caused by fungi in the specialized group with the exception of M. microspora, P. marquandii and I. farinosa. Inoculation of insects in laboratory and field conditions with B. bassiana, L. muscarium and Myriangium sp. caused insect mortality of 45 to 95%. Although pest populations in the field seemed severely compromised after treatment, the remnant populations re-established themselves after the winter. Although capable of inducing high mortality, a single localized aerial application of a soil-dwelling fungus does not maintain long-time suppression of pests. However, it can halt their range expansion and maintain populations below the economic threshold level without the use of expensive insecticides which have a negative impact on the environment. PMID:26462527

  18. A QTL that enhances and broadens Bt insect resistance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David R; Narvel, James M; Boerma, H Roger; All, John N; Parrott, Wayne A

    2004-09-01

    Effective strategies are needed to manage insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins expressed in transgenic crops. To evaluate a multiple resistance gene pyramiding strategy, eight soybean (Glycine max) lines possessing factorial combinations of two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from plant introduction (PI) 229358 and a synthetic Bt cry1Ac gene were developed using marker-assisted selection with simple sequence repeat markers. Field studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to evaluate resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), and detached leaf bioassays were used to test antibiosis resistance to Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible strains of tobacco budworm (TBW; Heliothis virescens). Based on defoliation in the field and larval weight gain on detached leaves, lines carrying a combination of cry1Ac and the PI 229358 allele at a QTL on linkage group M were significantly more resistant to the lepidopteran pests, including the Bt-resistant TBW strain, than were the other lines. This is the first report of a complementary additive effect between a Bt transgene and a plant insect resistance QTL with an uncharacterized mode of action that was introgressed using marker-assisted selection.

  19. Effect of pubescence tip on soybean resistance to lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulburt, David J; Boerma, H Roger; All, John N

    2004-04-01

    DNA marker analysis has mapped a quantitative trait locus for soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., resistance to the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on the USDA soybean genetic linkage map near the classical gene Pb, which conditions pubescence tip. This study was initiated to determine the effect of pubescence tip on resistance to H. zea larvae and to examine the effect on beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), larvae. The effect of blunt (pb) and sharp (Pb) pubescence tip was tested in antixenosis and antibiosis bioassays on H. zea, S. exigua, and P. includens larvae with near-isolines and insect-resistant and -susceptible genotypes differing in pubescence tip morphology. Sharp pubescence tip significantly reduced defoliation (antixenosis) from H. zea, S. exigua, and P. includens and weight gain (antibiosis) of H. zea. The weight gain of P. includens was unaffected, and S. exigua weight gain was significant for one pair of near-isolines differing in pubescence tip but not the other. The results indicate that sharp pubescence tip would be beneficial to introgress into elite soybean germplasm due to its association with resistance to H. zea, S. exigua, and P. includens.

  20. Insect Control and Dosage Effects in Transgenic Canola Containing a Synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cryIAc Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Jr, C. N.; Adang, M. J.; All, J. N.; Raymer, P. L.; Ramachandran, S.; Parrott, W. A.

    1996-01-01

    Zygotic hypocotyls of canola (Brassica napus L.) cv Oscar, cv Westar, and the breeding line UGA188-20B were transformed with a truncated synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein gene (Bt cryIAc) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Fifty-seven independently transformed lines were produced, containing 1 to 12 copies of the transgenes. A range of cry expressors was produced from 0 to 0.4% Cry as a percentage of total extractable protein. The Brassica specialists, the diamondback month (Plutella xylostella L.) and the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hubner), were completely controlled by low-, medium-, and high-expressing lines. Whereas control of the generalist lepidopteran, the corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie), was nearly complete, the other generalist caterpillar tested, the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hubner), showed a dose response that had a negative association between defoliation and cry expression. These plants were produced as models for an ecological research assessment of the risk involved in the field release of naturalized transgenic plants harboring a gene (Bt) that confers higher relative fitness under herbivore-feeding pressure. PMID:12226379

  1. Translocation of Bacillus thuringiensis in Phaseolus vulgaris tissues and vertical transmission in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Suárez, R; Verduzco-Rosas, L A; Del Rincón-Castro, M C; Délano-Frier, J P; Ibarra, J E

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate the ability of Bacillus thuringiensis to penetrate as spore-crystal complex to the internal tissues of bean plants, and keep its insecticidal activity. To test the vertical transmission of the spore-crystal complex in Arabidopsis thaliana. The experimental strain was transformed with the pMUTIN-gfp plasmid which labelled the spores of B. thuringiensis HD-73 with the GFP protein. Once the rhizosphere of the bean plants was inoculated with the labelled strain, the bacterium was recovered from leaves, stems, and petioles. Furthermore, toxicity of treated plants was significantly higher than control plants when bio-assayed on cabbage looper larvae. The labelled strain was recovered from the dead insects. When the rhizosphere of A. thaliana plants was inoculated with the labelled strain, mature seeds from these plants were surface-sterilized and grown under in vitro conditions. The labelled strain was recovered from the seedlings. We showed that B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (HD-73) in the rhizosphere can translocate to upper tissues of bean plants, and keep its insecticidal activity. Transmission of the labelled B. thuringiensis strain passed to the next generation of A. thaliana. The role of B. thuringiensis as a potential facultative endophyte bacterium and the possible biotechnological repercussions are discussed. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Aldrin epoxidation and dihydroisodrin hydroxylation as probes of in vivo and in vitro oxidative metabolic capability of some caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Robert I

    2008-06-01

    Comparative biochemical studies are productive means to study factors that limit both beneficial and harmful effects of chemicals. Reactions such as aldrin epoxidation and dihydroisodrin hydroxylation are valuable assays of oxidative metabolism in scientific studies of chemical biology in insects, subhuman primates and other living things. The tissue distribution of activity in caterpillars may have functional significance. Localization of relatively high concentrations of these cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in gut tissue of lepidoptera may represent an important means to minimize absorption of lipophilic foreign chemicals in food. Some polychlorocycloalkanes permit in vivo and in vitro studies owing to their stability, acceptable toxicity and relatively simple pattern of metabolism. In vivo studies to assess the significance of in vitro findings are feasible with substrates such as aldrin, dihydroisodrin (DHI) and oxidative methylenedioxyphenyl inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or carbon monoxide. Biphasic dose-dependent decreased and increased DHI-OH formation resulted from PBO pretreatment by gut, fat body, head and Malpighian tubule homogenates of cutworms and gut and fat body (the only tissues tested) of cabbage looper Trichplusia ni (Hübner) and black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel). The biphasic in vivo responses of caterpillars to PBO are a reminder of the complexity of biochemical and physiological responses of organisms coexposed to chemicals that are classified, often glibly, as toxic substances and metabolic inhibitors and inducers. Knowledge of dose and time relationships demands very careful evaluation in living things in the environment. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. DIETARY SILVER NANOPARTICLES REDUCE FITNESS IN A BENEFICIAL, BUT NOT PEST, INSECT SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasiabi, Zahra; Popham, Holly J R; Stanley, David; Suresh, Dhananjay; Finley, Kristen; Campbell, Jonelle; Kannan, Raghuraman; Upendran, Anandhi

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often based on simplistic methods that yield nanoparticles of nonuniform shapes and sizes, leaving questions about the precise treatments test insects experienced. Second, we do not know how AgNPs influence beneficial insects. This work addresses these issues. We assessed the influence of AgNPs on life history parameters of two agricultural pest insect species, Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm) and Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) and a beneficial predatory insect species, Podisus maculiventris (spined soldier bug), all of which act in agroecosystems. Rearing the two pest species on standard media amended with AgNPs led to negligible influence on developmental times, pupal weights, and adult emergence, however, they led to retarded development, reductions in adult weight and fecundity, and increased mortality in the predator. These negative effects on the beneficial species, if also true for other beneficial insect species, would have substantial negative implications for continued development of AgNPs for insect pest management programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Antiviral, Immunomodulatory, and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of a Protein-Enriched Fraction from the Larvae of the Housefly, Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hui; Wang, Furong; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Lingyao; Lei, Chaoliang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study, protein-enriched fraction (PEF) that was isolated from the larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), showed excellent hepatoprotective activity as well as the potential for clinical application in therapy for liver diseases. In this study, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and free radical scavenging activities of PEF were evaluated. The antiviral results demonstrated that PEF inhibited the infection of avian influenza virus H9N2 and had a virucidal effect against the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of the alfalfa looper, Autographa californica Speyer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in vitro. The mortality of silkworm larve in a PEF treatment group decreased significantly compared with a negative control. PEF showed excellent scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radicals, which were similar to those of ascorbic acid. The imunomodulatory results suggested that PEF could effectively improve immune function in experimental mice. Our results indicated that PEF could possibly be used for the prophylaxis and treatment of diseases caused by avian influenza virus infection. In addition, PEF with virucidal activity against insect viruses might provide useful for the development of antimicrobial breeding technology for economically important insects. As a natural product from insects, PEF could be a potential source for the discovery of potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24735244

  5. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Bashir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t. based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water. A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin. Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  6. Analyzing the Fierz rearrangement freedom for local chiral two-nucleon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, L.; Tews, I.; Lynn, J. E.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-11-01

    Chiral effective field theory is a framework to derive systematic nuclear interactions. It is based on the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics and includes long-range pion physics explicitly, while shorter-range physics is expanded in a general operator basis. The number of low-energy couplings at a particular order in the expansion can be reduced by exploiting the fact that nucleons are fermions and therefore obey the Pauli exclusion principle. The antisymmetry permits the selection of a subset of the allowed contact operators at a given order. When local regulators are used for these short-range interactions, however, this "Fierz rearrangement freedom" is violated. In this paper, we investigate the impact of this violation at leading order (LO) in the chiral expansion. We construct LO and next-to-leading order (NLO) potentials for all possible LO-operator pairs and study their reproduction of phase shifts, the 4He ground-state energy, and the neutron-matter energy at different densities. We demonstrate that the Fierz rearrangement freedom is partially restored at NLO where subleading contact interactions enter. We also discuss implications for local chiral three-nucleon interactions.

  7. Pathogen-triggered ethylene signaling mediates systemic-induced susceptibility to herbivory in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Whiteman, Noah K; Bahrami, Adam K; Wilczek, Amity M; Cui, Jianping; Russell, Jacob A; Cibrian-Jaramillo, Angelica; Butler, Ian A; Rana, Jignasha D; Huang, Guo-Hua; Bush, Jenifer; Ausubel, Frederick M; Pierce, Naomi E

    2013-11-01

    Multicellular eukaryotic organisms are attacked by numerous parasites from diverse phyla, often simultaneously or sequentially. An outstanding question in these interactions is how hosts integrate signals induced by the attack of different parasites. We used a model system comprised of the plant host Arabidopsis thaliana, the hemibiotrophic bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, and herbivorous larvae of the moth Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) to characterize mechanisms involved in systemic-induced susceptibility (SIS) to T. ni herbivory caused by prior infection by virulent P. syringae. We uncovered a complex multilayered induction mechanism for SIS to herbivory. In this mechanism, antiherbivore defenses that depend on signaling via (1) the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) and (2) other octadecanoids are suppressed by microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered salicylic acid (SA) signaling and infection-triggered ethylene signaling, respectively. SIS to herbivory is, in turn, counteracted by a combination of the bacterial JA-Ile mimic coronatine and type III virulence-associated effectors. Our results show that SIS to herbivory involves more than antagonistic signaling between SA and JA-Ile and provide insight into the unexpectedly complex mechanisms behind a seemingly simple trade-off in plant defense against multiple enemies.

  8. Characterization of Insect Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Xun Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide applications. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introductions (PIs to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA, have been used to develop resistant soybean cultivars. With the availability of SoySNP50K and the statistical power of genome-wide association studies, we integrated phenotypic data for beet armyworm, Mexican bean beetle (MBB, potato leafhopper (PLH, SBA, soybean looper (SBL, velvetbean caterpillar (VBC, and chewing damage caused by unspecified insects for a comprehensive understanding of insect resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Soybean Germplasm Collection. We identified significant single nucleotide (SNP polymorphic markers for MBB, PLH, SBL, and VBC, and we highlighted several leucine-rich repeat-containing genes and myeloblastosis transcription factors within the high linkage disequilibrium region surrounding significant SNP markers. Specifically for soybean resistance to PLH, we found the PLH locus is close but distinct to a locus for soybean pubescence density on chromosome 12. The results provide genetic support that pubescence density may not directly link to PLH resistance. This study offers a novel insight of soybean resistance to four insect pests and reviews resistance mapping studies for major soybean insects.

  9. Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves, as affected by insect and physical damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Payton, Alison S; Riley, David G; Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Kimbrel, Sophia; Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Flitcroft, Ian; Doyle, Michael P; Beuchat, Larry R

    2010-10-01

    Environmental pests may serve as reservoirs and vectors of zoonotic pathogens to leafy greens; however, it is unknown whether insect pests feeding on plant tissues could redistribute these pathogens present on the surface of leaves to internal sites. This study sought to differentiate the degree of tissue internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 when applied at different populations on the surface of lettuce and spinach leaves, and to ascertain whether lettuce-infesting insects or physical injury could influence the fate of either surface or internalized populations of this enteric pathogen. No internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred when lettuce leaves were inoculated with 4.4 log CFU per leaf, but it did occur when inoculated with 6.4 log CFU per leaf. Internalization was statistically greater when spinach leaves were inoculated on the abaxial (underside) than when inoculated on the adaxial (topside) side, and when the enteric pathogen was spread after surface inoculation. Brief exposure (∼18 h) of lettuce leaves to insects (5 cabbage loopers, 10 thrips, or 10 aphids) prior to inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 resulted in significantly reduced internalized populations of the pathogen within these leaves after approximately 2 weeks, as compared with leaves not exposed to insects. Surface-contaminated leaves physically injured through file abrasions also had significantly reduced populations of both total and internalized E. coli O157:H7 as compared with nonabraded leaves 2 weeks after pathogen exposure.

  10. An Expert PI Controller with Dead Time Compensation of Monitor AGC in Hot Strip Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot strip rolling production is a high-speed process which requires high-speed control and communication system, but because of the long distance between the delivery stand of the finishing mill and the gauge meter, dead time occurs when strip is transported from the site of the actuator to another location where the gauge meter takes its reading, which seriously affects the thickness control effect. According to the process model which is developed based on the measured data, a filtered Smith predictor is applied to predict the thickness deviation of the finishing mill. At the same time, an expert PI controller based on feature information is proposed for the strip thinning during looper rising and coiler biting period and the strip thickening during the tension loss period of the strip tail end. As a result, the thickness accuracy has been improved by about 1.06% at a steady rolling speed and about 1.23% in acceleration and deceleration.

  11. High tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Thompson, Sarah L; Kaplan, Ian; Foster, Ricky E

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the USA and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years for three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. Greenhouse pests (e.g. aphids, whiteflies) were more prevalent in high tunnels, compared to field plots. Hornworms (tobacco (Manduca sexta L.) and tomato (M. quinquemaculata Haworth)), a common field pest on tomato, were also more abundant in high tunnels, requiring chemical control while field populations were low. The crucifer caterpillar complex (imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L.), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner)) was also more abundant in high tunnels in 2010. Cucumber beetle (striped (Acalymma vittatum F.) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim)) densities were higher in high tunnels in 2010 and field plots in 2011. The common assumption that high tunnels offer protection from field pests was not supported. Instead, high tunnel growing conditions may facilitate higher pest populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of trophic level and metamorphosis on discrimination of hydrogen isotopes in a plant-herbivore system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Peters

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotopes in ecological studies requires that we know the magnitude of discrimination factors between consumer and element sources. The causes of variation in discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen have been relatively well studied. In contrast, the discrimination factors for hydrogen have rarely been measured. We grew cabbage looper caterpillars (Trichoplusia ni on cabbage (Brassica oleracea plants irrigated with four treatments of deuterium-enriched water (δD = -131, -88, -48, and -2‰, respectively, allowing some of them to reach adulthood as moths. Tissue δD values of plants, caterpillars, and moths were linearly correlated with the isotopic composition of irrigation water. However, the slope of these relationships was less than 1, and hence, discrimination factors depended on the δD value of irrigation water. We hypothesize that this dependence is an artifact of growing plants in an environment with a common atmospheric δD value. Both caterpillars and moths were significantly enriched in deuterium relative to plants by ∼45‰ and 23‰ respectively, but the moths had lower tissue to plant discrimination factors than did the caterpillars. If the trophic enrichment documented here is universal, δD values must be accounted for in geographic assignment studies. The isotopic value of carbon was transferred more or less faithfully across trophic levels, but δ(15N values increased from plants to insects and we observed significant non-trophic (15N enrichment in the metamorphosis from larvae to adult.

  13. Effects of trophic level and metamorphosis on discrimination of hydrogen isotopes in a plant-herbivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacob M.; Wolf, Nathan; Stricker, Craig A.; Collier, Timothy R.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in ecological studies requires that we know the magnitude of discrimination factors between consumer and element sources. The causes of variation in discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen have been relatively well studied. In contrast, the discrimination factors for hydrogen have rarely been measured. We grew cabbage looper caterpillars (Trichoplusia ni) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) plants irrigated with four treatments of deuterium-enriched water (δD = -131, -88, -48, and -2‰, respectively), allowing some of them to reach adulthood as moths. Tissue δD values of plants, caterpillars, and moths were linearly correlated with the isotopic composition of irrigation water. However, the slope of these relationships was less than 1, and hence, discrimination factors depended on the δD value of irrigation water. We hypothesize that this dependence is an artifact of growing plants in an environment with a common atmospheric δD value. Both caterpillars and moths were significantly enriched in deuterium relative to plants by ~45‰ and 23‰ respectively, but the moths had lower tissue to plant discrimination factors than did the caterpillars. If the trophic enrichment documented here is universal, δD values must be accounted for in geographic assignment studies. The isotopic value of carbon was transferred more or less faithfully across trophic levels, but δ15N values increased from plants to insects and we observed significant non-trophic 15N enrichment in the metamorphosis from larvae to adult.

  14. Recombinantly expressed isoenzymic aminopeptidases from Helicoverpa armigera (American cotton bollworm) midgut display differential interaction with closely related Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, R; Agrawal, Neema; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Sivakumar, S; Ahmad, Suhail; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2003-03-15

    Several investigators have independently identified membrane-associated aminopeptidases in the midgut of insect larvae as the initial interacting ligand to the insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Though several isoenzymes of aminopeptidases have been identified from the midgut of an insect and their corresponding cDNA cloned, only one of the isoform has been expressed heterologously and studied for its binding to Cry toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression of two aminopeptidases N from Helicoverpa armigera (American cotton bollworm) (HaAPNs). The full-length cDNA of H. armigera APN1 (haapn1) is 3205 bp in size and encodes a 1000-amino-acid protein, while H. armigera APN2 (haapn2) is 3116 bp in size and corresponds to a 1012-amino-acid protein. Structurally these proteins show sequence similarity to other insect aminopeptidases and possess characteristic aminopeptidase motifs. Both the genes have been expressed in Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) cells using a baculovirus expression vector. The expressed aminopeptidases are membrane-associated, catalytically active and glycosylated. Ligand-blot analysis of both these aminopeptidases with bioactive Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins displayed differential interaction. All the three toxins bound to HaAPN1, whereas only Cry1Ac interacted with HaAPN2. This is the first report demonstrating differential Cry-toxin-binding abilities of two different aminopeptidases from a susceptible insect.

  15. High susceptibility and low resistance allele frequency of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) field populations to Cry1Ac in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Silvia Ac; Specht, Alexandre; Moscardi, Flávio; Carvalho, Renato A; Dourado, Patrick M; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper (SBL), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), is one of the most important soybean pests in Brazil. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean expressing Cry1Ac has been recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against the primary lepidopteran pests. To support insect resistance management (IRM) programmes, the baseline susceptibility of SBL to Cry1Ac was assessed, and the resistance allele frequency was estimated on the basis of an F2 screen. The toxicity (LC50 ) of Cry1Ac ranged from 0.39 to 2.01 µg mL(-1) diet among all SBL field populations collected from crop seasons 2008/09 to 2012/13, which indicated approximately fivefold variation. Cry1Ac diagnostic concentrations of 5.6 and 18 µg mL(-1) diet were established for monitoring purposes, and no shift in mortality was observed. A total of 626 F2 family lines derived from SBL collected from locations across Brazil during crop season 2014/15 were screened for the presence of Cry1Ac resistance alleles. None of the 626 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (joint frequency 0.0004). SBL showed high susceptibility and low resistance allele frequency to Cry1Ac across the main soybean-producing regions in Brazil. These findings meet important criteria for effective IRM strategy. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The UGA-CiE1 cell line from Chrysodeixis includens exhibits characteristics of granulocytes and is permissive to infection by two viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jena A; Bitra, Kavita; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lihua; Lynn, Dwight E; Strand, Michael R

    2010-05-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis (Pseudoplusia) includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically important insect pest and a highly permissive host for the parasitoid Microplitis demolitor and its associated polydnavirus M. demolitor bracovirus (MdBV). Here we established a cell line from C. includens embryos designated UGA-CiE1 cells. CiE1 cells morphologically resemble granulocytes, which are a subpopulation of C. includens hemocytes. Antibody and RT-PCR analyses indicated that CiE1 cells express several molecular and functional markers that identify granulocytes. We further determined that CiE1 cells are permissive to infection by MdBV, exhibiting alterations very similar to MdBV-infected granulocytes, and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). Combined with the ability to transfect CiE1 cells with high efficiency and knock down expression of viral genes by RNA interference, we conclude this cell line has several attributes of value for studying immune interactions with polydnaviruses and potentially other pathogens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of seven viral isolates as potential biocontrol agents against Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Talita M; Ribeiro, Zilda Maria A; Craveiro, Saluana R; Cunha, Fabiane; Fonseca, Ines Cristina B; Moscardi, Flávio; Castro, Maria Elita B

    2010-09-01

    The caterpillar Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), known as soybean looper, is a pest that has recently assumed greater importance in soybean in Brazil. Isolates of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of this pest have been identified from cotton in Guatemala and soybean farms in Brazil, providing an interesting perspective of potential use of viral insecticide against the insect in lieu to chemical insecticides. With the objective to contribute to the characterization studies of this virus, morphological and molecular analyses and biological activity were carried out with seven P. includens viral isolates (I-A to I-G). Electron microscopy of viral samples, purified from macerated infected larvae, showed particles with typical morphology of the Baculoviridae family, genus Alphabaculovirus (Nucleopolyhedrovirus - NPV) presenting virions with only a single nucleocapsid per envelope (SNPV) occluded in a protein matrix, forming occlusion bodies (OB). This virus was then classified as P. includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV). OB particles analyzed in SDS-polyacrylamide gel showed an intense band corresponding in size to NPV polyhedrin protein. DNA restriction profiles of the PsinSNPV isolates showed differences in the fragment size and number suggesting the existence of genotypic variants, except between I-E and I-F profiles that were similar. Among the isolates tested for infectivity against P. includens, I-A, I-E and I-F were the most virulent. Survival times (ST(50)) varied according to viral concentration, with significant differences among isolates for the three higher concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic transformation, recovery, and characterization of fertile soybean transgenic for a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cryIAc gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C N; Adang, M J; All, J N; Boerma, H R; Cardineau, G; Tucker, D; Parrott, W A

    1996-01-01

    Somatic embryos of jack, a Glycine max (L.) Merrill cultivar, were transformed using microprojectile bombardment with a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein gene (Bt cryIAc) driven by the 35S promoter and linked to the HPH gene. Approximately 10 g of tissue was bombarded, and three transgenic lines were selected on hygromycin-containing media and converted into plants. The recovered lines contained the HPH gene, but the Bt gene was lost in one line. The plasmid was rearranged in the second line, and the third line had two copies, one of which was rear-ranged. The CryIAc protein accumulated up to 46 ng mg-1 extractable protein. In detached-leaf bioassays, plants with an intact copy of the Bt gene, and to a lesser extent those with the rearranged copy, were protected from damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis). Corn earworm produced less than 3% defoliation on transgenic plants, compared with 20% on the lepidopteran-resistant breeding line GatIR81-296, and more than 40% on susceptible cultivars. Unlike previous reports of soybean transformation using this technique, all plants were fertile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a soybean transgenic for a highly expressed insecticidal gene. PMID:8819322

  19. Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus: genetic diversity, phylogeny and hypervariability of the pif-2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Saluana R; Melo, Fernando L; Ribeiro, Zilda Maria A; Ribeiro, Bergmann M; Báo, Sônia Nair; Inglis, Peter W; Castro, Maria Elita B

    2013-11-01

    The soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens Walker, 1857) has become a major pest of soybean crops in Brazil. In order to determine the genetic diversity and phylogeny of variants of Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV-IA to -IG), partial sequences of the genes lef-8, lef-9, pif-2, phr and polh were obtained following degenerate PCR and phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The aligned sequences showed polymorphisms among the isolates, where the pif-2 gene was by far the most variable and is predicted to be under positive selection. Furthermore, some of the pif-2 DNA sequence mutations are predicted to result in significant amino acid substitutions, possibly leading to changes in oral infectivity of this baculovirus. Cladistic analysis revealed two closely related monophyletic groups, one containing PsinNPV isolates IB, IC and ID and another containing isolates IA, IE, IF and IG. The phylogeny of PsinSNPV in relation to 56 other baculoviruses was also determined from the concatenated partial LEF-8, LEF-9, PIF-2 and POLH/GRAN deduced amino acid sequences, using maximum-parsimony and Bayesian methods. This analysis clearly places PsinSNPV with the Group II Alphabaculovirus, where PsinSNPV is most closely related to Chrysodeixis chalcites NPV and Trichoplusia ni SNPV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Population Development of Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Defoliated by Pseudoplusia includens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, J S; McGawley, E C; Boethel, D J

    1993-03-01

    Greenhouse studies examined population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 4 on soybean (Glycine max 'Davis') defoliated by larvae of soybean looper (Pseudoplusia indudens (Walker)). Plants were defoliated over a 2-week period beginning 5 weeks after seedlings were transplanted. Four groups of plants were infested with nematodes (5,000 eggs/pot) at 2-week intervals to allow harvesting of plants at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks postdefoliation (WPD). Plants in each group were harvested 4 weeks after nematode infestation. Root and nodule weights of defoliated plants were suppressed at 0 WPD, but differences were not detectable at 2, 4, and 6 WPD. Population densities of M. incognita were similar on defoliated and control plants at 0 WPD but were greater on defoliated plants at 4 and 6 WPD. Percentage hatching of eggs produced on the latter plants also was higher. Effects of insect-induced defoliation on development of M. incognita remained detectable even after soybean plant growth apparently returned to normal.

  1. Field efficacy and seasonal expression profiles for terminal leaves of single and double Bacillus thuringiensis toxin cotton genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J J; Adams, L C; Hardee, D D

    2001-12-01

    Examination of commercial Cry1Ac transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cotton varieties (Bollgard, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) and an experimental Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab transgenic Bt cotton variety (Bollgard II, Monsanto) for lepidopteran field efficacy was conducted during the 2000 growing season. In addition, a commercially available (Envirologix, Portland, ME) quantification assay (ELISA) was used to measure and profile the expression levels of Cry proteins in two of these varieties ['DP50B, Bollgard'; 'DP50BII, Bollgard II' (Delta & Pine Land, Scott, MS)]. Populations of beet army worms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and soybean loopers, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were significantly lower (P 0.05). Single and dual-toxin genotypes remained superior (P 0.05) impact on Cry1Ac expression in Bollgard II compared with Cry1Ac expression in Bollgard. Furthermore, throughout the season Cry2Ab was present at much higher levels in the plant compared with Cry1Ac for Bollgard II plants. Possible species-specific reasons for increased efficacy of Bollgard II over Bollgard are discussed.

  2. Field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic cottons expressing one or two Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner proteins for management of noctuid (Lepidoptera) pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitkowski, R L; Turnipseed, S G; Sullivan, M J; Bridges, W C

    2003-06-01

    Field studies were conducted from 1999 to 2001 to evaluate the efficacy of the transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), genotype, Bollgard II (Monsanto 15985), which expresses two Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins (Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab) that are active against lepidopterous pests. Bollgard II was compared with Bollgard (DP50B), which expresses only one Bt protein (Cry1Ac), and, in all tests, the conventional variety, DP50, was used as a non-Bt control. Larval populations of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were significantly lower in Bollgard II than in Bollgard and conventional cotton, and the proportion of fruit damaged by H. zea was also lower. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), populations were lower in Bollgard II than in Bollgard, although not significantly. Field tests were supplemented with laboratory bioassays in 2001 to compare mortality of S. frugiperda, and beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), feeding on these genotypes. Mortality of both species was significantly greater on Bollgard II plant material than on either Bollgard or conventional cotton. This study demonstrated that the dual-toxin Bollgard II genotype is highly effective against lepidopterous pests that are not adequately controlled by the current single-toxin Bollgard varieties. If toxin expression in future Bollgard II varieties remains consistent with that of Monsanto 15985, supplemental insecticides will be reduced, and may be eliminated for lepidopterous pests in South Carolina.

  3. Antixenosis of bean genotypes to Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Morando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate bean genotypes for resistance to soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includens. Initially, free-choice tests were carried out with 59 genotypes, divided into three groups according to leaf color intensity (dark green, light green, and medium green, in order to evaluate oviposition preference. Subsequently, 12 genotypes with high potential for resistance were selected, as well as two susceptible commercial standards. With these genotypes, new tests were performed for oviposition in a greenhouse, besides tests for attractiveness and consumption under laboratory conditions (26±2ºC, 65±10% RH, and 14 h light: 10 h dark photophase. In the no-choice test with adults, in the greenhouse, the 'IAC Jabola', Arcelina 1, 'IAC Boreal', 'Flor de Mayo', and 'IAC Formoso' genotypes were the least oviposited, showing antixenosis-type resistance for oviposition. In the free-choice test with larvae, Arcelina 4, 'BRS Horizonte', 'Pérola', H96A102-1-1-1-52, 'IAC Boreal', 'IAC Harmonia', and 'IAC Formoso' were the less consumed genotypes, which indicates antixenosis to feeding. In the no-choice test, all genotypes (except for 'IAPAR 57' expressed moderate levels of antixenosis to feeding against C. includens larvae.

  4. Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

    2013-04-01

    Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury.

  5. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  6. Greenhouse Gas Exchange and Biogeochemistry of Fertilized Canadian Plantation Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiliko, N.; Grayston, S. J.; Roy, R.; Mohn, W. W.; Yolova, V.; Prescott, C.

    2005-12-01

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 has raised questions of the role of ecosystem management as a tool to temporarily reduce the net greenhouse gas burden of the forestry industry and potentially generate emission offset credits. We examined growing season methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, soil nutrient chemistry, and microbial biomass and CH4-oxidizing bacterial communities in 20-year-old sub-boreal lodgepole pine and maritime hemlock plantations under control conditions and simulated operational fertilization with N (200kg urea-N per ha, applied twice) and N, P, K, and micronutrients. CH4 uptake was significantly greater in the lodgepole pine site than in the hemlock site (152-221 and 57-81 micrograms CH4 consumed per square meter per hour), and there were no significant differences among treatments at either site. Among sites, treatments, and sampling times, CH4 uptake correlated positively with NH4 concentrations and negatively with extractable organic N:P quotients, indicating that this process may potentially be limited by nutrient availability to the CH4-oxidizing bacteria. N2O efflux was measured sporadically at a few flux collars, but was not significantly different from zero at any site, treatment, or time. Soil respiration (CO2 efflux) rates were faster in the hemlock than lodgepole pine site (243-409 and 100-266 milligrams CO2 per square meter per hour), and significant treatment differences were observed at individual times, though with fertilized plots exhibiting both faster and slower rates than controls. Soil respiration correlated significantly with microbial biomass C and N and NO3. Within each site, soil respiration, but not CH4 uptake, was positively correlated with soil temperature. New experiments examining the short-term effects of fertilization on greenhouse gas exchanges are underway, and both short and long-term effects will be evaluated in relation to changes in C storage in plant biomass

  7. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University, SEAS; Foster, David R. [Harvard University, Harvard Forest; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University, OEB

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  8. Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cortinovis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites, are of major interest to veterinary toxicology because of their occurrence in plant species commonly involved in animal poisoning. Based on epidemiological data, the poisoning of cattle and horses by alkaloid-containing plants is a relatively common occurrence in Europe. Poisoning may occur when the plants contaminate hay or silage or when forage alternatives are unavailable. Cattle and horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron, Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, Datura stramonium (jimson weed, Equisetum palustre (marsh horsetail, Senecio spp. (ragwort and groundsel and Taxus baccata (European yew. This review of poisonous alkaloid-containing plants describes the distribution of these plants, conditions under which poisoning occurs, active toxic principles involved and subsequent clinical signs observed.

  9. Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites, are of major interest to veterinary toxicology because of their occurrence in plant species commonly involved in animal poisoning. Based on epidemiological data, the poisoning of cattle and horses by alkaloid-containing plants is a relatively common occurrence in Europe. Poisoning may occur when the plants contaminate hay or silage or when forage alternatives are unavailable. Cattle and horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Datura stramonium (jimson weed), Equisetum palustre (marsh horsetail), Senecio spp. (ragwort and groundsel) and Taxus baccata (European yew). This review of poisonous alkaloid-containing plants describes the distribution of these plants, conditions under which poisoning occurs, active toxic principles involved and subsequent clinical signs observed. PMID:26670251

  10. Early Winter Habitat Use by Mountain Caribou in the North Cariboo and Columbia Mountains, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terry

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter habitat use was compared between two mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations in British Columbia. Regional differences were apparent during November and December. Radio-collared caribou inhabiting the gentle plateaus of the northern Cariboo Mountains, near Prince George, B.C. primarily used mid-elevation balsam-spruce stands on moderate slopes (<30%. In contrast, radio-collared caribou in the North Columbia Mountains, near Revelstoke, B.C. used low elevation hemlock-cedar stands and relatively steeper slopes (>30%. To adequately address habitat requirements of caribou, forest management plans should incorporate varying regional and seasonal habitat use patterns. Hypotheses on observed differences in habitat use are discussed.

  11. Assessing Structure and Condition of Temperate And Tropical Forests: Fusion of Terrestrial Lidar and Airborne Multi-Angle and Lidar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Edward J.

    Forests provide vital ecosystem functions and services that maintain the integrity of our natural and human environment. Understanding the structural components of forests (extent, tree density, heights of multi-story canopies, biomass, etc.) provides necessary information to preserve ecosystem services. Increasingly, remote sensing resources have been used to map and monitor forests globally. However, traditional satellite and airborne multi-angle imagery only provide information about the top of the canopy and little about the forest structure and understory. In this research, we investigative the use of rapidly evolving lidar technology, and how the fusion of aerial and terrestrial lidar data can be utilized to better characterize forest stand information. We further apply a novel terrestrial lidar methodology to characterize a Hemlock Woolly Adelgid infestation in Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and adapt a dynamic terrestrial lidar sampling scheme to identify key structural vegetation profiles of tropical rainforests in La Selva, Costa Rica.

  12. Sensitivity analysis for solar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, R. W.

    1986-02-01

    Economic evaluation methods and analyses of emerging photovoltaic (PV) technology since 1976 was prepared. This type of analysis was applied to the silicon research portion of the PV Program in order to determine the importance of this research effort in relationship to the successful development of commercial PV systems. All four generic types of PV that use silicon were addressed: crystal ingots grown either by the Czochralski method or an ingot casting method; ribbons pulled directly from molten silicon; an amorphous silicon thin film; and use of high concentration lenses. Three technologies were analyzed: the Union Carbide fluidized bed reactor process, the Hemlock process, and the Union Carbide Komatsu process. The major components of each process were assessed in terms of the costs of capital equipment, labor, materials, and utilities. These assessments were encoded as the probabilities assigned by experts for achieving various cost values or production rates.

  13. Blue Intensity based experiments for reconstructing North Pacific temperatures along the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rob; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Oelkers, Rose; Wiles, Greg; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Davi, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    The Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is highly sensitive to the variability of the North Pacific climate system. Ring-width (RW) records from the GOA have yielded a valuable long-term perspective for North Pacific changes on decadal to longer time scales in previous studies, but can be less robust on interannual time scales due to autocorrelation and other factors. Similar to maximum latewood density (MXD), the novel Blue Intensity (BI) parameter has recently been shown to correlate strongly with year-to-year warm-season temperatures for a number of sites at northern latitudes. Since BI is much less expensive and labor intensive to generate than MXD, it has much value for future tree-ring studies in the GOA where few MXD records have been developed. Here we highlight the potential for improvement of reconstruction models using various combinations of RW and BI-related parameters (latewood BI and delta BI) measured from eight hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) sites along the GOA. This is the first such study for the hemlock genus using BI data. We find that a combined experimental model using RW, delta BI and latewood BI best reflects inter-annual to multi-decadal temperature variability for the North Pacific sector, particularly during the warm-season months. A resulting test reconstruction (1792-1989 CE) of GOA CRUT 3.24 land JJAS temperatures (57-60°N/154-134°W) is significantly improved over that based on RW alone (58% vs 36% variance explained). Significant validation is also found with 19th century temperature data from Sitka, Alaska and using the BEST gridded data product. We therefore find that BI has considerable potential to become a sensitive, readily accessible alternative proxy for understanding past ocean-atmosphere variability in the GOA and elsewhere around the globe. A key need in furthering the utility of BI as a proxy is experimentation in the extraction of lower frequency variability.

  14. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change.

  15. Abrupt climate change as an important agent of ecological change in the Northeast U.S. throughout the past 15,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Bryan N.; Newby, Paige; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2009-08-01

    We use a series of tests to evaluate two competing hypotheses about the association of climate and vegetation trends in the northeastern United States over the past 15 kyrs. First, that abrupt climate changes on the scale of centuries had little influence on long-term vegetation trends, and second, that abrupt climate changes interacted with slower climate trends to determine the regional sequence of vegetation phases. Our results support the second. Large dissimilarity between temporally close fossil pollen samples indicates large vegetation changes within 500 years across >4° of latitude at ca 13.25-12.75, 12.0-11.5, 10.5, 8.25, and 5.25 ka. The evidence of vegetation change coincides with independent isotopic and sedimentary indicators of rapid shifts in temperature and moisture balance. In several cases, abrupt changes reversed long-term vegetation trends, such as when spruce ( Picea) and pine ( Pinus) pollen percentages rapidly declined to the north and increased to the south at ca 13.25-12.75 and 8.25 ka respectively. Abrupt events accelerated other long-term trends, such as a regional increase in beech ( Fagus) pollen percentages at 8.5-8.0 ka. The regional hemlock ( Tsuga) decline at ca 5.25 ka is unique among the abrupt events, and may have been induced by high climatic variability (i.e., repeated severe droughts from 5.7 to 2.0 ka); autoregressive ecological and evolutionary processes could have maintained low hemlock abundance until ca 2.0 ka. Delayed increases in chestnut ( Castanea) pollen abundance after 5.8 and 2.5 ka also illustrate the potential for multi-century climate variability to influence species' recruitment as well as mortality. Future climate changes will probably also rapidly initiate persistent vegetation change, particularly by acting as broad, regional-scale disturbances.

  16. Impacts of Invasive Pests on Forest Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, G. M.; Crowley, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Forests of the U.S. have been subject to repeated invasions of destructive insects and diseases imported from other continents. Like other disturbances, these pests can produce short-term ecosystem effects due to tree mortality, but unlike other disturbances, they often target individual species and therefore can cause long-term species change in the forest. Because tree species vary in their influence on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, pest-induced species change can radically alter the biogeochemistry of a forest. In this paper we use both data and modeling to examine how pest-induced species change may alter the C and N cycling in forests of the eastern U.S. We describe a new forest ecosystem model that distinguishes individual tree species and allows species composition to shift over the course of the model run. Results indicate that the mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) by hemlock woolly adelgid and its replacement by faster-growing species such as black birch (Betula lenta) will reduce forest floor C stocks but increase productivity as the birch become established. Decline of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) from beech bark disease and its replacement by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is likely to decrease soil C storage and increase N leaching from the ecosystem. Responses to other invasive pests will also be discussed. The magnitude of these species-specific effects on C and N cycling is in many cases larger than direct effects expected from changes in climate and atmospheric N deposition, indicating that species change should be included in models that predict forest ecosystem function under future environmental conditions.

  17. Effects of defoliating insect resistance QTLs and a cry1Ac transgene in soybean near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Walker, D R; Boerma, H R; All, J N; Parrott, W A

    2008-02-01

    The crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have shown considerable value in providing effective insect resistance in a number of crop species, including soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Additional sources of soybean insect resistance would be desirable to manage the development of tolerance/resistance to crystal proteins by defoliating insects and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three insect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs; QTL-M, QTL-H, and QTL-G) originating from Japanese soybean PI 229358 and a cry1Ac gene in a "Benning" genetic background. A set of 16 BC(6)F(2)-derived near isogenic lines (NILs) was developed using marker-assisted backcrosses and evaluated for resistance to soybean looper [SBL, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)] and corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] in field cage, greenhouse, and detached leaf assays. Both Bt and QTL-M had significantly reduced defoliation by both SBL and CEW and reduced larval weight of CEW. The antibiosis QTL-G had a significant effect on reducing CEW larval weight and also a significant effect on reducing defoliation by SBL and CEW in some assays. The antixenosis QTL-H had no main effect, but it appeared to function through interaction with QTL-M and QTL-G. Adding QTL-H and QTL-G further enhanced the resistance of the Bt and QTL-M combination to CEW in the field cage assay. These results should help guide the development of strategies for effective management of insect pests and for sustainable deployment of Bt genes.

  18. Effects of Rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-12-01

    The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trsifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); soybean looper, Chrysodeix includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and velvet-bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The preference of insects was evaluated in choice and no-choice tests using Rag1 and susceptible soybeans. Lepidopterans also were evaluated on Rag1 leaves using four nutritional indices: relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and efficiency of conversion of ingested material. In the majority of preference tests, no effect of Rag1 was detected, and in cases where preferences were found, there was no consistent pattern of preference for Rag1 vs. susceptible leaf tissue. Helicoverpa zea demonstrated a preference for resistant leaf tissue, but this was dependent on the genetic background of the variety. Evaluations of nutritional indices indicated that three species of Lepidoptera, S. frugiperda, H. zea, and A. gemmatalis, displayed reduced conversion efficiency for Rag1 soybeans, suggesting effects of antibiosis.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Phenoloxidase Activity in Different Larval Stages of Four Lepidopteran Pests After Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Lira, J.A.; Alcocer-Gonzalez, J.M.; Damas, G.; Nuñez-Mejía, G.; Oppert, B.; Rodriguez-Padilla, C.; Tamez-Guerra, P.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial entomopathogen—based bioinsecticides are recognized as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Insects defend themselves against microbial pathogens by innate mechanisms, including increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but its relationship with microbial bioinsecticides efficacy is little known. This study evaluated the differences in PO activity at different developmental stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Pyralidae), beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Noctuidae), and cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae). Additionally, 2nd- and 4th-instars were exposed to the LC50 value of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spray, Biobit®. The percentage of insecticidal activity (IA%) on 2nd-instar Biobit—exposed larvae was approximately the predicted 50 % mortality for all species except S. exigua. With all 4th instar Biobit—exposed larvae, mortality was not significantly different from that of unexposed larvae. Unexposed insects had a significantly higher PO activity in pre—pupae and pupae than early—instar larvae and adults, whereas PO activity was higher in adult females than in males. Correlation analysis between IA% and PO activity revealed significant r—values (p < 0.01) in 2nd instar H. virescens (r = 0.979) and P. interpunctella (r = 0.930). Second instar Biobit—exposed P. interpunctella had 10 times more PO activity than unexposed larvae. Similarly, the amount of total protein was lower in 4th instar Biobit—exposed H. virescens and higher in S. exigua. Therefore, the results indicated a relationship between Biobit susceptibility and PO activity in some cases. This information may be useful if the Biobit application period is timed for a developmental stage with low PO activity. However, more studies are needed to determine the correlation of each insect with a particular bioinsecticide. PMID:23414117

  20. Novel Isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis That Produces a Quasicuboidal Crystal of Cry1Ab21 Toxic to Larvae of Trichoplusia ni▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Federici, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    A new isolate (IS5056) of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis that produces a novel variant of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab21, was isolated from soil collected in northeastern Poland. Cry1Ab21 was composed of 1,155 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 130.5 kDa, and a single copy of the gene coding for this endotoxin was located on a ∼75-kbp plasmid. When synthesized by the wild-type strain, Cry1Ab21 produced a unique, irregular, bipyramidal crystal whose long and short axes were both approximately 1 μm long, which gave it a cuboidal appearance in wet mount preparations. In diet incorporation bioassays, the 50% lethal concentrations of the crystal-spore complex were 16.9 and 29.7 μg ml−1 for second- and fourth-instar larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, respectively, but the isolate was essentially nontoxic to larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. A bioassay of autoclaved spore-crystal preparations showed no evidence of β-exotoxin activity, indicating that toxicity was due primarily to Cry1Ab21. Studies of the pathogenesis of isolate IS5056 in second-instar larvae of T. ni showed that after larval death the bacterium colonized and subsequently sporulated extensively throughout the cadaver, suggesting that other bacteria inhabiting the midgut lumen played little if any role in mortality. As T. ni is among the most destructive pests of vegetable crops in North America and has developed resistance to B. thuringiensis, this new isolate may have applied value. PMID:18083867

  1. Bt crops producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available The biological control function provided by natural enemies is regarded as a protection goal that should not be harmed by the application of any new pest management tool. Plants producing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, have become a major tactic for controlling pest Lepidoptera on cotton and maize and risk assessment studies are needed to ensure they do not harm important natural enemies. However, using Cry protein susceptible hosts as prey often compromises such studies. To avoid this problem we utilized pest Lepidoptera, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, that were resistant to Cry1Ac produced in Bt broccoli (T. ni, Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab produced in Bt cotton (T. ni, and Cry1F produced in Bt maize (S. frugiperda. Larvae of these species were fed Bt plants or non-Bt plants and then exposed to predaceous larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris. Fitness parameters (larval survival, development time, fecundity and egg hatch of C. rufilabris were assessed over two generations. There were no differences in any of the fitness parameters regardless if C. rufilabris consumed prey (T. ni or S. frugiperda that had consumed Bt or non-Bt plants. Additional studies confirmed that the prey contained bioactive Cry proteins when they were consumed by the predator. These studies confirm that Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not pose a hazard to the important predator C. rufilabris. This study also demonstrates the power of using resistant hosts when assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms.

  2. Bt crops producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Wang, Ping; Earle, Elizabeth D; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    The biological control function provided by natural enemies is regarded as a protection goal that should not be harmed by the application of any new pest management tool. Plants producing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling pest Lepidoptera on cotton and maize and risk assessment studies are needed to ensure they do not harm important natural enemies. However, using Cry protein susceptible hosts as prey often compromises such studies. To avoid this problem we utilized pest Lepidoptera, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), that were resistant to Cry1Ac produced in Bt broccoli (T. ni), Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab produced in Bt cotton (T. ni), and Cry1F produced in Bt maize (S. frugiperda). Larvae of these species were fed Bt plants or non-Bt plants and then exposed to predaceous larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris. Fitness parameters (larval survival, development time, fecundity and egg hatch) of C. rufilabris were assessed over two generations. There were no differences in any of the fitness parameters regardless if C. rufilabris consumed prey (T. ni or S. frugiperda) that had consumed Bt or non-Bt plants. Additional studies confirmed that the prey contained bioactive Cry proteins when they were consumed by the predator. These studies confirm that Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not pose a hazard to the important predator C. rufilabris. This study also demonstrates the power of using resistant hosts when assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms.

  3. Biosynthetic pathway for sex pheromone components produced in a Plusiinae moth, Plusia festucae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayaki eWatanabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While many Plusiinae species commonly secrete (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc as a key pheromone component, female moths of the rice looper (Plusia festucae exceptionally utilize (Z-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc to communicate with their partners. GC-MS analysis of methyl esters derived from fatty acids included in the pheromone gland of Plusia festucae showed a series of esters monounsaturated at the ω7-position, i.e., (Z-5-dodecenoate, (Z-7-tetradecenoate (Z-9-hexadecenoate (Z9-16:Me, and (Z-11-octadecenoate (Z11-18:Me. By topical application of D3-labled palmitic acid (16:Acid and stearic acid (18:Acid to the pheromone glands, similar amounts of D3-Z5-12:OAc were detected. The glands treated with D13-labeled monoenoic acids (Z9-16:Acid and Z11-18:Acid, which were custom-made by utilizing an acetylene coupling reaction with D13-1-bromohexane, also produced similar amounts of D13-Z5-12:OAc. These results suggested that Z5-12:OAc was biosynthesized by ω7-desaturase with low substrate specificity, which could introduce a double bond at the 9-position of a 16:Acid derivative and the 11-position of an 18:Acid derivative. Additional experiments with the glands pretreated with an inhibitor of chain elongation supported this speculation. Furthermore, a comparative study with another Plusiinae species (Chrysodeixis eriosoma secreting Z7-12:OAc indicated that the β-oxidation systems of P. festucae and C. eriosoma were different.

  4. Tabela de Esperança de Vida de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em Ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner em Diferentes Condicionamentos Térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Table of life Expectancy of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in Eggs of Trichoplusia ni Hübner Different Thermal Conditioning Abstract. The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared on eggs of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in conditions the laboratory. To this end, we made sky blue cards containing eggs of T. ni that were offered to the parasitism of T. pretiosum for 24 hours at temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C. After this period, the parasitoids were removed and kept the cards in the same thermal constraints to the emergence of offspring. From the emergence of offspring, females of T. pretiosum were individually placed in Eppendorf tubes being fed honey and kept at temperatures of origin. The duration of egg-adult period and female longevity were strongly influenced by thermal regime, being opposite to its increase (16.5 to 4.5 days, for the duration of egg-adult period; and 11.9 to 5.5 days, for and female longevity. The percentage of emergence of offspring, number of offspring per egg and sex ratio were not influenced statistically significant. The survival (Lx of T. pretiosum was more influenced at temperatures 27, 30 and 33 ° C. Life expectancy of adults (ex was higher in lower temperatures (18, 21 and 24 ° C, being verified, on average, life expectancy of 32, 28 and 26 days, respectively. Thus it was found that the temperature can be the limiting factor for the development and survival of T. pretiosum in biological control programs of T. ni.

  5. Habitat eradication and cropland intensification may reduce parasitoid diversity and natural pest control services in annual crop fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K. Letourneau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract California’s central coast differs from many agricultural areas in the U.S., which feature large tracts of monoculture production fields and relatively simple landscapes. Known as the nations salad bowl, and producing up to 90% of U.S. production of lettuces, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, this region is a mosaic of fresh vegetable fields, coastal meadow, chaparral shrubs, riparian and woodland habitat. We tested for relationships between the percent cover of crops, riparian and other natural landscape vegetation and the species richness of parasitic wasps and flies foraging in crops, such as broccoli, kale and cauliflower, and interpreted our results with respect to the decrease in natural habitat and increase in cropland cover prompted by a local microbial contamination event in 2006. Our key results are that: (1 as cropland cover in the landscape increased, fewer species of parasitoids were captured in the crop field, (2 parasitoid richness overall was positively associated with the amount of riparian and other natural vegetation in the surrounding 500m, (3 different groups of parasitoids were associated with unique types of natural vegetation, and (4 parasitism rates of sentinel cabbage aphid and cabbage looper pests were correlated with landscape vegetation features according to which parasitoids caused the mortality. Although individual species of parasitoids may thrive in landscapes that are predominantly short season crops, the robust associations found in this study across specialist and generalist parasitoids and different taxa (tachinid flies, ichneumon wasps, braconid wasps shows that recent food safety practices targeting removal of natural vegetation around vegetable fields in an attempt to eliminate wildlife may harm natural enemy communities and reduce ecosystem services. We argue that enhancing biological diversity is a key goal for transforming agroecosystems for future productivity, sustainability and public health.

  6. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  7. New industrial heat pump applications to textile production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-12-01

    Application of pinch technology to the US industries in an early screening study has identified potential for heat pumps in several standard processes such as distillation and drying processes. Due to lack process information, the previous study was not able to draw any definite conclusion concerning the heat pump application potential in textile process. However, the commonly encountered drying process in the finishing section of textile plant has been shown to create opportunities for heat pump placement. The site selected for this study is a textile plant in North Carolina and the participating utility is Duke Power Company. The objective of this study is to further identify the energy savings potential through advanced heat pumps and other energy conservation methods developed in the context of pinch technology. The key findings of this study are as follows. The previously unrecoverable waste heat from the exhaust air can now be reclaimed through a spray type air washer and heat pump system. The recommended heat pump system recovers heat from the looper exhaust and use it to preheat the air in the gas tenter. A reduction of 50% of the gas consumption in the tenter can be achieved. The removal of lint from the exhaust air reduced the potential of air pollution. The collected lint can be burned in the boiler as a supplemental fuel source to reduce the fuel consumption in the plant. With fuel price predicted to go up and electricity price remain relatively stable in the future, the heat pump system can payback in less than three years. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  9. Influence of herbicide tolerant soybean production systems on insect pest populations and pest-induced crop damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, R M; Johnson, W C; Mullinix, B G; Mills, W A; Peebles, F S

    2003-06-01

    Conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant management were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south Georgia in 1997 and 1998. Soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily Nezara viridula (L.), population densities on some sampling dates. Stink bugs were more abundant on the early maturing varieties in mid-season. Velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), and grasshoppers Melanoplus spp. were more numerous on either conventional or herbicide-tolerant varieties on certain dates, although these differences were not consistent throughout the season. Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), and whitefringed beetles, Graphognathus spp , demonstrated no varietal preference in this study. Few weed treatment differences were observed, but if present on certain sampling dates, then pest numbers were higher in plots where weeds were reduced (either postemergence herbicides or preplant herbicide plus postemergence herbicide). The exception to this weed treatment effect was grasshoppers, which were more numerous in weedy plots when differences were present. In post emergence herbicide plots, there were no differences in insect pest densities between the conventional herbicides (e.g., Classic, Select, Cobra, and Storm) compared with specific gene-inserted herbicide-tolerant materials (i.e., Roundup and Liberty). Defoliation, primarily by velvetbean caterpillar, was different between soybean varieties at some test sites but not different between herbicide treatments. We did not observe differences in seasonal abundance of arthropod pests between conventional and transgenic herbicide-tolerant soybean.

  10. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  12. Specificity of male response to multicomponent pheromones in noctuid mothsTrichoplusia ni andPseudoplusia includens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, C E; Hammond, A; Du, J; Roelofs, W L

    1988-01-01

    The response of male cabbage looper (CL) and soybean iooper (SBL) moths was observed in the flight tunnel and measured in field tests to the six-component CL pheromone, the five-component SBL pheromone, and toZ7-12: OAc, the major component common to each pheromone. In both the flight tunnel and the field, male CL exhibited significantly greater levels of response to their six-component blend than toZ7-12: OAc alone. A low level of cross-attraction of male CL to the SBL pheromone was observed in both the flight tunnel and the field, but it was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to their response toZ7-12: OAc alone. Thus the minor components of the SBL blend did not appear to disrupt the flight behavior of male CL. With respect to SBL, in the flight tunnel males also exhibited a greater level of response to the five-component blend compared toZ7-12: OAc, but in the field their response was not significantly different to either treatment. There was also a low level of cross-attraction of male SBL to the CL blend, but this appeared to involve a significant arrestment effect on the upwind flight of males, as well as a difference in male sensitivity to the blend of components compared withZ7-12: OAc alone. The observed arrestment effect may have been due to male perception of one or more minor components of the CL pheromone. The results show that the multicomponent pheromones of these species function effectively as specific mating signals and that discrimination of odor quality by male moths can occur as the result of minor components affecting male sensitivity or their upwind flight response to the pheromone.

  13. Evaluation of transgenic soybean exhibiting high expression of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A transgene for suppressing lepidopteran population densities and crop injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M; MacRae, Ted C

    2009-08-01

    Several transgenic lines of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., expressing a synthetic cry1A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined in replicated field trials in 2003-2007 for suppression of naturally occurring population densities of lepidopteran pests and the resultant crop injury that they caused. Bt soybean and negative controls (isogenic segregants and parental lines) were evaluated against velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner); soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); and green cloverworm, Hypena scabra (F.). Population densities of these lepidopteran species were essentially absent in each of the Bt soybean entries evaluated throughout the growing season in every year of the study compared with moderate (5-10 larvae per row-m) to large (20-30 larvae per row-m) peak population densities in the negative control soybean entries. These lepidopteran populations caused significant plant injury in the non-Bt soybean plots, ranging from 53% defoliation in 2003 to 17.5% in 2007, compared with < 1.5% defoliation (mostly 0.0% defoliation) in the Bt soybean plots. When two or three foliar insecticides were applied in August or September, as lepidopteran populations approached or exceeded economic threshold levels, pest populations were suppressed and defoliation was minimal in the treated non-Bt entries similar to results in Bt soybean. Soybean 100-seed weights and harvested yields were similar between the Bt and non-Bt entries each year of this study. It seems that Bt transgenic soybean provides excellent season-long control of lepidopteran pests and have yields equal to the standard cultivars examined in this study. Once available to producers, this Bt technology has the potential to provide an effective insect pest management option similar to that being used in Bt cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and Bt corn, Zea mays L., and enhance the sustainability and profitability of soybean production in the southern region where

  14. Petroleum geology of Cook Inlet basin - an exploration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Oil exploration commenced onshore adjacent to lower Cook Inlet on the Iniskin Peninsula in 1900, shifted with considerable success to upper Cook Inlet from 1957 through 1965, then returned to lower Cook Inlet in 1977 with the COST well and Federal OCS sale. Lower Cook Inlet COST No. 1 well, drilled to a total depth of 3,775.6 m, penetrated basinwide unconformities at the tops of Upper Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Jurassic strata at 797.1, 1,540.8, and 2,112.3 m, respectively. Sandstone of potential reservoir quality is present in the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks. All siltstones and shales analyzed are low (0 to 0.5 wt. %) in oil-prone organic matter, and only coals are high in humic organic matter. At total depth, vitrinite readings reached a maximum ave age reflectance of 0.65. Several indications of hydrocarbons were present. Oil analyses suggest that oils from the major fields of the Cook Inlet region, most of which produce from the Tertiary Hemlock Conglomerate, have a common source. More detailed work on stable carbon isotope ratios and the distribution of gasoline-range and heavy (C12+) hydrocarbons confirms this genetic relation among the major fields. In addition, oils from Jurassic rocks under the Iniskin Peninsula and from the Hemlock Conglomerate at the southwestern tip of the Kenai lowland are members of the same or a very similar oil family. The Middle Jurassic strata of the Iniskin Peninsula are moderately rich in organic carbon (0.5 to 1.5 wt. %) and yield shows of oil and of gas in wells and in surface seeps. Extractable hydrocarbons from this strata are similar in chemi al and isotopic composition to the Cook Inlet oils. Organic matter in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks is thermally immature in all wells analyzed. Oil reservoirs in the major producing fields are of Tertiary age and unconformably overlie Jurassic rocks; the pre-Tertiary unconformity may be significant in exploration for new oil reserves. The unconformable relation

  15. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  16. The Effect of Lidar Point Density on LAI Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yao, W.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important measure of forest health, biomass and carbon exchange, and is most commonly defined as the ratio of the leaf area to ground area. LAI is understood over large spatial scales and describes leaf properties over an entire forest, thus airborne imagery is ideal for capturing such data. Spectral metrics such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used in the past for LAI estimation, but these metrics may saturate for high LAI values. Light detection and ranging (lidar) is an active remote sensing technology that emits light (most often at the wavelength 1064nm) and uses the return time to calculate the distance to intercepted objects. This yields information on three-dimensional structure and shape, which has been shown in recent studies to yield more accurate LAI estimates than NDVI. However, although lidar is a promising alternative for LAI estimation, minimum acquisition parameters (e.g. point density) required for accurate LAI retrieval are not yet well known. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of points per square meter that are required to describe the LAI measurements taken in-field. As part of a larger data collect, discrete lidar data were acquired by Kucera International Inc. over the Hemlock-Canadice State Forest, NY, USA in September 2012. The Leica ALS60 obtained point density of 12 points per square meter and effective ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.15m. Up to three returns with intensities were recorded per pulse. As part of the same experiment, an AccuPAR LP-80 was used to collect LAI estimates at 25 sites on the ground. Sites were spaced approximately 80m apart and nine measurements were made in a grid pattern within a 20 x 20m site. Dominant species include Hemlock, Beech, Sugar Maple and Oak. This study has the benefit of very high-density data, which will enable a detailed map of intra-forest LAI. Understanding LAI at fine scales may be particularly useful

  17. Experiments based on blue intensity for reconstructing North Pacific temperatures along the Gulf of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wilson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ring-width (RW records from the Gulf of Alaska (GOA have yielded a valuable long-term perspective for North Pacific changes on decadal to longer timescales in prior studies but contain a broad winter to late summer seasonal climate response. Similar to the highly climate-sensitive maximum latewood density (MXD proxy, the blue intensity (BI parameter has recently been shown to correlate well with year-to-year warm-season temperatures for a number of sites at northern latitudes. Since BI records are much less labour intensive and expensive to generate than MXD, such data hold great potential value for future tree-ring studies in the GOA and other regions in mid- to high latitudes. Here we explore the potential for improving tree-ring-based reconstructions using combinations of RW- and BI-related parameters (latewood BI and delta BI from an experimental subset of samples at eight mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana sites along the GOA. This is the first study for the hemlock genus using BI data. We find that using either inverted latewood BI (LWBinv or delta BI (DB can improve the amount of explained temperature variance by > 10 % compared to RW alone, although the optimal target season shrinks to June–September, which may have implications for studying ocean–atmosphere variability in the region. One challenge in building these BI records is that resin extraction did not remove colour differences between the heartwood and sapwood; thus, long term trend biases, expressed as relatively warm temperatures in the 18th century, were noted when using the LWBinv data. Using DB appeared to overcome these trend biases, resulting in a reconstruction expressing 18th–19th century temperatures ca. 0.5 °C cooler than the 20th–21st centuries. This cool period agrees well with previous dendroclimatic studies and the glacial advance record in the region. Continuing BI measurement in the GOA region must focus on sampling and measuring more trees per

  18. Fuel deposition rates of montane and subalpine conifers in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Moore, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Fire managers and researchers need information on fuel deposition rates to estimate future changes in fuel bed characteristics, determine when forests transition to another fire behavior fuel model, estimate future changes in fuel bed characteristics, and parameterize and validate ecosystem process models. This information is lacking for many ecosystems including the Sierra Nevada in California, USA. We investigated fuel deposition rates and stand characteristics of seven montane and four subalpine conifers in the Sierra Nevada. We collected foliage, miscellaneous bark and crown fragments, cones, and woody fuel classes from four replicate plots each in four stem diameter size classes for each species, for a total of 176 sampling sites. We used these data to develop predictive equations for each fuel class and diameter size class of each species based on stem and crown characteristics. There were consistent species and diameter class differences in the annual amount of foliage and fragments deposited. Foliage deposition rates ranged from just over 50 g m-2 year-1 in small diameter mountain hemlock stands to ???300 g m-2 year-1 for the three largest diameter classes of giant sequoia. The deposition rate for most woody fuel classes increased from the smallest diameter class stands to the largest diameter class stands. Woody fuel deposition rates varied among species as well. The rates for the smallest woody fuels ranged from 0.8 g m-2 year-1 for small diameter stands of Jeffrey pine to 126.9 g m-2 year-1 for very large diameter stands of mountain hemlock. Crown height and live crown ratio were the best predictors of fuel deposition rates for most fuel classes and species. Both characteristics reflect the amount of crown biomass including foliage and woody fuels. Relationships established in this study allow predictions of fuel loads to be made on a stand basis for each of these species under current and possible future conditions. These predictions can be used to

  19. Using LiDAR Metrics to Characterize Forest Structural Complexity at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Gersonde, R.; Franklin, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Forest structure - the size and arrangement of trees and foliage - reflects a stand's history of initiation, growth, disturbance, and mortality. Because of this, studying the structure of forests can provide key insights into ecological processes, guides to silvicultural prescriptions to improve habitat, and assessments of forested landscapes. This study tested LiDAR metrics to characterize stands based on canopy structure. The study site was the 34,591 ha of forests in the Cedar River Watershed in western Washington State, USA. Stands ranged in age from 350 years old (including old-growth). Study sites spanned the western hemlock- Douglas fir (Tsuga heterophylla-Pseudotsuga menziesii), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertansiana) forest zones. Eighty sample plots were used to ground truth the LiDAR data. A variety of structural indices were used to study canopy structural variations at the plot, stand, and landscape scales. The two most successful indices used the exposed geometry of the canopy surface: (1) the ratio of the canopy surface area to ground surface area (rumple index), and (2) the ratio of the volume beneath the canopy surface to maximum volume beneath the 95th percentile height (modified canopy volume method). These two indices integrated the spatial effects of tree heights, foliage distribution, and tree arrangement within 15m pixels. Variation between pixels revealed structural complexity at larger scales. Results: At the plot scale (~4 pixels), correlations with standard plot metrics (e.g., diameter at breast height) were similar to those reported by other studies. Comparison of structural complexity with age and height revealed a diversity of development pathways. The relationship between height and complexity allowed stands to be classified by the degree to which they have achieved their potential structural complexity, a new way to examine forest development. At the stand scale, the indices allowed spatial

  20. Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

    2012-01-31

    The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the

  1. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data

  2. Spring and Autumn Phenological Variability across Environmental Gradients of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Norman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions experience complex phenological behavior along climatic, vegetational and topographic gradients. In this paper, we use a MODIS time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to understand the causes of variations in spring and autumn timing from 2000 to 2015, for a landscape renowned for its biological diversity. By filtering for cover type, topography and disturbance history, we achieved an improved understanding of the effects of seasonal weather variation on land surface phenology (LSP. Elevational effects were greatest in spring and were more important than site moisture effects. The spring and autumn NDVI of deciduous forests were found to increase in response to antecedent warm temperatures, with evidence of possible cross-seasonal lag effects, including possible accelerated green-up after cold Januarys and early brown-down following warm springs. Areas that were disturbed by the hemlock woolly adelgid and a severe tornado showed a weaker sensitivity to cross-year temperature and precipitation variation, while low severity wildland fire had no discernable effect. Use of ancillary datasets to filter for disturbance and vegetation type improves our understanding of vegetation’s phenological responsiveness to climate dynamics across complex environmental gradients.

  3. Role of Nurse Logs in Forest Expansion at Timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Nurselogs, known to be key sites of forest regeneration in lower elevation temperate forests, may be important sites for seedling establishment at expanding timberline forests. To determine factors associated with seedling establishment and survival on nurselogs at timberline, fourteen sites, located across a precipitation gradient in the Washington North Cascades Mountains, were examined. Site attributes including seedling type and height, disturbance process introducing downed wood, wood decay type, shading, slope gradient, aspect, and temperature and water content of wood and adjacent soil were determined along 60 m long transects. Nurselogs were found at 13 out of 14 sites; sites typically associated with greater than 80% shade and downed wood having a high level of wood decay. Downed wood serving as nurselogs originated from blowdown, snow avalanches, and forest fires. In total, 46 of 136 downed wood pieces observed served as nurselogs. Seedlings on nurselogs included mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), and western larch (Larix occidentalis). Nurselogs had significantly higher temperatures (p = 0.015) and higher moisture contents (p = 0.019) than the adjacent soil. Per equal volumes weighed, nurselogs had on average of 23.8 g more water than the adjacent soil. Given predictions of climate warming and associated summer drought conditions in Pacific Northwest forests, the moisture provided by nurselogs may be integral for conifer survival and subsequent timberline expansion in some landscapes.

  4. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days < 0°C (a measure of winter season coldness) using the spatially interpolated climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days < 0°C was also estimated from recorded climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  5. Changes in winter conditions impact forest management in north temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Rissman, Adena R

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may impact forest management activities with important implications for forest ecosystems. However, most climate change research on forests has focused on climate-driven shifts in species ranges, forest carbon, and hydrology. To examine how climate change may alter timber harvesting and forest operations in north temperate forests, we asked: 1) How have winter conditions changed over the past 60 years? 2) Have changes in winter weather altered timber harvest patterns on public forestlands? 3) What are the implications of changes in winter weather conditions for timber harvest operations in the context of the economic, ecological, and social goals of forest management? Using meteorological information from Climate Data Online and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models we document substantial changes in winter conditions in Wisconsin, including a two- to three-week shortening of frozen ground conditions from 1948 to 2012. Increases in minimum and mean soil temperatures were spatially heterogeneous. Analysis of timber harvest records identified a shift toward greater harvest of jack pine and red pine and less harvest of aspen, black spruce, hemlock, red maple, and white spruce in years with less frozen ground or snow duration. Interviews suggested that frozen ground is a mediating condition that enables low-impact timber harvesting. Climate change may alter frozen ground conditions with complex implications for forest management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifiable long-term monitoring on parks and nature preserves

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    Beck, Scott; Moorman, Christopher; DePerno, Christopher S.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Herpetofauna have declined globally, and monitoring is a useful approach to document local and long-term changes. However, monitoring efforts often fail to account for detectability or follow standardized protocols. We performed a case study at Hemlock Bluffs Nature Preserve in Cary, NC to model occupancy of focal species and demonstrate a replicable long-term protocol useful to parks and nature preserves. From March 2010 to 2011, we documented occupancy of Ambystoma opacum(Marbled Salamander), Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander), Carphophis amoenus (Eastern Worm Snake), and Diadophis punctatus (Ringneck Snake) at coverboard sites and estimated breeding female Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander) abundance via dependent double-observer egg-mass counts in ephemeral pools. Temperature influenced detection of both Marbled and Red-backed Salamanders. Based on egg-mass data, we estimated Spotted Salamander abundance to be between 21 and 44 breeding females. We detected 43 of 53 previously documented herpetofauna species. Our approach demonstrates a monitoring protocol that accounts for factors that influence species detection and is replicable by parks or nature preserves with limited resources.

  7. Relationships among environmental variables and distribution of tree species at high elevation in the Olympic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Relationships among environmental variables and occurrence of tree species were investigated at Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A transect consisting of three plots was established down one north-and one south-facing slope in stands representing the typical elevational sequence of tree species. Tree species included subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). Air and soil temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture were measured during three growing seasons. Snowmelt patterns, soil carbon and moisture release curves were also determined. The plots represented a wide range in soil water potential, a major determinant of tree species distribution (range of minimum values = -1.1 to -8.0 MPa for Pacific silver fir and Douglas-fir plots, respectively). Precipitation intercepted at plots depended on topographic location, storm direction and storm type. Differences in soil moisture among plots was related to soil properties, while annual differences at each plot were most often related to early season precipitation. Changes in climate due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 will likely shift tree species distributions within, but not among aspects. Change will be buffered by innate tolerance of adult trees and the inertia of soil properties.

  8. Nuclei of Tsuga canadensis: Role of Flavanols in Chromatin Organization

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    Dieter Treutter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to an identical transcriptional expression of these flavanols during cell cycling. However two lineages, even if located close together within the same meristem, can be very different in the expression of both cell shape and nuclear flavanol pattern, indicating that epigenetic positional signals are operating in a collective specification of cell lineage development. There is a wide range of nuclear flavanol patterning from a mosaic-like distribution in an activated cell type to a homogenous appearance in silenced cell types. Single cells deriving from lineages are desynchronized because they underlie a signaling network at a higher tissue level which results in stronger epigenetic modifications of their nuclear flavanols. As an extreme case of epigenetic modulation, transient drought conditions caused a drastic reduction of nuclear flavanols. Upon treatment with sucrose or cytokinin, these nuclear flavanols could be fully restored. Analytical determination of the flavanols revealed 3.4 mg/g DW for newly sprouting needles and 19.6 mg/g DW for anthers during meiosis. The roughly 6-fold difference in flavanols is apparently a reflection of the highly diverging organogenetic processes. Collectively, the studies provide strong evidence for combinatorial interplay between cell fate and nuclear flavanols.

  9. Nuclei of Tsuga canadensis: Role of Flavanols in Chromatin Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Walter; Schmid, Markus; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to an identical transcriptional expression of these flavanols during cell cycling. However two lineages, even if located close together within the same meristem, can be very different in the expression of both cell shape and nuclear flavanol pattern, indicating that epigenetic positional signals are operating in a collective specification of cell lineage development. There is a wide range of nuclear flavanol patterning from a mosaic-like distribution in an activated cell type to a homogenous appearance in silenced cell types. Single cells deriving from lineages are desynchronized because they underlie a signaling network at a higher tissue level which results in stronger epigenetic modifications of their nuclear flavanols. As an extreme case of epigenetic modulation, transient drought conditions caused a drastic reduction of nuclear flavanols. Upon treatment with sucrose or cytokinin, these nuclear flavanols could be fully restored. Analytical determination of the flavanols revealed 3.4 mg/g DW for newly sprouting needles and 19.6 mg/g DW for anthers during meiosis. The roughly 6-fold difference in flavanols is apparently a reflection of the highly diverging organogenetic processes. Collectively, the studies provide strong evidence for combinatorial interplay between cell fate and nuclear flavanols. PMID:22072922

  10. Observations of summer roosting and foraging behavior of a hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) in southern New Hampshire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillieux, J. P.; Moosman, P. R.; Reynolds, D. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Walston, L. J.; Environmental Science Division; Franklin Pierce Univ.; Fitchburg State Coll.; St. Paul' s School

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available that describe the roosting and foraging ecology of the Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and no such data are available for the northeastern United States. We captured a juvenile Hoary Bat in south-central New Hampshire during July of 2007 and monitored its roosting behavior for ten days and its foraging behavior for one night. The bat roosted with two other bats, which we presumed were its mother and sibling. These bats roosted exclusively in Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock Tree) and tended to roost near tree tops in the forest canopy. The radiotagged bat used at least six roost trees and changed roost location eight times during the ten-day observation period. Although roost-tree fidelity was low, all roost trees were located within a maximum circular area of 0.5 ha. The bat foraged over an estimated 156-ha area of mostly forest habitat (68%), with additional open habitats (15%) and wetlands (17%). These data are the first observations of roosting and foraging behaviors by the Hoary Bat in the northeastern region of its geographic range.

  11. Climate Change in Remote Mountain Regions: A Throughfall-Exclusion Experiment to Simulate Monsoon Failure in the Himalayas

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    Norbu Wangdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas are predicted to experience more than 3 times the mean global rise in temperature, as well as erratic rainfall patterns and an increased likelihood of total monsoon failures. While many ecosystem manipulation experiments aiming at understanding the effects of altered precipitation, temperature, and carbon dioxide are conducted globally, such experiments are rare in Asia, particularly in the Himalayas. To fill this gap, we simulated late onset of monsoon precipitation, as well as total monsoon failure, in a multiyear drought stress experiment in Bhutan. Two treatments, 100% throughfall exclusion and ambient control plots, were applied to 725 m2 plots (25 m × 29 m, each with 2 replicates in a hemlock-dominated (Tsuga dumosa and oak-dominated (Quercus lanata and Quercus griffithii ecosystem at 3260 and 2460 m elevations, respectively. Roof application reduced the volumetric soil water content in the upper (0–20 cm soil layer by ∼ 20% in coniferous and ∼ 31% in broadleaved forest; the deeper soil layers were less affected. We demonstrate that large-scale throughfall-exclusion experiments can be successfully conducted even in a remote Bhutan Himalayan setting. The experiences gathered could be utilized for future long-term ecological monitoring studies in the Himalayan region.

  12. Dreams, Nightmares and Haunted Houses: Televisual Horror as Domestic Imaginary

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    Ruth Griffin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely proclaimed that U.S.Television is currently experiencing a Golden Age with horror at its vanguard, in part enabled by technological innovations that have seen audiences engage with TV in ever more diverse ways, enabled by the advent of Smart T.V. Meanwhile, television has historically positioned itself as a humble and domesticated medium and yet its increasingly sophisticated channels penetrate into the very heart of the contemporary home. With this in mind, I view Suburban Gothic TV series such as American Horror Story (2011 and Hemlock Grove (2013 through the lens of psychoanalytic concepts such as The Uncanny, considering the extent to which such dramas invoke the dark side of the domestic imaginary which haunts that most cherished of spaces, the home. Why does Gothic Horror continue to engage the imaginations of the contemporary home’s technologically orientated inhabitants? And how has technology helped to drive the resurgence of a genre so firmly rooted in a historical-literary form? These are just some of the questions that this article explores.

  13. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  14. Utilizing Extracted Fungal Pigments for Wood Spalting: A Comparison of Induced Fungal Pigmentation to Fungal Dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Robinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lengthy time periods required by current spalting methods prohibit the economically viable commercialization of spalted wood on a large scale. This work aimed to compare the effects of induced spalting in 16 Pacific Northwest woods using three common spalting fungi, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, with the significantly less time-consuming treatment of these woods using dichloromethane-extracted green, red, and yellow pigments from the same fungi. For pigment extracts, the dosage required for a pigment to internally color various wood species to 30% internal coverage was investigated. With few exceptions, treatment with pigment extracts outperformed induced spalting in terms of percent internal color coverage. Cottonwood consistently performed best with all three pigment solutions, although chinkapin performed as well as cottonwood with the red pigment, and Port Orford cedar performed as well with the yellow pigment. While no wood species showed 30% internal color coverage with the green pigment solution, a number of additional species, including pacific silver fir, madrone, dogwood, and mountain hemlock showed internal color coverage on the order of 20–30% for red and/or yellow. Cottonwood was determined to be the best suited wood species for this type of spalting application.

  15. Cytochemical localization of cellulases in decayed and nondecayed wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murmanis, L.; Highley, T.L.; Palmer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sawdust from undecayed western hemlock wood and from wood previously decayed by the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta or by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma applanatum was incubated with commercial cellulase from Trichoderma viride. Samples were treated cytochemically to locate cellulase activity and examined by TEM. Results showed that cellulase degraded undecayed wood extensively, with the attack starting on the outer border of a cell wall and progressing inside. Wood decayed by P. placenta, with or without cellulase incubation, and treated by the cytochemical test showed uniform distribution of electron dense particles throughout the cell walls. In wood decayed by G. applanatum, cellulase degradation was similar to that in undecayed wood. From measurements of particle diameter it is suggested that electron dense particles are cellulase. It is concluded that brown-rot and white-rot fungi have different effects on the microstructure of wood. The brown-rot fungus appears to open the wood microstructure so that cellulase can diffuse throughout the degraded tracheid wall.

  16. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  17. Baculovirus-challenge and poor nutrition inflict within-generation fitness costs without triggering transgenerational immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; Hua, Kevin Ngoc; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-05-01

    Invertebrate hosts that survive pathogen challenge can produce offspring that are more resistant to the same pathogen via immune priming, thereby improving the fitness of their offspring in the same pathogen environment. Most evidence for immune priming comes from exposure to bacteria and there are limited data on other groups of pathogens. Poor parental nutrition has also been shown to result in the transgenerational transfer of pathogen resistance and increased immunocompetence. Here, we combine exposure to an insect DNA virus with a change in the parental diet to examine both parental costs and transgenerational immune priming. We challenged the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, with a low dose of the baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and altered dietary protein to carbohydrate ratio (p:c ratio) after virus exposure. Insects fed a low protein diet had lower haemolymph protein concentrations, and exhibited costs of smaller pupae and slower development, while survivors of virus challenge developed more slowly, irrespective of p:c ratio, and those that were virus-challenged and fed on a low protein diet showed a reduction in haemocyte density. In addition, AcMNPV-challenged parents laid fewer eggs earlier in egg laying although egg size was the same as for unchallenged parents. There was no evidence for increased resistance to AcMNPV (immune priming) or changes in haemocyte number (as proxy for constitutive cellular immunity) in the offspring either as a result of parental AcMNPV-challenge or low dietary p:c ratio. Therefore, although pathogen-challenge and nutritional changes can affect host development and reproduction, this does not necessarily translate into transgenerational immune priming. Our findings contrast with an earlier study on another type of baculovirus, a granulovirus, where immune priming was suggested. This indicates that transgenerational immune priming is not universal in invertebrates and is likely to

  18. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host-plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-04-01

    QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host-plant resistance genes. Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 229358 and PI 227687. PI 229358's resistance is conferred by three quantitative trait loci (QTLs): M, G, and H. PI 227687's resistance is conferred by QTL-E. The letters indicate the soybean Linkage groups (LGs) on which the QTLs are located. This study aimed to determine if pyramiding PI 229358 and PI 227687 QTLs would enhance soybean resistance to leaf-chewing insects, and if pyramiding these QTLs with Bt (cry1Ac) enhances resistance against Bt-tolerant pests. The near-isogenic lines (NILs): Benning(ME), Benning(MGHE), and Benning(ME+cry1Ac) were developed. Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) were evaluated in detached-leaf and greenhouse assays with soybean looper [SBL, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], fall armyworm [FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)], and velvetbean caterpillar [VBC, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)]; and in field-cage assays with SBL. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was tested in detached-leaf assays against SBL, VBC, and Southern armyworm [SAW, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer)]. In the detached-leaf assay, Benning(ME) showed the strongest antibiosis against CEW, FAW, and VBC. In field-cage conditions, Benning(ME) and Benning(MGHE) suffered 61 % less defoliation than Benning. Benning(ME+cry1Ac) was more resistant than Benning(ME) and Benning (cry1Ac) against SBL and SAW. Agriculturally relevant levels of resistance in soybean can be achieved with just two loci, QTL-M and QTL-E. ME+cry1Ac could present an opportunity to protect the durability of Bt

  19. The genome sequence of Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus and an analysis of p26 gene evolution in the baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Saluana R; Inglis, Peter W; Togawa, Roberto C; Grynberg, Priscila; Melo, Fernando L; Ribeiro, Zilda Maria A; Ribeiro, Bergmann M; Báo, Sônia N; Castro, Maria Elita B

    2015-02-25

    Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV-IE) is a baculovirus recently identified in our laboratory, with high pathogenicity to the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Walker, 1858). In Brazil, the C. includens caterpillar is an emerging pest and has caused significant losses in soybean and cotton crops. The PsinSNPV genome was determined and the phylogeny of the p26 gene within the family Baculoviridae was investigated. The complete genome of PsinSNPV was sequenced (Roche 454 GS FLX - Titanium platform), annotated and compared with other Alphabaculoviruses, displaying a genome apparently different from other baculoviruses so far sequenced. The circular double-stranded DNA genome is 139,132 bp in length, with a GC content of 39.3 % and contains 141 open reading frames (ORFs). PsinSNPV possesses the 37 conserved baculovirus core genes, 102 genes found in other baculoviruses and 2 unique ORFs. Two baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) homologs, bro-a (Psin33) and bro-b (Psin69), were identified and compared with Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV) and Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus (TnSNPV) bro genes and showed high similarity, suggesting that these genes may be derived from an ancestor common to these viruses. The homologous repeats (hrs) are absent from the PsinSNPV genome, which is also the case in ChchNPV and TnSNPV. Two p26 gene homologs (p26a and p26b) were found in the PsinSNPV genome. P26 is thought to be required for optimal virion occlusion in the occlusion bodies (OBs), but its function is not well characterized. The P26 phylogenetic tree suggests that this gene was obtained from three independent acquisition events within the Baculoviridae family. The presence of a signal peptide only in the PsinSNPV p26a/ORF-20 homolog indicates distinct function between the two P26 proteins. PsinSNPV has a genomic sequence apparently different from other baculoviruses sequenced so far. The complete

  20. Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

    2010-05-01

    Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values

  1. Puget Lowland Ecoregion: Chapter 2 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The Puget Lowland Ecoregion covers an area of approximately 18,009 km² (6,953 mi²) within northwestern Washington (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is located between the Coast Range Ecoregion to the west, which includes the Olympic Mountains, and the North Cascades and the Cascades Ecoregions to the east, which include the Cascade Range. From the north, the ecoregion follows the Interstate 5 corridor, from the Canadian border south through Bellingham, Seattle, Olympia, and Longview, Washington, to the northern border of the Willamette Valley Ecoregion. The Puget Lowland Ecoregion borders the shoreline of the greater Puget Sound, a complex bay and saltwater estuary fed by spring freshwater runoff from the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range watersheds. The ecoregion is situated in a continental glacial trough that has many islands, peninsulas, and bays. Relief is moderate, with elevations ranging from sea level to 460 m but averaging approximately 150 m (DellaSala and others, 2001). Proximity to the Pacific Ocean gives the Puget Lowland Ecoregion its mild maritime climate (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). Mean annual temperature is 10.5°C, with an average of 4.1°C in January and 17.7°C in July (Guttman and Quayle, 1996). Average annual precipitation ranges from 800 to 900 mm, but some areas in the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains receive as little as 460 mm (DellaSala and others, 2001). Varying annual average precipitation greatly influences vegetation and soil type in the ecoregion. In the Puget Lowland Ecoregion, soils are dominated by Inceptisols in the north and Ultisols in the south (Jones, 2003). Before European settlement, most of the ecoregion was covered by coniferous forests, with species composition dependent on local climate (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). The World Wildlife Fund places the Puget Lowland Ecoregion in the Western Hemlock Vegetation Zone. Although this

  2. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  3. Riparian forest composition affects stream litter decomposition despite similar microbial and invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominoski, John S; Marczak, Laurie B; Richardson, John S

    2011-01-01

    Cross-boundary flows of energy and nutrients link biodiversity and functioning in adjacent ecosystems. The composition of forest tree species can affect the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems due to physical and chemical attributes, as well as changes in terrestrial resource subsidies. We examined how variation in riparian canopy composition (coniferous, deciduous, mixed) affects adjacent trophic levels (invertebrate and microbial consumers) and decomposition of organic matter in small, coastal rainforest streams in southwestern British Columbia. Breakdown rates of higher-quality red alder (Alnus rubra) litter were faster in streams with a greater percentage of deciduous than coniferous riparian canopy, whereas breakdown rates of lower-quality western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) litter were independent of riparian forest composition. When invertebrates were excluded using fine mesh, breakdown rates of both litter species were an order of magnitude less and were not significantly affected by riparian forest composition. Stream invertebrate and microbial communities were similar among riparian forest composition, with most variation attributed to leaf litter species. Invertebrate taxa richness and shredder biomass were higher in A. rubra litter; however, taxa evenness was greatest for T. heterophylla litter and both litter species in coniferous streams. Microbial community diversity (determined from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was unaffected by riparian forest or litter species. Fungal allele richness was higher than bacterial allele richness, and microbial communities associated with lower-quality T. heterophylla litter had higher diversity (allele uniqueness and richness) than those associated with higher-quality A. rubra litter. Percent variation in breakdown rates was mostly attributed to riparian forest composition in the presence of invertebrates and microbes; however, stream consumer biodiversity at adjacent trophic levels

  4. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  5. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L Jackrel

    Full Text Available Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra, vine maple (Acer cinereus, bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In

  6. Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Samuel B; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2005-01-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances, including the hyperaccumulation of manganese (Mn), are correlated with symptoms of declining health in sensitive tree species growing on acidic forest soils. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare foliar nutrient accumulation patterns of six deciduous (sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)) and three evergreen (eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.)) tree species growing on acidic forest soils; and (2) examine how leaf phenology and other traits that distinguish evergreen and deciduous tree species influence foliar Mn accumulation rates and sensitivity to excess Mn. For the first objective, leaf samples of seedlings from five acidic, non-glaciated field sites on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau were collected and analyzed for leaf element concentrations. In a second study, we examined growth and photosynthetic responses of seedlings exposed to excess Mn in sand culture. In field samples, Mn in deciduous foliage hyperaccumulated to concentrations more than twice as high as those found in evergreen needles. Among species, sugar maple was the most sensitive to excess Mn based on growth and photosynthetic measurements. Photosynthesis in red maple and red oak was also sensitive to excess Mn, whereas white oak, black cherry, white ash and the three evergreen species were tolerant of excess Mn. Among the nine species, relative rates of photosynthesis were negatively correlated with foliar Mn concentrations, suggesting that photosynthetic sensitivity to Mn is a function of its rate of accumulation in seedling foliage.

  7. Flux tower in a mixed forest: spatial representativeness of seasonal footprints and the influence of land cover variability on the flux measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Schaaf, C.; Hwang, T.

    2015-12-01

    Flux tower measurements using eddy-covariance techniques are used as the primary data for calibration and validation of remote sensing estimates and ecosystem models. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of the land surface contributing to the flux, the so-called footprint, is critical to upscale tower flux to the regional landscape. This is especially true for the towers locating in heterogeneous ecosystems such as mixed forests. Here we (1) estimated the seasonal footprints of a flux tower, the EMS-tower (US-Ha1) in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Harvard Forest, from 1992 to 2008 with a footprint climatology. The Harvard Forest is a temperate mixed-species ecosystem that is composed of deciduous stands (red oak and red maple) and evergreen coniferous stands (eastern hemlock and white pine). The heterogeneity of the landscape is primarily driven by the phenology of the deciduous stands which are not uniformly distributed over the forest and around the tower. The overall prevailing footprints are known to lie toward the southwest and northwest, but there were profound interannual variability in the extents and the orientations of the seasonal footprints. Furthermore we (2) examined whether vegetation density variation within the tower footprint in each season could adequately represent the vegetation density characteristics of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing estimates and ecosystem models (i.e. 1.0 km and 1.5 km). The footprints were found to cover enough area to be representative of the 1.0 km scale but not 1.5 km scale. Finally we (3) investigated the influence of the interannual variations in the land cover variability in the footprints on the seasonal flux measurements from 1999 to 2008, and found almost half of the interannual anomalies in the summertime GPP flux can be explained by the coniferous stand fraction within the footprint.

  8. Biophysical controls of carbon flows in three successional Douglas-fir stands on eddy-covariance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J. [Toledo Univ., Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sience, Toledo, OH (United States); Falk, M.; Paw U, K. T.; Ustin, S. L. [California Univ., Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources, Davis CA (United States); Euskirchen, E.; Bi, R. [Michigan Technological Univ., School of Forestyry and Wood Products, Houghton, MI (United States); Suchanek, T. H. [California Univ., Dept of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, Davis, CA (United States); Bond, B. J. [Oregon State Univ. College of Forest Resources, Corvallis, OR (United States); Brosofske, K. D. [Rhode Island Univ., Dept. of Natural Resources Science, Kingston, RI (United States); Phillips, N. [Boston Univ., Dept. of Geography, Boston, MA (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Carbon flux (F{sub C}O{sub 2}) and net water (H{sub 2}O)Flux were measured by the eddy-covariance method at three Douglas fir -western hemlock sites located in the Wind River Valley of Washington State. The stands were approximately 20, 40 and 450 years old. Measurements were made between June 15 and October 15 of 1998 for the 40 and 450 year old stands, and of 1999 in the 20- and 450-year old stands. The objective was to determine differences, if any, among the stands in: (1) patterns of daytime carbon dioxide flux during summer and autumn; (2) empirically modelled relationships between local climatic factors and daytime carbon dioxide flux; (3) water use efficiency. The Landsberg equation, a logarithmic power function and linear regression was used to model the relationships between carbon dioxide flux and physical variables. During summer and early autumn carbon dioxide variance averaged 4.1 and 6.2 micromol m{sup 2}s{sup 1} at the 20 and 40 year-old stand respectively. In the 450 year-old stand carbon dioxide flux averaged 2.2. and 3.2 micromol m{sup 2}s{sup 1}in 1998 and 1999 respectively. Increases in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were associated with reduced carbon dioxide flux at all three stands. The greatest apparent constraint was observed in the old-growth stand. Correlations between carbon dioxide flux and environmental variables differed among ecosystems. Soil temperature showed the greatest negative correlation and net radiation the greatest positive correlation. Water use efficiency was significantly greater in the old-growth stand in the drier summer of 1998 than in 1999. 41 refs., 1 tab. 7 figs.

  9. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature.

  10. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  11. Time-variant Catchment Transit Time Distribution and StorAge Selection Functions in Neighbouring Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Rodriguez, N. B.; McGuire, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of the catchment functions of storage, mixing, and release is a major research challenge as their behavior is fundamental for understanding water quality and flow quantity and timing. Generally, the complexity of the flow paths and associated mixing processes is still a major hindrance to a thorough understanding of catchment functions. Catchment transit time distributions can be used as an integrative descriptor of catchment functions. Here we aim to understand these fundamental catchment functions in four neighboring catchments of the HJA Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA. The areas of the four catchments (WS2, WS3, WS9, WS10) range from 0.085 to 1.011 km2. The catchments are fully forested with Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar dominating the lower elevations, and noble fir, Pacific silver fir, Douglas fir dominating higher elevations. Geology is dominated by volcaniclastics, covering 68% to 99% of the catchments. We employed a two storage conceptual model in each catchment for stream flow and transport modeling. We used solutions of the Master Equation to determine transit time distributions. We assumed randomly sampled/fully mixed conditions in each storage to model 18Oxygen in stream flow over a two year period. For example, modeling results for WS10 yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.84 for stream flow of and a NSE of 0.7 for the (volume weighted) 18O in stream flow. Furthermore, we derived the master transit time distribution (mttd) for the catchments. Eventually we investigated the landscape controls (topography, geology, morphology) on mttd and the dynamics of storage selection functions of each catchment.

  12. Nutrient-cycling microbes in Coastal Douglas-fir forests: Regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip-Edouard eShay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness and evenness and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analysed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared DGGE profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1, nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA PCR amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725 - 3489, while pH (3.8 - 5.5 best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4 - 23%; but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14 - 25%. Results suggest that in-situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms detected in forest soils responded to smaller

  13. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Ann Harrington

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was more effective than the sequential model and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, true firs and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many burst bud normally without chilling.Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2 to 5.5 °C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur

  14. Pre-industrial baseline variation of upper midwestern forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A.; Paciorek, C. J.; Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; Jackson, S. T.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in Earth systems processes, yet we still do not understand how they respond to changes in climate. While it has been argued that terrestrial ecosystems were fairly stable (by Quaternary standards) in the millennia before major anthropogenic disruption, others have emphasized vegetation response to environmental variability during this time. These competing perspectives are not necessarily in conflict, but argue for a quantitative assessment of forest ecosystem variability over the last several millennia. Here we reconstruct maps of forest composition for the last two millenia, with uncertainty. To do this, we use a network of fossil pollen records - the most reliable paleoecological proxy for forest composition. We link the fossil pollen records to public land survey forest composition using a Bayesian hierarchical model which accounts for key processes including pollen production and dispersal. The model is calibrated using data from the pre-settlement time with the hope of minimizing anthropogenic impacts. Process parameters are estimated in the calibration phase, and are subsequently used in the prediction phase to generate spatially explicit maps of relative species composition across the upper Midwestern US over the last 2000 years, with robust uncertainty estimates. Estimates of forest composition and uncertainty show many previously noted vegetation shifts, three of which we discuss here. First, we see expansion of the hemlock range into western Wisconsin. Second, we see changes along the prairie-forest ecotone. Third, we see significant increases in elm at approximately 500 YBP in the region known as the Minnesota Big Woods. These changes are significant in both a statistical and ecological sense, but the scale of these changes is small relative to changes in the early holocene. Our novel spatio-temporal composition estimates will be used to improve the forecasting capabilities of ecosystem models.

  15. Nutrient-cycling microbes in coastal Douglas-fir forests: regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Philip-Edouard; Winder, Richard S; Trofymow, J A

    2015-01-01

    Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however, their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness, and evenness) and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analyzed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA) polymerase chain reaction amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725-3489), while pH (3.8-5.5) best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4-23%); but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14-25%). Results suggest that in situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms detected in

  16. Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, K; Havill, N P; Arsenault-Benoit, A L; Mayfield, A E; Ott, D S; Ross, D; Whitmore, M C; Wallin, K F

    2017-10-01

    Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) are known to feed on the lineage of Adelges tsugae Annand that is native to western North America, but it is not known if they will survive on the lineage that was introduced from Japan to the eastern USA. In 2014, western Leucopis spp. larvae were brought to the laboratory and placed on A. tsugae collected in either Washington (North American A. tsugae lineage) or Connecticut (Japanese lineage). There were no significant differences in survival or developmental times between flies reared on the two different adelgid lineages. In 2015 and 2016, western Leucopis spp. adults were released at two different densities onto enclosed branches of A. tsugae infested eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Tennessee and New York. Cages were recovered and their contents examined 4 weeks after release at each location. Leucopis spp. larvae and puparia of the F1 generation were recovered at both release locations and adults of the F1 generation were collected at the Tennessee location. The number of Leucopis spp. offspring collected increased with increasing adelgid density, but did not differ by the number of adult flies released. Flies recovered from cages and flies collected from the source colony were identified as L.argenticollis and L. piniperda using DNA barcoding. These results demonstrate that Leucopis spp. from the Pacific Northwest are capable of feeding and developing to the adult stage on A. tsugae in the eastern USA and they are able to tolerate environmental conditions during late spring and early summer at the southern and northern extent of the area invaded by A. tsugae in the eastern USA.

  17. The influence of variable snowpacks on habitat use by mountain caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor A. Kinley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia subsist for most of the winter on arboreal hair lichen, mostly Bryoria spp. Foraging occurs mainly in old subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests near treeline. Here, the lower limit of Bryoria in the canopy is dictated by snowpack depth because hair lichens die when buried in snow. Bryoria is often beyond the reach of caribou in early winter, prompting caribou to move downslope to where lichen occurs lower in the canopy and other foraging modes are possible. Snowpacks are normally deep enough by late winter that caribou can reach Bryoria where it is most abundant, at high elevations. Extending this to inter-annual comparisons, Bryoria should be less accessible during late winter of low-snow years following normal winters, or of normal to low-snow years after deep-snow winters. We hypothesized that when maximum snowpack in late winter is low relative to the deepest of the previous 5 years, mountain caribou will use lower elevations to facilitate foraging (“lichen-snow-caribou” or LSC hypothesis. We tested this with late-winter data from 13 subpopulations. In the dry climatic region generally and for minor snowfall differences in wet and very wet regions, caribou did not shift downslope or in fact were at higher elevations during relatively low-snow years, possibly reflecting the ease of locomotion. The LSC hypothesis was supported within wet and very wet regions when snowpacks were about 1 m or more lower than in recent years. Elevation declined by 300 m (median to 600 m (25th percentile for snowpack differences of at least 1.5 m. Greater use of lodgepole pine and western hemlock stands sometimes also occurred. Management strategies emphasizing subalpine fir stands near treeline should be re-examined to ensure protection of a broader range of winter habitats used by caribou under variable snowpack conditions.

  18. Education and distance learning: changing the trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Ronald C

    2004-01-01

    Training and instruction are activities deeply ingrained in human relations and derive from the critical need for the young to learn survival skills. The responsibility in primitive society for such training almost certainly fell to parents who continued their pedagogical role after childhood issues to include hunting, gathering, fine motor activities and other life skills needed for personal or family survival. Such instruction only ended when the young were ready for independent life and- contribution to tribal well-being. Delegation of teaching to others was inevitable. Teaching has become a specialty and has at least one interesting story in ancient literature. Ulysses was certain to be away at the Trojan War and subsequent adventures for many years. He would not be able to provide his son, Telemachus, with the guidance and training to prepare him for adulthood. Therefore, he asked Mentor to act In Loco Parentis and instruct the young man toward competence and adult success. Teaching as a profession and discipline has been through many stages and many controversies. Socrates was a great teacher with a distinct technique for learning by questioning. His influence on his students was profound. Plato was such a good student he recorded all the master's works. Socrates has never been credited with even the briefest lecture note. As great as he was Socrates was forced to drink the bitter hemlock because his teaching was considered a corruption of youth rather than a proper preparation for effective adulthood. Dissonance between the expectations of learners, parents and teachers has a rich history. Certainly even now education is not something the professoriate may invent for the naïve learner and then expect grateful acquiesce with faithful learning. Learning has -dimensions in human psychology and communication. The learners' autonomy, privacy and motivation cannot be denied. Learning is collaboration with teacher and the endpoint is the acquisition of new

  19. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  20. Characterization of emergent leakage neutrons from multiple layers of hydrogen/water in the lunar regolith by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SU, J.; Sagdeev, R.; Usikov, D.; Chin, G.; Boyer, L.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Murray, J.; Starr, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    CSETN from the leakage neutron spectrum, emission angle, detector energy sensitivity and angular response. Reference: [1] W. C. Feldman, et al., Science 4 September 1998: Vol. 281 no. 5382 pp. 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O., et al., (2000) J. Geophys. Res., 105(E2), 4263-4271. [3] Little, R. C., et al. (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E5), 5046. [4] McKinney et al., (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E06004. [5] Lawrence et al., (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E08001. [6] Looper et al, (2013), Space Weather, VOL. 11, 142-152. [7] J. Allison, et al, (2006) IEEE TRANS. ON NUCL SCI, VOL. 53, NO. 1. [8] J. Masarik and R. Reedy (1996), J. Geophys. Res., 101, 18,891-18,912. [9] P. O'Neil (2010) IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 57(6), 3148-3153. [10] D. Pelowitz, (2005), Rep. LA-CP-05-0369, LANL, Los Alamos, NM.

  1. Diferentes diâmetros de gotas e equipamentos para aplicação de inseticida no controle de Pseudoplusia includens Diameter of droplets and different equipments for the application of insecticide to control Pseudoplusia includes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. G. di Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    for the hydraulic nozzle; and two dosages of the insecticide endosulfan (0.5 and 1.0 L pc ha-1, in fully randomized plots, in a factorial scheme 2x2x2 and 1 untreated check. The caterpillars mortality was evaluated until the 6th day after the application of treatments. The spectrum of the droplets was evaluated in a particle size analyzer in real time determining the diameter and spectrum of droplets sprayed through the laser beam of the analyser. It was verified that the spray volume can be reduced by 17 L ha-1 without losses on the P. includens control. The doses of 0.5 L pc ha-1 (recommended for Anticarsia gemmatalis did not satisfactorily control the caterpillar soybean looper. The atomizer produces droplets of higher uniformity (SPAN: 0.52 and lower percentage of droplets susceptible to drift (3.3% compared to hydraulic nozzle (SPAN: 1.34 e % droplets ≤ 100µm: 15.2.

  2. Toxicity and Binding Studies of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry1C, and Cry2A Proteins in the Soybean Pests Anticarsia gemmatalis and Chrysodeixis (Pseudoplusia) includens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Yolanda; Sheets, Joel J; Tan, Sek Yee; Narva, Kenneth E; Escriche, Baltasar

    2017-06-01

    Anticarsia gemmatalis (velvetbean caterpillar) and Chrysodeixis includens (soybean looper, formerly named Pseudoplusia includens) are two important defoliating insects of soybeans. Both lepidopteran pests are controlled mainly with synthetic insecticides. Alternative control strategies, such as biopesticides based on the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins or transgenic plants expressing Bt toxins, can be used and are increasingly being adopted. Studies on the insect susceptibilities and modes of action of the different Bt toxins are crucial to determine management strategies to control the pests and to delay outbreaks of insect resistance. In the present study, the susceptibilities of both soybean pests to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ca, and Cry2Aa have been investigated. Bioassays performed in first-instar larvae showed that both insects are susceptible to all these toxins. Competition-binding studies carried out with Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa 125-iodine labeled proteins demonstrated the presence of specific binding sites for both of them on the midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) of both A. gemmatalis and C. includens Competition-binding experiments and specific-binding inhibition studies performed with selected sugars and lectins indicated that Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa share some, but not all, binding sites in the midguts of both insects. Also, the Cry1Ac- or Cry1Fa-binding sites were not shared with Cry1Ca or Cry2Aa in either soybean pest. This study contributes to the knowledge of Bt toxicity and midgut toxin binding sites in A. gemmatalis and C. includens and sheds light on the cross-resistance potential of Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ca, and Cry2Aa Bt proteins as candidate proteins for Bt-pyramided crops.IMPORTANCE In the present study, the toxicity and the mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ca, and Cry2Aa in Anticarsia gemmatalis and Chrysodeixis includens (important defoliating pests of soybeans) have been investigated

  3. Using Tree-Ring Data to Develop Critical Scientific and Mathematical Thinking Skills in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiondella, F.; Davi, N. K.; Wattenberg, F.; Pringle, P. T.; Greidanus, I.; Oelkers, R.

    2015-12-01

    Tree-ring science provides an engaging, intuitive, and relevant entryway into understanding both climate change and environmental research. It also sheds light on the process of science--from inspiration, to fieldwork, to analysis, to publishing and communication. The basic premise of dendrochronology is that annual rings reflect year-to-year environmental conditions and that by studying long-lived trees we can learn about environmental and climatic conditions going back hundreds to thousands of years. Conceptually, this makes tree-ring studies accessible to students and faculty for a number of reasons. First, in order to collect their data, dendrochronologists often launch expeditions to stunningly picturesque and remote places in search of long-lived, climate sensitive trees. The exciting stories and images that scientists bring back from the field can help connect students to the studies, their motivation, and the data collected. Second, tree rings can be more easily explained as a proxy for climate than ice cores, speleothems and others. Most people have prior knowledge about trees and annual growth rings. It is even possible, for example, for non-expert audiences to see climate variability through time with the naked eye by looking at climate-sensitive tree cores. Third, tree rings are interdisciplinary and illustrate the interplay between the mathematical sciences, the biological sciences, and the geosciences—that is, they show that the biosphere is a fundamental component of the Earth system. Here, we present online, multi-media learning modules for undergraduates that introduce students to several foundational studies in tree-ring science. These include evaluating tree-ring cores from ancient hemlock trees growing on a talus slope in New Paltz, NY to learn about drought in the Northeastern US, evaluating long-term streamflow and drought of the Colorado River based on tree-ring records, and using tree-ring dating techniques to develop construction

  4. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  5. Changes in Carbon Storage Efficiency Following a Shelterwood Harvest at Howland Forest, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Davidson, E. A.; Rodrigues, C. A.; Dail, B.; Hughes, H.; Lee, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest disturbance has a major impact on forest carbon (C) cycling processes, yet few measurements exist of the direct impact of disturbances such as forest management practices on whole-ecosystem C exchange. We are evaluating the impact of a commercial shelterwood harvest on whole-ecosystem C sequestration at a spruce-hemlock dominated forest in Howland, Maine. Harvesting began in fall of 2001, and was completed in the spring of 2002. Harvesting removed about 15 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=2.1) (~30%) of live biomass, and created about 5.3 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=1.1) of aboveground and 5.2 Mg C ha-1 (SEM=0.7) of root/stump detritus. Leaf-area index and litterfall declined initially by about 40% with harvest. Net ecosystem carbon storage, measured using eddy covariance, went from about 1.9 Mg C ha-1y-1 (long-term average in a control stand) to 0.2 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2003, then increased to 1.1 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005 in spite of respiratory carbon losses of about 0.6 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005. Simulation results predicted annual net storage of about 0.8 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2005, so carbon storage recovered faster than expected post-harvest. Forest inventory data showed that annual tree growth was similar in the harvested stand (1.8 Mg C ha-1y-1) to that in the control stand (1.6 Mg C ha-1y-1) between 2001 and 2003, then slightly higher in the harvested stand between 2003 and 2005. This was true in spite of the fact that stand basal area and leaf area index were still lower in the harvested stand in 2005 than in the control stand. This was apparently due to much higher light-use efficiency in the harvested stand, leading to a growth `release' following the harvest. Per unit of basal area, trees in the harvested stand were roughly two-fold more efficient at converting solar radiation into `stored' carbon. Trees in the harvested stand experienced a decline in water-use efficiency in order to increase carbon dioxide fixation. Whether whole-ecosystem carbon storage rates will ultimately be higher in the

  6. Formation and maintenance of a forced pool-riffle couplet following loading of large wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Fixler, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Pool-riffle maintenance has been documented in numerous studies, but it has been almost impossible to characterize detailed natural pool-riffle formation mechanisms because of the lack of baseline data prior to pool establishment. In 2013, a study was conducted on the Blackledge River in Connecticut to document the formation of a new pool-riffle couplet on a section of river that had previously been studied from 1999 to 2001. In 2001, the study reach contained a scour hole with a residual depth of 0.08 ± 0.09 m downstream of a 1930s paired deflector with no identifiable riffle immediately downstream. At this time, a large, severely undercut, hemlock tree was noted along the left bank. Sometime between fall 2001 and 2004, the tree fell perpendicular to flow across the channel and formed a large wood (LW) jam and new pool-riffle couplet several meters downstream of the old scour hole. Pool spacing along the reach decreased from 4.47 bankfull widths (BFW) in 1999 to 3.83 BFW after the new pool-riffle couplet formed. The new pool has a residual depth, the water depth of the streambed depression below the elevation of the immediate downstream hydraulic control, of 1.36 ± 0.075 to 1.59 ± 0.075 m, which resulted from a combination of 1.32 ± 0.09 m or less of incision below the old scour hole (95.6% or less of the depth increase) and up to 0.18 ± 0.09 m of downstream deposition and associated backwater formation (13.2% or less of the depth increase). To assess dynamic stability of the pool-riffle couplet over several flood cycles, surficial fine-sediment and organic material along the reach were quantified. The 23-m-long pool stores 25.7% of the surficial fine grained sediments and 15.4% of organic material along a 214-m-long reach that includes one additional artificially created pool. An adjacent 50-m-long secondary channel impacted by the LW jam stores 65.3% of the surficial fine-grained sediments and 54.8% of organic material along the full reach.

  7. Biodiversity Indicators Show Climate Change Will Alter Vegetation in Parks and Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Coops

    2013-05-01

    protected by parks and protected areas are observed in the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and the central interior region of British Columbia. Protected areas along the Coast Mountains, Vancouver Island highlands, and the Rocky Mountains show the greatest levels of change in the biodiversity indicators, including decreasing seasonality, with the Mountain Hemlock ecozone most at risk. Examples of large parks that are predicted to experience rapid change in vegetation characteristics include Strathcona, Garabaldi, and Kitlope. Our maps of future spatial distributions of indirect biodiversity indicators fill a gap in information products available for adaptive parks management and provide an opportunity for dialogue and further research on the use of future scenarios of landscape conditions in conservation planning.

  8. Fungal and enzyme treatment kidney: a promising way to help pulp and paper mills to achieve zero effluent discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Soong, J.J.; Stebbing, D.W.; Saddler, J.N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Forest Products Biotechnology Faculty of Forestry; Beatson, R.P. [British Columbia Inst. of Technology, Burnaby, BC (Canada). Advanced Papermaking Initiative

    2001-06-01

    Water usage and effluent discharge must be minimized by pulp and paper mills to comply with increasingly stringent environmental standards and market demands. As a result, the potential use of a combined fungal and enzyme system was evaluated as an internal water treatment kidney in a TMP/newsprint mill with a closed water system. The evaluation involved the use of three different white water samples. A sample of mill white water (MWW) was taken from the cloudy white water chest of the disk thickener at the Howe Sound Pulp and Paper Ltd. A mix of interior spruce/pine/fir and coastal hemlock from British Columbia comprised the chip supply used during the collection. Then , the model recycled white water (RWW) was prepared, as was the membrane filtered model recycled white water (FWW). A significant decrease in the amount of total dissolved and colloidal substances was observed as a result of the growth of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on these waters. After seven days of fungal treatment, in excess of 75 per cent of the extractives, and 62-71 per cent of the carbohydrates initially present in the three white waters were removed. Laccase, cellulase and lipase enzyme activities had been noted in the fungal culture filtrates (FCF) during the growth of the fungus. Using the fungal culture filtrates obtained after two days growth of Trametes versicolor, subsequent fungal enzyme treatments of MWW and RWW were performed on mill white water. After a three-hour FCF treatment at 65 Celsius, more than 90 per cent of the lignans and ester bonded extractives (steryl esters and triglycerides) were removed from both white waters. During the same period, the resin and fatty acids content decreased by almost 40 per cent in the mill white water while it decreased by almost 60 per cent in the model white water sample. The polymerization of low molecular weight phenolics into higher molecular weight lignin-types of material occurred as a result of the fungal and enzyme

  9. Plants determine diversity and function of soil microbial and mesofaunal communities - results from a girdling experiments in a temperate coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subke, J.; Voke, N.; Leronni, V.; Briones, M. J. I.; Ineson, P.

    2009-04-01

    The potential for carbon (C) sequestration in soils depends on the rate of humification of C inputs to soils in relation to the decomposition of old soil organic matter. Recent results indicate a close connection between the input of fresh organic matter and the decomposition of old organic matter through soil priming. We conducted a tree girdling experiment in order to better understand the interdependence of soil microbial communities and plant belowground C allocation. A girdling experiment in a mature Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) stand near York (NE England) confirms the pattern observed in other girdling studies, with a reduction in total soil CO2 efflux (RS) to about 60% of control plots following a delay of about 2 weeks. High frequency measurements of RS immediately after girdling show a short-lived significant increase in RS in girdled plots between 3 and 8 hours after tree girdling, which have not been observed previously. The autotrophic flux contribution (calculated as the difference in RS between the control and girdled plots) declined throughout autumn, but in contrast to most girdling studies, remained significantly greater than zero throughout during December and January. This result indicates that tree belowground allocation continues throughout winter, despite regular night-time frosts in the period measurement were taken. Dominant mesofauna invertebrates (Enchytraeid worms) showed a positive response to girdling and higher abundances were recorded in the girdled plots when compared to the control ones, although differences were only significant on one sampling occasion. These results suggest that, in contrast to other components of the soil food-web, these organisms appear to be underpinned by detrital decomposition rather than by recent photosynthate-C deposition. Litterbag incubations showed no significant short-term treatment effect over the 4 months period following girdling, indicating no measurable interaction of decomposition and

  10. Using Remote Sensing Technologies to Quantify the Effects of Beech Bark Disease on the Structure, Composition, and Function of a Late-Successional Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; Ricart, R. D.; Fahey, R. T.; Fotis, A. T.; Gough, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological theory maintains that as forests age, the rate at which carbon (C) is stored declines because C released through organic matter decomposition offsets declining C sequestration in new vegetative growth. Recent observational studies are challenging this long-held hypothesis, with limited evidence suggesting higher-than-expected rates in late-successional forests could be, counterintuitively, tied to canopy structural changes associated with low intensity tree mortality. As forests age, canopy structural complexity may increase when old trees die and form upper canopy gaps that release subcanopy vegetation. This provides one explanation for observations of sustained high production in old forests. Recent studies have found that this increased structural complexity and resource-use efficiency maintain C storage in mid-successional deciduous forests; whether a similar mechanism extends to late-successional forests is unknown. We will present how a slow, moderate disturbance affects the structure and C sequestration of late-successional forests. Our study site is a forest recently infected by Beech Bark Disease (BBD), which will result in the eventual mortality of American beech trees in this late successional forest in Northern Michigan, at the University of Michigan Biological Station. American Beech, Hemlock, Sugar Maple, and White Pine dominate the landscape, with American Beech making up 30% of the canopy trees on average. At the plot scale American Beech is distributed heterogeneously, comprising 1% to 60% of total plot basal area, making it possible to examine the interplay between disturbance severity, canopy structural change, and primary production resilience in this forest. Within each of the 13 plots, species and stem diameter were collected in 1992, 1994, 2014, and 2016, with future remeasurements planned. We will discuss how ground-based lidar coupled with airborne spectral (IR and RGB) imagery are being used to track canopy BBD

  11. Biogeomorphic and pedogenic impact of trees in three soil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Łukasz; Šamonil, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation is an important factor of soil formation which together with topography, geology, climate and time modulates chemical and physical soil characteristics. Tree/soils/regolith interaction was recognized in recently uprooted trees and relict treethrow mounds and pits. In our present study we focus on effects of individual standing trees in pedogenesis and biogeomorphic processes. Constant pressure of tree root systems, changing hydric and temperature regime, together with rhizospheric microbes and root mycorrhizal associations may cause multiscale alterations to regolith and soils. We hypothesize different soil chemical properties under old tree stumps compared to unaffected control pedon resulted from affected pedogenetical pathways at the analyzed microsites. The present project highlights changes in soil properties under tree stumps in three different soil regions: Haplic Cambisols (Turbacz Reserve, Gorce Mts., Poland, hereafter HC), Entic Podzols (Zofin Reserve, Novohradske Mts., the Czech Republic, hereafter EP), Albic Podzols (Upper Peninsula, Michigan, USA, hereafter AP). These three regions represent different degrees of soil weathering and leaching. Pedons under fir, beech and hemlock stumps, as well as unaffected control pedons were sampled and laboratory analyzed for several chemical properties; active and exchangeable soil reaction, oxidized carbon, total nitrogen, and various forms of Fe, Al, Mn and Si. At the same time we studied age of the sampled tree stumps, as well as age of their death using radiocarbon technique and dendrochronology. While no effects of the soil-trees interactions can be visible on hillslope surface, we found important evidence of biomechanical activities of tree roots (e.g. root channels) and biochemical changes which add to the discussion about biogeomorphic and pedogenic significance of trees and tree roots as drivers of biomechanical weathering and soil processes in the decadal and centennial time scales. Preliminary

  12. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and

  13. 60,000 Year Climate and Vegetation History of Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Paul S.

    Sedimentological and palynological analyses of lacustrine cores from Baker Island, located in Southeast Alaska's Alexander Archipelago, indicate that glaciers persisted on the island until 14,500 cal yr. BP. However, the appearance of tree pollen, including Pinus cf. contorta ssp. contorta (shore pine) and Tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock) immediately following deglaciation suggests that a forest refugium may have been present on ice-free portions of neighboring islands or the adjacent continental shelf. Sedimentological and palynological analyses indicate a variable climate during the Younger Dryas interval between 13,000 and 11,500 cal yr. BP, with a cold and dry onset followed by ameliorating conditions during the latter half of the interval. An eight cm-thick black tephra dated to 13,500 +/- 250 cal yr. BP is geochemically distinct from the Mt. Edgecumbe tephra and thus derived from a different volcano. Based on overall thickness, multiple normally graded beds, and grain size, I infer that the black tephra was emplaced by a large strombolian-style paroxysm. Because the dominant wind direction along this coast is from the west, the Addington Volcanic Field on the continental shelf, which would have been subaerially exposed during the eruption, is a potential source. The similarity in timing between this eruption and the Mt. Edgecumbe eruption suggests a shared trigger, possibly a response to unloading as the Cordilleran Ice Sheet retreated. To complement the Baker Island lacustrine record, a speleothem paleoclimate record based on delta13C and delta18O values spanning the interval from 60,000 yr. BP to 11,150 yr. BP was recovered from El Capitan Cave on neighboring Prince of Wales Island. More negative delta13 C values are attributed to predominance of angiosperms in the vegetation above the cave at 22,000 yr. BP and between 53,000 and 46,000 yr. BP while more positive delta13C values in speleothem EC-16-5-F indicate the presence of gymnosperms. These data

  14. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenoff, David J.; Cogbill, Charles V.; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Dietze, Michael C.; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; McLachlan, Jason S.; Williams, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection. Changes in Forest Structure We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog), and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs). Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from

  15. Partitioning CO2 fluxes with isotopologue measurements and modeling to understand mechanisms of forest carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davidson, Eric [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Finzi, Adrien [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wehr, Richard [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Moorcroft, Paul [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-01-28

    photosynthesis (by ~25%) and daytime respiration (by ~100%) in the first half of the growing season at our site, and portrays ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency as declining when in fact it is stable until autumnal senescence. B. Vegetation Phenology and belowground allocation: Findings: 1. Autotrophic respiration (Ra) showed a seasonal pattern, peaking in mid-summer when trees were most active. 2. The effective age of the substrate for belowground respiration is less than 2 weeks. 3. Above and belowground phenology are more synchronous in deciduous hardwood stands than evergreen hemlock stands. 4. The decline in root respiration rates in the fall is related to temperature rather than acclimation of root respiration or substrate limitations. Methodological Issues: 5. The isotopic signatures of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration are too similar for isotopic partitioning of belowground respiration into these two components at our site—in keeping with the recent findings of Bowling et al. (2015) in a subalpine conifer forest. 6. Artifacts of the trenching method, such as changes in soil moisture and increased carbon substrate from the newly severed roots, are significant and need to be quantified when determining daily to annual estimates of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. C. Effects of simulated exudates on priming of microbial decomposition: The stoichiometry of root exudates influences both the amount and the mechanism by which priming occurs. At low C:N, SOC loss is caused by an increase in microbial efficiency. At high C:N, SOC loss is caused by an increase in microbial biomass. D. Modeling with the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED2): 1. Incorporation of 13C tracking to create an isotopically-enabled Ecosystem Demography v2 model (ED2) 2. State-of-the-art parameter optimization methodology developed for improving ED2 model predictions and parameters. 3. Significantly improved model predictions of growth- and maintenance-related carbon fluxes and 13

  16. Partitioning CO2 fluxes with isotopologue measurements and modeling to understand mechanisms of forest carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davidson, Eric [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Finzi, Adrien [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Wehr, Richdard [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Moorcroft, Paul [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    daytime respiration (by ~100%) in the first half of the growing season at our site, and portrays ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency as declining when in fact it is stable until autumnal senescence. B. Vegetation Phenology and belowground allocation: Findings: 1. Autotrophic respiration (Ra) showed a seasonal pattern, peaking in mid-summer when trees were most active. 2. The effective age of the substrate for belowground respiration is less than 2 weeks. 3. Above and belowground phenology are more synchronous in deciduous hardwood stands than evergreen hemlock stands. 4. The decline in root respiration rates in the fall is related to temperature rather than acclimation of root respiration or substrate limitations. Methodological Issues: 5. The isotopic signatures of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration are too similar for isotopic partitioning of belowground respiration into these two components at our site—in keeping with the recent findings of Bowling et al. (2015) in a subalpine conifer forest. 6. Artifacts of the trenching method, such as changes in soil moisture and increased carbon substrate from the newly severed roots, are significant and need to be quantified when determining daily to annual estimates of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. C. Effects of simulated exudates on priming of microbial decomposition: The stoichiometry of root exudates influences both the amount and the mechanism by which priming occurs. At low C:N, SOC loss is caused by an increase in microbial efficiency. At high C:N, SOC loss is caused by an increase in microbial biomass. D. Modeling with the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED2): 1. Incorporation of 13C tracking to create an isotopically-enabled Ecosystem Demography v2 model (ED2) 2. State-of-the-art parameter optimization methodology developed for improving ED2 model predictions and parameters. 3. Significantly improved model predictions of growth- and maintenance-related carbon fluxes and 13C fluxes

  17. Water resources of Monroe County, New York, water years 2003-08: Streamflow, constituent loads, and trends in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett A.; Coon, William F.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2010-01-01

    This report, the sixth in a series published since 1994, presents analyses of hydrologic data in Monroe County for the period October 2002 through September 2008. Streamflows and water quality were monitored at nine sites by the Monroe County Department of Health and the U.S. Geological Survey. Streamflow yields (flow per unit area) were highest in Northrup Creek, which had sustained flows from year-round inflow from the village of Spencerport wastewater-treatment plant and seasonal releases from the New York State Erie (Barge) Canal. Genesee River streamflow yields also were high, at least in part, as a result of higher rainfall and lower evapotranspiration rates in the upper part of the Genesee River Basin than in the other study basins. The lowest streamflow yields were measured in Honeoye Creek, which reflected a decrease in flows due to the withdrawals from Hemlock and Canadice Lakes for the city of Rochester water supply. Water samples collected at nine monitoring sites were analyzed for nutrients, chloride, sulfate, and total suspended solids. The loads of constituents, which were computed from the concentration data and the daily flows recorded at each of the monitoring sites, are estimates of the mass of the constituents that was transported in the streamflow. Annual yields (loads per unit area) also were computed to assess differences in constituent transport among the study basins. All urban sites - Allen Creek and the two downstream sites on Irondequoit Creek - had seasonally high concentrations and annual yields of chloride. Chloride loads are attributed to the application of road-deicing salts to the county's roadways and are related to population and road densities. The less-urbanized sites in the study - Genesee River, Honeoye Creek, and Oatka Creek - had relatively low concentrations and yields of chloride. The highest concentrations and yields of sulfate were measured in Black Creek, Oatka Creek, and Irondequoit Creek at Railroad Mills and are

  18. Carbon Fluxes in a Managed Landscape: Assessing the Drivers of Temporal and Spatial Variability in Flux Tower, MODIS and Forest Inventory Data of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, S.; Bible, K.; Falk, M.; Paw U, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research focuses on the Wind Late Successional Reserve of Southern Washington where clear-cut logging over the past 100 years has created a fragmented landscape of coniferous forests that range in age from 0 to 500 years. In this study, we integrate several datasets to examine the environmental drivers of carbon exchange in this region across time and space. These sources include: (1) network of flux towers across a disturbance choronosequence, (2) MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index, (3) aboveground net primary production (ANPP) from forest inventories, (4) and regional precipitation and air temperature measurements from the NOAA network of weather stations and PRISM reanalysis data. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) has been measured at the Wind River Canopy Crane AmeriFlux site since 1998. The canopy crane is located in an old-growth forest composed of late seral Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Two flux towers were erected in early seral stands to study the effects of silviculture on net ecosystem exchange. CO2 uptake at the old-growth stand is highest in the spring before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit are relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels are favorable for photosynthesis, while maximum CO2 uptake is observed two to three months later at the early seral stands and coincide with peak leaf area index. This CO2 pattern is driven by different water conserving strategies. A reduction in carbon exchange is observed at the old-growth forest when moisture becomes limiting and canopy conductance rates drop sharply after mid-morning in the summer. In contrast, inhibition in canopy conductance rates and CO2 exchange is not observed at the early seral stands until soil moisture levels become critically low at the very end of the summer. The regional MODIS data (200 km X 200 km area) from 2000-2008 show that annual variability in the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) also

  19. Carbon Uptake and Storage in Old-Growth and Second-Growth Forests in Central Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Weisser, O.

    2013-12-01

    Managing forests towards the goal of maximizing carbon uptake and storage provides an important tool for climate change mitigation. There is significant spatial and temporal variation among forests, even within an ecosystem type, in annual uptake and storage of carbon. Understanding the causes for that variation is important in refining management practices and restoration goals that promote carbon storage. We explore the variation in carbon storage and uptake among forests differing in age in central Vermont, comparing young, intermediate-aged, and old-growth forests. We generally expected that younger forests would have a higher annual uptake of carbon than older forests. Significant uncertainty exists, however, about the temporal trajectory from a young, rapidly growing forest to an old-growth forest that may be in a steady-state, with no net uptake of carbon. Within each forest, we compare differences among functional groups of species (e.g., hardwoods versus softwoods) in contribution to overall forest carbon uptake and storage. Our study sites include an old-growth hemlock/mixed hardwood forest that has not been directly affected by human activities, and which contains trees upwards of 350 years old; a 130-year-old mixed hardwood forest that has recolonized former pasture land; and a 90-year-old mixed hardwood forest on formerly agricultural floodplain land. Carbon storage in live and dead biomass pools was estimated from allometric equations, based on repeated measurements of tree diameters in permanently marked study plots. Historical patterns of carbon storage in living biomass were estimated by reconstructing tree diameter from measured increment cores, and then estimating the living biomass in each year. As expected, the old-growth forest stored almost twice the C in live biomass as the two second-growth forests, which stored equivalent amounts of carbon, despite the difference in age. Dead biomass was a larger pool of C in the old-growth forest than in

  20. Do Fungi Transport 10Be During Wood Degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, G.; Granger, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Meteoric cosmogenic 10Be is increasingly used to determine erosion and soil transport rates. To calculate these rates, it is assumed that 10Be is a conservative passive tracer of soil particles. However, there is experimental evidence that beryllium is mobilized in natural soils complexed with organic acids. For example, up to 50% of beryllium can be mobilized by humic acids in soils at pH 7 (Takahashi et al., 1999). Beryllium is also known to be taken up in plants such as tobacco and vegetables (World Health Organization, 1990) at ppm levels, primarily as organic acid chelates. It is not known to what extent biological beryllium transport in the environment affects the cosmogenic 10Be budget, or how it influences beryllium mobility. In this study, we address a problem recognized early in the development of meteoric 10Be methods. It has been observed that decayed organic matter in soils and sediments contains very high concentrations of 10Be of up to 109-1010 atoms/g (Lundberg, et al., 1983). On the other hand, living trees contain much lower concentrations of 106 atoms/g (Klein et al., 1982). The driving question for this study is how 10Be becomes bound to decayed organic matter. Direct fallout seems unlikely as the residence time of organic matter in soil is too short. One possibility is that 10Be is transported by fungi. Wood-degrading fungi are known to transport and bioaccumulate metals from large areas, facilitated by acids such as oxalic acid in the fungal hyphae. To test the hypothesis that fungi transport 10Be, we analyzed both intact and fungally degraded wood of oak, hickory, and hemlock. From these data, we reached two conclusions (observations?): 1) Oak has a 10Be concentration of about 2x106 at/g, similar to that observed by Klein et al. (1982). Hickory has a significantly higher concentration of about 3x107 atoms/g, confirming observations that hickory bioaccumulates beryllium. Using these data, the inventory of 10Be in a temperate forest is expected

  1. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae